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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: S

S - Alternate designation for S series sounding rockets.
s - seconds (SI abbreviation); or S-, NASA Science experiments prefix
S - Alternate designation for Tu-121.
S A Kosberg - First name of Kosberg bureau.
S P Izotov - First name of Izotov bureau.
S series satellites - S series were classified US satellites.
S series sounding rockets - Series of Japanese single-stage sounding rockets designed for low-cost observations of the ionosphere. Status: Active.
S/C - Abbreviation for Spacecraft
S09.29 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. V-300/V-303 (S-25 system). Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1950-55. Thrust: 88.00 kN (19,783 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S09.29.0B - Manufacturer's designation of S09.29 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
S09.502 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Four chamber engine designed for use in the R-101 (derivative of German Wasserfall). Abandoned by 1950 in favor of single-chamber engine. Status: Developed 1949-50. Date: May 1949. Thrust: 78.40 kN (17,625 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S1 - LOx/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 8,595 kg (18,948 lb). Unfuelled mass: 840 kg (1,850 lb). Thrust: 105.51 kN (23,720 lbf). Propellants: Lox/UDMH.
S-1 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Magnetic field, solar flare data. Status: Operational 1959. First Launch: 1959-07-16. Last Launch: 1959-10-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 41 kg (90 lb).
S1.35800 - Korolev LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. R-7 verniers. Out of Production. Thrust variable 2.5-3.1 metric tons Status: Out of Production. Date: 1954-57. Thrust: 30.00 kN (6,744 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
S1.5400 - Korolev LOx/Kerosene rocket engine family. Designed by Korolev; passed to Isayev for production. Began a series of engines leading through the 8D726 for GR-1 to the Block D for the N1 and Proton. Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
S1.5400A - Korolev LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Molniya 8K78M-3. First flight 1964. Date: 1961-64. Number: 294 . Unfuelled mass: 148 kg (327 lb). Thrust: 67.30 kN (15,130 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
S-100 - American pressure suit, operational 1965. Pressure suit which introduced many modifications from the early MC-3A capstan suits. Status: operational 1965.
S-10-1 - Alternate name for Sonda 1 Booster.
S1010 - American pressure suit, operational 1968. A special variant of the S901, designated the S1010 PPA, was developed specifically for use in the U-2R aircraft in the mid-1960s. Status: operational 1968.
S-10-2 - Alternate name for Sonda 1 engine.
S1024 - Manufacturer's designation for A/P22S-6 space suit.
S1024B - Manufacturer's designation for A/P22S-6A space suit.
S-1029 - American pressure suit, tested 1965. Developmental bladder type partial pressure suit. Status: tested 1965.
S1030 - American pressure suit, operational 1970. Upgraded SR-71 full pressure suit, link net with integrated subsystems. Status: operational 1970.
S1030A - Manufacturer's designation for EES space suit.
S1031 - American pressure suit, operational 1980. The S1010 and several S1010 dash variants were later replaced by a further advanced model, the S1031 PPA. The S1031 special projects full pressure suit came in 12 sizes and was used in the TR-1 and U-2R. Status: operational 1980. Gross mass: 16 kg (35 lb).
S1032 - Manufacturer's designation for Shuttle LES space suit.
S1034 - American pressure suit, operational 1991. Status: operational 1991.
S1035 - Alternate designation for ACES spacesuit.
S1035 - Manufacturer's designation for ACES space suit.
S1035X - Alternate designation for D-1 spacesuit.
S1035X - Manufacturer's designation for D-1 space suit.
S-125 - S-125
S-15 - American solar satellite. Explorer 11. Gamma ray data. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-04-27. Last Launch: 1961-04-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 37 kg (81 lb).
S-155 - Dushkin rocket engine. E-50. Developed 1955-56. Thrust variable 2000 - 4000 kgf. Status: Developed 1955-56. Date: 1955-56. Thrust: 39.00 kN (8,767 lbf).
S160 - Alternate designation for S-160-1 rocket stage.
S-160 - Japanese ISAS sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1964-07-28. Last Launch: 1972-04-16. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Propellants: Solid.
S2 - Alternate designation for the Magion.
S-2 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Explorer 6. First Earth photo; radiation data. Status: Operational 1959. First Launch: 1959-08-07. Last Launch: 1959-08-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 64 kg (141 lb).
S-2 (satellite) - Alternate designation for S-2.
S-2 Pressure Suit - American pressure suit, operational 1953. The S-2 was a modified capstan partial pressure suit evolved from the T-1 with no anti-G and no chest bladder. It was produced in 12 sizes for bomber aircraft. Status: operational 1953.
S2.1100 - Isayev rocket engine. V-1000. Out of Production. OKB-2 transferred work on the S2.1100 to OKB-117 in 1958-59. OKB-117 completed development. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1955-60.
S2.1150 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Burya booster. Out of production. First flight 1957. Engines developed from R-11 S2.253 engine. Status: Out of production. Date: 1953-59. Number: 36 . Unfuelled mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Thrust: 671.20 kN (150,892 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S2.1200 - Isayev rocket engine. Developed 1950s middle. OKB-2 transferred work on the S2.1200 to OKB-154 in 1957. The latter used the designation RO-1 for the engine. Status: Developed 1950s middle. Date: 1950s middle.
S2.145 - Isayev rocket engine. Developed 1950s early. Status: Developed 1950s early. Date: 1950s early. Thrust: 88.00 kN (19,783 lbf).
S2.253 - Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. R-11 (Scud B) 8A61. Thrust 8300 kgf at sea level. Fuel Kerosene T-1, chemical ignition by TG-02. First flight 1953. Date: 1949-55. Number: 92 . Thrust: 93.30 kN (20,975 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
S2.253 derivative - Isayev LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. EKR (experimental winged missile). Study 1953. Derivative of S2.253 was proposed for use in EKR Stage 1 (project for an experimental winged missile). Status: Study 1953. Thrust: 93.20 kN (20,952 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
S2.253A - Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. R-11FM. Out of Production. Used in R-11FM submarine version of Scud B. Fuel Kerosene T-1, chemical ignition by TG-02. Mixture ratio derived from tank content. 81 kN sea-level. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1953-59. Thrust: 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
S2.713 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. R-13 (SS-N-4). Out of Production. First engine to employ gas generator on main propellants. One main and four vernier thrusters. (Mixture derived ratio from tank content.) Status: Out of Production. Date: 1956-61. Thrust: 252.20 kN (56,697 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S2.720 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Engine for SAM-missile V-755. Out of Production. Pump-fed engine. Used in engine unit of a special apparatus. Pump-fed engine. 20,4 kN sea level. Status: Out of Production. Unfuelled mass: 48 kg (105 lb). Thrust: 34.30 kN (7,711 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S2.721 - Alternate designation for S2.721V.
S2.721V - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. KSR. Developed 1956-. Status: Developed 1956-. Date: 1956-. Thrust: 11.80 kN (2,653 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S2.726 - SKB-30 Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Thrust: 103.00 kN (23,155 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S-20 - Avibras solid rocket engine. Status: Active. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 77 kg (169 lb). Thrust: 36.00 kN (8,093 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
S-200 - Alternate designation for V-870.
S-200 - Alternate designation for V-880E.
S-200 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Enormous surface-to-air missile developed by Grushin after the failure of the Dal project. Deployed in limited numbers and exported to countries in the Mideast to defend against American high-altitude, high-speed SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft. Status: Active. Gross mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Payload: 217 kg (478 lb).
S-200 - Alternate designation for V-860P.
S-200D - Alternate designation for V-880M.
S-200M - Alternate designation for V-880.
S-200V - Alternate designation for V-860PV.
S210 - Alternate designation for S-210-1 rocket stage.
S-210 - Japanese ISAS sounding rocket. Single stage ionospheric sounding rocket used for research from Japan's Antarctic base. Status: Retired 1982. First Launch: 1966-08-06. Last Launch: 1982-09-12. Number: 47 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Propellants: Solid.
S-225 - Russian anti-ballistic missile. Anti-ballistic missile system developed in parallel with the A-35, but not put into production. Status: Active. First Launch: 1973-11-27. Last Launch: 1982-06-18. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 16,600 kg (36,500 lb).
S-225 - Alternate designation for PRS-1 5Ya26.
S-23 - Avibras solid rocket engine. Status: R. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 69 kg (152 lb). Thrust: 18.00 kN (4,046 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
S-25 - Alternate designation for 215 missile.
S-25 - Russian surface-to-air missile. First surface-to-air missile deployed by the Soviet Union. Under a crash program ordered by Stalin, development began in 1951, first guided launch was in 1953, and by 1956, 2,640 launchers were deployed in defense of Moscow. The system was upgraded with improved missiles and ground systems into the 1960's. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Payload: 250 kg (550 lb). Thrust: 83.30 kN (18,727 lbf).
S-25 - Alternate designation for 207A.
S-25 - Alternate designation for 215.
S-250 - Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1966-01-26. Last Launch: 1969-01-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
S-250-1 - Alternate name for SO-250.
S-25MA - Alternate designation for 217 missile.
S-25MA - Alternate designation for 217.
S-25MAM - Alternate designation for 217M.
S-25Mr - Alternate designation for 218 missile.
S-25Mr - Alternate designation for 218.
S3 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Launch count 411 orbital and ca. 300 suborbital to end 1994. Failures based on proration of failures to orbit. Status: Active. Gross mass: 20,135 kg (44,390 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,435 kg (3,163 lb). Thrust: 156.00 kN (35,070 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
S-3 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Juno II, Saturn A-2 studies of 1959. First flight 1958. Status: First flight 1958. Number: 10 . Unfuelled mass: 725 kg (1,598 lb). Thrust: 758.70 kN (170,563 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
S3.42 - Alternate designation for S3.42A.
S3.42A - Sevruk rocket engine. 217. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1954-. Thrust: 166.00 kN (37,318 lbf).
S-30 - Alternate designation for S-30 engine.
S-30 - American earth ionosphere satellite. Explorer 8. Ionospheric research. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-11-03. Last Launch: 1960-11-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 41 kg (90 lb).
S-30 engine - IAE solid rocket engine. Development ended 1997. VLM fourth stage. Status: Development ended 1997. Gross mass: 377 kg (831 lb). Unfuelled mass: 57 kg (125 lb). Thrust: 20.49 kN (4,606 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
S-30 satellite - Alternate designation for S-30.
S300 - Alternate designation for S-300 engine.
S300 - Alternate designation for S-300-1 rocket stage.
S-300 - Alternate designation for S-300 ISAS.
S-300 - Alternate designation for S-300 engine.
S-300 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Third generation family of surface-to-air missiles developed in the 1970's based on new principles. The same launch system could use either 5V55 or 48N6 series missiles, of both mid- and long-range types. Status: Active.
S-300 engine - ISAS solid rocket engine. S-300 first stage. Status: Retired 1969. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Propellants: Solid.
S-300 ISAS - Japanese sounding rocket. The S-300, was developed for observations in Antarctica, in parallel with the S-210. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1966-11-04. Last Launch: 1969-09-08. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
S-300-1 - Alternate name for S-300 engine.
S-300F - Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the S-300 system using the 5V55RM missile. Maximum target speed 4680 kph. Payload: 133 kg (293 lb).
S-300FM - Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the S-300 system using the 48N6Ye missile. Maximum target speed 10,000 kph. Gross mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb).
S-300P - Russian surface-to-air missile. Original version of the S-300 system for the PVO Air Defense Force using the 5V55R missile Payload: 133 kg (293 lb).
S-300PMU-1 - Alternate designation for S-300PMU-1 5V55U.
S-300PMU-1 - Alternate designation for S-300PMU-1 48N6E.
S-300PMU-1 48N6E - Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300 system for the land forces and export using the advanced 48N6E missile, which doubled the range and greatly increased the effectiveness of the system. Alternatively any of the earlier model 5V55 or 48N6 series missiles could be loaded. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-02-12. Last Launch: 2013-10-30. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Payload: 143 kg (315 lb).
S-300PMU-1 5V55U - Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300PMU system for export using the 5V55U missile. Gross mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Payload: 133 kg (293 lb).
S-300PMU-1 9M96 - Russian surface-to-air missile. New version of S-300PMU with 9M96E and 9M96E2 rockets. The system could also fire earlier-model 5V55 or 48N6 series rockets.
S-300PMU-1 9M96E - Russian surface-to-air missile. Shorter range version of 9M96. Gross mass: 330 kg (720 lb). Payload: 24 kg (52 lb).
S-300PMU-1 9M96E2 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Longer range version of 9M96. Gross mass: 420 kg (920 lb). Payload: 24 kg (52 lb).
S-300PMU-2 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300 system for export using the advanced 48N6E2 missile, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles. Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Payload: 180 kg (390 lb).
S-300V - Alternate designation for 9M83.
S-300V - Alternate designation for 9M82.
S-300V - Russian surface-to-air missile. Mobile, multiple-target, universal integrated surface-to-air missile. The S-300V system can fire either of two versions of the containerized missiles loaded: long range and medium range. These missiles are given different NATO designations. However any mix of the two missiles can be loaded as needed in the vertical launcher cells. Status: Active. Payload: 150 kg (330 lb).
S-300V - Alternate designation for Antey-2500.
S-31 - IAE solid rocket engine. Status: Active. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Unfuelled mass: 284 kg (626 lb). Thrust: 240.00 kN (53,950 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
S31/Orion - Status: Active. First Launch: 2015-10-02. Last Launch: 2015-10-19. Number: 2 .
S310 - Alternate designation for BT-310-1 and [BT-310-1] rocket stages.
S-310 - Japanese ISAS sounding rocket. The S-310 was a mid-sized single-stage sounding rocket designed to reach an altitude of 200 km. Status: Active. First Launch: 1975-01-01. Last Launch: 2014-08-04. Number: 52 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Propellants: Solid.
S-3-20M5A - Dushkin Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. Status: Developed -1959. Date: -1959. Thrust: 29.40 kN (6,609 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
S-3D - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Jupiter Booster. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust later 150,000 lbs. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1957. Date: 1955. Thrust: 600.10 kN (134,908 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
S-4 - Alternate designation for S-4 engine.
S-4 - American pressure suit, operational 1955. The S-4 was a modified S-2 partial pressure suit, no anti-G, chest bladder incorporated for ease of breathing. Status: operational 1955.
S-4 engine - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design ca. 1957. Version of Atlas sustainer tailored to Redstone Arsenal upper-stage requirements. Paper study only. Used on Super Jupiter launch vehicle. Status: Design ca. 1957. Date: 1957. Thrust: 412.80 kN (92,801 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
S-40 sounding rocket series -
S-400 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Fourth generation surface-to-air missile system that replaced the Army's S-300V (SA-12) and the Air Defense Force's S-300PMU (SA-10). The system would feature twice the engagement area of the S-300PMU. Initial service was by the end of 2007. Status: Active. Payload: 180 kg (390 lb).
S-400 - Alternate designation for 48N6E.
S-40TM - IAE solid rocket engine. Used on VLS launch vehicle. First flight 1985. Status: Active. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 5,359 kg (11,814 lb). Unfuelled mass: 929 kg (2,048 lb). Thrust: 208.40 kN (46,850 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
S-43 - IAE solid rocket engine. Used on VLS launch vehicle. First flight 1985. Status: Active. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 8,425 kg (18,573 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,245 kg (2,744 lb). Thrust: 303.00 kN (68,117 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
S-43TM - IAE solid rocket engine. Used on VLS launch vehicle. First flight 1985. Status: Active. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 8,404 kg (18,527 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,224 kg (2,698 lb). Thrust: 321.70 kN (72,321 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
S-44 - IAE solid rocket engine. Used on VLS launch vehicle. First flight 1985. Status: Active. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 941 kg (2,074 lb). Unfuelled mass: 127 kg (279 lb). Thrust: 33.20 kN (7,464 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
S-46 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Explorer. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-03-23. Last Launch: 1960-03-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 16 kg (35 lb).
S5 engine series -
S5.1 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. SAM-missiles 217M and 218. Out of Production. Designation unknown. Status: Out of Production. First Launch: 1950s late. Unfuelled mass: 122 kg (268 lb). Thrust: 167.00 kN (37,543 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S5.19 - Alternate designation for KDU-414 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
S5.23 - Alternate designation for RD-861.
S5.23 - Alternate designation for 11D49 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
S5.23, D-25 - Alternate designation for RD-861 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
S5.3 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. R-21 (SS-N-5). Out of Production. First engine to start underwater. 392 kN sea-level. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1958-63. Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S5.35 + S5.60 - Alternate designation for KTDU-35 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
S5.3M - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. R-9 (SS-8) missile stage 1. Out of Production. Proposed for R-9 missile stage 1. Four engines per stage. 396,7 kN sea-level. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1959-60, 1958-60. Unfuelled mass: 433 kg (954 lb). Thrust: 396.70 kN (89,182 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S5.4 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Vostok/Voskhod retrofire engine; spacecraft maneuvering engine. . Out of Production. Includes 4 small lateral steering nozzles. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1959. Unfuelled mass: 98 kg (216 lb). Thrust: 15.83 kN (3,559 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S5.44 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. SAM-missile 5Ya24. Out of Production. Could be throttled. 177-49 kN sea-level. Area ratio 118 - 44. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1964-65. Unfuelled mass: 124 kg (273 lb). Thrust: 177.00 kN (39,791 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
S5.45 - Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. correction engine for Zond-1, Venera-2-8, and others. Out of Production. Pressure-fed engine. Used as correction engine for spacecraft Zond-1, Vernera-8, and others. Status: Out of Production. Unfuelled mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Thrust: 1,961.00 kN (440,850 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
S5.5 - Alternate name for KTDU-5A.
S5.5, S5.5A - Alternate designation for KTDU-5A Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
S5.51 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Hardware 1969. Complex engine used to maneuver the LOK to a rendezvous with the LK lander in lunar orbit, then propel the LOK out of lunar orbit. Verniers included for midcourse corrections. Status: Hardware. Date: 1964-72. Unfuelled mass: 480 kg (1,050 lb). Thrust: 33.20 kN (7,463 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
S5.53 - Alternate designation for KTDU-53 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
S5.5A - Alternate name for KTDU-5A.
S5.61 - Alternate designation for KRD-61 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
S5.66 - Alternate designation for KTDU-66 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
S5.79 - Alternate designation for KRD-79 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
S5.80 - Alternate designation for KTDU-80 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
S5.80.1100-0 - Isayev LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Soyuz-2 Blok LM. Developed 1990s. Thrust chamber from KTDU-80 / S5.80 converted to burn LOx/Kerosene. Status: Developed 1990s. Date: 1990s. Thrust: 2.94 kN (661 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
S5.92 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Phobos propulsion module, later adapted as Fregat upper stage. In production. Gas generator cycle. Nominal and low-thrust thrust levels. Status: In production. Date: 1966-1987. Unfuelled mass: 75 kg (165 lb). Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
S5.98 - Alternate designation for S5.98M.
S5.98M - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Briz and Briz-M upper stages. Engine system consists of: main engine (2000 kgf, Isp=325.5s) + 4x11D458 (40 kgf, Isp=252s) + 12x17D58E (1.36 kgf, Isp=247s). 8 restarts. First flight 1990. Number: 15 . Unfuelled mass: 95 kg (209 lb). Thrust: 19.62 kN (4,411 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
S-500 - New anti-aircraft, anti-missile system design in competitive development with Antey's S-400 to produce a Russian equivalent to THAAD. Status: Development.
S-500 - Alternate designation for R-500.
S-520 - Japanese sounding rocket. The S-520 was a larger single-stage rocket which could be equipped with a three-axis attitude control and a recovery system. It had the capability of launching a 100 kg payload above 300 km and provided more than five minutes of micro-gravity flight for experiments. Status: Active. First Launch: 1980-01-18. Last Launch: 2015-09-11. Number: 31 . Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 143.00 kN (32,147 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
S-55 - American earth micrometeoroid satellite. Micrometeoroid research. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-06-30. Last Launch: 1964-11-06. Number: 4 .
S-56 - American earth atmosphere satellite. 12 foot diameter. balloon; atmospheric density studies. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-12-04. Last Launch: 1961-02-16. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6.50 kg (14.30 lb).
S5M - Alternate name for Tsyklon 3-3.
S-735 stage series -
S73-7 Cal Balloon - American military target satellite. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-04-10. Last Launch: 1974-04-10. Number: 1 .
S-75 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Known in the west as the SA-2 Guideline, this weapon was responsible for the downing of more American aircraft than any missile in history. It was deployed worldwide beginning in 1957, and improvements and updates, many by third parties, continued into the 21st Century. Status: Active. First Launch: 1960-05-01. Last Launch: 1960-05-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,287 kg (5,041 lb). Payload: 195 kg (429 lb).
S-75M - Russian surface-to-air missile. Last production version. Fakel-designed missile; Almaz upgrade offered. Gross mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb).
S80 - An industrial research microsatellite built by Surrey Satellite Technology for Matra and CNES to carry out 'Little LEO' communications service experiments. Still operational in 2000. Used the SSTL-70 bus.
S80/T - French communications technology satellite. Study 1992. Experimental communications satellite. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
S9.29 - Alternate designation for S09.29.
S9.502 - Alternate designation for S09.502.
S900 Series - Series of American pressure suits, originally designed for use from 1962 in the SR-71 and Dynasoar aircraft. Further development led to suits used on the U-2 and Space Shuttle in the 1980's.
S901/970 - American pressure suit, operational 1962. A-12, F-12A and SR-71 full pressure suit; integrated subsystems, parachute harness, automatic flotation system, urine collection device, redundant pressure control and breathing system, thermal protective garment. Status: operational 1962.
S-939 - American space suit, cancelled 1962. Full Pressure Suit for the X-20A Dynasoar program. Status: cancelled 1962.
SA - Spectrum Astro, Gilbert, Arizona, USA; or Re-entry capsule (Russian abbreviation)
SA - Satellite bus series originally developed by Spectrum Astronautics using the SA-200 bus.
S-A - Alternate designation for S-A engine.
S-A - Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1963-08-10. Last Launch: 1963-08-10. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
S-A engine - Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. S-A first stage. Status: Retired 1963. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Propellants: Solid.
S-A-1 - Alternate name for S-A engine.
SA-1 - Alternate designation for S-25.
SA-10 - Alternate designation for S-300PMU-1 5V55U.
SA-10 - Alternate designation for S-300P.
SA-12 - Alternate designation for S-300V.
SA-12a - Alternate designation for 9M83.
SA-12a - Alternate designation for 9M83M.
SA-12b - Alternate designation for 9M82.
SA-12b - Alternate designation for 9M82M.
SA-200 - The Spectrum Astro SA-200 satellite bus provided a flexible platform for satellites launched by the Pegasus booster.he Spectrum Astro SA-200 satellite bus provided a flexible platform for satellites launched by the Pegasus booster. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-07-19. Last Launch: 2013-02-11. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
SA-200HP - Manufacturer's bus designation for Deep Space 1 asteroid probe and [Deep Space 1] earth sea satellite.
SA-200LL - Manufacturer's designation for Swift gamma ray astronomy satellite.
SA-200S - Manufacturer's designation for HESSI solar satellite.
SA-21 - Alternate designation for S-500.
SA-2A,B - Alternate designation for S-75.
SA-2C,D,E,F - Alternate designation for S-75M.
SA-4 - Alternate designation for Krug.
SA-5 - Alternate designation for S-200.
SA-5 - Alternate designation for Dal.
SA-5A - Alternate designation for V-860P.
SA-5A - Alternate designation for V-870.
SA-5B - Alternate designation for V-860PV.
SA-5C - Alternate designation for V-880M.
SA-5C - Alternate designation for V-880.
SA-5C - Alternate designation for V-880N.
SA-5C - Alternate designation for V-880E.
SA-6 - Alternate designation for Kub.
SAA - Abbreviation for South Atlantic Anomaly
Saab - Swedish manufacturer. Saab Dynamics AB, Sweden.
Saar Roechling - German manufacturer of rockets. Saar Roechling, Germany.
Saber - Alternate designation for 15Zh45.
Saber - Alternate designation for Pioner UTTKh.
Saber - Alternate designation for 15Zh53.
Saber - Alternate designation for 15Zh45UTTKh.
Sabre - Rolls Royce air augmented rocket engine. Used Air/LOx/LH2. Developed -1995. In development for Skylon launch vehicle; descendent of RB545 developed for abandoned HOTOL space launcher. Status: Developed -1995. Propellants: Air/Lox/LH2.
SabreRocket - American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Panaero, Fairfax, Virginia. It envisioned conversion of a Sabre-40 business jet to rocket power. Status: Study 2004. Thrust: 146.77 kN (32,994 lbf).
SAC - Alternate designation for Second Axial Carrier.
SAC - SAC (Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas) was a series of Argentine satellites devoted to proving and developing Argentinian space technology.
SAC-A - Argentinian technology satellite. The Scientific Applications Satellite-S (SAC-A) was a small, ejectable, low cost Argentinian satellite that was launched during the STS-88 Space Shuttle Endeavour mission. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-12-04. Last Launch: 1998-12-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 268 kg (590 lb).
SAC-B - Argentinian solar satellite. SAC-B, an Argentine / US mission, was designed to study solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma-ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-11-04. Last Launch: 1996-11-04. Number: 1 .
SAC-C - Argentinian earth land resources satellite. The SAC-C Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas C was developed by the Argentine space agency CONAE and built by the Argentine company INVAP. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-11-21. Last Launch: 2000-11-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 467 kg (1,029 lb).
Sacco - American chemical engineer payload specialist astronaut 1990-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1995. Born: 1949-05-03. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.91 days.
SAC-D - Argentinian Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-D'satellite. Carried a NASA Aquarius L-band radiometer/scatterometer map sea salinity; a Ka-band microwave radiometer; an infrared scanner to measure sea surface temperature; a high sensitivity camera to study light sources at night; and an Italian experiment which measured atmospheric deflection of GPS signals to determine air temperature and humidity. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-06-10. Last Launch: 2011-06-10. Number: 1 .
SACI - Brazilian technology satellite. INPE experimental scientific satellites; carried a magnetometer, particle detectors and an atmospheric experiment. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-10-14. Last Launch: 1999-12-11. Number: 2 .
Sa'dah -
Saddler - Alternate designation for R-16U.
Saddler - Alternate designation for R-16.
Saenger - Alternate designation for Saenger Antipodal Bomber.
Saenger - German-Austrian rocket pioneer; designer of Silverbird space bomber. Worked at Trauen for Luftwaffe 1936-1944 on rocket and ramjet development; for the French 1946-1954. Research in Germany 1954-1963 included winged shuttle designs. Born: 1905-09-22. Died: 1964-02-10.
Saenger Antipodal Bomber - German sled-launched intercontinental boost-glide missile. Saenger-Bredt antipodal bomber - sled launched, boosted to suborbital velocity, 'skips' off upper atmosphere to deliver bomb load on target, recovery back at launch site. Fascinated Stalin, led to US Dynasoar project. Post-war, Saenger designed two-stage HTOHL space shuttles in Germany. Status: Study 1943. Gross mass: 133,773 kg (294,918 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 6,000.00 kN (1,348,800 lbf).
Saenger I - German winged orbital launch vehicle. Studied by MBB 1962-1969. Final version of the Saenger spaceplane, as conceived by Eugen Saenger during his lifetime. A rocket propelled sled would be used for horizontal launch of delta-winged, rocket-propelled first and second stages. An alternate version used a vertical-launch, horizontal landing, two-stage winged launch vehicle. Status: Study 1969. Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Saenger II - Proposed two stage to orbit vehicle. Air-breathing hypersonic first stage and delta wing second stage. The German Hypersonics Programme and its Saenger II reference vehicle received most of the domestic funding for spaceplane development in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 366,000 kg (806,000 lb). Thrust: 4,500.00 kN (1,011,600 lbf).
Safe Haven - European manned space station. Study 2000. The ATV could evolve towards an unmanned free-flying laboratory providing a better microgravity level than the ISS. Status: Study 2000. Gross mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb).
Safeguard - American anti-ballistic missile. Safeguard ABM system consisted of Sprint and Spartan missiles Status: Retired 1972.
Safir - Alternate designation for Safir satellite.
Safir - Iran's first orbital launch vehicle, based on the Shahab 3 intermediate range ballistic missile with upper stages. Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-08-16. Last Launch: 2015-02-02. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 26,000 kg (57,000 lb). Payload: 25 kg (55 lb). Thrust: 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf).
Safir Iran - Iranian technology satellite. Study 2005. Minimum satellite equipped like the first Sputnik with only a transmitter to confirm that it achieved orbit. Planned for launch by the Iranian Shahab-3 launcher in early 2005. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb).
Safir satellite - German civilian store-dump communications satellite. Relay satellite built by OHB System of Bremen. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-07-10. Last Launch: 1998-07-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb).
Safir-2 - Alternate designation for Safir.
SAGA - Solar Array Gain Augmentation (for HST)
Sagdeyev - Russian astronomer, involved in virtually every lunar and planetary probe launched by the Soviet Union. Born: 1932.
SAGE - American earth atmosphere satellite. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-02-18. Last Launch: 1979-02-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 147 kg (324 lb).
SAIC - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Science Applications International Corporation, USA.
SA-II - Alternate designation for SA-II engine.
SA-II - Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1968-09-17. Last Launch: 1968-09-17. Number: 1 .
SA-II engine - Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. SA-II first stage. Status: Retired 1968. Number: 1 . Propellants: Solid.
SA-II-1 - Alternate name for SA-II engine.
SAINT - American military anti-satellite system. Cancelled 1963. Status: Cancelled 1963. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
SAINT II - American manned combat spacecraft. Cancelled 1961. At the beginning of the 1960's, the USAF examined a number of approaches to a manned spacecraft designed to rendezvous with, inspect, and then, if necessary, destroy enemy satellites. Status: Cancelled 1961.
Saint-Jacques - Canadian physicist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1970-01-06.
Sakartvelo - Alternate name for GE.
Sakr - Egyptian manufacturer. Sakr Factory, Egypt.
Sakura - Post-launch designation for the CS-3.
SAL - Abbreviation for Scientific Airlock
Saley - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1987. Status: Inactive; Active 1976-1987. Born: 1950.
Salkeld Shuttle - American manned spaceplane. 1965 concept for a manned spaceplane equipped with drop tanks, which would be air-launched from a C-5 Status: Design 1965.
Sallwey - German expert in rocket turbopumps during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Salsa - Name one of the Cluster 2.
SALT - Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty; preceded by Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Salter - American physicist, at North American, 1946-1948; Rand, 1948-1954; Lockheed, 1954-1959. Responsible for much of the early studies of earth satellites, especially reconnaissance satellites. Born: 1920-04-20. Died: 2011-05-17.
Salto di Quirra - Salto di Quirra, in southeast Sardinia near the town of Perdas de Fogu, is an inter-service missile test center operated by the Italian Air Force. It also supports sounding rocket launches and test of larger rockets in support of Italy's abandoned ballistic missile and on-and-of satellite launcher programs. First Launch: 1961-01-12. Last Launch: 1992-03-18. Number: 131 .
Salto di Quirra SL - Scout launch complex. San Lorenzo pad First Launch: 1992-03-18. Last Launch: 1992-03-18. Number: 1 .
Salyut - The world's first space station, developed in one year by the Soviet Union on the basis of Chelomei's Almaz station, in an attempt to upstage the American Skylab after the loss of the moon landing race to the Americans.
Salyut 1 - Russian manned space station. Salyut 1 was the first DOS long duration orbital station, an Almaz spaceframe modified with Soyuz systems by a joint Korolev-Chelomei team. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-04-19. Last Launch: 1972-07-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 18,210 kg (40,140 lb). Unfuelled mass: 16,210 kg (35,730 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Salyut 4 - Russian manned space station. Four of the initial DOS-1 versions of a civilian Soviet space station were built using converted Almaz military stations. Status: Operational 1973. First Launch: 1973-05-11. Last Launch: 1974-12-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 18,210 kg (40,140 lb). Unfuelled mass: 16,210 kg (35,730 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Salyut 6 - Russian manned space station, launched 1977-09-29. The Salyut 6 space station was the most successful of the DOS series prior to Mir. It was aloft for four years and ten months, completing 27,785 orbits of the earth. Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-09-29. Last Launch: 1977-09-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 19,824 kg (43,704 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18,624 kg (41,058 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 5.88 kN (1,322 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Salyut 6 EO-1 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 26 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EO-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 29 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EO-3 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 32 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EO-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 35 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EO-5 - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-3 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EO-6 - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-4 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EP-1 - Alternate name for Soyuz 27.
Salyut 6 EP-10 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 40 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EP-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 28 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EP-3 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 30 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EP-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 31 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EP-5 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 36 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EP-5-1 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 33 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EP-6 - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-2 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EP-7 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 37 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EP-8 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 38 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 6 EP-9 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 39 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 7 - Russian manned space station, launched 1982-04-19. Salyut 7 was the back-up article for Salyut 6 and very similar in equipment and capabilities. However the crews were able to conduct significant military experiments due to the greatly increased volume and payload of the TKS modules diverted from the cancelled Almaz program that docked with the station. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-04-19. Last Launch: 1982-04-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 19,824 kg (43,704 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18,624 kg (41,058 lb). Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Salyut 7 EO-1 - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-5 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 7 EO-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-9 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 7 EO-3 - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-10 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 7 EO-4 - Alternate name for Soyuz T-13 EO-4-a.
Salyut 7 EO-4 - Alternate name for Soyuz T-14 EO-4-c.
Salyut 7 EO-4 - Alternate name for Soyuz T-13 EO-4-b.
Salyut 7 EO-4-1a - Alternate name for Soyuz T-13 EO-4-a.
Salyut 7 EO-4-1b - Alternate name for Soyuz T-13 EO-4-b.
Salyut 7 EO-4-2 - Alternate name for Soyuz T-14 EO-4-c.
Salyut 7 EP-1 - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-6 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 7 EP-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-7 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 7 EP-3 - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-11 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 7 EP-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-12 manned spaceflight.
Salyut 7 EP-5 - Alternate name for Soyuz T-14 Salyut 7 EP-5.
Salyut 7/TKS-2 - Planned TKS manned mission to Salyut 7 station. Cancelled December 1981; TKS-2 flew unmanned to Salyut 7 as Cosmos 1443. Launched: During 1982. Number crew: 3 .
Salyut 7/TKS-3 - Planned second manned flight of TKS ferry to the Salyut 7 space station. The crews were assigned in September/October 1979. But in December 1981 Ustinov finally killed Chelomei's plans for manned TKS flights. The TKS training group was dissolved and TKS-3 flew unmanned to Salyut 7 as Cosmos 1686. Launched: During 1983. Number crew: 3 .
SAM-A-18 / M3 - Alternate designation for MIM-23A.
SAM-A-19 - Alternate designation for Plato.
SAM-A-25 - Alternate designation for MIM-14A.
SAM-A-25 - Alternate designation for Nike Hercules.
SAM-A-7 / M1 - Alternate designation for Nike Ajax.
Samba - Name one of the Cluster 2.
SAM-D - Alternate designation for MIM-104A.
Sammeck - German designer for rockets during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
SAM-N-2 - Alternate designation for Lark.
SAM-N-4 - Alternate designation for Lark.
SAM-N-6 - Alternate designation for Talos.
SAM-N-6B - Alternate designation for RIM-8A.
SAM-N-6B1 - Alternate designation for RIM-8C.
SAM-N-6B1-CW - Alternate designation for MQM-8G.
SAM-N-6B1-CW - Alternate designation for RGM-8J.
SAM-N-6B1-CW - Alternate designation for RGM-8H.
SAM-N-6B1-CW - Alternate designation for XBQM-8F.
SAM-N-6B1-CW - Alternate designation for RIM-8G.
SAM-N-6BW - Alternate designation for RIM-8B.
SAM-N-6BW1 - Alternate designation for RIM-8D.
SAM-N-6C1 - Alternate designation for RIM-8F.
SAM-N-6C1 - Alternate designation for RIM-8E.
SAM-N-7 - Alternate designation for RIM-2B.
SAM-N-7 - Alternate designation for RIM-2A.
Samokutyayev - Russian pilot cosmonaut 2003-on. Status: Active 2003-on. Born: 1970-03-13. Spaceflights: 1 .
Samolyot 5 - Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1949. Bisnovat was assigned the project to develop an all-Soviet equivalent to the 346 supersonic rocketplane being developed by the German Roessing team in OKB-2. Status: Cancelled 1949. Gross mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
Samonov - Russian officer. Major General, Chief Engineer of GUKOS 1970-1980. In 1955 assigned to Baikonur, where participated in launch of first Sputnik, Vostok, and planetary probes. Responsible for completion of Zenit reconnaissance satellite. Born: 1924.
Samos - American military surveillance satellite. First generation photo surveillance; return of camera and film by capsule; program still partially classified, evidently due to embarrassment. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-10-11. Last Launch: 1962-11-11. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb).
Samoud -
SAMPEX - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-07-03. Last Launch: 1992-07-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 158 kg (348 lb).
SAMSO - Space and Missile Systems Organization
Samsung - Samsung.
San Clemente - San Clemente Island, Pacific Missile Range. Military facility on the California Channel Islands, used for rocket launches in support of other missile tests from Vandenberg or Point Mugu. In use from 1957. Plans were made for an off-shore launch platform here for the Starstruck vehicle. First Launch: 1958-07-01. Last Launch: 1984-08-03. Number: 8 .
San Clemente E - Dolphin launch complex. Starstruck offshore site, 16 km east of San Clemente Island. First Launch: 1984-08-03. Last Launch: 1984-08-03. Number: 1 .
San Francisco - San Francisco International Airport
San Marco - Alternate designation for San Marco satellite.
San Marco - San Marco Launch Complex. In 1962 NASA signed an agreement with the Centro Ricerche Aerospaziali at the University of Rome creating the San Marco program. The purpose of the program was to place an Italian satellite in orbit and to create an Italian equatorial launch site for the Scout rocket. Permission was obtained from Kenya to emplace two modified oil platforms off their coast, on the equator. The Santa Rita platform would serve as a launch control center and would also be used for launch of sounding rockets. The San Marco platform would be dedicated to launch of Scout rockets to orbit. First Launch: 1964-03-25. Last Launch: 1988-03-25. Number: 27 .
San Marco Rita - Apache launch complex. Santa Rita Platform First Launch: 1964-03-25. Last Launch: 1964-04-02. Number: 3 .
San Marco satellite - Italian earth atmosphere satellite. Atmospheric density studies. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-12-15. Last Launch: 1988-03-25. Number: 5 .
San Nicolas - San Nicolas Island, Pacific Missile Range. Military facility on the California Channel Islands, used for rocket launches in support of other missile tests from Vandenberg or Point Mugu. First Launch: 1957-07-02. Last Launch: 2011-02-23. Number: 79 .
SA-N-2 - Alternate designation for V-753.
SA-N-6 - Alternate designation for S-300F.
SA-N-6 - Alternate designation for S-300FM.
SAND - Sandia Laboratories
Sandal - Alternate designation for R-12U.
Sandal - Alternate designation for R-12.
Sandal; SS-4; 8K63; R-12; 63; 11K63 - Alternate designation for Kosmos A-1 rocket stage.
Sandhawk - American sounding rocket. The Thiokol Sandhawk motor was developed for Sandia primarily for use in multi-stage rockets launched in support of Atomic Energy Agency activities. It was however flown as a single-stage vehicle in initial tests of the motor and some subsequent scientific missions. Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1966-08-10. Last Launch: 1974-11-10. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf).
Sandhawk Tomahawk - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sandhawk + 1 x Tomahawk Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1969-05-01. Last Launch: 1974-03-16. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf).
Sandhawk Tomahawk-1 - Alternate name for TE-473.
Sandia - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, USA.
Sandia Wahmonie Launch Facility - Alternate name for Nevada Test Site.
Sandys - British Politician. British politician.
Sanger I Sled - Steam propellant rocket sled. Propelled the first and second stages on a 3-km track to a release velocity of 900 kph Status: Study 1944. Payload: 113,000 kg (249,000 lb). Propellants: Steam.
Sanger I-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. The first stage took the second stage to 50 km altitude and 4000 m/s separation conditions. The first stage would then land 500 km from the launch point. Takeoff speed was 300 m/s; and landing speed 80 m/s. A two-man crew piloted the booster. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 79,000 kg (174,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 885.00 kN (198,955 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Sanger I-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. The second stage would reach a 300 km earth orbit and a top speed of 8000 m/s. The glider had a landing speed of 90 m/s. Aside from the two-man crew, a five metric ton payload could be delivered into orbit. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 295.00 kN (66,318 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Sanger II - Alternate designation for Sanger II-1.
Sanger II-1 - Mach 6.6 rocket launch aircraft. Winged scramjet using LH2 propellant. Releases Horus @M 6.6 @ 37 km altitude @ 3100 km range Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 254,000 kg (559,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 156,000 kg (343,000 lb). Thrust: 1,500.00 kN (337,212 lbf). Propellants: Air/LH2.
Sanger II-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. 6000 kg to LEO. Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 112,000 kg (246,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 32,600 kg (71,800 lb). Thrust: 1,280.00 kN (287,756 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Sanger Sled - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1943. Gross mass: 34,000 kg (74,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Thrust: 6,860.00 kN (1,542,180 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
Sanger-Bredt - Notional LOx/Kerosene spaceplane. Study 1943. Status: Study 1943. Gross mass: 99,773 kg (219,961 lb). Unfuelled mass: 19,955 kg (43,993 lb). Thrust: 1,428.80 kN (321,207 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Sanger-Bredt Sled - Saenger LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Study 1943. Used on Sanger launch vehicle. Status: Study 1943. Thrust: 1,144.10 kN (257,204 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
Sanjiang - Chinese manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Sanjiang Space Group, Xiaogan, China.
Santa Barbara Channel DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 6 launches in 1958, reaching up to 12 kilometers altitude.
Santa Clara - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Santa Clara, USA.
Santiago Ixcuintla - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1991-07-11. Last Launch: 1991-07-11. Number: 1 .
Santonico - Italian engineer cosmonaut, 1990-1993. Status: Inactive. Born: 1948-01-02.
SAO - Abbreviation for Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Saphir - Alternate designation for Saphir VE231.
Saphir VE231 - Saphir was the penultimate step in the 'precious stones' series. The variants of the two-stage vehicle were designed to allow testing of radio-controlled guidance (VE231P), inertial guidance (VE231G), and warhead separation and re-entry of an ablative RV (VE231R). Addition of a third stage would transform Saphir into the Diamant satellite launcher. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1965-07-05. Last Launch: 1967-01-27. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 18,058 kg (39,811 lb). Payload: 365 kg (804 lb). Thrust: 280.00 kN (62,940 lbf).
Sapienza - Universita degli Studi "la Sapienza", Roma, Italy
Sapphire - American technology satellite. SAPPHIRE (a US DoD-funded microsatellite) was built by Stanford University students and carried experimental infrared horizon sensors, a voice synthesizer and a digital camera. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-09-30. Last Launch: 2001-09-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 16 kg (35 lb).
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511L.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511M.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A514.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Soyuz-FG.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Soyuz-U2.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Soyuz-U.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Soyuz-ST-B.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Soyuz ST / Fregat ST.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Voskhod 11A57.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Vostok 8A92M.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Vostok 8K72K.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for R-7A.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for Vostok 8K72.
Sapwood - Alternate designation for R-7.
Saqr-80 - Egyptian tactical ballistic missile. Status: Retired. Payload: 200 kg (440 lb).
SAR - Abbreviation for Synthetic Aperture Radar; or Search And Rescue; or Spacecraft Acceptance Review
SARA - French radio astronomy satellite to study emissions from Jupiter. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-07-17. Last Launch: 1991-07-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 26 kg (57 lb).
Sarafanov - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1965-1986. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1986. Born: 1942. Died: 2005-09-29. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 2.01 days.
SARAL - Joint project between the French space agency CNES and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) for ocean studies. Carried the Altika Ka-band altimeter. Used the Minisatellite-SSB bus.
Sardines - Alternate name for NASA Group 16 - 1996.
SAREX - Abbreviation or acronym for Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment
Sark - Alternate designation for R-13.
SAR-Lupe - German military surveillance radar satellite. Germany's first satellite-based radar reconnaissance system. It consisted of five identical small satellites and a ground segment. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-12-19. Last Launch: 2008-07-22. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb).
SARSAT - Acronym for Search and rescue satellite
SARTI - Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. Shanghai Aerospace Research Tech. Inst. , Shanghai, China
SARV Retro MK I - Government designation of Star 10 Solid rocket engine.
SARV Retro, MK IV - Government designation of Star 12 Solid rocket engine.
Sary Shagan - Primary Soviet anti-ballistic missile test site. The actual number of missile tests ran into the thousands. First Launch: 1958-10-16. Last Launch: 2014-05-08. Number: 125 .
Sary Shagan LC A - Launch Complex A
Sary Shagan LC B - Launch Complex B
Sary Shagan LC6 - A-35, V-1000 launch complex. First Launch: 1958-10-16. Last Launch: 1967-09-01. Number: 56 .
Saryozek - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-on. Perhaps operated R-12 missiles.
SAS - Alternate designation for SAS (abbreviation).
SAS - Italian solar satellite. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-12-12. Last Launch: 1975-05-07. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 174 kg (383 lb).
SAS (abbreviation) - Space Adaptation Syndrome, or space sickness. Over half of all astronauts experience nausea leading to vomiting when they are first in zero-G, beginning with Gherman Titov on the second manned orbital flight. It normally passes after a day or two.
Sasin - Alternate designation for Romashka.
Sasin - Alternate designation for Dolina.
Sasin - Alternate designation for R-9M.
Sasin - Alternate designation for Desna.
Sasin - Alternate designation for R-9A.
SASSTO - Alternate designation for SASSTO stage.
SASSTO - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Bono proposal for first step toward VTOVL SSTO vehicle - heavily modified Saturn IVB with plug nozzle engine. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 97,887 kg (215,803 lb). Payload: 2,812 kg (6,199 lb). Thrust: 1,232.18 kN (277,005 lbf).
SASSTO stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Recoverable S-IVB with plug nozzle engine. 36 x plug-nozzle engines (102 atm chamber pressure, 6:1 mixture ratio). Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 97,976 kg (216,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,668 kg (14,700 lb). Thrust: 1,558.10 kN (350,275 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
SAST - Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology, Shanghai, China.
SAST - Third name of SISE.
SAST - First name of Shanghai.
SAT - Abbreviation for Synthetic Aperture Telescope
Saté - Alternate name for SAC-B.
Satan - Alternate designation for R-36MU 15A18.
Satan - Alternate designation for R-36M 15A14.
Satan - Alternate designation for R-36M2 15A18M.
Satcher - American chemical engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2004-2011. Status: Inactive; Active 2004-2011. Born: 1965-09-22. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 10.80 days.
Satcom - Series of communications satellites started by RCA Americom in 1975 and continued by GE when it took over RCA.
SATEC - Brazilian technology satellite. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-08-22. Last Launch: 2003-08-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 57 kg (125 lb).
Satelife - American agency. Satelife, USA.
Satelind - Indonesian agency. Satelind, Indonesia.
Satelindo - Acronym for PT Satelit Palapa Indonesia
Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas - Alternate designation for SAC-B solar satellite.
Satelite de Aplicaciones/Cientifico-A - Alternate designation for SAC-A technology satellite.
Satelite de Coleta de Dados - Alternate designation for SCD communications technology satellite.
SAtellite INTerceptor - Alternate designation for SAINT military anti-satellite system.
Satellite Italiano Ricerca Industriale Orientata - Alternate designation for Sirio communications technology satellite.
Satellite Launch Vehicle - American orbital launch vehicle. Orbital version. Selected by NASA under the COTS program in January 2008 in place of the cancelled Kistler for post-shuttle ISS resupply missions. Uses half-length shuttle SRB as first stage; proven Castor-120 as second stage; new Castor-30 as third stage; and Orbital Adjustment Module from Lockheed's cancelled Athena launcher as a fourth stage. Payload: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Satellite Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for SLV.
Satellite pour Astronomie Radio Amateur - Alternate designation for SARA radio astronomy satellite.
Satellite Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre - Alternate designation for SPOT-4.
Satellite Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre - Alternate designation for SPOT-5A-5B.
Satellite Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre - Alternate designation for SPOT-1-2-3 earth land resources satellite.
Satish Dhawan Space Center - Alternate name for Sriharikota.
Satish Dhawan Space Centre - Alternate name for Sriharikota launch site.
Satmex - Mexican agency. Satellites Mexicanos SA de SV, Mexico City, Mexico.
Satrec - The South Korean Satrec Initiative built on earlier Kitsat technology to develop 100-kg and 200-kg satellite buses for national and international customers. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-07-14. Last Launch: 2009-07-29. Number: 2 .
Sattarov - Tatar-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1980. Status: Deceased; Active 1979-1980. Born: 1941-12-23. Died: 2014-04-15.
Saturn (Saturn ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 33.
Saturn (Saturn) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 33.
Saturn 3S-2 - Alternate name for AJ-260X 1/3.
Saturn A-1 - American orbital launch vehicle. Projected first version of Saturn I, to be used if necessary before S-IV liquid hydrogen second stage became available. Titan 1 first stage used as second stage, Centaur third stage. Masses, payload estimated. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 532,280 kg (1,173,470 lb). Payload: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Thrust: 6,690.00 kN (1,503,970 lbf).
Saturn A-2 - American orbital launch vehicle. More powerful version of Saturn I with low energy second stage consisting of cluster of four IRBM motors and tankage, Centaur third stage. Masses, payload estimated. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 702,960 kg (1,549,760 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 7,295.10 kN (1,640,004 lbf).
Saturn Application Single Stage to Orbit - Alternate designation for SASSTO.
Saturn Applications Single Stage to Orbit - Alternate designation for SASSTO stage rocket stage.
Saturn B-1 - American orbital launch vehicle. Most powerful version of Saturn I considered. New low energy second stage with four H-1 engines, S-IV third stage, Centaur fourth stage. Masses, payload estimated. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 680,420 kg (1,500,060 lb). Payload: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Thrust: 7,295.10 kN (1,640,004 lbf).
Saturn C-1 - American orbital launch vehicle. Original flight version with dummy upper stages, including dummy Saturn S-V/Centaur (never flown). Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1961-10-27. Last Launch: 1962-11-16. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 420,000 kg (920,000 lb). Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust: 5,768.00 kN (1,296,697 lbf).
Saturn C-1 - Alternate designation for Saturn I.
Saturn C-2 - American orbital launch vehicle. The launch vehicle initially considered for realizing the Apollo lunar landing at the earliest possible date. 15 launches and rendezvous required to assemble direct landing spacecraft in earth orbit. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 624,660 kg (1,377,130 lb). Payload: 21,500 kg (47,300 lb). Thrust: 6,690.00 kN (1,503,970 lbf).
Saturn C-3 - The launch vehicle concept considered for a time as the leading contender for the Earth Orbit Rendezvous approach to an American lunar landing. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 1,023,670 kg (2,256,800 lb). Payload: 36,300 kg (80,000 lb). Thrust: 11,628.60 kN (2,614,213 lbf).
Saturn C-3B - American orbital launch vehicle. Final configuration of the Saturn C-3 at the time of selection of the Saturn C-5 configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 1,690,590 kg (3,727,110 lb). Payload: 78,000 kg (171,000 lb). Thrust: 20,010.00 kN (4,498,420 lbf).
Saturn C-3BN - American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Version of Saturn C-3 considered with small nuclear thermal stage in place of S-IVB oxygen/hydrogen stage. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 1,690,110 kg (3,726,050 lb). Payload: 94,000 kg (207,000 lb). Thrust: 20,010.00 kN (4,498,420 lbf).
Saturn C-4 - American orbital launch vehicle. The launch vehicle actually planned for the Lunar Orbit Rendezvous approach to lunar landing. The Saturn C-5 was selected instead to have reserve capacity. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 2,347,180 kg (5,174,640 lb). Payload: 99,000 kg (218,000 lb). Thrust: 26,990.40 kN (6,067,683 lbf).
Saturn C-4B - American orbital launch vehicle. Final configuration of the Saturn C-4 at the time of selection of the Saturn C-5 configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961. Only Saturn configuration with common bulkhead propellant tanks in first stage, resulting in shorter vehicle than less powerful Saturn C-3. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 2,051,290 kg (4,522,320 lb). Payload: 95,000 kg (209,000 lb). Thrust: 26,679.90 kN (5,997,880 lbf).
Saturn C-5 - American orbital launch vehicle. Final configuration of Saturn C-5 at the time of selection of this configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961. The actual Saturn V would be derived from this, but with an increased-diameter third stage (6.61 m vs 5.59 m in C-5) and increased propellant load in S-II second stage. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 2,847,590 kg (6,277,860 lb). Payload: 120,000 kg (260,000 lb). Thrust: 33,350.00 kN (7,497,370 lbf).
Saturn C-5N - American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Version of Saturn C-5 considered with small nuclear thermal stage in place of S-IVB oxygen/hydrogen stage. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 2,841,040 kg (6,263,420 lb). Payload: 155,000 kg (341,000 lb). Thrust: 33,350.00 kN (7,497,370 lbf).
Saturn C-8 - American orbital launch vehicle. The largest member of the Saturn family ever contemplated. Designed for direct landing of Apollo command module on moon. Configuration used eight F-1 engines in the first stage, eight J-2 engines in the second stage, and one J-2 engine in the third stage. Distinguishable from Nova 8L in use of J-2 engines instead of M-1 engines in second stage. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 4,770,260 kg (10,516,620 lb). Payload: 210,000 kg (460,000 lb). Thrust: 53,981.00 kN (12,135,411 lbf).
Saturn E-1 - Alternate designation for Super-Jupiter-2.
Saturn I - Alternate designation for S-I stage.
Saturn I - American orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun launch vehicle known as 'Cluster's Last Stand' - 8 Redstone tanks around a Jupiter tank core, powered by eight Jupiter engines. Originally intended as the launch vehicle for Apollo manned circumlunar flights. However it was developed so early, no payloads were available for it. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1963-03-28. Last Launch: 1965-07-30. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 509,660 kg (1,123,600 lb). Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust: 6,690.00 kN (1,503,970 lbf).
Saturn I Blk2 - American orbital launch vehicle. Second Block of Saturn I, with substantially redesigned first stage and large fins to accommodate Dynasoar payload. Gross mass: 508,000 kg (1,119,000 lb). Thrust: 5,768.00 kN (1,296,697 lbf).
Saturn I RIFT - American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. In the first half of the 1960's it was planned to make suborbital tests of nuclear propulsion for upper stages using a Saturn IB first stage to boost a Rover-reactor powered second stage on a suborbital trajectory. The second stage would impact the Atlantic Ocean down range from Cape Canaveral. Status: Development ended 1961. Gross mass: 625,000 kg (1,377,000 lb). Thrust: 6,690.00 kN (1,503,970 lbf).
Saturn IB - Alternate designation for Saturn IB stage.
Saturn IB - American orbital launch vehicle. Improved Saturn I, with uprated first stage and Saturn IVB second stage (common with Saturn V) replacing Saturn IV. Used for earth orbit flight tests of Apollo CSM and LM. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1966-02-26. Last Launch: 1975-07-15. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 589,770 kg (1,300,220 lb). Payload: 18,600 kg (41,000 lb). Thrust: 7,295.10 kN (1,640,004 lbf).
Saturn IB stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Configuration as flown, Saturn IB. Status: Flown 1965. Gross mass: 440,648 kg (971,462 lb). Unfuelled mass: 41,594 kg (91,699 lb). Thrust: 8,241.76 kN (1,852,822 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn IB-11 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. 20 foot stretch of Saturn IB for use with UA1207 7 segment solid rocket strap-on units. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 505,953 kg (1,115,435 lb). Unfuelled mass: 48,545 kg (107,023 lb). Thrust: 8,241.76 kN (1,852,822 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn IB-15 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. 10 foot stretch of Saturn IB. Not found useful in any configuration except with Minuteman first-stage strap-ons to augment thrust. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 478,103 kg (1,054,036 lb). Unfuelled mass: 45,873 kg (101,132 lb). Thrust: 8,241.76 kN (1,852,822 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn IB-A - American orbital launch vehicle. Douglas Studies, 1965: S-IB with 225 k lbf H-1's; S-IVB stretched with 350,000 lbs propellants; Centaur third stage. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 605,980 kg (1,335,950 lb). Payload: 18,600 kg (41,000 lb). Thrust: 8,006.60 kN (1,799,955 lbf).
Saturn IB-B - American orbital launch vehicle. Douglas Studies, 1965: S-IB with 225 k lbf H-1's; S-IVB stretched with 350,000 lbs propellants and HG-3 high performance engine. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 652,440 kg (1,438,380 lb). Payload: 22,700 kg (50,000 lb). Thrust: 8,006.60 kN (1,799,955 lbf).
Saturn IB-C - American orbital launch vehicle. Douglas Studies, 1965: 4 Minuteman strap-ons; standard S-IB, S-IVB stages. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 689,930 kg (1,521,030 lb). Payload: 20,400 kg (44,900 lb). Thrust: 9,886.40 kN (2,222,551 lbf).
Saturn IB-CE - American orbital launch vehicle. Douglas Studies, 1965: Standard Saturn IB with Centaur upper stage. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 610,110 kg (1,345,060 lb). Payload: 22,000 kg (48,000 lb). Thrust: 7,295.10 kN (1,640,004 lbf).
Saturn IB-D - American orbital launch vehicle. Douglas Studies, 1965: Standard Saturn IB with Titan UA1205 5-segment strap-on motors. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 1,511,980 kg (3,333,340 lb). Payload: 33,000 kg (72,000 lb). Thrust: 28,468.60 kN (6,399,996 lbf).
Saturn IC - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Configuration as flown. Gross mass: 2,286,217 kg (5,040,245 lb). Unfuelled mass: 135,218 kg (298,104 lb). Thrust: 38,703.16 kN (8,700,816 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn IC C-3B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Final first stage design of Saturn C-3 (November 1961). Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 1,160,787 kg (2,559,097 lb). Unfuelled mass: 72,549 kg (159,943 lb). Thrust: 22,954.80 kN (5,160,444 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn IC C-4B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Final first stage design of Saturn C-3 (November 1961). Unique S-IC design in that fuel and propellant tank shared common bulkhead; stage was actually shorter than C-3B S-IC. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 1,450,984 kg (3,198,872 lb). Unfuelled mass: 90,686 kg (199,928 lb). Thrust: 30,606.40 kN (6,880,592 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn IC C-5A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Final first stage design of Saturn C-5 (November 1961) before selection as Apollo launch vehicle and development in Saturn V. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 2,217,285 kg (4,888,276 lb). Unfuelled mass: 131,495 kg (289,896 lb). Thrust: 38,257.99 kN (8,600,738 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn IC-Flat Bulkhead - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Standard S-IC but with reduced length and structural weight through use of 'flat' bulkheads consisting of multiple conical sections. Status: Study MSFC 1965. Gross mass: 2,278,800 kg (5,023,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 127,000 kg (279,000 lb). Thrust: 38,717.60 kN (8,704,063 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn II - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Configuration as flown. Status: Flown 1968. Gross mass: 490,778 kg (1,081,980 lb). Unfuelled mass: 39,048 kg (86,086 lb). Thrust: 5,165.79 kN (1,161,316 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn II C-5A - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Final common second stage design for Saturn C-3, C-4 and C-5 (November 1961). Developed into Saturn V second stage. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 384,057 kg (846,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 31,740 kg (69,970 lb). Thrust: 4,446.65 kN (999,646 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn II Stage Wet Workshop - American manned space station. Study 1964. Wernher von Braun made a rough sketch of a space station based on fitting out of an expended Saturn II stage in orbit on 24 November 1964. Status: Study 1964.
Saturn II-INT-17 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Saturn II modified with reduced expansion ratio HG-3 high pressure engines for use a first stage (sea level launch). Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 495,000 kg (1,091,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 48,000 kg (105,000 lb). Thrust: 9,713.40 kN (2,183,659 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn II-SL - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Saturn II modified with reduced expansion ratio J-2 engines for use a first stage (sea level launch). Requires solid rocket motor augmentation to get off the ground. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 490,952 kg (1,082,363 lb). Unfuelled mass: 44,240 kg (97,530 lb). Thrust: 5,500.77 kN (1,236,621 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn INT-05 - American orbital launch vehicle. NASA Study, 1965: Half length 260 inch solid motor with S-IVB upper stage. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 982,790 kg (2,166,680 lb). Payload: 27,200 kg (59,900 lb). Thrust: 16,013.60 kN (3,600,000 lbf).
Saturn INT-05A - American orbital launch vehicle. UA Study, 1965: Full length 260 inch solid motor with S-IVB upper stage. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 1,818,800 kg (4,009,700 lb). Payload: 43,034 kg (94,873 lb). Thrust: 32,027.10 kN (7,199,979 lbf).
Saturn INT-11 - American orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-IB with 4 Titan UA1205 with standard S-IB stage, S-IVB stage, or 4 Titan UA1207 strap-ons with 20-foot stretched S-IB stage, S-IVB stage. S-IB ignition at altitude. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,959,670 kg (4,320,330 lb). Payload: 48,000 kg (105,000 lb). Thrust: 25,642.10 kN (5,764,573 lbf).
Saturn INT-12 - American orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-IB with only 4 H-1 motors, with 4 Titan UA1205 with standard length S-IB stage, S-IVB stage, or 4 Titan UA1207 strap-ons with 20-foot stretched S-IB stage, S-IVB stage. S-IB ignition at sea level at same time as strap-ons. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,509,230 kg (3,327,280 lb). Payload: 34,000 kg (74,000 lb). Thrust: 24,820.90 kN (5,579,960 lbf).
Saturn INT-13 - American orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-IB with 2 Titan UA1205 with standard length S-IB stage, S-IVB stage, or 2 Titan UA1207 strap-ons with 20-foot stretched S-IB stage, S-IVB stage. S-IB ignition at sea level at same time as strap-ons. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,307,320 kg (2,882,140 lb). Payload: 36,590 kg (80,660 lb). Thrust: 20,116.10 kN (4,522,279 lbf).
Saturn INT-14 - American orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-IB with 4 Minuteman motors as strap-ons, with no, 10, or 20-foot stretch S-IB stages, S-IVB stage. S-IB ignition at sea level at same time as strap-ons. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 750,570 kg (1,654,720 lb). Payload: 23,180 kg (51,100 lb). Thrust: 9,886.40 kN (2,222,551 lbf).
Saturn INT-15 - American orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-IB with 8 Minuteman motors as strap-ons, with no, 10, or 20-foot stretch S-IB stages, S-IVB stage. S-IB ignition at sea level at same time as strap-ons. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 824,100 kg (1,816,800 lb). Payload: 26,000 kg (57,000 lb). Thrust: 12,477.80 kN (2,805,121 lbf).
Saturn INT-16 - American orbital launch vehicle. UA Studies, 1966: S-IVB upper stage with from 2 to 5 Titan UA1205, 1206, or 1207 motors as first stage, clustered around from 1 to 3 of the same motors as a second stage. S-IVB upper stage. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,283,570 kg (2,829,780 lb). Payload: 28,000 kg (61,000 lb). Thrust: 26,466.90 kN (5,949,996 lbf).
Saturn INT-17 - North American study, 1966. Saturn variant with a modified S-II first stage with seven high-performance HG-3 engines; S-IVB second stage. Poor performance and cost-effectiveness and not studied further. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 504,400 kg (1,112,000 lb). Payload: 42,000 kg (92,000 lb). Thrust: 5,936.01 kN (1,334,468 lbf).
Saturn INT-18 - North American study, 1966. Saturn variant with Titan UA1205 or 1207 motors as boosters, Saturn II stage as core, and Saturn IVB upper stage. Various combinations of numbers of strap-ons, propellant loading of the two core stages, and sea-level versus altitude ignition were studied. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,966,810 kg (4,336,070 lb). Payload: 66,590 kg (146,800 lb). Thrust: 25,642.10 kN (5,764,573 lbf).
Saturn INT-19 - North American study, 1966. Saturn variant with 4 to 12 Minuteman motors as boosters, Saturn II stage as core, and Saturn IVB upper stage. Saturn II stage would be fitted with lower expansion ratio engines and would ignite at sea level. Various combinations of numbers of strap-ons, propellant loading of the two core stages were studied. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 770,000 kg (1,690,000 lb). Payload: 34,320 kg (75,660 lb). Thrust: 9,061.41 kN (2,037,086 lbf).
Saturn INT-20 - American orbital launch vehicle. Saturn variant consisting of S-IC first stage and S-IVB second stage. Consideration was given to deleting one or more of the F-1 engines in the first stage. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 2,478,120 kg (5,463,310 lb). Payload: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb). Thrust: 33,737.90 kN (7,584,582 lbf).
Saturn INT-21 - American orbital launch vehicle. Saturn variant consisting of S-IC first stage and S-II second stage. This essentially flew once to launch Skylab in 1972, although the IU was located atop the Skylab space station (converted S-IVB stage) rather than atop the S-II as in the INT-21 design. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 2,916,080 kg (6,428,850 lb). Payload: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Thrust: 33,737.90 kN (7,584,582 lbf).
Saturn INT-27 - American orbital launch vehicle. UA study, 1965. Saturn variant using various combinations of 156 inch rocket motors as first and second stages, with S-IVB upper stage. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,068,800 kg (6,765,500 lb). Payload: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Thrust: 65,813.00 kN (14,795,350 lbf).
Saturn IV - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Configuration as flown. Status: Flown 1961. Gross mass: 50,576 kg (111,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,217 kg (11,501 lb). Thrust: 400.35 kN (90,001 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn IVB - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Configuration as flown on Saturn V. Status: Flown 1967. Gross mass: 119,920 kg (264,370 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,311 kg (29,345 lb). Thrust: 1,031.98 kN (231,999 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn IVB (S-IB) - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Saturn IB version of S-IVB stage. Due to lower payload, 300 kg saving in structure compared to Saturn V version. Due to deletion of restart requirement, 700 kg saving in propulsion system (primarily reduction in helium for restart). Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 118,800 kg (261,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 12,900 kg (28,400 lb). Thrust: 1,031.60 kN (231,913 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn IVB (S-V) - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Saturn V version of S-IVB stage for use with upper stage. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 119,900 kg (264,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Thrust: 1,031.60 kN (231,913 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn IVB C-3B - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Final common third stage design for Saturn C-3B (November 1961). Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 52,144 kg (114,957 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,801 kg (14,993 lb). Thrust: 889.33 kN (199,928 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn IVB C-5A - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Final common third stage design for Saturn C-4 and C-5 (November 1961). Developed into Saturn V second stage. After development started, decision taken to boost performance by increasing diameter to 6.61 m and increasing propellant load. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 102,249 kg (225,420 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11,563 kg (25,492 lb). Thrust: 889.33 kN (199,928 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn IVB-A - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Douglas Studies, 1965: S-IVB with 215k lbf J-1 (actual final model had 230k J-1). Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 118,800 kg (261,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 12,900 kg (28,400 lb). Thrust: 956.10 kN (214,940 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn LCB-Alumizine-140 - Alternate designation for Saturn LCB-Alumizine-140 stage.
Saturn LCB-Alumizine-140 - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/Alumizine Propellant engine, HY-140 Steel Hull. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,707,800 kg (3,765,000 lb). Payload: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb). Thrust: 20,951.50 kN (4,710,085 lbf).
Saturn LCB-Alumizine-140 stage - N2O4/Alumizine propellant rocket stage. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/Alumizine Propellant engine, HY-140 Hull. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,542,200 kg (3,399,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 154,200 kg (339,900 lb). Thrust: 22,563.10 kN (5,072,387 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Alumizine.
Saturn LCB-Alumizine-250 - Alternate designation for Saturn LCB-Alumizine-250 stage.
Saturn LCB-Alumizine-250 - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/Alumizine Propellant engine, Ni-250 Steel Hull. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,435,700 kg (3,165,100 lb). Payload: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb). Thrust: 17,525.80 kN (3,939,957 lbf).
Saturn LCB-Alumizine-250 stage - N2O4/Alumizine propellant rocket stage. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/Alumizine Propellant engine, Ni-250 Hull. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,270,100 kg (2,800,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 95,300 kg (210,100 lb). Thrust: 18,873.80 kN (4,242,999 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Alumizine.
Saturn LCB-Lox/RP-1 - Alternate designation for Saturn LCB-Lox/RP-1 stage.
Saturn LCB-Lox/RP-1 - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed LOx/RFP-1 engine. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,526,400 kg (3,365,100 lb). Payload: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb). Thrust: 18,682.10 kN (4,199,903 lbf).
Saturn LCB-Lox/RP-1 stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed LOx/RFP-1 engine. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,360,800 kg (3,000,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 108,900 kg (240,000 lb). Thrust: 20,306.60 kN (4,565,105 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn LCB-SR - Alternate designation for AJ-260X.
Saturn LCB-SR - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, 260 inch solid motor, full length. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,843,900 kg (4,065,100 lb). Payload: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb). Thrust: 24,465.10 kN (5,499,973 lbf).
Saturn LCB-Storable-140 - Alternate designation for Saturn LCB-Storable-140 stage.
Saturn LCB-Storable-140 - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/UDMH Propellant engine, HY-140 Steel Hull. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 2,161,400 kg (4,765,000 lb). Payload: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb). Thrust: 26,200.30 kN (5,890,062 lbf).
Saturn LCB-Storable-140 stage - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/UDMH Propellant engine, HY-140 Hull. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,995,800 kg (4,399,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 199,600 kg (440,000 lb). Thrust: 28,553.00 kN (6,418,969 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Saturn LCB-Storable-250 - Alternate designation for Saturn LCB-Storable-250 stage.
Saturn LCB-Storable-250 - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/UDMH Propellant engine, Ni-250 Steel Hull. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,617,100 kg (3,565,000 lb). Payload: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb). Thrust: 19,483.00 kN (4,379,952 lbf).
Saturn LCB-Storable-250 stage - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/UDMH Propellant engine, Ni-250 Hull. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,451,500 kg (3,200,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 108,900 kg (240,000 lb). Thrust: 21,232.30 kN (4,773,211 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Saturn LRB stage series -
Saturn MLV 5-23L-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Liquid strap-on booster studied for improved Saturn V. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,180,000 kg (2,600,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Thrust: 15,484.00 kN (3,480,941 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn MLV-V-1 - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Improved Saturn V configuration studied under contract NAS8-11359. Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1A engines; S-II stretched 41 inches with 1.0 million pounds propellant and 5 J-2 engines; S-IVB strengthened but with standard 230,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,501,350 kg (7,719,150 lb). Payload: 137,250 kg (302,580 lb). Thrust: 40,019.90 kN (8,996,831 lbf).
Saturn MLV-V-1/J-2T/200K - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Improved Saturn V configuration studied under contract NAS8-11359. Variant of MLV-V-1 with toroidal J-2T-200K engines replacing standard J-2 engines in upper stages. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,216,150 kg (7,090,390 lb). Thrust: 40,019.90 kN (8,996,831 lbf).
Saturn MLV-V-1/J-2T/250K - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Improved Saturn V configuration studied under contract NAS8-11359. Variant of MLV-V-1 with toroidal J-2T-250K engines replacing standard J-2 engines in upper stages. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,216,150 kg (7,090,390 lb). Thrust: 40,019.90 kN (8,996,831 lbf).
Saturn MLV-V-1A - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant and 6 F-1 engines; S-II stretched 156 inches with 1.2 million pounds propellant and 7 J-2 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,648,700 kg (8,044,000 lb). Payload: 145,000 kg (319,000 lb). Thrust: 40,485.10 kN (9,101,413 lbf).
Saturn MLV-V-2 - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1A engines; S-II stretched 41 inches with 1.0 million pounds propellant and 5 J-2 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 HG-3 engine. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,557,450 kg (7,842,830 lb). Payload: 137,250 kg (302,580 lb). Thrust: 40,019.90 kN (8,996,831 lbf).
Saturn MLV-V-3 - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Ultimate core for improved Saturn V configurations studied under contract NAS8-11359. Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1A engines; S-II stretched 156 inches with 1.2 million pounds propellant and 5 HG-3 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 HG-3 engine. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,664,570 kg (8,078,990 lb). Payload: 160,400 kg (353,600 lb). Thrust: 40,019.90 kN (8,996,831 lbf).
Saturn MLV-V-4(S) - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Saturn V core, strengthened but not stretched, with 4 Titan UA1205 strap-on solid rocket boosters. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,947,350 kg (8,702,410 lb). Payload: 118,000 kg (260,000 lb). Thrust: 54,911.50 kN (12,344,596 lbf).
Saturn MLV-V-4(S)-A - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. 4 Titan UA1205 solid rocket boosters; Saturn IC stretched 337 inches with 6.0 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; S-II with 970,000 pounds propellant and 5 J-2 engines; S-IVB strengthened but with standard 230,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 4,615,440 kg (10,175,300 lb). Payload: 160,880 kg (354,670 lb). Thrust: 54,920.00 kN (12,346,500 lbf).
Saturn MLV-V-4(S)-B - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967. Configuration of improved Saturn 5 with Titan UA1207 120 inch solid rocket boosters. Saturn IC stretched 336 inches with 6.0 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; Saturn II and Saturn IVB stages strengthened but not stretched. Empty mass of stages increased by 13.9% (S-IC), 8.6% (S-II) and 11.8% (S-IVB). Studied again by Boeing in 1967 as Saturn V-4(S)B. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 4,699,860 kg (10,361,410 lb). Payload: 171,990 kg (379,170 lb). Thrust: 69,317.10 kN (15,583,104 lbf).
Saturn MS-IC/260 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Standard length S-IC but with feed of propellant from fuel and propellant tanks housed above strap-on solid rocket motors. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 2,721,600 kg (6,000,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 181,400 kg (399,900 lb). Thrust: 38,717.60 kN (8,704,063 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn MS-IC-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Basic Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with F-1A engines uprated 20% in thrust and 6 second improvement in specific impulse. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 2,694,703 kg (5,940,803 lb). Unfuelled mass: 169,719 kg (374,166 lb). Thrust: 45,948.75 kN (10,329,691 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn MS-IC-1A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Basic Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 6 F-1 engines. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 2,694,700 kg (5,940,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 160,600 kg (354,000 lb). Thrust: 46,443.30 kN (10,440,869 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn MS-IC-23(L) - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Basic Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with standard F-1 engines. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 2,694,000 kg (5,939,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 169,000 kg (372,000 lb). Thrust: 38,703.16 kN (8,700,816 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn MS-IC-25(S) - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. S-IC with 41.5 foot stretch, 6,640,0000 lbs propellant, uprated F-1 engines. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 3,223,800 kg (7,107,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 211,900 kg (467,100 lb). Thrust: 45,925.50 kN (10,324,463 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn MS-IC-3B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. S-IC with 20 foot stretch, 1.8 million lb thrust F-1's, 5.6 million pounds propellant capacity (fuel offloaded to 4.99 million for LEO or 4.80 million lbs for LOR mission). Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 2,718,800 kg (5,993,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 178,700 kg (393,900 lb). Thrust: 45,925.50 kN (10,324,463 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn MS-IC-4(S)B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. S-IC with 336 inch stretch, 6,000,0000 lbs propellant, structural strength increased from 56% to 65% depending on station, resulting in 13.9% increase in empty weight. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 2,875,500 kg (6,339,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 154,000 kg (339,000 lb). Thrust: 38,717.60 kN (8,704,063 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn MS-II-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Basic Saturn II with 41 inch stretch of hydrogen tank. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 521,447 kg (1,149,593 lb). Unfuelled mass: 49,877 kg (109,959 lb). Thrust: 5,165.79 kN (1,161,316 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-II-1A - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Basic Saturn II with 187 inch stretch of propellant tanks, 1.2 million pound propellant capacity, and 7 J-2 engines. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 600,800 kg (1,324,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb). Thrust: 6,380.94 kN (1,434,493 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-II-1-J-2T-200K - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Basic Saturn II with 41 inch stretch of hydrogen tank, uprated J-2T 200k engines with 10 second increase in specific impulse. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 521,447 kg (1,149,593 lb). Unfuelled mass: 49,877 kg (109,959 lb). Thrust: 4,446.65 kN (999,646 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-II-1-J-2T-250K - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Basic Saturn II with 41 inch stretch of hydrogen tank, uprated J-2T 250k engines with 25% improvement in thrust and 16 second increase in specific impulse. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 521,447 kg (1,149,593 lb). Unfuelled mass: 49,877 kg (109,959 lb). Thrust: 5,558.31 kN (1,249,558 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-II-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Basic Saturn II with 187 inch stretch of propellant tanks and high chamber pressure SSME-type engines with 65% increase in thrust and 26 second improvement in specific impulse. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 600,788 kg (1,324,510 lb). Unfuelled mass: 59,844 kg (131,933 lb). Thrust: 7,003.48 kN (1,574,444 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-II-3B - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. S-II with 15.5 foot stretch, 1.29 million pounds propellant, 7 x 400,000 lb thrust toroidal engines. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 643,200 kg (1,418,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 53,500 kg (117,900 lb). Thrust: 12,455.40 kN (2,800,085 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-II-4(S)B - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Standard S-II but with structural strength increased from 86% to 502% depending on station, resulting in 8.6% increase in empty weight. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 494,100 kg (1,089,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 42,300 kg (93,200 lb). Thrust: 5,169.00 kN (1,162,037 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-IVB-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Marshall studies, 1965: S-IVB structurally strengthened to handle larger payloads, otherwise unchanged. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 120,500 kg (265,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,900 kg (30,600 lb). Thrust: 1,031.60 kN (231,913 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-IVB-1A - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. S-IVB with 16.5 foot stretch, 350,000 pounds propellant, standard J-2 engine. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 179,200 kg (395,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20,400 kg (44,900 lb). Thrust: 1,031.60 kN (231,913 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-IVB-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Douglas Studies, 1965: S-IVB with 315 k high pressure 3000 psia engine, 350,000 pounds propellant. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 176,600 kg (389,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 17,800 kg (39,200 lb). Thrust: 1,401.30 kN (315,025 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-IVB-3B - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. S-IVB with 16.5 foot stretch, 350,000 pounds propellant, 1 400,000 pound thrust toroidal engine. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 179,200 kg (395,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20,400 kg (44,900 lb). Thrust: 1,778.90 kN (399,913 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-IVB-4(S)B - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Standard S-IVB but with structural strength increased from 78% to 217% depending on station, resulting in 11.8% increase in empty weight. Status: Study Boeing 1967. Gross mass: 118,400 kg (261,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14,100 kg (31,000 lb). Thrust: 1,031.60 kN (231,913 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-IVB-x - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Marshall studies, 1965: S-IVB structurally strengthened to handle larger payloads, otherwise unchanged. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 195,000 kg (429,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 36,300 kg (80,000 lb). Thrust: 912.00 kN (205,025 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn MS-LRB-23(L) - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Liquid rocket booster strap-ons using 2 F-1's. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 874,100 kg (1,927,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18,100 kg (39,900 lb). Thrust: 15,486.60 kN (3,481,526 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn PFL - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. NASA, Saturn Alternative Booster Studies, 1969 (trade study of 120, 156, 260 inch solid, and Storable liquid boosters for S-IVB. Reached opposite conclusion from Boeing study, that Pressure Fed Liquid Booster would be 6.5% more expensive than solid). Pre. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 2,057,400 kg (4,535,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 205,400 kg (452,800 lb). Thrust: 28,553.00 kN (6,418,969 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Saturn S-1B-4 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-1B with 4 H-1's for use with Titan UA1205 strap-ons. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 444,700 kg (980,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 37,600 kg (82,800 lb). Thrust: 4,120.70 kN (926,370 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn Shuttle - American orbital launch vehicle. A winged recoverable Saturn IC stage was considered instead of solid rocket boosters after the final shuttle design was selected. Status: Study 1972. Gross mass: 3,161,710 kg (6,970,370 lb). Thrust: 33,737.90 kN (7,584,582 lbf).
Saturn S-IB-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 725,491 kg (1,599,433 lb). Unfuelled mass: 68,014 kg (149,945 lb). Thrust: 13,339.96 kN (2,998,941 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn S-IB-4 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 1,813,729 kg (3,998,587 lb). Unfuelled mass: 108,823 kg (239,913 lb). Thrust: 30,962.53 kN (6,960,653 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn S-IB-A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Douglas Studies, 1965: S-1B with 225 k lbf H-1's. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 448,600 kg (988,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 41,600 kg (91,700 lb). Thrust: 9,045.60 kN (2,033,532 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn S-IC-8 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 3,627,500 kg (7,997,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 181,400 kg (399,900 lb). Thrust: 61,925.00 kN (13,921,293 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn S-IC-TLB - Alternate designation for Saturn S-IC-TLB stage.
Saturn S-IC-TLB - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): S-IC Technology Liquid Booster: 260 inch liquid booster with 2 x F-1 engines, recoverable/reusable Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,118,100 kg (2,464,900 lb). Payload: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb). Thrust: 13,540.00 kN (3,043,910 lbf).
Saturn S-IC-TLB stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): S-IC Technology Liquid Booster: 260 inch liquid booster with 2 x F-1 engines, recoverable/reusable. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 952,500 kg (2,099,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 68,000 kg (149,000 lb). Thrust: 15,532.70 kN (3,491,890 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn S-ID Booster - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas. Booster half stage recoverable. Mass estimated based on double mass of four F-1's (based on Atlas example). Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 67,100 kg (147,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 67,100 kg (147,900 lb). Thrust: 30,962.50 kN (6,960,647 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn S-ID Sustainer - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas. Booster half stage burns 124 seconds in this configuration. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 2,219,100 kg (4,892,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 68,100 kg (150,100 lb). Thrust: 7,740.30 kN (1,740,089 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn S-ID Sustainer-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas; 20 foot stretch of sustainer stage. Booster stage burn 154 seconds in this configuration. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 2,627,600 kg (5,792,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 84,400 kg (186,000 lb). Thrust: 7,740.30 kN (1,740,089 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Saturn S-II - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Early design version for use with Saturn I first stage. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Thrust: 3,557.31 kN (799,716 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn S-II-4 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Version for Saturn C-4. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 294,731 kg (649,770 lb). Unfuelled mass: 24,938 kg (54,978 lb). Thrust: 3,557.31 kN (799,716 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn S-II-8 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Version for Saturn C-8. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 770,835 kg (1,699,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 63,480 kg (139,940 lb). Thrust: 8,265.26 kN (1,858,104 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn S-II-C3 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Version for Saturn C-3. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 204,044 kg (449,840 lb). Unfuelled mass: 24,938 kg (54,978 lb). Thrust: 3,557.31 kN (799,716 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn S-IVC - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study NASA February 1962. Gross mass: 204,044 kg (449,840 lb). Unfuelled mass: 22,671 kg (49,980 lb). Thrust: 1,031.98 kN (231,999 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Saturn S-N C-3BN - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Nuclear upper stage considered in lieu of S-IVB in final Saturn C-3B study in November 1961. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 32,470 kg (71,580 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,708 kg (16,993 lb). Thrust: 266.80 kN (59,979 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
Saturn S-N C-5N - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Nuclear upper stage considered in lieu of S-IVB in final Saturn C-5 study in November 1961. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 53,694 kg (118,375 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,429 kg (22,992 lb). Thrust: 266.80 kN (59,979 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
Saturn S-N V-25(S)U - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Version of Nerva studied by Boeing for manned Mars expedition. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 245,760 kg (541,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 71,190 kg (156,940 lb). Thrust: 889.33 kN (199,928 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
Saturn V - American orbital launch vehicle. America's booster for the Apollo manned lunar landing. The design was frozen before a landing mode was selected; the Saturn V could be used for either Earth-Orbit-Rendezvous or Lunar-Orbit-Rendezvous methods. The vehicle ended up with the same payload capability as the 'too large' Nova. The basic diameter was dictated by the ceiling height at the Michoud factory selected for first stage manufacture. Despite the study of innumerable variants, production was ended after only 12 were built and America spent the next fifty years in a pointless slow-motion withdrawal from manned space exploration. Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1967-11-09. Last Launch: 1973-05-14. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 3,038,500 kg (6,698,700 lb). Payload: 118,000 kg (260,000 lb). Thrust: 33,737.90 kN (7,584,582 lbf).
Saturn V 2 - American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage version of Saturn V, consisting of 1 x Saturn S-IC + 1 x Saturn S-II, used to launch Skylab. Gross mass: 2,822,000 kg (6,221,000 lb). Payload: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb). Thrust: 34,030.00 kN (7,650,240 lbf).
Saturn V/4-260 - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967-1968. Use of full length 260 inch solid rocket boosters with stretched Saturn IC stages presented problems, since the top of the motors came about half way up the liquid oxygen tank of the stage, making transmission of loads from the motors to the core vehicle complex and adding a great deal of weight to the S-IC. Boeing's solution was to retain the standard length Saturn IC, with the 260 inch motors ending half way up the S-IC/S-II interstage, but to provide additional propellant for the S-IC by putting propellant tanks above the 260 inch boosters. These would be drained first and jettisoned with the boosters. This added to the plumbing complexity but solved the loads problem. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 10,351,050 kg (22,820,150 lb). Payload: 362,700 kg (799,600 lb). Thrust: 161,859.30 kN (36,387,418 lbf).
Saturn V-23(L) - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967. 4 260 inch liquid propellant boosters (each with 2 F-1's!).; Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; S-II strengthened but with standard 930,000 pounds propellant and 5 J-2 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 7,178,900 kg (15,826,700 lb). Payload: 262,670 kg (579,080 lb). Thrust: 87,737.40 kN (19,724,152 lbf).
Saturn V-24(L) - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967. 4 260 inch liquid propellant boosters (each with 2 F-1A).; Saturn IC stretched 336 inches with 6.0 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1A engines; S-II stretched 156 inches with 1.2 million pounds propellant and 5 HG-3 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 HG-3 engine. Not studied in detail since vehicle height of 600 feet with payload exceeded study limit of 410 feet. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 7,386,760 kg (16,285,010 lb). Payload: 435,300 kg (959,600 lb). Thrust: 94,019.40 kN (21,136,402 lbf).
Saturn V-25(S)B - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967. 4 156 inch solid propellant boosters; Saturn IC stretched 498 inches with 6.64 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; S-II standard length with 5 J-2 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 6,342,540 kg (13,982,900 lb). Payload: 223,500 kg (492,700 lb). Thrust: 72,338.40 kN (16,262,319 lbf).
Saturn V-25(S)U - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1968. 4 156 inch solid propellant boosters; Saturn IC stretched 498 inches with 6.64 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; S-II standard length with 5 J-2 engines. This vehicle would place Nerva nuclear third stage into low earth orbit, where five such stages would be assembled together with the spacecraft for a manned Mars expedition. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 6,439,300 kg (14,196,200 lb). Payload: 248,663 kg (548,208 lb). Thrust: 72,338.40 kN (16,262,319 lbf).
Saturn V-3B - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967. Variation on MSFC 1965 study Saturn MLV-V-3 but with toroidal engines. Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant (but only 4.99 million pounds usable without solid rocket boosters) and 5 F-1A engines; S-II stretched 186 inches with 1.29 million lbs propellant and 5 J-2T-400 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2T-400 engine. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 3,741,120 kg (8,247,750 lb). Payload: 166,600 kg (367,200 lb). Thrust: 40,033.80 kN (8,999,956 lbf).
Saturn V-4X(U) - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1968. Four core vehicles from Saturn V-25(S) study lashed together to obtain million-pound payload using existing hardware. First stage consisted of 4 Saturn IC's stretched 498 inches with 6.64 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; second stage 4 Saturn II standard length stages with 5 J-2 engines Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 15,504,720 kg (34,182,050 lb). Payload: 527,600 kg (1,163,100 lb). Thrust: 160,135.00 kN (35,999,780 lbf).
Saturn V-A - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1968. Essentially identical to Saturn INT-20; standard Saturn IC stage together with Saturn IVB second stage, with Centaur third stage for deep space missions. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 2,478,120 kg (5,463,310 lb). Payload: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb). Thrust: 33,737.90 kN (7,584,582 lbf).
Saturn V-B - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1968. Intriguing stage-and-a-half to orbit design using Saturn S-ID stage. The S-ID would be the same length and engines as the standard Saturn IC, but the four outer engines and their boost structure would be jettisoned once 70% of the propellant was consumed, as in the Atlas ICBM. This booster engine assembly would be recovered and reused. The center engine would be gimbaled and serve as a sustainer engine to put the rest of the vehicle and its 50,000 pound payload into orbit. At very minimal cost (36 months lead-time and $ 150 million) the United States could have attained a payload capability and level of reusability similar to that of the space shuttle. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 2,313,320 kg (5,099,990 lb). Payload: 22,600 kg (49,800 lb). Thrust: 33,737.70 kN (7,584,537 lbf).
Saturn V-C - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1968. S-ID stage-and-a-half first stage and Saturn IVB second stage. Centaur available as third stage for deep space missions. 30% performance improvement over Saturn V-A/Saturn INT-20 with standard Saturn IC first stage. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 2,504,020 kg (5,520,410 lb). Payload: 81,600 kg (179,800 lb). Thrust: 33,737.70 kN (7,584,537 lbf).
Saturn V-Centaur - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1968. S-ID stage-and-a-half first stage and Saturn IVB second stage. Centaur available as third stage for deep space missions. 30% performance improvement over Saturn V-A/Saturn INT-20 with standard Saturn IC first stage. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 3,054,750 kg (6,734,570 lb). Payload: 118,000 kg (260,000 lb). Thrust: 33,737.90 kN (7,584,582 lbf).
Saturn V-D - American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1968. Rehashed the Boeing 1967 studies, covering a variety of stage stretches and 120, 156, or 260 inch solid rocket boosters, but with S-ID stage-and-a-half first stage. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 9,882,100 kg (21,786,300 lb). Payload: 326,500 kg (719,800 lb). Thrust: 161,846.50 kN (36,384,541 lbf).
Saturn V-ELV - American orbital launch vehicle. NASA study, 1966. No-height-limitation stretched Saturn with Titan UA1207 motors for thrust augmentation. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 5,172,820 kg (11,404,110 lb). Payload: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb). Thrust: 59,392.70 kN (13,352,010 lbf).
SaturnV - Alternate designation for Saturn V.
Saudi Arabia - Saudi Arabia
Saudi Institute for Space Research - Saudi manufacturer of spacecraft. Saudi Institute for Space Research, Saudi Arabia.
SaudiComsat - Saudi military communications satellite. 5 launched, 2007.04.17. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-04-17. Last Launch: 2007-04-17. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
Saudisat - Saudi amateur radio communications satellite. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-09-26. Last Launch: 2007-04-17. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
Saudisat 4 - Technology demonstration satellite King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology with a joint NASA Ames payload related to gravitational reference sensors for drag-free spacecraft. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-06-19. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Saul - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Saunders-Roe - British manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Saunders-Roe, UK.
Saus - Russian officer. Deputy Chief GNITs KS Space Tracking Centre for Space Communications and Television 1977-1991. Born: 1932.
Savage - Alternate designation for RT-2P.
Savage - Alternate designation for RT-2.
SAVER - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. The Rockwell SAVER concept provided return of a single crew member in his ejection seat. A nose cap only the size of the seat absorbed most of the re-entry heat. Status: Study 1966.
Savin - Russian chief designer. General Designer from 1962 of KB-1 and TsNII Kometa. Specialized in the hardware for the Soviet RORSAT. EORSAT, and ASAT programs. Born: 1920-04-06.
Savinykh - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1989. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1989. Born: 1940-03-07. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 252.73 days.
Savitskaya - Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1980-1993. Test pilot, engineer, second woman in space. First woman to walk in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1993. Born: 1948-08-08. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 19.71 days.
Sawatzki - German engineer, head of productionization of the A4 missile, and technical director at Mittelwerk. His family believes that he was captured by the U.S. Army near the end of the war, perhaps tortured, and died in custody. Died: 1945-04-01.
Sawfly - Alternate designation for R-29D.
Sawfly - Alternate designation for R-29.
SAX - Italian x-ray astronomy satellite. Beppo SAX. Satellite per Astronomia a raggi X; X-ray celestial observatory Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-04-30. Last Launch: 1996-04-30. Number: 1 .
Sazman Fizaii Iran - Alternate name for IRSA.
SB - Solar panel (Russian abbreviation)
S-B - Alternate designation for S-B engine.
S-B - Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1964-07-17. Last Launch: 1971-09-11. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
S-B engine - Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. S-B first stage. Status: Retired 1971. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Propellants: Solid.
S-B-1 - Alternate name for S-B engine.
SB-1 - First name of Almaz bureau.
SB-310 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1984. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 190 kg (410 lb). Thrust: 95.00 kN (21,356 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SB-735 - Alternate designation for SB-735 engine.
SB-735 - Japanese sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1994.
SB-735 - Alternate designation for Mu-3S-0 rocket stage.
SB-735 engine - Nissan solid rocket engine. Used on Mu-3S launch vehicle. First flight 1969. Status: Retired 1995. Number: 48 . Gross mass: 5,100 kg (11,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb). Thrust: 327.80 kN (73,692 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
S-band - A range of frequencies used in radar and communications that extends from 1,550 to 5,200 megahertz (wavelength region from 0.06 m to 0.2 m).
SBD - American technology satellite. SBD, the Orbital Corporation Special Bus Design, was a 73 kg test version of an enlarged Microstar bus. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-09-21. Last Launch: 2001-09-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 73 kg (160 lb).
SBIR Hybrid - SpaceDev N2O/Solid hybrid rocket engine. First stage. Upper-stage hybrid propulsion system, part of 2004 Phase 2 of SBIR contract from AFRL for a hybrid rocket motor-based small launch vehicle project. Status: Study 2005. Date: 2001-2004. Thrust: 1,100.00 kN (247,200 lbf). Propellants: N2O/Solid.
SBIRS - Geosynchronous element of the Space-Based Infrared System, the multispectral early warning and tracking portion of the American missile defense system. The system also included payloads installed on Molniya-orbit signals intelligence satellites. Used the AS 2100 bus.
Sbracyvaemiy oporniy konus - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-L1 SOK manned spacecraft module.
SBS - Satellite Business Systems, USA, communications network; and designation of series of communications satellites launched by SBS.
SBSS - Space-Based Surveillance Satellite; designed to track satellites and orbital junk from a space-based vantage point. Used the BCP-2000 bus.
SBTS - Ku band communications satellite. Stationed at 70 degrees West. Used the AS 3000 bus.
SBWASS - New class of signals intelligence Singleton satellite; possibly some kind of imaging also done. On-board propulsion boosts spacecraft to 800 km operating orbit.
S-C - Alternate designation for S-C engine.
S-C - Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1969-02-07. Last Launch: 1969-02-08. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
S-C engine - Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. S-C first stage. Status: Retired 1969. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Propellants: Solid.
S-C-1 - Alternate name for S-C engine.
SCA - Abbreviation for Shuttle Carrier Aircraft
SCAD - Alternate designation for AGM-86A.
SCAL - Scaled Composites
Scaleboard - Alternate designation for 9K76B.
Scaleboard - Alternate designation for 9K76.
Scaled - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Scaled Composites, USA.
Scalpel - Alternate designation for RT-23U 15Zh61.
Scalpel - Alternate designation for RT-23U 15Zh60.
Scalpel - Alternate designation for RT-23 15Zh52.
Scalpel - Alternate designation for RT-23 15Zh44.
Scamp - Alternate designation for RT-15.
Scanner - American sounding rocket. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Aerojet Jr + 1 x Lance + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1966-08-16. Last Launch: 1966-12-10. Number: 2 . Thrust: 550.00 kN (123,640 lbf).
Scanner, Project - Horizon definition experiment (sounding rocket)
Scanner-1 - Rocket stage used on Astrobee 1500 sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 254.00 kN (57,101 lbf).
Scapegoat (Scamp) - Alternate designation for RT-15.
Scarab-A - Alternate designation for Tochka.
Scarab-A - Alternate designation for Oka.
Scarab-B - Alternate designation for Tochka-U.
Scarab-B - Alternate designation for 9K79-1.
Scarab-C - Alternate designation for 9K714B.
Scarp - Alternate designation for Tsiklon.
Scarp - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-2A.
Scarp - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-3.
Scarp - Alternate designation for R-36O 8K69.
Scarp - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-2.
Scarp - Alternate designation for R-36 8K67P.
SCATHA - American communications technology satellite. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-01-30. Last Launch: 1979-01-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 360 kg (790 lb).
SCC - Japanese agency. Space Communications Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.
SCCJ - Space Communications Corp, Japan
SCD - Alternate designation for SCD (abbreviation).
SCD - Brazilian communications technology satellite. Environmental data relay. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-02-09. Last Launch: 1998-10-23. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 110 kg (240 lb).
SCD (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Specification control drawing
SCE - SCE (Selective Communications Experiment) carried a variable frequency transmitter to study ionospheric effects at various RF frequencies, and was also designed to demonstrate message store and forward techniques. Used the Stacksat P87-2 bus.
SCEL - US Army Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories
Schabert - German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA in the chemistry group from 1947-1950.
Schaefer - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Schafer - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Schafer, USA.
Schaper - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina. Worked at Port Washington, Long Island, New York, USA, until his death in 1967. Born: 1892-10-26. Died: 1967-11-01.
Scheidt - German engineer. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2.
Schellinger - Schellinger
Scheufelen - German engineer, V-2 test leader. At end of war headed development of Taifun unguided antiaircraft rocket, characterized as a 'desperation project'. Went to America after the war, working at Fort Bliss. Later returned to Germany and died in Lenningen in 2008. Born: 1913-10-30. Died: 2008-01-26.
Schiaparelli - Italian astronomer, made observations in the 1860's of Martian canals; believed them to be artificial constructions and indicating intelligent life. Tremendously influenced the public and science fiction writers. Later shown to be an optical i Born: 1835. Died: 1910-01-01.
Schierhorn - German welding engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Shop 55. Born: 1907-02-22.
Schilling - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1911-10-01. Died: 2002-04-01.
Schilling AFB - Atlas F (SMS 550) ICBM base.
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Schindler - American manager. NASA Delta launch vehicle program manager, the single individual most responsible for developing the light launch vehicle into a medium lift workhorse
Schirra - American test pilot astronaut 1959-1969. Member of first crew to rendezvous in space, and commander of first manned Apollo mission. Remembered both for practical jokes and uncompromising attention to detail. Flew 90 combat missions in the Korean War. Status: Deceased; Active 1959-1969. Born: 1923-03-12. Died: 2007-05-03. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 12.30 days.
Schlechter - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Schlegel - German physicist mission specialist astronaut 1987-on. Status: Active 1987-on. Born: 1951-08-03. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 22.75 days.
Schlesinger - American manager, chair of the Atomic Energy Commission, 1971-1973, Secretary of Defense, 1973-1975. Born: 1929. Died: 2014-03-27.
Schlidt - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1914-07-15. Died: 2012-09-28.
Schlitt - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1912-03-15. Died: 2005-01-01.
Schlotzer - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France as head of the armature group for LRBA from 1947 until retirement in 1970.
Schmetterling - German surface-to-air missile which completed development at the beginning of 1945. However it was never produced in appreciable quantities. The name translates as 'Butterfly'. Status: Cancelled 1945. Gross mass: 460 kg (1,010 lb). Payload: 41 kg (90 lb). Thrust: 17.16 kN (3,858 lbf).
Schmidt - German-American expert in guided missiles during WW2. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre.
Schmidt, C - German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the instrumentation group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952.
Schmidt, Johannes - German expert in rocket engines during World War II, working at the Walter Werke, Kiel. Moved by the British to Saenger's facility in Trauen in early 1946 to conduct rocket engine tests, which were completed on 16 June 1946.
Schmidt, Paul - German engineer, physicist and expert in jet propulsion at Peenemuende during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war. Born: 1898.
Schmidt, W - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on electronic homing systems in the target tracking department 1947-1952.
Schmieder - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Schmiedl - Austrian rocket pioneer, tested recoverable solid propellant rockets from 1924-1934 for use as stratospheric probes and for mail delivery. Refused to participate in development of military rockets, either for the Nazis or the Americans. Conducted an official rocket-mail service between two Austrian towns between February 1931 and 16 March 1933. Born: 1902. Died: 1994-01-01.
Schmitt - American geologist astronaut 1965-1975. Twelfth person and only geologist to walk on the moon. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1975. Born: 1935-07-03. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.58 days.
Schmoll - German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA as part of the armature group from 1947-1951 before returning to Germany.
Schnapper - German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the Doppler tracking group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952.
Schnarowski - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1910-06-03. Died: 2005-01-01.
Schneider - American engineer, at NASA 1963-1980. Mission director for seven Gemini missions; Apollo mission director 1967-1968; Skylab Program director 1968-1974.
Schneider, Hans - German expert in jet propulsion at Peenemuende during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war. Later became head of ERNO. Born: 1909. Died: 1990-01-01.
Scholz - German measurement technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. Born: 1907.
Schomburg - American US Army US Army Officer. August Schomburg was a career Army officer who rose to the rank of lieutenant general. From 1960 to 1962 he was commander of the Army missile ordnance command at Redstone Arsenal. Born: 1908-07-03. Died: 1972-01-01.
Schongs - German expert in guided missiles during World War II.
Schossig - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on gyroscopes and antennae in the automated control loop department 1947-1952.
Schrader - German expert in the V-2 missile during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Schriever - Key German-American military manager of development of the Thor, Atlas, Titan, and Minuteman ballistic missiles. Born: 1910-09-14. Died: 2005-06-20.
Schroeder - German test pilot, alleged to have been killed on 24 January 1945 in the launch of an A9/A10 ICBM targeting New York. An Internet legend spawned in the 'Nazis-On-The-Moon-Milieu' in the 1990's.
Schubert - German rocket guidance engineer; later worked in France at LRBA as head of the automated control loop department 1946-1952.
Schuesseln - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Schuetz - German professor. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Measurement technician; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. Born: 1900.
Schuler - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1915-05-16. Died: 1998-07-10.
Schulz - German staff officer and commander of V-2 units.
Schulze - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1905-11-23. Died: 2001-11-04.
Schumann - German expert in biological warfare during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Schuminszky - Hungarian historian. Space archivist; since 1964 collected over 10,000 photos and slides related to spaceflight and space research.
Schuran - German engineer in WW2. Worked at LRBA from 1947 to 1958 as leader of the ground support equipment group. Returned to Germany thereafter.
Schwab - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Schwaebisch-Gmuend - US base in the 1980's for 36 Pershing 2 IRBM's. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.
Schwarz, Friedrich - German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Died at Phoenix, Arizona. Born: 1909-01-08. Died: 1961-11-24.
Schwarz, Robert - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Born: 1896.
Schwarz, Willi - German test engineer in WW2, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Deputy to the Test Bench Chief; Laboratory Department. Born: 1910-11-19. Died: 1962-09-01.
Schweickart - American pilot astronaut 1963-1979. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1979. Born: 1935-10-25. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 10.04 days.
Schwidetzky - Born in Bromberg; German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. By 1953 working for Convair in San Diego, where he received a patent for a mechanical resonance detection system. Born: 1910-10-28. Died: 1996-12-17.
Schwielow Lake - First Launch: 1933-08-03. Last Launch: 1933-09-18. Number: 5 .
SCI - Attached to Hayabusa-2
Science - Category of spacecraft.
Science and Applications Manned Space Platform - American manned space station. Study 1980. While NASA/Johnson was studying the Space Operations Center concept, the Marshall Space Flight Center was lobbying for its own station -- the Science and Applications Manned Space Platform (SAMSP). Status: Study 1980.
Science and Technology Satellite - Alternate designation for STSat technology satellite.
Science Applications International Corp. - Alternate name for SAIC.
Scientific and Industrial Research Organization - Iranian manufacturer of spacecraft. Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Iran.
Scientists - Alternate name for NASA Group 4 - 1965.
scintillation - A flash of light produced in a phosphor by an ionizing particle or photon.
SCISAT - Canadian earth atmosphere satellite. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-08-13. Last Launch: 2003-08-13. Number: 1 .
Scobee - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1986. Died in Challenger accident. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1986. Born: 1939-05-19. Died: 1986-01-28. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 6.99 days.
Score - American communications technology satellite. Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment; first communications satellite; transmitted taped messages for 13 days. Status: Operational 1958. First Launch: 1958-12-18. Last Launch: 1958-12-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 70 kg (154 lb).
Scorpius - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Family of sounding rockets and launch vehicles based on combining liquid oxygen/kerosene pressure-fed engine modules. Modest government funding and over a decade of development had still not resulted in a production contract as of 2006. Status: Development. Payload: 670 kg (1,470 lb).
Scott - American test pilot astronaut 1963-1977. Seventh person to walk on the moon. First to drive a lunar wheeled vehicle. Member of first crew to dock in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1977. Born: 1932-06-06. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 22.79 days.
Scott, Winston - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1992-1999. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-1999. Born: 1950-08-06. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 24.61 days.
Scout - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Solid-fuel, light payload, lower-cost launch vehicle developed by the Air Force and NASA in the late 1950's and used in a variety of configurations over thirty years. Launched from Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Wallops Island, and from Italy's equatorial San Marco platform off Kenya. Italy studied but did not develop subsequent upgraded versions. Status: Retired 1994.
Scout 2 - Alternate designation for Advanced Scout.
Scout A - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. All-solid low cost lightweight launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1965-12-22. Last Launch: 1970-08-27. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 17,850 kg (39,350 lb). Payload: 122 kg (268 lb). Thrust: 513.40 kN (115,417 lbf).
Scout A-1 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2C + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair 2 Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1973-10-30. Last Launch: 1973-10-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 17,500 kg (38,500 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
Scout B - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2B + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x FW4S Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1965-08-10. Last Launch: 1971-11-15. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 17,900 kg (39,400 lb). Payload: 143 kg (315 lb). Thrust: 513.40 kN (115,417 lbf).
Scout B 2A - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x FW4S Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Payload: 143 kg (315 lb). Thrust: 400.00 kN (89,920 lbf).
Scout B-1 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2C + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Star 20 Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1971-08-16. Last Launch: 1976-05-22. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 17,500 kg (38,500 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
Scout B-1 F - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2C + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x FW4S Gross mass: 17,500 kg (38,500 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
Scout D - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 20,670 kg (45,560 lb). Payload: 185 kg (407 lb). Thrust: 395.50 kN (88,912 lbf).
Scout D-1 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Star 20 Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1972-08-13. Last Launch: 1983-06-27. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 20,600 kg (45,400 lb). Payload: 183 kg (403 lb). Thrust: 464.00 kN (104,311 lbf).
Scout D-1 F - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x FW4S Gross mass: 20,600 kg (45,400 lb). Payload: 183 kg (403 lb). Thrust: 464.00 kN (104,311 lbf).
Scout E-1 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x FW4S + 1 x BE-3 Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1974-06-03. Last Launch: 1974-06-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 20,600 kg (45,400 lb). Payload: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 464.00 kN (104,311 lbf).
Scout F - Alternate designation for Scout F-1.
Scout F-1 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2B + 1 x Star 20 Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1975-05-07. Last Launch: 1975-12-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 20,680 kg (45,590 lb). Payload: 193 kg (425 lb). Thrust: 395.50 kN (88,912 lbf).
Scout G - Alternate designation for Scout G-1.
Scout G-1 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 3 + 1 x Star 20 Status: Retired 1994. First Launch: 1979-10-30. Last Launch: 1994-05-09. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 20,930 kg (46,140 lb). Payload: 210 kg (460 lb). Thrust: 395.50 kN (88,912 lbf).
Scout II TV - American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1992-03-18. Last Launch: 1992-03-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 590.00 kN (132,630 lbf).
Scout II TV-1 - Alternate name for Zefiro.
Scout X - American suborbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1960-04-18. Last Launch: 1960-04-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 16,700 kg (36,800 lb). Thrust: 556.00 kN (124,993 lbf).
Scout X-1 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1B + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1960-07-02. Last Launch: 1961-10-19. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 16,240 kg (35,800 lb). Payload: 59 kg (130 lb). Thrust: 427.10 kN (96,016 lbf).
Scout X-1A - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1B + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Altair + 1 x Cetus Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1962-03-01. Last Launch: 1962-03-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
Scout X-2 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1D + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1962-03-29. Last Launch: 1962-04-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 16,440 kg (36,240 lb). Payload: 76 kg (167 lb). Thrust: 427.10 kN (96,016 lbf).
Scout X-2 1C - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1C + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
Scout X-2B - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1D + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair 2 Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1963-09-27. Last Launch: 1963-09-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
Scout X-2M - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1D + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x MG-18 Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1962-05-24. Last Launch: 1963-04-26. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
Scout X-3 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1962-12-16. Last Launch: 1964-03-27. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 17,350 kg (38,250 lb). Payload: 87 kg (191 lb). Thrust: 513.40 kN (115,417 lbf).
Scout X-3A - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair + 1 x Cetus Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1962-08-31. Last Launch: 1963-07-20. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 380.00 kN (85,420 lbf).
Scout X-3C - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1964-10-09. Last Launch: 1964-10-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 380.00 kN (85,420 lbf).
Scout X-3M - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x MG-18 Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1963-02-19. Last Launch: 1963-02-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 380.00 kN (85,420 lbf).
Scout X-3M-4 - Alternate name for MG-18.
Scout X-4 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair 2 Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1963-06-28. Last Launch: 1965-12-06. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 17,250 kg (38,020 lb). Payload: 103 kg (227 lb). Thrust: 513.40 kN (115,417 lbf).
Scout X-4A - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair 2 + 1 x Cetus Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1964-08-18. Last Launch: 1966-02-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 17,500 kg (38,500 lb). Thrust: 380.00 kN (85,420 lbf).
Scout X-5 - Alternate designation for Scout X-5C.
Scout X-5C - American suborbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2B + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1968-04-27. Last Launch: 1968-04-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 17,500 kg (38,500 lb). Thrust: 380.00 kN (85,420 lbf).
Scrag - Alternate designation for 8K713.
Scrag - Alternate designation for 8K513.
Scrag - Alternate designation for 11A513.
Scrag - Alternate designation for GR-1.
Scramjet - Alternate designation for Scramjet (abbreviation).
Scramjet - Scram. Development ended 1992. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is average during ascent. Propellant Slush LH2. Status: Development ended 1992. Thrust: 1,372.90 kN (308,640 lbf). Propellants: Air/Slush LH2.
Scramjet (abbreviation) - Acronym for Supersonic combustion ramjet engine
SCREEM - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. SCREEM, USA.
Scrooge - Alternate designation for RT-20P.
Scrooge - Alternate designation for RT-20.
SCS - Abbreviation for Stabilization and control system
SCT - Abbreviation for Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope
SCU - Santa Clara University, USA
Scud - NEW Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-02-07. Last Launch: 2013-02-22. Number: 36 .
Scud A - Alternate designation for R-11.
Scud B - Alternate designation for R-11M.
Scud B - Alternate designation for Hwasong 5.
Scud B - NEW Status: Retired 2005. First Launch: 2001-07-01. Last Launch: 2005-05-27. Number: 4 .
Scud B - Alternate designation for R-17.
Scud Batteries - Mobile Iraqi Scud batteries were used to strike targets in Israel and Saudi Arabia. First Launch: 1997-10-24. Last Launch: 2001-09-24. Number: 37 .
Scud C - Alternate designation for Hwasong 6.
Scud D - Alternate designation for Hwasong 7.
Scud D - NEW Status: Active. First Launch: 2000-09-01. Last Launch: 2013-06-20. Number: 7 .
Scully-Power - Australian-American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut 1984. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1984. Born: 1944-05-28. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 8.22 days.
Scunner - Alternate designation for R-1.
SDC - Abbreviation for US Army Strategic Defense Command
SDI - Alternate designation for SDI (abbreviation).
SDI - American military strategic defense satellite. SDIO sensor tests. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-09-05. Last Launch: 1989-03-24. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
SDI (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Strategic Defense Initiative
SDIO - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (renamed the BMDO), USA.
SDIO - Precursor organization to BMDO.
SDO - NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory mission was to observe the Sun for a five year period from an inclined geosynchronous orbit. From there the satellite could constantly download data to the White Sands ground station, while minimizing the time spent in Earth's shadow. The satellite's three instruments measured the extreme ultraviolet radiation output, returning up to 150 million bits of data per second. Launched 2010.02.11, Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-02-11. Last Launch: 2010-02-11. Number: 1 .
SDS - American military communications satellite. SDS satellites, put into Molniya-type orbits, provided data relay services for optical reconnaissance and other military spacecraft. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-08-28. Last Launch: 1985-02-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
SDS - Series of classified satellites, believed to provide a data-relay function using the SDS-2 bus.
SDS-2 - American military communications satellite. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-05-12. Last Launch: 1996-05-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
SDS-3 - American military communications satellite, provided data relay services for optical reconnaissance and other military spacecraft. Operational, first launch 2000.12.06. Status: Operational 2000. Gross mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb).
SDSC - Alternate name for Sriharikota.
SDS-C - Manufacturer's designation for CAPRICORN military communications satellite.
SE - Solar Explorer satellite
SE.4100 - Alternate designation for SEPR 2.
SE.4100 - French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Hs.117. Status: Cancelled 1950.
SE.4300 - French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Rheintochter. Status: Cancelled 1950. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
SE.4350 - French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Enzian. Status: Cancelled 1950.
SE.4400 - Alternate designation for SE4400.
SE-1 - Manufacturer's designation of SE-1, 1-1, -2, and -4 Series N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
SE-1, 1-1, -2, and -4 Series - Rocketdyne N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. SE-1, 1-1, -2, and -4 Series. Spacecraft Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Multiple thrust levels. First flight 1959. Date: 1958. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
SE-10 - Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Lunar Module Descent. Pressure-fed. Thrust throttleable 1050-10,500 lbs vac. First flight 1968. Date: 1963. Thrust: 46.67 kN (10,492 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
SE4400 - French surface-to-air missile. SNCASE missile design using a Stromboli booster and two ramjet sustainers. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1954-04-09. Last Launch: 1961-03-10. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
SE4400-1 - Alternate name for SEPR-732.
SE-5-2 - Manufacturer's designation of SE-5-2/-3 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
SE-5-2/-3 - Rocketdyne N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. SE-5-2/-3. Agena Auxiliary. Pressure-fed. SE-5-2 four engines in satellite system. SE-5-3 two engines for Agena auxiliary propulsion. First flight 1963. Date: 1962. Thrust: 205 N (46 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
SE-6 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Gemini Re-entry Control System. Pressure-fed. First flight 1964. Date: 1963. Thrust: 107 N (24 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
SE-7-1 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. S-IVB Stage APS Ullage Control Engine (propellant settling). Pressure-fed. First flight 1966. Date: 1965. Thrust: 313 N (70 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
SE-7-100 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Gemini Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (100 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. First flight 1964. Date: 1963. Thrust: 441 N (99 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
SE-7-25 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Gemini Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (25 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. First flight 1964. Date: 1963. Thrust: 107 N (24 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
SE-7-85 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Gemini Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (85 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. First flight 1964. Date: 1963. Thrust: 372 N (83 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
SE-8 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Apollo Command Module Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. First flight 1966. Date: 1964. Thrust: 411 N (92 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
SE-9-3 - Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Titan III Transtage. Pressure-fed. System included two modules of three engines plus two additional SE-9-5 separate engines, tanks, and a pressurization system. First flight 1964. Date: 1964. Thrust: 107 N (24 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
SE-9-5 - Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Titan III Transtage. Pressure-fed. System included two modules of three engines plus two additional SE-9-5 separate engines, tanks, and a pressurization system. First flight 1964. Date: 1964. Thrust: 196 N (44 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Sea Bee - Alternate designation for Seabee.
Sea Dragon - American sea-launched heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Sea Dragon was an immense, sea-launched, two-stage launch vehicle designed by Robert Truax for Aerojet in 1962. It was to be capable of putting 1.2 million pounds (550 metric tons) into low Earth orbit. The concept was to achieve minimum launch costs through lower development and production costs. This meant accepting a larger booster with a lower performance propulsion system and higher stage dead weight then traditional NASA and USAF designs. Status: Design 1962. Gross mass: 18,000,000 kg (39,000,000 lb). Payload: 450,000 kg (990,000 lb). Thrust: 350,000.00 kN (78,680,000 lbf).
Sea Dragon-1 - Alternate designation for Sea Dragon-1 engine.
Sea Dragon-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Truax pressure fed design. Sea level thrust shown. Thrust, chamber pressure varies during ascent. Vacuum thrust at cut-off 40 million kgf. Total mass, specific impulse estimated from booster performance figures. Status: Study. Gross mass: 11,600,000 kg (25,500,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,300,000 kg (2,800,000 lb). Thrust: 356,900.00 kN (80,234,300 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Sea Dragon-1 engine - Aerojet LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design, 1962. Truax pressure fed design. Thrust, chamber pressure varied during ascent. Status: Design, 1962. Thrust: 356,900.00 kN (80,234,300 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Sea Dragon-2 - Alternate designation for Sea Dragon-2 engine.
Sea Dragon-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Length with extendible nozzle deployed 87 m. Diameter of extended nozzle 30 m. Total mass, specific impulse estimated from booster performance figures. Status: Study. Gross mass: 5,900,000 kg (13,000,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 530,000 kg (1,160,000 lb). Thrust: 62,270.00 kN (13,998,850 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Sea Dragon-2 engine - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design, 1962. Truax pressure fed design. Diameter of extended nozzle 30 m. Specific impulse estimated from booster performance figures. Status: Design, 1962. Thrust: 62,270.00 kN (13,998,850 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Sea Horse - Alternate designation for Sea Horse-1.
Sea Horse - American sea-launched test vehicle. The second phase of Sea Launch was to demonstrate the concept on a larger scale, with a rocket with a complex set of guidance and control systems. Sea Horse used one of 39 surplus Corporal missiles that Truax obtained from the Army and successfully demonstrated ignition in the ocean of a rocket stage. Status: Retired 1962. Gross mass: 55,000 kg (121,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 662.30 kN (148,891 lbf).
Sea Horse-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Test 1962. Gross mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 755.00 kN (169,730 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Sea Horse-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Test 1962. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 147.00 kN (33,046 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Sea Lance - Alternate designation for XMGM-52B.
Sea Launch - Alternate name for Kiritimati launch site.
Sea Launch Area - Category of launch sites.
Sea Slug Mk. 1 - British surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
Sea Slug Mk. 2 - British surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
Sea Star - American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. Sea-launched microsatellite orbital launch vehicle for payloads up to 13 kilograms and a test bed for the planned larger Neptune orbital launch vehicle. Status: Design 2005. Payload: 13 kg (28 lb).
Seabee - American sea-launched test vehicle. Seabee was a brief proof of principle program to validate the sea-launch concept for Sea Dragon. A surplus Aerobee rocket was modified so that it could be fired underwater. The rocket worked properly the first time in restrained mode. Later tests were made with various approaches to readying the unit for repeat firings. This proved to be so simple that the cost of turn-around was found to be about 7% of the cost of a new unit. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1961-10-25. Last Launch: 1961-11-02. Number: 2 .
Seaborg - American physicist, chair of the Atomic Energy Commission 1961-1971. Born: 1912-04-19. Died: 1999-02-25.
Seagull - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. No further data. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1963-12-20. Last Launch: 1963-12-20. Number: 1 .
Seagull-1 - Solid rocket stage. Status: Retired 1963. Propellants: Solid.
Seal Beach - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Seal Beach, USA.
SEALAR - American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. SEALAR (SEA LAunched Rocket) was yet another attempt by Truax Engineering to get the amphibious-launch concept off the ground. The project received some Navy Research Laboratory funding in the early 1990's, with a planned first launch date of 1996. A production model would have been able to achieve orbit at an estimated cost of $ 10 million per launch. As with the earlier Truax projects, it did not achieve flight test status. Status: Cancelled 1996.
SeaLaunch - American agency. SeaLaunch, USA.
Sea-Launched - Category of launch vehicles.
Seamans - American engineer. Key leadership positions at NASA 1960-1968 during the Apollo program. Born: 1918-10-30. Died: 2008-07-05.
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Searfoss - American test pilot astronaut 1990-1998. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1998. Born: 1956-06-05. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 39.14 days.
Seasat - American earth resources radar satellite. Seasat was the first satellite designed for remote sensing of the Earth's oceans with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-06-27. Last Launch: 1978-06-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb).
Seaslug - British ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile series. Status: Retired.
Seastar - Satellite air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ. Used the Orbview-2 bus.
SeaStar; SeaWiFS - Alternate designation for Orbview-2 civilian surveillance satellite.
SeaWiFS - Alternate name for Orbview-2.
SEB - Abbreviation for Source Evaluation Board
Seba Oasis - Alternate name for Tawiwa launch site.
sec - second(s)
Sechkin - Russian officer. Major General, Chief Commander of the Mozhaiskiy School, 1984-1991. Born: 1936.
Second Axial Carrier - Second Axial Carrier, specially designed shuttle pallet that flew on Hubble space telescope servicing flights. It carried cameras, instruments, and spare materials used in servicing Hubble. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-12-02. Last Launch: 1997-02-11. Number: 2 .
SECOR - American earth geodetic satellite. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-01-24. Last Launch: 1969-04-14. Number: 13 .
SECS - Alternate designation for GLOMR military store-dump communications satellite.
SECS/OTS - British military communications satellite. Study 1990. United Kingdom military communications satellite; 1 deg W. Owner/operator: UK Ministry of Defense. Expected operational life 10 years. Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 1,463 kg (3,225 lb).
SECT - Service d'Equipement de Champs de Tir
Seddon - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1978-1998. Physician. Was married to astronaut Robert Lee (Hoot) Gibson. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1998. Born: 1947-11-08. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 30.10 days.
Sedov - Russian scientist. Chaired the Commission for Promotion of Interplanetary Flights. Public spokesman for the Soviet space program. Born: 1907-11-14. Died: 1999-09-05.
SEDR - Spacecraft Engineering Design (Development) Report
SEDS - Students for the Exploration and Development of Space, USA. Built tether technology satellite. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-03-30. Last Launch: 1994-03-10. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 25 kg (55 lb).
SEDSAT - American technology satellite. The SEDSAT micro-satellite was built by the Huntsville, Alabama chapter of SEDS (the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space). Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-10-24. Last Launch: 1998-10-24. Number: 1 .
See - American test pilot astronaut, 1962-1966. Died in crash of his T-38 trainer into the McDonnell Aircraft plant. Status: Deceased; Active 1962-1966. Born: 1927-07-23. Died: 1966-02-28.
See list - Alternate designation for Cubesat.
SEEDS - Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2008.04.28. Nihon University at Tokyo nanosat. Status: Operational 2008.
Seeler - German expert in aero medicine during World War II. Worked at aeromedicine institute in Heidelberg after the war.
Sefchek - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Status: Deceased; Active 1979-1985. Born: 1946-07-07. Died: 1997-07-23.
Sega - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1990-1996. Was married to astronaut Bonnie Dunbar. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1996. Born: 1952-12-04. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 17.52 days.
Sego - Alternate designation for UR-100U.
Sego - Alternate designation for UR-100M.
Sego - Alternate designation for UR-100.
Sego - Alternate designation for UR-100K.
SEI - Abbreviation for Space Exploration Initiative
Seidel - German rocket engineer at BMW document center during World War II. Later worked in France in the engine group at LRBA from 1947 until retiring in 1977. Remained in France, living in Vernon.
Seijil - Iranian two-stage solid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile, with a range of 2,000 km.
Sejjil - Status: Retired 2008. First Launch: 2008-11-12. Last Launch: 2008-11-12. Number: 1 .
Sejjil-2 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2009-05-20. Last Launch: 2011-02-01. Number: 5 .
Selene - Selene was dubbed Kaguya, a Japanese moon goddess, after launch.
Self-Deploying Space Station - American manned space station. Study 1963. The first space station designs using the Saturn V launch vehicle involved spinning stations, providing artificial G for the crew. Status: Study 1963.
Seliger - German engineer, assistant to Saenger, most successful developer of rocketry in postwar. His firm designed a modular series of sounding rockets in 1961-1964. One, two, and three stage versions were built, reaching 52, 80, and 120 km altitude. Work was ended by government decision to restrict missile development to established military contractors. Status: Retired 1963. Born: 1928.
Seliger 1 - Alternate designation for Seliger 1 engine.
Seliger 1 - German sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1962-11-19. Last Launch: 1963-12-05. Number: 6 .
Seliger 1 engine - Seliger solid rocket engine. Seliger 3 first stage. Status: Retired 1963. Number: 1 . Thrust: 49.00 kN (11,015 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Seliger 2 - German sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1963-02-07. Last Launch: 1963-02-07. Number: 2 .
Seliger 3 - Alternate designation for Seliger 3 engine.
Seliger 3 - German sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1963-05-02. Last Launch: 1963-05-02. Number: 1 . Thrust: 50.00 kN (11,240 lbf).
Seliger 3 engine - Seliger solid rocket engine. Seliger 3 third stage. Status: Retired 1963. Number: 1 . Propellants: Solid.
Seliger 3-1 - Alternate name for Seliger 1 engine.
Seliger 3-3 - Alternate name for Seliger 3 engine.
Sellers - British-American ecologist mission specialist astronaut 1996-2011. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2011. Born: 1955-04-11. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 35.38 days.
Sembach AB - Matador and MGM-13A Mace operating base, 1955 to 1966.
Semenov - Russian officer. Commander of GURVO 1954-1964. Born: 1908-11-12. Died: 1973-04-16.
Semenov, Yuri - Russian engineer. General Designer of RKK Energia 1989 to 2005 Born: 1935-04-20.
Semnan - Launch site for Iran's Safir space launch vehicle. First Launch: 2000-09-21. Last Launch: 2013-12-14. Number: 19 .
Semyorka - Alternate designation for Sputnik 8K71PS.
Semyorka - Alternate designation for R-7A.
Sendai -
Sendler - Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1914-08-19. Died: 2001-05-02.
Senior - Alternate designation for Algol 1 rocket stage.
Senior Aerospace BWT - Alternate name for Woodhouse and Taylor.
Senior Prom - American intermediate range stealth cruise missile. US Air Force program with test flights in 1978-1981. Status: Cancelled 1986.
Senkevich - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1966. Born: 1937-03-04. Died: 2003-09-25.
SENSE - 3U Cubesat ionospheric monitoring satellite for the USAF Space and Missile Center.
Sentinel - European visible/infrared band earth observing satellite. The visible camera had a 10 metre resolution and a 290 km swath. Sun synchronous orbit; 1030 GMT local time of the descending node. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-06-23. Last Launch: 2015-06-23. Number: 1 .
Sentry - American anti-ballistic missile. ABM, BTDS missile Status: Study.
SEO - Launched from a cosmodrome in the USSR. Experimental satellite for conducting earth resources survey over India. Used the Bhaskara bus.
SEP - First name of SEPR.
Sep - Abbreviation for Separation
SEP 401 - Aerospatiale solid rocket engine. MSBS M4 first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 22,500 kg (49,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 900.00 kN (202,320 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEP 402 - Aerospatiale solid rocket engine. MSBS M4 second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 8,800 kg (19,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 300.00 kN (67,440 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEP 403 - Aerospatiale solid rocket engine. MSBS M4 third stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 100.00 kN (22,480 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEP 901 - Sud/SEP solid rocket engine. MSBS M112 first stage. Status: Retired 1968. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEP 902 - Sud/SEP solid rocket engine. SSBS S3 first stage. Status: Retired 1993. Gross mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Thrust: 540.00 kN (121,390 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEP 903 - SEP solid rocket engine. SSBS S01 second stage. Status: Retired 1977. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEP 904 - Sud/SEP solid rocket engine. MSBS M2 first stage. Status: Retired 1980. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 450.00 kN (101,160 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEP Tug - American space tug. Study 1986. In 1986, Graeme Aston of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory proposed a lunar transportation system based on a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) space tug for ferrying moon base elements and cargo between Earth and lunar orbit. Status: Study 1986.
SEPC - Space Exploration Program Council
SEPR - French manufacturer of rocket engines. Société Européene de Propulsion, France.
SEPR 16 - SEPR rocket engine. AA.10 AAM. First flight 1950. Date: 1950-1951. Thrust: 200.00 kN (44,960 lbf).
SEPR 2 - SEPR rocket engine. SE 4100 SAM. Used turbopumps SEPR 3 and SEPR 4. First flight 1950. Date: 1950-1951. Thrust: 1,250.00 kN (281,010 lbf).
SEPR 200 - Manufacturer's designation of Tramontane Solid rocket engine.
SEPR 2020 - French post-war missile based on the German Rheinmetall Feuerlilie 109-510A. Status: Cancelled 1950.
SEPR 25 - SEPR rocket engine. Trident/Espadon fighter augmentation. Date: 1950's. Thrust: 4,500.00 kN (1,011,600 lbf).
SEPR 43 - SEPR rocket engine. R.04 SAM. First flight 1950. Date: 1950-1951. Thrust: 1,250.00 kN (281,010 lbf).
SEPR 685-4 - ONERA solid rocket engine. OPd-56-39-22D third stage. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Thrust: 33.00 kN (7,418 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEPR 734-1 - ONERA solid rocket engine. Vega Statoreacteur first stage. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Unfuelled mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Thrust: 200.00 kN (44,960 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEPR 737 - ONERA solid rocket engine. VE10A Aigle first stage. Status: Retired 1964. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Unfuelled mass: 246 kg (542 lb). Thrust: 75.00 kN (16,860 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEPR 739 - Manufacturer's designation of Stromboli Solid rocket engine.
SEPR 739-2 - ONERA solid rocket engine. Tibere second stage. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 455 kg (1,003 lb). Thrust: 170.00 kN (38,210 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEPR 740 - SEPR solid rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Berenice, Titus. First flight 1962. Berenice second stage. Status: Out of production. Date: 1962. Gross mass: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb). Unfuelled mass: 310 kg (680 lb). Thrust: 91.70 kN (20,615 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEPR 740-3 - ONERA solid rocket engine. Titus second stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 372 kg (820 lb). Thrust: 170.00 kN (38,210 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEPR P163 - Matra solid rocket engine. Emma first stage. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11 kg (24 lb). Thrust: 1.40 kN (315 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEPR P167 - SEP solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1972. Propellants: Solid.
SEPR P191 - Matra solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13 kg (28 lb). Thrust: 14.80 kN (3,327 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEPR-732 - Sud solid rocket engine. SE4400 first stage. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 200.00 kN (44,960 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SEPS - Hughes, TRW, NASA Cleveland electric/mercury rocket engine. 128 mN Solar Electric Propulsion Stage program, started in the early 1970s, a goal to provide a primary ion propulsion system operating at a fixed power for Earth orbital applications. Date: 1972-1980. Thrust: 0.13 N (0.03 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Mercury.
SEPST - JPL, Hughes, TRW electric/mercury rocket engine. The Solar Electric Propulsion System Technology program of 1960-1980 demonstrated a complete breadboard ion propulsion system that would be applicable to an interplanetary spacecraft. Date: 1968-1972. Thrust: 0.0880 N (0.0190 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Mercury.
Serb - Alternate designation for R-27K.
Serb - Alternate designation for R-27U.
Serb - Alternate designation for R-21A.
Serb - Alternate designation for R-21.
Serb - Alternate designation for R-27.
Serbin - Russian government official. Chief of Defense lndustries Department 1958-1981. Born: 1910. Died: 1981-02-16.
SEREB - French manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. SEREB, France.
Serebrov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1995. Ten spacewalks. 372 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1995. Born: 1944-02-15. Died: 2013-11-12. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 372.95 days.
Sergeant - Alternate designation for Sergeant Sounding Rocket.
Sergeant - Alternate designation for Castor engine.
Sergeant - American single-stage solid-propulsion tactical ballistic missile developed for the US Army in 1956-1962. Surplus rockets and the Sergeant's rocket motor (known commercially as Castor) became the basis for many sounding rockets, test vehicles, stages for orbital launch vehicles, and lateral boosters for the Delta space launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1994. First Launch: 1956-01-19. Last Launch: 1994-08-18. Number: 148 . Gross mass: 4,530 kg (9,980 lb). Payload: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Thrust: 200.00 kN (44,960 lbf).
Sergeant 5-stage - American test vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Lance + 1 x Lance + 1 x Recruit + 1 x T-55 Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1958-06-27. Last Launch: 1960-03-24. Number: 4 . Thrust: 230.00 kN (51,700 lbf).
Sergeant Hydac - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Hydac Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1974-12-18. Last Launch: 1981-03-12. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 4,800 kg (10,500 lb).
Sergeant Sounding Rocket - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 220.00 kN (49,450 lbf).
Sergei Korolov House, Moscow - Poem: in the garden of the spacecraft designer, nightingales fly to his trees....
Sergeyev - Russian officer. From 1966 General Director and Chief Designer for OKB-692 GKRE (later NPO Elktropribot, Kharkov). Designer of control systems for missiles and space launchers. Born: 1914.
Serov - Russian government official. First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs. Chaired KGB 1954-1958. Born: 1905-09-29. Died: 1990-07-01.
Serov, Mark - Russian engineer cosmonaut 2003-2011. An engineer at RKK Energia since 1998. Status: Inactive; Active 2003-2011. Born: 1974-05-23.
Serova - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2006-on.Wife of Mark Serov (2003 selection group) Graduate of MAI. Worked in TsUP Flight Control Center. Status: Active 2006-on. Born: 1976-04-22.
SERPENS - SERPENS 3U CubeSat from the University of Brasilia; ejected from the J-SSOD deployer on the Kibo robot arm on 17 September.
Serrezuela - Poligono de Salinas Grandes, Serrezuela, Cordoba First Launch: 2009-12-17. Last Launch: 2009-12-17. Number: 1 .
SERT - American ion engine technology satellite. Electric ion engine tests. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-02-04. Last Launch: 1970-02-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,404 kg (3,095 lb).
Sert II - NASA Cleveland electric/mercury rocket engine. Flown in 1970. The thruster for the Sert-II test consisted of two electron bombardment engines using mercury propellant. Status: Flown in 1970.. Date: 1970. Thrust: 0.0280 N (0.0060 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Mercury.
Sert-I Cesium - Hughes electric/cesium rocket engine. In Development, 1962-1964. 8 cm diameter cesium contact ion engine was designed to operate at 0.6 kW. Status: In Development, 1962-1964.. Date: 1964. Thrust: 0.0000 N (0.0000 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Cesium.
Sert-I engine series -
Sert-I Mercury - NASA Cleveland electric/mercury rocket engine. Developed 1962-1964. 10 cm diameter mercury electron bombardment ion engine used on the first successful flight test of ion propulsion on a Scout X-4 launch vehicle. Status: In Development, 1962-1964.. Date: 1964. Thrust: 0.0280 N (0.0060 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Mercury.
SERV - American VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler ballistic single stage to orbit alternate shuttle proposal of June 1971. This was the most detailed design study ever performed on a VTOVL SSTO launch vehicle. The 2,040 metric ton SERV was designed to deliver a 53 metric ton payload to orbit in a capacious 7 m x 18 m payload bay. Status: Study 1971. Gross mass: 2,040,816 kg (4,499,229 lb). Payload: 52,800 kg (116,400 lb). Thrust: 25,795.30 kN (5,799,014 lbf).
Service Module - Alternate name for Kvant FGB.
Service Module - Alternate name for CEV SM.
Service Module - Alternate name for MRC SM.
Service Module - Alternate name for Apollo SM.
Service Module - Alternate name for Gemini LORV SM.
SERVIS - Japanese technology satellite. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-10-30. Last Launch: 2010-06-02. Number: 2 .
SES - Société Européene des Satellites, Luxembourg; company overseeing development and operation of communications satellites.
SES - Second name of SES Americom.
SES Americom - American agency. Americom, USA.
Sesat - Sesat (Siberia-Europe Satellite) used an MSS-2500-GSO Ekspress satellite bus built by NPO PM of Krasnoyarsk, with an Alcatel Espace France payload of 18 Ku-band transponders. The satellite had 8 Fakel SPD-100 plasma thrusters for stationkeeping.
SESP - American military technology satellite. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-06-08. Last Launch: 1976-07-08. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 260 kg (570 lb).
SEST - Abbreviation for Swedish ESO Submillimeter Telescope
SETI - Abbreviation for Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence
SEV - Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Used SECOR bus.
SEV - Satellite time synchronization system (Russian abbreviation)
SEVA - Surface extravehicular activity (lunar exploration); also standup extravehicular activity
Sevastyanov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1967-1993. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1993. Born: 1935-07-08. Died: 2010-04-05. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 80.68 days.
Sevastyanov, Nikolai - Russian engineer. General Designer of RKK Energia 2005 to 2007 Born: 1944.
Sever - Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Sever was the original OKB-1 design for a manned spacecraft to replace the Vostok. It was designed to tackle such problems as maneuvering in orbit, rendezvous and docking, and testing of lifting re-entry vehicles. Status: Study 1959.
Severin - Russian engineer. Chief Designer and General Designer from 1961 of OKB Zvezda. Specialized in spacesuits and EVA airlocks. Born: February 2008. Died: 2008-02-07.
Severin, Vladimir - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1990-1995. Son of design bureau chief Gay Ilich Severin. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1995. Born: 1956-11-20.
Sevruk - Russian manufacturer of rocket engines.
Sfera - Russian earth geodetic satellite. The Sfera geodetic system covered a broad development for solving problems in geodetics, continental drift, and precise location of cartographic points. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-02-20. Last Launch: 1978-12-26. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
SFOF - Abbreviation for Space Flight Operations Facility
SFSS - Spartan Flight Support Structure was an MPESS class cross-bay truss structure on which Spartan 204 was mounted. Status: Operational 204.
SFU - Japanese materials science satellite. Carried materials, astronomy, biological experiments; released and later retrieved by space shuttle. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-03-18. Last Launch: 1995-03-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
SGKRN - Abbreviation or acronym for System of Global Space Radio Observation
SGLS - Classified payload; not identified as a subsatellite ferret SSF by McDowell.
SH-11 - Alternate designation for 51T6.
SH-8 - Alternate designation for 53T6.
Shaba North - Alternate name for Kapani Tonneo launch site.
Shabalin - Russian officer. Lieutenant General, from 1970 Chief Designer and Director of MNII for Automatic Equipment. From 1954 to 1958 senior scientific specialist in NII-5 GAU. Developed systems for KIK space tracking and control network. Born: 1920.
Shabarov - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer at Korolev design bureau. Led the flight testing of piloted spacecraft. Born: 1922.
Shaddock-B - Alternate designation for P-6.
Shadow 1 - Status: Retired 2007. First Launch: 2003-08-08. Last Launch: 2007-12-05. Number: 4 .
Shadrinsk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1962. Base for units deployed with R-16 launchers.
Shahab 1 - Alternate designation for Hwasong 5.
Shahab 1 - Initial version of the Iranian Shahab ballistic missile, based on the R-17 Scud, via a North Korean derivative. Believed to have been tested in 1988. Status: Active. First Launch: 1985-03-01. Last Launch: 2013-12-14. Number: 25 .
Shahab 2 - Major production version of the Iranian Shahab ballistic missile, based on the R-17 Scud, via a North Korean derivative, in service from 1990. Status: Active. First Launch: 1991-05-01. Last Launch: 2012-07-03. Number: 5 .
Shahab 2 - Alternate designation for Hwasong 6.
Shahab 3 - Alternate designation for Shahab 3 stage.
Shahab 3 - Iranian intermediate range ballistic missile, evolved incrementally with Russian assistance from initial copy of North Korean Nodong 1 into a longer-range missile and the first stage of an orbital launch vehicle. Initial version began flight tests in 1998. Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-07-22. Last Launch: 2012-07-03. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 14,500 kg (31,900 lb). Payload: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Thrust: 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf).
Shahab 3 stage - Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf) thrust. Mass 15,100 kg (33,290 lb). Status: Active. Gross mass: 15,100 kg (33,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Shahab 4 - Iranian missile said to be derived from Soviet-era R-12 intermediate range ballistic missile and having a 1400 kg payload. Was to have been the basis for an Iranian space launcher, then abandoned in 2003 in favor of development of the Shahab 3 for the role. Gross mass: 26,900 kg (59,300 lb). Payload: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
Shahab 6 - Alternate designation for Safir.
Shaheen - Pakistani ballistic missile family, starting with license-assembled Chinese DF-15's and progressing to indigenous models.
Shaheen - Alternate designation for DF-11.
Shaheen 1 - Pakistani mobile single-stage solid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile, a license-assembled Chinese DF-15. First flown in 1999. Entered service 2003. Project managed by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-01-15. Last Launch: 2013-04-10. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb). Payload: 950 kg (2,090 lb).
Shaheen 1A - Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-04-25. Last Launch: 2014-11-17. Number: 2 .
Shaheen 2 - Pakistani mobile two-stage solid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile developed by Pakistan, derived from Chinese technology. First flight March 9, 2004. Range extended from 2,500 km to 3,500 km during development. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-03-09. Last Launch: 2014-11-13. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Shaheen 2-2 - Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. Status: Active. Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Shaheen 3 - Pakistani indigenous long-range missile, designed by Pakistani scientists using Chinese technology. Development cancelled in 2000. Status: Active. First Launch: 2015-03-09. Last Launch: 2015-03-09. Number: 1 .
Shaheen-2 - Sanjiang Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Shahid Hemmat IG - Iranian manufacturer. Shahid Hemmat IG, Iran.
Shahroud - Alternate name for Damghan.
Shahroud - Missile launch site. First Launch: 1998-07-22. Last Launch: 2013-01-28. Number: 32 .
Shakhurin - Russian government official. People's Commissar for Aviation Industries 1940-1946. Born: 1904-02-25. Died: 1975-07-03.
Shane - American test pilot, headed Flight Operations at Scaled Composites from 1989.
Shanghai - Chinese manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Shanghai Institute of Electro-mechanical Design, Shanghai, China.
Shanghai Acad Space Tech - Alternate name for SAST.
Shanghai Astronautics Bureau - Chinese manufacturer. Shanghai Astronautics Bureau, Shanghai, China.
Shanghai Inst of Microsystem and Information Technology - Alternate name for SIMIT.
Shanghai Inst of Satellite Engineering - Alternate name for SISE.
Shanghai Institute of Satellite Engineering - Shanghai Institute of Satellite Engineering.
Shanghai No. 2 Bureau of Mechanic-Electrical Indus - Chinese manufacturer. Shanghai No. 2 Bureau of Mechanic-Electrical Industry, Shanghai, China
Shanghai-ARTI - Shanghai Aerospace Research Technical Institute, China
Shangkeda - Part of the Tianwang constellation of three Cubesats for space networking experiments. Co-developed by the Shanghai Engineering Center for Microsatellites (SECM), the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NJUST), GomSpace Denmark, Tekever Space Portugal.
Shanxi - Chinese manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Shanxi Institute of Power Machinery, China.
Shao Zhijian - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Joined PLA in 1958. He was a PLAAF regiment commander when selected. Selected as Chinese astronaut in March 1971. Status: Inactive. Born: 1940.
SHAPE - Acronym for Supersonic High Altitude Parachute Experiment
Shapley - American manager, served at NASA 1965-1975 and 1987-1988. Born: 1917-03-02. Died: 2005-10-24.
SHAR - Alternate name for Sriharikota.
Sharafutdinov - Tatar-Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1968. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Withdrawn from cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Retired from active military duty in 1985. Later taught at a Higher School. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1968. Born: 1939-06-26.
Shargin - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1996-2008. Russian Strategic Rocket Force Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2008. Born: 1960-03-20. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.90 days.
Sharik - Russian nickname (sphere) for Voskhod SA manned spacecraft module.
Sharipov - Tatar-Russian pilot cosmonaut 1990-2008. First Uzbek astronaut. SU Air Force. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2008. Born: 1964-08-24. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 201.62 days.
Sharma - Indian pilot cosmonaut 1982-1984. First Indian astronaut. Indian Air Force Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1984. Born: 1949-01-13. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.90 days.
Sharman - British engineer cosmonaut 1989-1998. Chemist. First British astronaut. First non-American, non-Soviet female astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1998. Born: 1963-05-30. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.88 days.
Sharov - Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. Status: Deceased; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1953-12-26. Died: 2014-11-26.
SHARP - American gun-launched test vehicle. The SHARP (Super High Altitude Research Project) light gas gun was developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in California. The L-shaped gun consisted of the 82 m long, 36 cm caliber pump tube and the 47 m long, 10 cm caliber gun barrel. SHARP began operation in December 1992 and demonstrated velocities of 3 km/sec with 5 kg projectiles. However the $ 1 billion funding to elevate the tube and begin space launch tests of smaller projectiles at speeds of up to 7 km/sec was not forthcoming. By 1996 the gun was relegated to occasional test of sub-scale Mach 9 scramjet models. Status: Cancelled 1995. Payload: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Shatalov - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1963-1971. Made first Soviet space docking. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1971. Born: 1927-12-08. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 9.91 days.
Shavit - Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3. NEXT was a variant with an improved upper stage for proposed launch from Wallops Island, USA (launch from Israel is only possible into retrograde orbits since due East launch would be over territory of adjacent countries).
Shavit - Alternate designation for Shaviyt.
Shavit 1 - Alternate designation for Shaviyt 1.
Shaviyt - Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3. Status: Active. First Launch: 1988-09-19. Last Launch: 1990-04-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 23,630 kg (52,090 lb). Payload: 160 kg (350 lb). Thrust: 412.70 kN (92,779 lbf).
Shaviyt 1 - Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Shavit 1 is an improved version of the original Shavit with a stretched first stage motor. Status: Active. First Launch: 1995-04-05. Last Launch: 2014-04-09. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Payload: 225 kg (496 lb). Thrust: 760.00 kN (170,850 lbf).
Shavyrin - Russian engineer. From 1942-1965 Manager and Chief Designer of the Kolomna Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau. Designer of artillery and rocket equipment. Born: 1902. Died: 1965-01-01.
Shaw - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1989. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1989. Born: 1945-05-16. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 22.24 days.
Shcheglov - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1972. Graduated from Yeisk Higher Military Pilot School, 1963 Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Withdrawn from cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Died of lung cancer. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1972. Born: 1940-04-09. Died: 1973-07-19.
Shcheulov - Russian officer, Deputy Chief Scientific Research Centre of the Ministry of Defense (1982-1983). From 1945, ascending positions in management of rocket development. Moved to space forces in 1961, worked with KIK space tracking network. Born: 1922.
Shchukin - Belarusian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1988. Status: Deceased; Active 1977-1988. Born: 1946-01-19. Died: 1988-08-18.
Shea - American engineer. Lead NASA manager responsible for development of the Apollo spacecraft Born: 1926-09-05. Died: 1999-02-14.
Sheffer - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1985-1996. Was married to cosmonaut Tamara Zakharova. Status: Deceased; Active 1985-1996. Born: 1947-06-30. Died: 2001-06-25.
Shehab 4 - Alternate designation for Shahab 4.
Sheksna-N - Alternate designation for R-16.
Sheksna-V - Alternate designation for UR-200.
Sheksna-V - Alternate designation for R-16U.
Sheksnva-V - Alternate designation for UR-200.
Sheldahl - Sheldahl.
Shelter Module - Alternate designation for Gemini LSSS SM manned spacecraft module.
Shemya - Alternate name for Eareckson.
Shen Qizhen - Chinese PLA Physician. Chairman of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, one of three senior scientists that laid out plans for the first Chinese manned spacecraft in April 1966. Born: 1906-02-02. Died: 1993-06-16.
Shenjian - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2F.
Shenjian - Alternate designation for CZ-2F.
Shenlong - Chinese spaceplane. Chinese spaceplane photographed under the belly of an H-6 medium bomber in 2007. Probably a subscale drop test model of a potential space combat system. Status: Operational 2007. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Shentong - Military communications satellite series operated by the Chinese Army to provide secure voice and data communications services for ground users using Ku-band.
Shenzhou - Chinese manned spacecraft. The Chinese Shenzhou manned spacecraft resembled the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, but was of larger size and all-new construction. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-11-19. Last Launch: 2013-06-11. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 7,840 kg (17,280 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,840 kg (15,070 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Shenzhou - Divine Military Vessel - As the first Chinese astronauts rocket into orbit, their main concern will be completion of an ambitious programme of military experiments.
Shenzhou 10 - Docked with Tiangong-1 spacelab on 13 June at 05:11 GMT. Undocked and performed a manual redocking on 23 June. Undocked on 25 June at 21:07 GMT and landed in Inner Mongolia on 26 June at 00:07 GMT. Launched: 2013-06-11. Returned: 2013-06-26. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 14.60 days.
Shenzhou 5 - First Chinese man in space. Highly conservative mission. Single astronaut stayed in the re-entry capsule for the entire 21-hour mission, and did not enter the orbital module. Launched: 2003-10-15. Returned: 2003-10-15. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.89 days.
Shenzhou 6 - China's second manned mission took two astronauts into space for nearly five days, and featured use by a crew of the Shenzhou orbital module for the first time. Launched: 2005-10-12. Returned: 2005-10-16. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 4.81 days.
Shenzhou 6 FAQ! - Quick facts on the Shenzhou 6 mission.
Shenzhou 7 - First Chinese EVA. First Chinese three-crew spaceflight. Third Chinese manned space mission. The Shenzhou was flown with the full complement of three crew and astronaut Zhai conducted China's first spacewalk. Launched: 2008-09-25. Returned: 2008-09-28. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 2.85 days.
Shenzhou 9 - First Chinese EVA. Fourth Chinese manned space mission. First Chinese space station mission. First Chinese woman in space. The Shenzhou was flown with the full complement of three crew and docked with the Tiangong space station. Launched: 2012-06-16. Returned: 2012-06-30. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 12.64 days.
Shenzhou Circumlunar - Chinese manned lunar flyby spacecraft. In January and February 2003 Chinese sources began discussing plans for a Chinese manned circumlunar mission by 2008. Nothing came of these plans. Status: Design 2003. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf).
Shenzhou OM - Chinese manned spacecraft module. The orbital module provided quarters for the crew during the space mission, and could be fitted out with different internal and external equipment according to mission requirements. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-10-15. Last Launch: 2003-10-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
Shenzhou RV - Chinese manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The re-entry vehicle was conceptually based on the Soyuz, but was not a copy. Status: Operational 1999. Gross mass: 3,240 kg (7,140 lb).
Shenzhou SM - Chinese manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The service module, developed by the Shanghai Academy of Space Technology, provides the electrical power, attitude, control and propulsion for the spacecraft in orbit. Status: Operational 1999. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Shenzhou: Countdown to the Launch of Shenzhou-5 - Log of events and links to information on China's first manned spaceflight
Shenzhou-5 - Quick Facts - Trivia and quick facts about the Shenzhou manned spacecraft
Shepard - American test pilot astronaut 1959-1974. First American in space. Grounded on medical grounds during Gemini, but reinstated, becoming fifth person to walk on the moon. Millionaire entrepreneur on the side. Status: Deceased; Active 1959-1974. Born: 1923-11-18. Died: 1998-07-21. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 9.01 days.
Shepherd - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1984-2002. Shepherd was an ex-Navy SEAL and an expert in underwater demolition. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-2002. Born: 1949-07-26. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 159.33 days.
Sheremetyevskiy - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1974-1991 of losifyan design bureau. Specialized in power sources and earth survey satellites. Born: 1916-11-05.
Shevardnadze - Georgian politician, reform leader in the Soviet Union, negotiated with the United States for international cooperation in space, including the building of a space station in the 1990s. Born: 1928-01-25. Died: 2014-07-07.
Shevchenko - Russian officer. Major General, Deputy Chief of GUKOS Space Forces for Political Units 1981-1984. Born: 1925.
Shi Jian - Alternate designation for the DFH-1.
Shi Jian 1 - Alternate designation for SJ communications technology satellite.
Shi Jian 6 - Alternate designation for SJ-6 military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Shiborin - Russian phantom cosmonaut. Oberth claimed in 1959 that a pilot was killed on a sub-orbital flight from Kapustin Yar in early 1958. Italian press linked Shiborin name to this flight. No other evidence. Died: 1958-02-01.
Shijiedu - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1960-09-01. Last Launch: 1966-07-28. Number: 7 .
Shinaw. - Shinawatra Satellite, Bangkok, Thailand
Shinawat - Thai agency. Shinawat, Thailand.
SHINDAISAT - Alternate name for Ginrei.
Shinen - Alternate name for Unitec.
Shin'en - Communications payload designed to demonstrate deep space communications with a small spacecraft from a 0.915 AU x 1.089 AU x 6.8 deg solar orbit. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-12-03. Last Launch: 2014-12-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 15 kg (33 lb).
ship-launched - Category of missiles.
Ship's Log 0000 01 JAN 2001 - Poem: We sail onboard space station "Alpha"...
Shiyan - Chinese civilian surveillance satellite. The first 'Experiment Satellite', with a mass of 204 kg, was China's first transmission-type small satellite capable of stereo mapping. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-04-18. Last Launch: 2011-11-20. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 204 kg (449 lb).
Shiyan Weixing - Chinese resources. One launch, 2004.11.18. Remote Sensing Technology. Status: Operational 2004. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
Shiyong Tongbu Tongxin Weixing - Alternate designation for DFH-2 military communications satellite.
Shizuku - Global Change Observation Mission. Primary instrument was the AMS-4 microwave scanning radiometer. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-05-17. Last Launch: 2012-05-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,991 kg (4,389 lb).
Shkaplerov - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2003-on. Status: Active 2003-on. Born: 1972-02-20.
Shlykov - Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Chief Commander of KIK for Satellites at Golintso-2 1976-1988. Born: 1922.
Shonin - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1979. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1979. Born: 1935-08-03. Died: 1997-04-07. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 4.95 days.
SHOOT - Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer Flight Demonstration, an experiment carried on the space shuttle STS-57 mission in June 1993. The experiment transferred a superfluid between two dewars in a low gravity environment at different flow rates. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-06-21. Last Launch: 1993-06-21. Number: 1 .
Short Al Hussein - Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1990-01-02. Last Launch: 1990-04-08. Number: 3 .
Short Brothers - British manufacturer. Short Brothers, UK.
short range ballistic - Category of missiles.
short range cruise - Category of missiles.
Shotput - American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1959-10-28. Last Launch: 1963-08-02. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 5,100 kg (11,200 lb). Thrust: 220.00 kN (49,450 lbf).
Shourya - Indian containerized solid-propellant tactical missile. Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-11-12. Last Launch: 2011-09-24. Number: 2 . Payload: 300 kg (660 lb).
Showa - Alternate name for Syowa Base.
Shrimp - Alternate designation for Midgetman.
Shriver - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1993. Grew up in Paton, Iowa. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1993. Born: 1944-09-23. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 16.09 days.
Shtil - Alternate designation for Shtil'.
Shtil - Alternate designation for R-29RM.
Shtil' - Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM. Status: Active. First Launch: 1983-06-01. Last Launch: 2014-05-08. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 40,300 kg (88,800 lb). Thrust: 682.00 kN (153,319 lbf).
Shtil satellite - The first satellite launch from a submarine. The Shtil-1 launch vehicle was a converted R-29RM (RSM-54) three stage liquid propellant submarine launched ballistic missile made by the Makeyev design bureau. The satellite payload is placed in the standard R-29RM reentry vehicle. The launch plaform was the K-407 Novomoskovsk, a 667BDRM Delfin class submarine of the Russian Northern Fleet's 3rd Flotilla. Launch was from the Barents Sea at 69.3 degrees N x 35.3 degrees E. The Shtil contained an Israeli instrument package.
Shtil'-1 - Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM. Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-07-07. Last Launch: 2006-05-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Payload: 430 kg (940 lb). Thrust: 809.00 kN (181,870 lbf).
Shtil-1/1N - Alternate designation for Shtil'-1.
Shtil'-1-3 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Shtil'-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Shtil-2/2N - Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM with a special shroud. Liftoff mass 40 metric tons. Stationary launch platform. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Payload: 350 kg (770 lb). Thrust: 809.00 kN (181,870 lbf).
Shtil-3A - Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Proposed four-stage air-launched orbital launch vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM. Ignition mass 46 metric tons. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 46,000 kg (101,000 lb). Payload: 950 kg (2,090 lb).
Shtil-3N - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Proposed orbital launch vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM with new third and additional fourth stages. Stationary launch. Liftoff mass 46 metric tons. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 46,000 kg (101,000 lb). Payload: 410 kg (900 lb).
Shu Guang Yi Hao - Manufacturer's designation for Shuguang 1 manned spacecraft.
Shuang-cheng-tzu - Alternate name for Jiuquan launch site.
Shubnikov - Russian officer. Chief of Construction Directorate of Baikonur 1955-1965. Born: 1903-05-01. Died: 1965-07-31.
Shuguang 1 - Chinese manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1972. Shuguang-1 (Dawn-1) was China's first manned spacecraft design. The two-man capsule would have been similar to the American Gemini capsule and been launched by the CZ-2 booster. Status: Cancelled 1972. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Shuguang Flight 1 - Development of China's first manned spacecraft, the two-crew Shuguang-1, began in 1966. By November 1971 19 astronauts were in training and first flight was expected in in 1966; 19 astronauts were selected in 1971; and first manned flight was expected by the end of 1973. However the project was starved of resources in the chaos of the Cultural Revolution and the managers of the astronaut training group were purged in the aftermath of the attempted overthrow of Mao Zedong by Lin Biao. The project was killed by Mao in 1972, citing priorities on earth. China would not orbit a man in space until thirty years later. Launched: End of 1973.
Shuguang Group - 1970 - Requirement: pilot astronauts for the Shuguang program. Date: 1970.
Shultz - American politician, Reagan's Secretary of State, 1981-1989. During his negotiated strategic arms reductions with the Soviet Union. Born: 1920-12-13.
Shurygin - Russian engineer. Director and General Designer of TsKB Titan, Volgograd. Designer of missile launchers.
Shuttle - Alternate designation for Space Shuttle.
Shuttle - The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years.
Shuttle (poem) - Poem: these are the laws of physics, immutable as those of Medes & Persians:...
Shuttle ASRM - Alternate designation for Shuttle ASRM engine.
Shuttle ASRM - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Shuttle using Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (development cancelled 1993). Status: Development ended 1993. Gross mass: 2,100,293 kg (4,630,353 lb). Thrust: 28,193.00 kN (6,338,038 lbf).
Shuttle ASRM engine - Hercules solid rocket engine. Planned replacement for shuttle solid rocket boosters after Challenger disaster. A billion dollars spent in development, but contract terminated. NASA decided to stay with Thiokol RSRM. Status: In development. Gross mass: 625,000 kg (1,377,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb). Thrust: 15,565.80 kN (3,499,331 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Shuttle Attached Payload - Alternate designation for GAS Bridge.
Shuttle Attached Payloads - A variety of reusable mounting and deployment structures and functional payloads were developed for carriage in the space shuttle payload bay over its life.
Shuttle C - Alternate designation for Shuttle C stage.
Shuttle C - American orbital launch vehicle. NASA Marshall design for a cargo version of the shuttle system. The shuttle orbiter would be replaced by an unmanned recoverable main engine pod. The same concept was studied earlier as the Interim Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (IHLLV) and as the Class I Shuttle Derived Vehicle (SDV). The Phase I two-SSME configuration would have a payload of 45,000 kg to low earth orbit. Design carried to an advanced phase in 1987-1990, but then abandoned when it was found the concept had no cost advantage over existing expendable launch vehicles. Status: Study 1989. Gross mass: 1,966,675 kg (4,335,776 lb). Payload: 77,000 kg (169,000 lb). Thrust: 20,299.20 kN (4,563,442 lbf).
Shuttle C Block II - American orbital launch vehicle. In August 1989 NASA studied a version of the Shuttle-C with two Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM's) in place of the standard RSRM's. This would increase the payload by 4500 kg, but also require use of a new 10 m x 30 m payload module. Status: Design 1990. Payload: 81,500 kg (179,600 lb).
Shuttle C stage - N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1989. Gross mass: 36,360 kg (80,160 lb). Unfuelled mass: 34,380 kg (75,790 lb). Thrust: 6,834.30 kN (1,536,412 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Shuttle DC-3 - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Marshall Spaceflight Center shuttle concept of April 1970 using Faget low cross range stub-winged booster and orbiter. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 998,775 kg (2,201,921 lb). Payload: 5,700 kg (12,500 lb). Thrust: 11,433.20 kN (2,570,286 lbf).
Shuttle DC-3-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Faget Configuration. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 799,537 kg (1,762,677 lb). Unfuelled mass: 131,519 kg (289,949 lb). Thrust: 10,290.00 kN (2,313,280 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle DC-3-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Faget Configuration - Cross Range 323 km. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 199,238 kg (439,244 lb). Unfuelled mass: 54,422 kg (119,979 lb). Thrust: 2,940.00 kN (660,930 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle EMU - American space suit, operational 1980. Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit reusable suit. For a particular crew member and mission it was tailored from a stock of standard-size parts. Certified for eight EVA's. Status: operational 1980. Gross mass: 65 kg (143 lb).
Shuttle FR-3 - American winged orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics shuttle proposal phase A of October 1969. Unwinged flat-bottom configuration booster and orbiter with V butterfly-tails. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 2,557,880 kg (5,639,160 lb). Thrust: 30,243.00 kN (6,798,896 lbf).
Shuttle FR-3-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Trapezoidal lifting body configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 2,169,691 kg (4,783,349 lb). Unfuelled mass: 234,467 kg (516,911 lb). Thrust: 30,088.43 kN (6,764,148 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle FR-3-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Trapezoidal lifting body configuration. Cross range 2419 km. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 388,189 kg (855,810 lb). Unfuelled mass: 130,159 kg (286,951 lb). Thrust: 4,549.05 kN (1,022,667 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle H33 - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Grumman/Boeing alternate shuttle proposal of July 1971. Shuttle orbiter with drop tanks, delta booster. Status: Study 1971. Gross mass: 1,963,916 kg (4,329,693 lb). Thrust: 22,148.00 kN (4,979,068 lbf).
Shuttle H33-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Swept wing configuration. Status: Study 1971. Gross mass: 1,489,717 kg (3,284,263 lb). Unfuelled mass: 224,431 kg (494,785 lb). Thrust: 24,973.40 kN (5,614,243 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle H33-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Delta wing configuration with drop tanks - Cross Range 1,774 km. Status: Study 1971. Gross mass: 474,199 kg (1,045,429 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100,153 kg (220,799 lb). Thrust: 7,079.45 kN (1,591,524 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle hatch - The shuttle hatch was designed to be very easy to open outward, reflecting the lessons of the Apollo fire. On an early mission a non-astronaut payload specialist showed what the flight commander thought was a very unhealthy interest in how the opening mechanism worked. Opening the door in space would result in immediate loss of cabin atmosphere and death to the crew. After this NASA padlocked the hatch handle and the commanders held the key during the entire mission.
Shuttle HCR - American winged orbital launch vehicle. McDonnell-Douglas/Martin Marietta shuttle high cross-range proposal phase B of December 1970. Swept wing booster, delta wing orbiter. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 1,977,415 kg (4,359,453 lb). Thrust: 25,839.70 kN (5,808,996 lbf).
Shuttle HCR-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Swept wing configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 1,634,467 kg (3,603,382 lb). Unfuelled mass: 304,535 kg (671,384 lb). Thrust: 29,135.63 kN (6,549,949 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle HCR-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Delta winged configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 342,948 kg (756,070 lb). Unfuelled mass: 129,329 kg (285,121 lb). Thrust: 4,719.64 kN (1,061,016 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle II - American orbital launch vehicle. In May 1988 NASA Langley studied a new-technology approach to improving the shuttle's payload capability. The design would allow 9,000 to 18,000 kg of additional payload to be carried in an external payload container or in the orbiter. Status: Study 1988. Payload: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb).
Shuttle ISS - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. When the decision was made to move the International Space Station to a high-inclination 51.6 degree orbit, net payload to the more challenging orbit dropped to unacceptable limits. The situation was improved by introduction of the Super Lightweight External Tank, which used 2195 Aluminum-Lithium alloy as the main structural material in place of the 2219 aluminum alloy of the original design. This saved 3,500 kg in empty mass, increasing shuttle payload by the same amount. The tank was first used on STS-91 in June 1998. Status: In production. Gross mass: 2,040,000 kg (4,490,000 lb). Payload: 27,500 kg (60,600 lb). Thrust: 28,190.00 kN (6,337,360 lbf).
Shuttle LCR - American winged orbital launch vehicle. McDonnell-Douglas/Martin Marietta shuttle low cross-range proposal phase B of December 1970. Swept-wing booster, Faget straight wing orbiter. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 1,834,830 kg (4,045,100 lb). Thrust: 23,994.00 kN (5,394,065 lbf).
Shuttle LCR-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Swept winged configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 1,512,381 kg (3,334,229 lb). Unfuelled mass: 286,621 kg (631,891 lb). Thrust: 27,054.52 kN (6,082,097 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle LCR-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Faget Straight Wing Configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 322,449 kg (710,878 lb). Unfuelled mass: 120,816 kg (266,353 lb). Thrust: 4,719.64 kN (1,061,016 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle LES - American space suit, operational 1986. After the Challenger disaster, it was decided to provide the crew with pressure suits to be worn during launch and re-entry. Status: operational 1986. Gross mass: 11 kg (24 lb).
Shuttle LRB - Alternate designation for Shuttle LRB stage.
Shuttle LRB - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Shuttle with Liquid Rocket Boosters in place of Solid Rocket Boosters. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 1,575,493 kg (3,473,367 lb). Thrust: 21,107.40 kN (4,745,132 lbf).
Shuttle LRB 1972 - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Original design for a shuttle with liquid rocket boosters, completed in March 1972 as part of the shuttle design decision process Status: Study 1972. Gross mass: 2,626,000 kg (5,789,000 lb). Thrust: 36,010.00 kN (8,095,370 lbf).
Shuttle LRB 1989 - American orbital launch vehicle. In July 1989 a NASA Langley/George Washington University joint study was made of various Liquid Rocket Booster configurations. Status: Study 1989.
Shuttle LRB stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 350,000 kg (770,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 52,000 kg (114,000 lb). Thrust: 10,318.11 kN (2,319,603 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle LS A - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed shuttle proposal phase A of December 1969. X-24B lifting body orbiter with delta-wing booster. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 1,632,012 kg (3,597,970 lb). Thrust: 28,463.70 kN (6,398,894 lbf).
Shuttle LS A-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Delta winged configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 1,225,668 kg (2,702,135 lb). Unfuelled mass: 162,494 kg (358,237 lb). Thrust: 26,076.59 kN (5,862,250 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle LS A-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. High-fineness lifting-body configuration. Cross Range 2,419 km. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 406,344 kg (895,835 lb). Unfuelled mass: 104,891 kg (231,245 lb). Thrust: 6,823.56 kN (1,533,997 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle LS200 - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed Skunk Works alternate shuttle proposal of June 1971. X-24B lifting body orbiter with wrap-around external tank. Status: Study 1971. Gross mass: 1,730,803 kg (3,815,767 lb). Thrust: 21,214.40 kN (4,769,187 lbf).
Shuttle LS200-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. High-fineness lifting-body configuration. Cross Range 2,419 km. Status: Study 1971. Gross mass: 1,730,803 kg (3,815,767 lb). Unfuelled mass: 133,514 kg (294,347 lb). Thrust: 27,422.00 kN (6,164,711 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle MDC - American winged orbital launch vehicle. The McDonnell Douglas Space Shuttle Phase A studies were conducted under contract NAS9-9204. Their baseline Class III vehicle design was completed in November 1969 after 13 alternate configurations had been considered. The two-stage-to-orbit vehicle had a gross mass of 1,550,000 kg and a 11,300 kg payload was accommodated in a 4.6 m x 9.2 m payload bay. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 1,578,231 kg (3,479,403 lb). Thrust: 19,213.40 kN (4,319,344 lbf).
Shuttle MDC A Alternate - American winged orbital launch vehicle. McDonnell-Douglas shuttle proposal phase A of November 1969. Delta wing first stage and HL-10 lifting body second stage. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 1,600,727 kg (3,528,998 lb). Payload: 19,958 kg (43,999 lb). Thrust: 19,213.40 kN (4,319,344 lbf).
Shuttle MDC-A-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Delta winged configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 1,242,630 kg (2,739,530 lb). Unfuelled mass: 220,254 kg (485,576 lb). Thrust: 18,956.00 kN (4,261,478 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle MDC-A-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. HL-10 lifting body configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 335,601 kg (739,873 lb). Unfuelled mass: 73,442 kg (161,911 lb). Thrust: 3,070.40 kN (690,253 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle MMU - American space mobility device, tested 1984. The MMU Manned Maneuvering Unit was designed for maneuvering by astronauts untethered from the shuttle. It was used on several satellite retrieval missions in the early 1980's. Status: tested 1984. First Launch: 1984-02-03. Last Launch: 1984-04-06. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 140 kg (300 lb).
Shuttle NAR A - North American's Phase A shuttle design was completed under contract NAS9-9205 in December 1969. North American had learned that the way to win a NASA design competition was to adhere to the design favored by Max Faget, so they proposed a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle, with both booster and orbiter being of Faget's straight-wing, low cross-range configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 2,036,734 kg (4,490,229 lb). Thrust: 24,948.00 kN (5,608,533 lbf).
Shuttle NAR A-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Faget Straight Wing Configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 1,641,723 kg (3,619,379 lb). Unfuelled mass: 273,469 kg (602,895 lb). Thrust: 28,130.19 kN (6,323,918 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle NAR A-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Faget Straight Wing Configuration - Cross Range 2,000 km. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 395,011 kg (870,850 lb). Unfuelled mass: 121,542 kg (267,954 lb). Thrust: 5,256.89 kN (1,181,797 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle Orbiter - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 99,318 kg (218,958 lb). Unfuelled mass: 99,117 kg (218,515 lb). Thrust: 6,834.30 kN (1,536,412 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle Orbiter OMS - N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Two pods, mounted each side of vertical stabilizer, provide propulsion for orbit insertion, maneuver, and de-orbit. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 25,200 kg (55,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Thrust: 53.38 kN (12,000 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Shuttle Pallet Satellite - Alternate designation for SPAS.
Shuttle Pallet Satellite) - Alternate designation for SPAS military strategic defense satellite.
Shuttle R134C - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Rockwell/General Dynamics shuttle proposal phase B, November 1970. Delta wing high-cross range orbiter and booster. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 2,188,488 kg (4,824,790 lb). Thrust: 25,564.10 kN (5,747,038 lbf).
Shuttle R134C-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Delta winged configuration. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 1,764,039 kg (3,889,040 lb). Unfuelled mass: 351,538 kg (775,008 lb). Thrust: 28,824.77 kN (6,480,067 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle R134C-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Delta winged configuration. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 424,449 kg (935,749 lb). Unfuelled mass: 138,910 kg (306,240 lb). Thrust: 4,804.13 kN (1,080,011 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle R134G - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Rockwell/General Dynamics shuttle proposal phase B, November 1970. Straight wing low-cross range orbiter. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 2,000,000 kg (4,400,000 lb). Payload: 20,500 kg (45,100 lb). Thrust: 25,564.10 kN (5,747,038 lbf).
Shuttle R134G-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Delta winged configuration. Status: Study 1970 November. Gross mass: 1,600,000 kg (3,500,000 lb). Thrust: 28,824.77 kN (6,480,067 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle R134G-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Straight winged configuration. Status: Study 1970 November. Gross mass: 380,000 kg (830,000 lb). Thrust: 4,804.13 kN (1,080,011 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle RSRM - Alternate name for RSRM.
Shuttle SERV - Alternate designation for Shuttle SERV-1.
Shuttle SERV-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Single stage to orbit, ballistic reentry. Status: Study 1971. Gross mass: 2,040,816 kg (4,499,229 lb). Unfuelled mass: 226,757 kg (499,913 lb). Thrust: 31,980.52 kN (7,189,506 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle SRB - Alternate name for SRB.
Shuttle Super Lightweight Tank - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. The Super Lightweight Tank used 2195 Aluminum-Lithium alloy as the main structural material in place of the 2219 aluminum alloy of the original design. This saved 3,500 kg in empty mass, increasing shuttle payload by the same amount. This change was made in anticipation of Shuttle-Mir and Shuttle-ISS flights to high inclination 51.6 degree orbits. The tank was first used on STS-91 in June 1998. Status: In production. Gross mass: 748,000 kg (1,649,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb). Thrust: 6,834.30 kN (1,536,412 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle Tank - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket drop tank. . Original version. Status: Study 1989. Gross mass: 750,975 kg (1,655,616 lb). Unfuelled mass: 29,930 kg (65,980 lb). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Shuttle Z - American orbital launch vehicle. Shuttle-Z was Shuttle-C on steroids, the ultimate development of the shuttle to be used to put Mars expeditions into orbit. It would use 4 SSME's, and a third stage with 181,000 kg of propellant powered by 1 SSSME. But such designs would require new handling facilities due to the extra height of the vehicle. Status: Study 1990. Payload: 87,500 kg (192,900 lb).
Shuttle; STS (Space Transportation System) - Alternate designation for Shuttle Orbiter rocket stage.
Shuttle-0 stage series -
Shuttle-1 stage series -
Shuttle-2 stage series -
Shuttleworth - South African tourist cosmonaut 2001-2002. First South African astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 2001-2002. Born: 1973-09-18. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.89 days.
Shyster - Alternate designation for R-5.
Shyster - Alternate designation for R-5M.
S-I - Abbreviation for Saturn I booster first stage
S-I stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Configuration as flown, Saturn I. Status: Flown 1961. Gross mass: 432,681 kg (953,898 lb). Unfuelled mass: 45,267 kg (99,796 lb). Thrust: 7,582.10 kN (1,704,524 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
SI-300 - Satreci South Korea imaging satellite bus. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-11-21. Last Launch: 2013-11-21. Number: 1 .
Siauliai - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1982. Division then moved to Irkutsk. Base for units deployed with two R-1/R-2 launchers, followed by six R-5, and probably finally R-12 missiles.
S-IB - Abbreviation for Saturn IB booster first stage
Sibling - Alternate designation for R-2.
S-IC - Abbreviation for Saturn V booster first stage
SICBM - Alternate designation for SICBM-1.
SICBM - American mobile small intercontinental ballistic missile. Developed 1986-1991, but cancelled as unnecessary at the end of the Cold War. Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1989-05-11. Last Launch: 1991-04-18. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 16,800 kg (37,000 lb). Payload: 90 kg (198 lb). Thrust: 979.00 kN (220,087 lbf).
SICBM-1 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1991. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 11,600 kg (25,500 lb). Thrust: 979.00 kN (220,087 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SICBM2 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. SICBM second stage. Status: Retired 1991. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SICBM-2 - Alternate name for SICBM2.
SICBM3 - Hercules solid rocket engine. SICBM third stage. Status: Retired 1991. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 88.00 kN (19,783 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SICBM-3 - Alternate name for SICBM3.
SICBM4 - Martin solid rocket engine. SICBM fourth stage. Status: Retired 1991. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Propellants: Solid.
SICBM-4 - Alternate name for SICBM4.
Sich - Ukrainian remote sensing satellite built by Yuzhnoye. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-08-17. Last Launch: 2011-08-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 175 kg (385 lb).
Sich-1 - Alternate designation for Okean-O1 earth resources radar satellite.
Sich-2 - Alternate designation for Okean-O earth resources radar satellite.
Sickle - Alternate designation for Topol'.
Sickle - Alternate designation for Topol.
Sicral - Sicral, (Sistema Italiana de Communicazione Riservente Allarmi) was a communications satellite for the Italian defense ministry, using the Italsat bus.
SID - Abbreviation for Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance
Sidewinder stage series -
Sidewinder-Arcas - American sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1964-12-01. Last Launch: 1975-10-02. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 26.40 kN (5,935 lbf).
Sidewinder-Arcas-1 - Alternate name for Mk 17.
Sidewinder-Raven - American sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket, launched twice in 1964 by the US Army Engineering Research and Development Laboratory. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1964-01-01. Last Launch: 1964-01-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 110 kg (240 lb). Thrust: 30.00 kN (6,744 lbf).
Sidewinder-Raven-1 - Alternate name for Mk 36.
Sidewinder-Raven-2 - Alternate name for Hopi 9.0KS1800.
Sidorenko - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1962-1963. Pilot, Soviet Air Force. Selected as a cosmonaut on 3 December 1962, but on 8 January 1963 and again on 13 December 1963 the government commission refused to approve the appointment. Status: Inactive. Born: 1926.
Siebe - Siebe.
Sieber - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1912-03-27. Died: 1995-04-03.
Siebold - American test pilot, engineer, at Scaled Composites.
Siemens - German expert in aerodynamics during World War II.
Siepert - American manager. NASA, 1958-1969; Deputy Director, Kennedy Space Center 1963-1969. Born: 1915-02-28. Died: 2008-01-24.
Sierra de Juarez - Sounding rocket launch site, used in 1959.
Sif - Name of one Galileo Navsat.
SIGINT - Category of spacecraft.
Sigma 7 - Alternate name for Mercury MA-8.
Signal - Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. The RKK Energia and Polyot PO teamed up with other industries to propose the Signal constellation of low earth orbit communications satellites. Status: Study 1995. Gross mass: 310 kg (680 lb). Payload: 70 kg (154 lb).
Signe - French technology satellite. Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-06-17. Last Launch: 1977-06-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 102 kg (224 lb).
SII - American agency. Space Industries Inc, Houston, Texas, Houston, USA.
S-II - Abbreviation for Saturn V second stage
SIL - Pakistani manufacturer of spacecraft. Pakistan, Pakistan.
silo-launched - Category of missiles.
Siluet - Code name for Yantar-1KFT military surveillance satellite.
Silve - French engineer cosmonaut, 1990-1993. Pilot, French Navy Selected for French astronaut team. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1993. Born: 1958-07-15.
Silveira - American manager, at NASA 1955-1986. Deputy Administrator, 1981-1983; NASA Chief Engineer, 1983-1986. Born: 1929-05-04. Died: 2013-07-11.
Silver Lake DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone. RW15/33 used for emergency landings.
Silver Lake DZ RW15/33 - Alternate name for Silver Lake DZ.
Silver Sparrow - Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-09-03. Last Launch: 2013-09-03. Number: 1 .
Silverstein - American engineer. Chaired committee that set NASA's spaceflight plans for the 1960's. Director, NASA Cleveland 1961-1970. Born: 1908-09-15. Died: 2001-06-01.
SIM - Scientific instrument module (Apollo SM component)
SIMED - Shanghai Institute of Machine and Electrical Design
Simferopol - Base for units deployed with two R-5 launchers.
SIMIT - Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. SIMIT, China.
Simon - American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1978-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1985. Born: 1934-04-22.
Simon - Venezuelan communications satellite, using a Chinese DFH-4 bus with C-band and Ku-band transponders.
Simon, Dr - German expert in the V-2 missile during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Simonyi - Hungarian-American computer scientist, space tourist cosmonaut 2006-2007. Inventor of the Macintosh/Windows visual interface. Status: Inactive; Active 2006-2007. Born: 1948-09-10. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 26.60 days.
Simplesat - American visible astronomy satellite. Simplesat was intended to test methods for building cheap astronomical satellites and controlling them from a inexpensive ground stations. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-08-20. Last Launch: 2001-08-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 52 kg (114 lb).
Simsat - Russian technology satellite. 2 launched, 2000.05.16. 660 kg dummy satellite. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-05-16. Last Launch: 2000-05-16. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 657 kg (1,448 lb).
Sinah - First Iranian satellite, with an experimental surveillance camera payload. It may have used the Russian Polyot enterprise's Sterkh satellite bus. The same bus was to be used in future Nadezhda satellites.
Sineva - Russian liquid-propellant submarine-launched ballistic missile. First launch 2004.02.18; entered service 2007. Competitor was the solid-propellant Bulava. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-02-18. Last Launch: 2015-10-30. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 40,300 kg (88,800 lb).
Singapore - Singapore
Singelmann - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
Singer - Austrian-born American atmospheric physicist, proposed a Minimum Orbital Unmanned Satellite of the Earth (MOUSE) in 1953. Involved in early sounding rocket and observation satellite projects, later disputing the attribution of climate change to human beings. Born: 1924-09-27.
Single Stage to Orbit And Return - Alternate designation for SSOAR.
Single-Stage Earth-Orbital Reusable Vehicle - Alternate designation for SERV.
Singleton - American military naval signals reconnaissance satellite. Signals intelligence satellite; possibly some kind of imaging also done. On-board propulsion boosts spacecraft to 800 km operating orbit. Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-09-05. Last Launch: 1992-04-25. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
SingT - Singapore Telecom, Singapore, Singapore
Sinilshchikov - Russian manufacturer of missiles based on German designs, Kaliningrad, Russia.
Sinner - Alternate designation for Temp-2S.
SINOD - One of two SINOD-D Cubesats with software-defined radio demonstrations from SRI International.
Sinosat - Communications satellite network operated by Sino Satellite Communications Company of Shanghai for communications services in China.
SinoSatCom - Chinese agency. SinoSatCom, China.
SIP - Satellite tracking aircraft (Russian abbreviation)
Siple - Siple Station. Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1978-01-04. Last Launch: 1981-01-11. Number: 11 .
Siple A - Arcas launcher First Launch: 1980-12-12. Last Launch: 1981-01-11. Number: 4 .
Siple RAG - Tomahawk Sandia launch complex. RAG launcher. First Launch: 1980-12-12. Last Launch: 1981-01-10. Number: 3 .
SIR - Abbreviation for Shuttle Imaging Radar
Sirio - Italian communications technology satellite. SIRIO was a spin stabilized geostationary experimental communications satellite with a nominal life of two years. Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-08-25. Last Launch: 1982-09-09. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 220 kg (480 lb).
Sirius - Sirius Satellite Inc., USA. Geosynchronous communications satellite network.
Sirius (Sirius ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-17.
Sirius (Sirius ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-25.
Sirius (Sirius) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-25.
Sirius (Sirius) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-17.
Sirobaba - Russian officer. Deputy Commander for Research for KIK Space Tracking Network 1971-1975. Born: 1917.
Sirocco - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle using an Aerojet solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1964-07-15. Last Launch: 1966-02-03. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Propellants: Solid.
SIRTF - American infrared astronomy satellite. The SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) was planned as a 1 meter class, cryogenically cooled space telescope to be operated as an observatory for infrared astronomy. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-08-25. Last Launch: 2003-08-25. Number: 1 .
SIS - Space International Services, offering launch services using land launch of the Zenit launch vehicle from Baikonur.
Sisakyan - Russian scientist. Early space medicine specialist at the Second Division of Biological Sciences under the Academy of Sciences. Born: 1907-01-25. Died: 1966-03-10.
SISE - Chinese manufacturer. Shanghai Institute of Satellite Engineering, Shanghai, China.
SISP - Swedish manufacturer of spacecraft. Swedish Inst. for Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden
Sistem avariyovo spaceniya - Alternate designation for TKS SAS manned spacecraft module.
SIT- 5 - Hughes electric/mercury rocket engine. 5 cm diameter mercury ion engine, developed 1970 for attitude control and north-south stationkeeping of geosynchronous satellites. Date: 1969-1972. Thrust: 0.0021 N (0.0004 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Mercury.
SITAB Consortium - Fourth name of Alenia.
SITE - Satellite instructional television experiment (on ATS 6)
S-IV - Abbreviation for Saturn I second stage
S-IVB - Saturn IB second stage; Saturn V third stage
S-IVB Advanced Station - American manned space station. Study 1970. Follow-on to Skylab proposed by Douglas. The station would still use the S-IVB stage as the basis, but would be much more extensively outfitted for larger crews. Status: Study 1970.
S-IVB IU - American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Used for guidance during orbital insertion only. Status: Operational 1973. Gross mass: 2,065 kg (4,552 lb).
SJ - Chinese communications technology satellite. SJ (Shijian; 'Practice') series were Chinese scientific research, technological experiment and military operational satellites of a variety of configurations. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-07-28. Last Launch: 1994-02-08. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 221 kg (487 lb).
SJ-11 - Chinese military surveillance satellite constellation. Launched from Jiuquan by the CZ-2C launch vehicle into 690 km, 98.7 deg inclination sun synchronous orbits from 2009. Reported to carry an infrared tracking system, part of a missile-launch early warning / tracking system. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-11-12. Last Launch: 2014-10-27. Number: 8 .
SJ-12 -
SJ-6 - Chinese military surveillance satellite constellation. Each launch was said to consist of a primary satellite using the CAST968 bus and a subsatellite built by SAST Shanghai. Five pairs were launched from ?Taiyuan by the CZ-4B launch vehicle into 590 km, 97.7 deg inclination sun synchronous orbits from 2009. Reported to carry systems for optically tracking satellites in orbit. In 2013 SJ-15 was launched from Jiuquan, and SJ-16 from Taiyuan, in very similar but slightly different orbits. These may have been the essor system. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-09-08. Last Launch: 2013-10-25. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb).
SJ-7 - Chinese maneuverable military satellites, believed to have an interceptor / inspector / antisatellite mission. Launched from Jiuquan by the CZ-2D launch vehicle into 600 km, 97.7 deg inclination sun synchronous orbits. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-07-05. Last Launch: 2010-06-15. Number: 2 .
SK1 - Alternate designation for RD-0101 LOx-Alcohol rocket engine.
SK-1 - Manufacturer's designation for Sokol SK-1 space suit.
SK-100 - Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. In 1962 Yangel produced his first design for a large clustered rocket. The SK-100 would have clustered seven R-16 ICBM first stages in order to put 100 metric tons into earth orbit. The concept was abandoned for the simpler R-56 design. Status: Cancelled 1962. Gross mass: 2,000,000 kg (4,400,000 lb). Payload: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb).
SK1K - Alternate designation for RD-0102 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
Skantze - American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1928-06-24.
SKB - Special Design Bureau or Serial Design Bureau (Russian abbreviation)
SKB - First name of Barmin bureau.
SKB-30 - Third name of Almaz bureau.
SKB-31 - Second name of Vympel.
SKB-350 - SKB-350.
SKB-385 - First name of Makeyev bureau.
Skean - Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K65.
Skean - Alternate designation for R-14.
Skean - Alternate designation for R-14U.
Skean; SS-5; R-14; 8K65; 65; 11K65 - Alternate designation for Kosmos-1 rocket stage.
SKG - Special Design Group (Russian abbreviation)
Skif - Alternate name for Polyus.
Skif - Alternate designation for R-29RM.
Skif (Roman-age tribe) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-23.
Skif-DM - Russian materials science satellite. Cancelled 1992. In 1990 KB Salyut proposed using the back-up of the Polyus 'star wars' test bed as a huge zero-gravity materials production facility. Status: Cancelled 1992. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
Skif-DM - Code name for Polyus military anti-satellite system.
Skipper - Russian technology satellite. Aerobraking investigation; satellite provided by Russia, instruments by Utah State University; solar array shorted immediately following deployment and ended mission. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-12-28. Last Launch: 1995-12-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 250 kg (550 lb).
Skorost - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Soviet medium range ballistic missile, flown once but cancelled after being outlawed by INF Treaty. Status: Cancelled 1987.
Skorost - Alternate designation for Skorost'.
Skripochka - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1997-on. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO Status: Active 1997-on. Born: 1969-12-24. Spaceflights: 1 .
SKRL - Calibration sphere. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-12-28. Last Launch: 2014-05-23. Number: 3 .
Skua - Alternate designation for Skua 1.
Skua - British sounding rocket. In 1959, the Royal Meteorological Office's High Altitude Research Unit contracted with Bristol Aerojet and RPE Westcott to develop a low-cost meteorological rocket designed to reach altitudes of 80 km. Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1962-01-01. Last Launch: 1973-10-01. Number: 274 .
Skua 1 - British sounding rocket. In the original Skua version, 3 Chick boosters were used. The Bantam second stage burned for 30 seconds to boost the payload to 70 km. The payload deployed a radar-reflective parachute to allow winds aloft to be measured, and readings from a thermometer were radioed to the ground. More than 900 Skua 1's were launched from 11 sites in six countries. Gross mass: 58 kg (127 lb). Payload: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf).
Skua 2 - Skua 2 was used 4 Chick boosters and a lengthened Bantam motor to take more complex 5 kg scientific payloads to 100 km altitude. More than fifty Skua 2's were fired between 1967 and 1972 as part of the British national space program. Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1968-02-13. Last Launch: 1981-12-09. Number: 182 . Gross mass: 68 kg (149 lb). Payload: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf).
Skua 2-1 - Alternate name for Bantam 2.
Skua 3 - British sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1969-12-09. Last Launch: 1976-01-28. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 75 kg (165 lb). Payload: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf).
Skua 3-0 - Alternate name for Chick.
Skua 3-1 - Alternate name for Bantam 3.
Skua 4 - British sounding rocket. Skua 4 was further enhanced to take a 7.5 kg payload to 140 km altitude. The vehicle used four Chick boosters and an improved Bantam upper stage. Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1974-01-19. Last Launch: 1981-12-09. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 83 kg (184 lb). Payload: 7.50 kg (16.50 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf).
Skua-1 - Alternate name for Bantam.
SKV - Space Military System (Russian abbreviation)
Skvortsov - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1968. Father of cosmonaut Aleksandr Skvortsov, Jr. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1968. Born: 1942-06-08.
Skvortsov, Aleksandr - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-on. Son of cosmonaut Aleksandr Skvortsov. Status: Active 1997-on. Born: 1966-05-06. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 345.27 days.
Sky Horse - Taiwanese intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Active.
Sky Muster - Series of communications satellites for the Australian NBN Corporation, a government-owned company running the national broadband network. Purpose was to provide access to high speed broadband to every household and business in the country.
Skybolt - Alternate designation for Skybolt ALBM.
Skybolt - Douglas solid rocket engine. Skybolt ALBM first stage. Status: Retired 1962. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 111.00 kN (24,953 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Skybolt 2 - Douglas solid rocket engine. Skybolt ALBM second stage. Status: Retired 1962. Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Skybolt ALBM - American strategic air-to-surface ballistic missile, development started in 1959. Program cancelled amid huge controversy in 1963 after Britain had agreed to buy the weapon in place of its own Blue Streak. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1962-04-19. Last Launch: 1962-12-22. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 4,530 kg (9,980 lb). Thrust: 111.00 kN (24,953 lbf).
Skybolt ALBM-1 - Alternate name for Skybolt.
Skybolt ALBM-2 - Alternate name for Skybolt 2.
Skybolt Sounding Rocket - British sounding rocket. Reusable sounding rocket design proposed by Starchaser Industries, Cheshire, England. As of 2006 the business case for completing development was being reviewed. Status: Design 2006. Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Payload: 20 kg (44 lb). Thrust: 68.70 kN (15,444 lbf).
Skychaser - British manufacturer of rockets. Skychaser, UK.
SkyCube - Cubesat from Southern Stars Group LLC, San Francisco, with an Earth imager.
Skylab - Alternate designation for Skylab 3.
Skylab - Alternate designation for Skylab 2.
Skylab - Alternate designation for Skylab 4.
Skylab - American manned space station. First US space station. The project began life as the Orbital Workshop- outfitting of an S-IVB stage with a docking adapter with equipment launched by several subsequent S-1B launches. Status: Operational 1973. First Launch: 1973-05-14. Last Launch: 1973-05-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 76,295 kg (168,201 lb).
Skylab 2 - Record flight duration. Crew had to conduct major repairs to get damaged station in operation. Astronaut flung into space during release of solar wing. High temperatures in station brought down by deployment of sunshade. Launched: 1973-05-25. Returned: 1973-06-22. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 28.03 days.
Skylab 3 - Installed twin pole solar shield on EVA; performed major inflight maintenance; doubled record for length of time in space. Leaks in Apollo CSM thrusters led to preparation of a rescue mission. Decided to make landing with faulty thrusters instead. Launched: 1973-07-28. Returned: 1973-09-25. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 59.46 days.
Skylab 4 - Record flight duration. Final Skylab mission; included observation and photography of Comet Kohoutek among numerous experiments. Rebellion by crew against NASA Ground Control overtasking led to none of the crew ever flying again. Launched: 1973-11-16. Returned: 1974-02-08. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 84.05 days.
Skylab 5 - After completion of the three programmed Skylab flights, NASA considered using the remaining backup Saturn IB and Apollo CSM to fly a fourth manned mission to Skylab. It would have been a short 20 day mission - the CSM systems would not have powered down. Launched: 1974 April. Number crew: 3 .
Skylab AM - American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Airlock for EVA's, mounting of STS and TNL. Status: Operational 1973. Gross mass: 22,225 kg (48,997 lb).
Skylab AME - American space mobility device, tested 1974. Another of the EVA maneuvering units tested by the Skylab astronauts within the capacious station. Status: tested 1974.
Skylab AMU - American space mobility device, tested 1973. One of several extravehicular mobility devices tested by the Skylab astronauts within the spacious station. Status: tested 1973.
Skylab ATM - American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Solar Telescope module. Status: Operational 1973. Gross mass: 11,180 kg (24,640 lb).
Skylab B - After the completion of Apollo, Skylab, and ASTP programs there was still significant Apollo surplus hardware. Plans to use it were cancelled; an opportunity to launch an International Space Station, at a tenth the cost and twenty years earlier, was lost. Launched: 1975. Number crew: 3 .
Skylab Lunar Orbit Station - American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1970. McDonnell Douglas (Seal Beach, CA) did a study on modifying the to modify the Skylab as a moon-orbiting observatory and station Status: Study 1970.
Skylab MDA - American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Docking module for two CSM, one ATM. Status: Operational 1973. Gross mass: 6,260 kg (13,800 lb).
Skylab OWS - American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Main laboratory. Status: Operational 1973. Gross mass: 35,380 kg (77,990 lb).
Skylab Reboost Module - American logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1980. Module developed for Shuttle to deliver to Skylab to boost it to a higher orbit for use during the Shuttle program. Status: Cancelled 1980. Gross mass: 4,392 kg (9,682 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,648 kg (3,633 lb).
Skylab Rescue - Influenced by the stranded Skylab crew portrayed in the book and movie 'Marooned', NASA provided a crew rescue capability for the only time in its history. Prepared for launch during Skylab 3. Scrubbed, Skylab 3 made landing with faulty thrusters instead. Launched: 1973 September. Number crew: 2 .
Skylab's Untimely Fate - James Oberg tells the sad story of how the United States abandoned the largest space station ever built and spent a quarter century trying to regain the capability.
Skylark - British sounding rocket. The Skylark sounding rocket (originally named the Gassiot High Altitude Vehicle) was produced by the Royal Aircraft Establishment and first introduced in 1957, during the International Geophysical Year. It remained in European service until 2005. The original basic single-stage Skylark version used a Raven 1 motor (Rook derivative). The RPE Raven 1 burned 840 kg of propellant (ammonium perchlorate, polyisobutylene binder and aluminum powder) in thirty seconds with a 1450 kN total impulse at sea level. Status: Retired 2005. First Launch: 1957-02-13. Last Launch: 1971-03-25. Number: 169 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 44.00 kN (9,891 lbf).
Skylark 1 - British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Raven 8 + 1 x Raven 1/1A/2A Status: Retired 1978. First Launch: 1966-10-25. Last Launch: 1978-08-13. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 44.00 kN (9,891 lbf).
Skylark 10 - Alternate designation for Skylark 10A.
Skylark 10A - British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch + 1 x Gosling 4T Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1974-10-10. Last Launch: 1974-10-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 130.00 kN (29,220 lbf).
Skylark 10A-2 - Alternate name for Gosling 4.
Skylark 11 - British sounding rocket. Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Raven VI + 1 x Cuckoo II or IV. Never flown.
Skylark 1-1 - Alternate name for Raven 1.
Skylark 12 - British sounding rocket. Three stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch + 1 x Raven 11 + 1 x Cuckoo 4. The AC version uses an uprated Goldfinch II booster. The Raven XI is loaded with 990 kg of propellant and produced 2500 kN-sec total impulse over 39 seconds. The Cuckoo IV stage provides 452 kN-sec impulse over 15 seconds. Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1976-11-21. Last Launch: 1990-11-25. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 2,135 kg (4,706 lb). Payload: 200 kg (440 lb).
Skylark 12 AC - British sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1979-10-12. Last Launch: 1979-10-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb).
Skylark 12-2 - Alternate name for Raven 11.
Skylark 12-3 - Alternate name for Cuckoo 4.
Skylark 14 - British sounding rocket. Skylark version using Rook 3 booster + Raven 11 upper stage. Never built. Skylark 13 designation not used for superstitious reasons.
Skylark 15 - British sounding rocket. Skylark version using Rook 3 booster + Raven 11 + Cuckoo 5. Never built.
Skylark 16 - British sounding rocket. Skylark version with shortened Stonechat motor. Never built.
Skylark 17 - British sounding rocket. Skylark version with Stonechat booster and Mage 2 second stage motor. Never built.
Skylark 2 - British sounding rocket. Three stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 2 + 1 x Raven 8. The Cuckoo booster burned for 4 seconds and provided 364 kN-sec total impulse. The Raven 2 provided 1540 N-sec total impulse. Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1966-04-20. Last Launch: 1989-02-09. Number: 30 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 44.00 kN (9,891 lbf).
Skylark 2 AC - British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 8 Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1970-02-06. Last Launch: 1973-10-02. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf).
Skylark 2-1 - Alternate name for Raven 2.
Skylark 2C - British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 2 Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf).
Skylark 3 - British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 6 Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1964-12-16. Last Launch: 1977-02-08. Number: 34 . Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf).
Skylark 3 AC - British sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1978. First Launch: 1965-10-20. Last Launch: 1978-12-13. Number: 55 . Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
Skylark 3-2 - Alternate name for Raven 6.
Skylark 4 - British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch + 1 x Raven 8 Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1972-03-02. Last Launch: 1973-12-05. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 191.00 kN (42,938 lbf).
Skylark 4 AC - British sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1973-08-04. Last Launch: 1976-01-27. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb).
Skylark 4-1 - Alternate name for Goldfinch IIA.
Skylark 4-2 - Alternate name for Raven 8.
Skylark 5 - British sounding rocket. Single stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Raven 5. The Raven 5 increased total impulse to 1780 kN-sec. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 44.00 kN (9,891 lbf).
Skylark 5-1 - Alternate name for Raven 5.
Skylark 5C - British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 5 Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Payload: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf).
Skylark 6 - British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Raven 6. The Goldfinch provided 700 kN-sec total impulse. Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1968-02-08. Last Launch: 1990-07-26. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 191.00 kN (42,938 lbf).
Skylark 6 AC - British sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1969-04-03. Last Launch: 1979-03-01. Number: 30 . Gross mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb).
Skylark 6 AC-1 - Alternate name for Goldfinch II.
Skylark 7 - British sounding rocket. Three stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Raven 7 + 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Raven 11 Status: Retired 2005. First Launch: 1976-05-27. Last Launch: 2005-05-02. Number: 57 . Gross mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Thrust: 191.00 kN (42,938 lbf).
Skylark 7 AC - British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Raven 11 Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1975-02-25. Last Launch: 1979-03-13. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 191.00 kN (42,938 lbf).
Skylark 7C - British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 7 Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf).
Skylark 7C-2 - Alternate name for Raven 7.
Skylark 8 - British sounding rocket. Skylark version with Stonechat booster and Waxwing second stage motor. Never built.
Skylark 9 - British sounding rocket. Skylark single-stage version with Stonechat motor. This would make it similar to the Falstaff test version. Never built.
Skylon - British single-stage-to-orbit, horizontal-takeoff-horizontal-landing turborocket orbital launch vehicle design of the mid-1990's. The novel lightweight structural design was based on lessons learned in the many iterations of the HOTOL concept. The classified Sabre turbojet-rocket combined-cycle engine was taken to a high level of test by Alan Bond at Rolls Royce. Despite the extreme promise of the design, neither British government or private financing was forthcoming. Nevertheless design improvement and component test was still continuing 20 years later. Status: Cancelled 1995. Gross mass: 275,000 kg (606,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 54,319 kg (119,752 lb). Payload: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Thrust: 1,300.00 kN (292,200 lbf).
SKYM - Television broadcast satellite series for Sky Mexico, a joint venture of DirecTV and Mexico's Televisa.
Skynet - Alternate designation for Skynet Palo Alto.
Skynet - British military communications satellite network. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-01-19. Last Launch: 1974-11-23. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 129 kg (284 lb).
Skynet 5 - British military communications satellite. One launch, 2008.06.12. The Skynet 5 program contract was signed by the EADS subsidiary Paradigm Secure Communications Ltd and the UK MOD in October 2003. Status: Operational 2008.
Skynet Palo Alto - Brazilian agency.
SkySat - Commercial imaging satellite by the US company Skybox. The satellite produced sub-meter resolution imagery and high-definition video. It could capture up to 90-second video clips at 30 frames per second. The resolution was high enough to view objects like shipping containers while maintaining not tracking human activity. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-11-21. Last Launch: 2014-07-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 90 kg (198 lb).
Skyterra - GeoMobile class satellite with a 22-meter L-band reflector. Used the HS 702 bus.
SL- - Space launcher (designation numbering series - US DoD); or Skylab mission (designation numbering series); or SpaceLab (designation numbering series)
SL 3 MPESS -
SL-1 - Alternate designation for Sputnik 8K71PS.
SL-10 - Alternate designation for Sputnik 11A59.
SL-11 - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-2.
SL-11 - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-2A.
SL-12 - Alternate designation for Proton-K/D.
SL-12 - Alternate designation for Proton-K/DM-2.
SL-12 - Alternate designation for Proton-K/D-1.
SL-12 - Alternate designation for Proton-K/DM.
SL-12 - Alternate designation for Proton-K/DM-2M.
SL-12 - Alternate designation for Proton-K/17S40.
SL-12 - Alternate designation for Proton-K/D-2.
SL-12 - Alternate designation for Proton K/D.
SL-13 - Alternate designation for Proton-K.
SL-13 - Alternate designation for Proton K.
SL-14 - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-3.
SL-15 - Alternate designation for N1 1964.
SL-15 - Alternate designation for N1 1969.
SL-15 - Alternate designation for N1.
SL-16 - Alternate designation for Zenit-2.
SL-17 - Alternate designation for Energia.
SL-18 - Alternate designation for Start.
SL-18 - Alternate designation for Start-1.
SL-2 - Alternate designation for Sputnik 8A91.
SL-3 - Alternate designation for Vostok 8K72.
SL-3 - Alternate designation for Vostok 8K72K.
SL-3 - Alternate designation for Vostok-L 8K72.
SL-3 - Alternate designation for Vostok 8A92.
SL-3 - Alternate designation for Vostok 8A92M.
SL-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz-U.
SL-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511.
SL-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511M.
SL-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz-ST-B.
SL-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A514.
SL-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz ST / Fregat ST.
SL-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz-FG.
SL-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz-U2.
SL-4 - Alternate designation for Voskhod 11A57.
SL-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511L.
SL-5 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A510.
SL-5 - Alternate designation for Vostok 11A510.
SL-6 - Alternate designation for Molniya 8K78.
SL-6 - Alternate designation for Molniya 8K78M.
SL-7 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 63S1M.
SL-7 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 63S1.
SL-7 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K63.
SL-8 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K65.
SL-8 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K65M.
SL-8 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 65MP.
SL-8 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 65S3.
SL-9 - Alternate designation for UR-500.
SLA - Spacecraft-lunar module adapter; also spacecraft launch vehicle adapter
SLA - Satellite launched from GAS canister.
SLA-1/GAS -
SLAM - American intercontinental Mach-3-at-sea-level cruise missile, powered by a nuclear ramjet. Development begun 1957. Cancelled 1964 over cost and environmental concerns. Status: Cancelled 1964.
SLAR - Abbreviation for Side-Looking Airborne Radar
Slavuta - Base for units deployed with two R-5 launchers.
Slayton - American test pilot astronaut 1959-1982. Status: Deceased; Active 1959-1982. Born: 1924-03-01. Died: 1993-06-13. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.06 days.
SLBM - Abbreviation for Submarine-launched ballistic missile
SLC - Abbreviation for Space Launch Complex
SLC-1 - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Nanosat air-launched orbital vehicle which would be dropped from a boosted F-4 carrier aircraft. Status: Study 2003. Payload: 20 kg (44 lb).
Sled Technology - Rocketdyne LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Pressure-fed. From 35,000 to 150,000 lbf. Cook Sled, Air Force Sleds 1 and 2, RS-2 Sled, operated at Edwards and Holloman Air Force Bases. Date: 1950's. Thrust: 666.00 kN (149,722 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
Sled-Launched - Category of launch vehicles.
slew - To change the direction of an antenna or telescope in order to follow a moving target, or to change from one target to another.
SLI - Abbreviation for Space Launch Initiative
Slonim - Base for units deployed with twelve R-12, and later nine Pioner missile launchers.
SLOSHSAT - Dutch technology satellite. Test satellite to study the sloshing of fluids in zero gravity, developed by the Netherlands Aerospace Laboratory. Equipped with a tank with 33.5 liters of water and an attitude control system. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-02-12. Last Launch: 2005-02-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 127 kg (279 lb).
Slovak AF - Slovak Air Force.
Slovakia - Slovakia
Slovenia - Slovenia
SLP - Spacelab pallet, used for mounting of instruments in shuttle payload bay. Versions designated OSTA, OSS, ASTRO, ATLAS, ORU, and MPESS were adaptations for various purposes. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-11-12. Last Launch: 1997-02-11. Number: 26 .
SLRV - Alternate designation for Bendix SLRV.
SLS - Alternate designation for SLS (abbreviation).
SLS - American orbital launch vehicle. In the mid-1950's, US Air Force-funded studies identified the optimum long-term solution for space launch. The studies indicated the desirability of segmented solids for a first stage to achieve low cost, high reliability and flexibility of basic booster size by adding or subtracting segments. Studies further showed that oxygen-hydrogen propellants, with their very high specific impulse, were a preferred choice for upper stages, where mass was more important. This choice also resulted in minimum systems cost. Status: Study 1960.
SLS (abbreviation) - Space(lab) Life Sciences
SLS 1 - Alternate designation for SLS Stage A.
SLS 2 - Alternate designation for SLS Stage B.
SLS A-388 - American orbital launch vehicle. The A-388 was the version of the Space Launching System family proposed to fill the SLV-4 requirement - boost to orbit of the Dynasoar manned spaceplane. The booster was dubbed 'Phoenix' - perhaps a hope it could be rescued from the ashes of the manned space program having been turned over to NASA.... Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 243,000 kg (535,000 lb). Payload: 9,070 kg (19,990 lb). Thrust: 3,776.50 kN (848,991 lbf).
SLS A-410 - American orbital launch vehicle. The smallest identified member of the SLS family, selected to place the Air Force Lunex lunar lander re-entry vehicle in a low earth orbit for initial tests, was the A-410. This consisted of the 'A' LOx/LH2 stage supplemented by 100-inch diameter solid fuel booster rockets. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 420,000 kg (920,000 lb). Payload: 9,070 kg (19,990 lb). Thrust: 7,553.00 kN (1,697,981 lbf).
SLS AB-825 - American orbital launch vehicle. The AB-825 represented a medium launch vehicle of the USAF 1961 Space Launching System family. The AB-825 would have conducted earth orbit tests of partially-fuelled Lunex lunar lander stages, and also have boosted the Lunex manned glider on circumlunar test flights. It consisted of the 'A' stage and 'B' stages with 180 inch diameter short-length solid fuel booster motors. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 1,000,000 kg (2,200,000 lb). Payload: 39,460 kg (86,990 lb). Thrust: 14,700.00 kN (3,304,600 lbf).
SLS BC-2720 - American orbital launch vehicle. The BC-2720 was the member of the SLS family selected to boost the Air Force Lunex lunar lander on a direct lunar trajectory. This would have used four 180 inch solid rocket boosters strapped around an the 'C' LOx/LH2 core vehicle. The core would have required either 12 J-2 engines or 2 M-1 engines. The translunar injection third stage was the 'B', with a single J-2 engine. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 2,600,000 kg (5,700,000 lb). Payload: 158,800 kg (350,000 lb). Thrust: 30,000.00 kN (6,744,000 lbf).
SLS SRB 2720 - Solid propellant rocket stage. Four such 180 inch segmented solid rocket motors provided first stage thrust for Project Lunex. A liquid propellant first stage was considered as an alternative, but the solid stage was the baseline. Empty mass, specific impulse estimated. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 366,716 kg (808,470 lb). Unfuelled mass: 56,000 kg (123,000 lb). Thrust: 8,130.00 kN (1,827,690 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SLS SRB 388 - Solid propellant rocket stage. Booster for SLS A series launch vehicles. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 88,000 kg (194,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Thrust: 2,083.90 kN (468,479 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SLS Stage A - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Smallest LOx/LH2 stage planned for SLS series. Empty mass estimated. Sized for rail transport within USA. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 59,000 kg (130,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 889.33 kN (199,928 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
SLS Stage B - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Translunar injection stage for Project Lunex. Masses estimated based on optimum apportioning of B+C stage total masses. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 160,000 kg (350,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11,200 kg (24,600 lb). Thrust: 1,778.65 kN (399,857 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
SLS Stage C - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Launch vehicle core stage for Project Lunex. Masses estimated based on optimum apportioning of B+C stage total masses. Thrust, engines estimated based on requirements. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 825,000 kg (1,818,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 58,000 kg (127,000 lb). Thrust: 10,673.32 kN (2,399,458 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Slush LH2 - Slush hydrogen is formed by taking liquid hydrogen down to nearly the melting point. This produces a partly-solidified but still mobile version of the fuel with 20% greater density than liquid hydrogen itself. Proposed for use from the 1980's in air-breathing and rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit vehicles where maximization of fuel weight to empty weight is absolutely essential.
Slutsk - Base for units deployed with nine Pioner launchers.
SLV - Alternate designation for SLV (abbreviation).
SLV - Indian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1983. Gross mass: 17,610 kg (38,820 lb). Payload: 40 kg (88 lb). Thrust: 454.90 kN (102,266 lbf).
SLV (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Standard launch vehicle
SLV-1 - ISRO solid rocket engine. Used on ASLV, PSLV, SLV. First flight 1979. Status: Retired 1983. Number: 64 . Gross mass: 10,800 kg (23,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,140 kg (4,710 lb). Thrust: 502.60 kN (112,989 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SLV-1 - Alternate designation for KT-1.
SLV-2 - Alternate designation for Thor SLV-2 Agena D.
SLV-2 - Alternate designation for Thor Agena A.
SLV-2 - Alternate designation for Thor Agena B.
SLV-2 - Alternate designation for KT-2.
SLV-2 - ISRO solid rocket engine. Used on ASLV, SLV. First flight 1979. ASLV second stage. Status: Retired 1983. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,750 kg (3,850 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SLV-2 - Alternate designation for Thor Agena D.
SLV-2A - Alternate designation for KT-2A.
SLV-2A - Alternate designation for Thor SLV-2A Agena D.
SLV-2C - Alternate designation for Thor SLV-2A Agena B.
SLV-2G - Alternate designation for Thorad SLV-2G Agena D.
SLV-2H - Alternate designation for Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
SLV-3 - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3 Agena B.
SLV-3 - Alternate designation for SLV-3 engine.
SLV-3 - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3 Agena D.
SLV-3 - Indian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SLV-3-1 + 1 x SLV-3-2 + 1 x SLV-3-3 + 1 x SLV-3-4 Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1979-08-10. Last Launch: 1983-04-17. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Payload: 42 kg (92 lb). Thrust: 503.00 kN (113,078 lbf).
SLV-3 - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3.
SLV-3 Agena B - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3 Agena B.
SLV-3 D4 - Indian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SLV-3-1 + 1 x SLV-3-2 + 1 x SLV-3-3 + 1 x AS-4 Payload: 42 kg (92 lb).
SLV-3 engine - ISRO solid rocket engine. Used on ASLV, SLV. First flight 1979. ASLV third stage. Status: Retired 1983. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 440 kg (970 lb). Thrust: 90.70 kN (20,390 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SLV-3A - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3A Agena D.
SLV-3C - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
SLV-3D - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
SLV-4 - ISRO solid rocket engine. Used on ASLV, SLV. First flight 1979. ASLV fourth stage. Status: Retired 1983. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 360 kg (790 lb). Unfuelled mass: 98 kg (216 lb). Thrust: 26.80 kN (6,025 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SLV-5 - Alternate designation for Titan II SLV.
SLV-5 - Alternate designation for Titan 2G.
SLV-5A - Alternate designation for Titan IIIA.
SLV-5A - Alternate designation for Titan 3A.
SLV-5B - Alternate designation for Titan IIIB.
SLV-5B - Alternate designation for Titan 3B.
SLV-5C - Alternate designation for Titan IIIC.
SLV-5C - Alternate designation for Titan 23C.
SLV-5C - Alternate designation for Titan 3C.
SLV-5D - Alternate designation for Titan IIID.
SLV-5D - Alternate designation for Titan 3D.
SLV-5E - Alternate designation for Titan IIIE.
SLV-5E - Alternate designation for Titan 3E.
SM - Service module (Apollo spacecraft component)
SM Logistic Lander - Alternate designation for Apollo SMLL lunar logistics spacecraft.
SM-1ER-1 - Alternate name for Terrier Mk12 Mod 1.
SM-1ER-2 - Alternate name for Mk 30.
SM-2 - Status: Retired 2007. First Launch: 1998-07-01. Last Launch: 2007-04-26. Number: 5 .
SM-2-IV - American surface-to-air missile. Extended-range surface-to-air missile for use by AEGIS naval vessels. A version with lower tier anti-missile capability against tactical ballistic missiles was tested but not put into production. Status: Active. First Launch: 1992-12-01. Last Launch: 2009-03-26. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb).
SM-2-IV-1 - Alternate name for Mk 72.
SM-3 - American surface-to-air missile with anti-ballistic missile capability using the LEAP homing vehicle for use by AEGIS naval vessels. Modification for anti-satellite use demonstrated in 2008. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-09-24. Last Launch: 2015-10-20. Number: 31 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
SM3 TSRM - Thiokol solid rocket engine. SM-3 third stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 7.00 kN (1,574 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SM-3 TSRM - Alternate designation for SM3 TSRM.
SM-3 TSRM - Alternate designation for SM-3-3 rocket stage.
SM-3-2 - Alternate name for Mk 104.
SM-3-3 - Alternate name for SM3 TSRM.
SM-3-IB - Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-09-01. Last Launch: 2014-11-06. Number: 9 .
SM-62 - Alternate designation for Snark.
SM-64A - Alternate designation for Navaho G-38.
SM-65A - Alternate designation for Atlas A.
SM-65B - Alternate designation for Atlas B.
SM-65C - Alternate designation for Atlas C.
SM-65E - Alternate designation for Atlas E CGM-16E.
SM-65F - Alternate designation for Atlas F HGM-16F.
SM-68A - Alternate designation for Titan I.
SM-68A - Alternate designation for Titan 1.
SM-75 - Alternate designation for Thor.
SM-78 - Alternate designation for Jupiter IRBM.
SM-80A - Alternate designation for Minuteman 1A.
Smakula - German expert in guided missile infra-red guidance during World War II. After the war worked for the US Army at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.
Small Astronomy Satellite - Alternate designation for SAS solar satellite.
Small Expendable-tether Deployer System. - Alternate designation for SEDS tether technology satellite.
Small Explorer - A series of relatively low-cost satellites launched by NASA for solar and astronomical studies.
Small Scientific Satellite - Alternate designation for SSS earth magnetosphere satellite.
Small Self-Contained Payloads - Manufacturer's designation for GAS technology satellite.
SMAP - The Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite, carried a 6-m L-band antenna for synthetic aperture radar and radiometry measurements to map microwave emissions from water molecules in the soil. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-01-31. Last Launch: 2015-01-31. Number: 1 .
SMART-1 - European lunar orbiter. Insat 3E. ESA's SMART-1 was to test miniaturization technology while exploring the Moon from orbit. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-09-27. Last Launch: 2003-09-27. Number: 1 .
SMC - Air Force Space and Missiles Command; or Small Magellanic Cloud
SMDC - American agency. U. S. Army Space & Missile Defense Center (U. S. ), USA
SMDC - Operational Nanosatellite Experiment; Cubesat for the US Army Space and Missile Defense Center
SME - American solar satellite. The Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite was developed to investigate the processes that create and destroy ozone in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-10-06. Last Launch: 1981-10-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 437 kg (963 lb).
SMEX - SMall EXplorers series of satellites.
SMEX - Manufacturer's designation for SWAS infrared astronomy satellite and [SWAS] solar satellite.
Smirenny - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1972-1986. Medical Doctor. Graduated from Moscow Physical-Engineering Institute, 1956. Civilian Physician, Institute of Biological Medical Problems. Chief of a laboratory at IMBP. Status: Inactive; Active 1972-1986. Born: 1932-10-25.
Smirnitskiy - Russian officer. Commander of GURVO 1967-1975. Thereafter moved to Ministry of General Machine Building. Born: 1918-08-09. Died: 1993-04-15.
Smirnov - Russian government official. Chaired the Military-Industrial Commission 1963-1985. Director of Yuzhmash Plant 1952-1961. Born: 1916-04-16.
Smith - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1986. Died in Challenger accident. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1986. Born: 1945-04-30. Died: 1986-01-28. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.0008 days.
Smith Ranch Lake DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone. RW03/21 used for emergency landings.
Smith Ranch Lake DZ RW03/21 - Alternate name for Smith Ranch Lake DZ.
Smith, Steven - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1992-2005. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2005. Born: 1958-12-30. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 40.01 days.
SMM - American solar satellite. The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) was intended primarily to study solar flares and related phenomena. Status: Operational 1980. First Launch: 1980-02-14. Last Launch: 1980-02-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,315 kg (5,103 lb).
Smorgon - Base for units deployed with 18 Pioner launchers.
SMOS - Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission, obtaining climate-related data using a microwave aperture-synthesis interferometer. Used the Proteus bus.
SMPKT - System for Increased Quality Assurance (Russian abbreviation)
SMRM-FSS - Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite repair payload carried on the STS-41-C shuttle mission.
SMS - Alternate designation for SMS (abbreviation).
SMS - American earth weather satellite. Synchronous Meteorological Satellite. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-05-17. Last Launch: 1975-02-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 627 kg (1,382 lb).
SMS (abbreviation) - Shuttle Mission Simulator. NASA had two programmable, functional replicas of the shuttle cockpit, used to train astronauts in all manner of abort scenarios and multiple equipment breakdowns. Only the first simulator run and the last simulator run before each mission would expose each crew to a nominal mission.
SN - SuperNova (e.g., SN1987A)
SN-100 - VHF messaging relay satellites for Orbcomm. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-10-08. Last Launch: 2014-07-14. Number: 7 .
SNAP - Surrey Nanosatellite Applications Platform; alternate designation for SSTL-10.
SNAP - Space Nuclear Applications Program. Series of US launches to test nuclear radioisotope generators and nuclear reactors in space.
Snapshot - Alternate designation for Snapshot engine.
Snapshot - American ion engine technology satellite. Carried SNAP-9A nuclear power source. The on-board reactor provided electrical power for a 2.2-lb ion engine. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-04-03. Last Launch: 1965-04-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 440 kg (970 lb).
Snapshot engine - EOS electric/cesium rocket engine. In Development, 1962-1964. Launched on Blue Scout Junior launch vehicle on Snapshot test; a contact ionization engine; thruster anode diameter was 5 cm. Status: In Development, 1962-1964.. Date: 1964. Thrust: 0.0085 N (0.0019 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Cesium.
Snark - American intercontinental subsonic cruise missile. Developed 1946-1959; deployed only briefly in 1961 before being made obsolete by ICBM's. The control and navigation technology developed for it during the 1950's provided the basis for later Northrop navigation systems used in strategic ballistic missiles. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1953-08-06. Last Launch: 1960-12-05. Number: 90 . Gross mass: 27,177 kg (59,915 lb). Payload: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Thrust: 1,156.20 kN (259,924 lbf).
Snark-1 - Alternate name for ABL Snark JATO.
SNECMA - French manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. SNECMA, France.
SNECMA (SN d'Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d'Aviation) Moteurs - Alternate name for SNECMA.
SNG - Sodruzhestva Nezabisimikh Gosudarst, Commonwealth of Independent States, Russia (Russian abbreviation)
SNIP - Pressurization Control System (Russian abbreviation)
Snipe - RO solid rocket engine. Fulmar second stage. Status: Retired 1994. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 58 kg (127 lb). Thrust: 16.00 kN (3,596 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Snipe - Alternate designation for R-31.
SNLE - Alternate name for Bay of Biscay Launch Area.
SNOE - American technology satellite. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-02-26. Last Launch: 1998-02-26. Number: 1 .
SNORT - Supersonic Naval Ordnance Research Track
SNP Jericho - Sud solid rocket engine. Dragon second stage. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SNPE - French manufacturer of rocket engines. Société Nationale des Poudres et Explosifs, France.
SNR - Abbreviation for Signal to Noise Ratio
SNTK imeni N. D. Kuznetsova - Third name of Kuznetsov bureau.
SNU - Abbreviation for Solar Neutrino Units
SO - Orientation System (Russian abbreviation)
SO-250 - ISAS solid rocket engine. S-250 first stage. Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Propellants: Solid.
SOBIS - Simultaneous emptying of tanks (Russian abbreviation)
Sobol - Alternate designation for RM-207.
SOBT - Quality Assurance System (Russian abbreviation)
Soci\'et\'e d'Etudes de la Propulsion par Reaction - Alternate name for SEPR.
Soci\'et\'e Europeene des Satellites, Luxembourg - Alternate name for SES.
Soci\'et\'e pour l'etude et la r\'ealisation d'engins ballistiques - Alternate name for SEREB.
Societe Nationale de Poudres et Explosifs (SNPE) - Alternate name for SNPE.
SOCRATES - Microsatellite for the Japanese communications research lab NICT, with a laser communications experiment. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-05-24. Last Launch: 2014-05-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Sodruzhestvo - Joint Kazakh-Russian-Ukrainian project announced in 2000 to produce an 'ecologically safe' replacement of the Proton booster that would use Energia launch facilities at Baikonur. No details available, and no more heard about it. Status: Design 2000. Payload: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
SOFIA - Abbreviation or acronym for Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy
software - (Computer) programs and formulation of programs.
Sohae - Alternate name for Tongchang-ri.
SOHLA - Japanese military surveillance radar satellite. Satellite built by the Space Oriented Higashi-osaka Leading Association, Osaka, carrying a cloud cover imager. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-01-23. Last Launch: 2009-01-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Sohn - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France as part of the engine group at LRBA from 1947-1957, then returned to Germany.
SOHO - European solar satellite. SOHO was a component of the Collaborative Solar-Terrestrial Research (COSTR) Program of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-12-02. Last Launch: 1995-12-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,850 kg (4,070 lb).
SOICAL - American military target satellite. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-09-30. Last Launch: 1969-09-30. Number: 2 .
Sojourner - Alternate name for Mars Pathfinder.
SOK - Jettisonable support cone
SOKB - Union Experimental Design Bureau (Russian abbreviation)
Sokol - Russian space suit. The first Russian space suit was designed for the Vostok cosmonauts in 1959-1961. It was adapted for use as the first extravehicular activity suit in 1964. Korolev expected cosmonauts would not normally need pressure suits. The loss of the Soyuz 11 crew in 1971 in a cabin depressurization proved that to be a fatal error, and the Sokol was redesigned in a crash program to provide Soyuz astronauts protection during ascent and return from orbit. The simple design proved so successful it remained in use into the 21st Century, and became the basis for the Chinese space suit as well.
Sokol - Alternate designation for Potok military communications satellite.
Sokol (Falcon ) - Alternate name for Vostok 3.
Sokol (Falcon ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 9.
Sokol (Falcon) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 9.
Sokol (Falcon) - Alternate designation for Vostok 3.
Sokol SK-1 - Russian space suit, operational 1961 for the Vostok spacecraft. Status: operational 1961.
Sokol-K1 - Russian space suit, operational 1971. After the Soyuz 11 tragedy, in which all three unsuited cosmonauts died in a decompression accident, the Soviets scrambled to produce new IVA suits. Status: operational 1971. Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb).
Sokol-KV2 - Russian space suit, operational 1990. Improved version of the Sokol IVA suit developed for use aboard Soyuz T. Status: operational 1990.
Sokolov - Russian officer. Director of Nll-4 during the early space program 1955-1970. Born: 1910-10-30. Died: 1976-02-05.
Sokolova - Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Pilot. Selected as a cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but on 3 March 1962 her selection was rejected by the government commission. In 1965 she set the world speed record for a female pilot while flying a MIG-21. Status: Inactive. Born: 1938.
Sokolovskiy - Russian engineer. From 1996 general designer and director of NPO Iskra in Perm. Designer of solid propellant rocket engines.
Sokovykh - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1986. Born: 1944-01-12.
Solar - Alternate designation for Solar thermal.
Solar - Category of spacecraft.
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory - Alternate designation for SOHO solar satellite.
Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer - Alternate designation for SAMPEX earth magnetosphere satellite.
SOLAR B - Code name for Hinode solar satellite.
Solar Explorer - Solar radiation data satellite, part of the IQSY series.
Solar Maximum Mission - Alternate designation for SMM solar satellite.
Solar Mesosphere Explorer - Alternate designation for SME solar satellite.
Solar orbit - Category of spacecraft.
Solar thermal - By use of concentrating mirrors, solar power can be used to heat a propellant (usually hydrogen) to produce thrust in space.
solar wind - Streams of particles (mostly ions of hydrogen and helium, and electrons ) emanating from the Sun and flowing approximately radially outward at velocities from 300 to 800 km per sec.
Solar/LH2 - Solar/LH2 propellant. By use of concentrating mirrors, solar power can be used to heat a propellant (usually hydrogen) to produce thrust in space. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks.
Solaris X - American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Interorbital Systems of Mojave, California. Status: Study 2004.
Soleil - Alternate name for Soleil Mammouth.
Soleil Mammouth - French solid rocket engine. 1500 kg Isolane propellant. Used on Topaze launch vehicle. First flight 1962. Thrust: 120.00 kN (26,970 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Soleil NA803 - Nord solid rocket engine. 2200 kg Isolane propellant. Stretched version of the NA802. Used on Topaze launch vehicle. First flight 1964. Thrust: 147.00 kN (33,046 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Solid - Solid propellants have the fuel and oxidizer embedded in a rubbery matrix. They were developed to a high degree of perfection in the United States in the 1950's and 1960's. In Russia, development was slower, due to a lack of technical leadership in the area and rail handling problems
Solid Rocket Booster - Alternate designation for SRB.
Solid Rocket Booster - Alternate designation for Shuttle SRB rocket stage.
Solidaridad - Designation of series of Australian communications satellites launched by Tele Mex.
Sologub - Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1968. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1968. Born: 1936-11-06. Died: 1996-08-04.
Solomonov - Russian engineer. From 1997 Director and General Designer of Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology. Solid propellant missile designer.
Solovova - Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Selected as a cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but in March 1962 her selection was rejected by the government commission. Status: Inactive.
Solovyev - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1963-1992 of KB TransMash Designed missile and booster launch complexes.
Solovyov - Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1976-1999. 651 cumulative days in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1976-1999. Born: 1948-01-16. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 651.00 days.
Solovyov, V I - Russian engineer. Head of the KB Transport Mechanical Engineering (KB TM) 1963-1991. KB TM developed launch equipment and complexes for a range of missiles, including the R-36 heavy ICBM.
Solovyov, Vladimir - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1994. Member of first crew to fly between two space stations during a single mission. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1994. Born: 1946-11-11. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 361.95 days.
Solovyova - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969. Status: Inactive; Active 1962-1969. Born: 1937-09-06.
Solrad - American solar satellite. SOLRAD was Satellite Techniques' first major project and NRL's first post-Vanguard satellite. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-03-05. Last Launch: 1976-03-15. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 170 kg (370 lb).
Solrad - Alternate designation for GRAB military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Solstice - Solar irradiance monitoring, climatology mission. Launch delayed from December 1 and 13, 2002. Air dropped in Mayport DZ. Used SORCE bus.
Soltan - American orbital launch vehicle. The progenitor of the Titan 3 was this design, which used two, 3 segment, 100 inch diameter solid rocket boosters. The 100 inch segmented boosters had already been ground-fired by Aerojet. However the final decision was to develop the more-capable Titan 3C with 5 segment, 120 inch diameter solid rocket boosters. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 388,560 kg (856,620 lb). Payload: 8,030 kg (17,700 lb). Thrust: 6,021.00 kN (1,353,574 lbf).
Solwind - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Ionosphere and magnetosphere studies; destroyed 9/13/85 (while still functioning) as part of ASAT test. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-02-24. Last Launch: 1979-02-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,331 kg (2,934 lb).
SO-M - Manufacturer's designation for Prognoz earth magnetosphere satellite.
SO-M2 - Manufacturer's designation for Prognoz-M earth magnetosphere satellite.
SOMP - Student Oxygen Measurement 1U Cubesat from Technical University of Dresden. Mission: Education, testing software defined radio, measuring atomic oxygen concentration, demonstrating TFSC .
Sonda - Brazilian sounding rocket, missile, and orbital launch vehicle using various arrangements of solid rocket motors up to 1.01 m in diameter. Status: Active.
Sonda 1 - Alternate designation for Sonda 1 engine.
Sonda 1 - Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sonda 1-1 + 1 x Sonda 1-2 Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1965-04-01. Last Launch: 1966-11-12. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf).
Sonda 1 Booster - IAE solid rocket engine. S-10 first stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Sonda 1 engine - IAE solid rocket engine. S-10 second stage. Status: Retired 1966. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Thrust: 4.20 kN (944 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Sonda 2 - Brazilian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1996. First Launch: 1973-09-26. Last Launch: 1996-08-28. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 36.00 kN (8,093 lbf).
Sonda 3 - Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sonda 3-1 + 1 x Sonda 2A Status: Active. First Launch: 1976-02-26. Last Launch: 2002-05-12. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 102.00 kN (22,930 lbf).
Sonda 3 M1 - Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sonda 3-1 + 1 x Sonda 2M Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 102.00 kN (22,930 lbf).
Sonda 4 - Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x S-43 + 1 x Sonda 3-1 Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1984-11-21. Last Launch: 1989-03-28. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Thrust: 203.00 kN (45,636 lbf).
Sonde Stromfjord - The Danish Meteorological Institute established this sounding rocket range in 1971. The site was located next to an airport at the end of the fjord and was only occupied during launch campaigns. The location was well-suited for observation of the Arctic aurora and ionosphere. First Launch: 1971-08-22. Last Launch: 1987-03-31. Number: 31 .
Sonde Stromfjord DL - Danish Launcher
Sonde Stromfjord HAD - HAD Launcher
Sonde Stromfjord HAD3 - HAD Launcher No 3
Sonde Stromfjord MRL - MRL Launcher
Sonde Stromfjord T - Test Launcher
Song Jian - Chinese Engineer. Theoretician that made important contributions to Chinese missile and satellite control systems. Updated Qian Xuesen's primary textbook for Chinese rocket engineers.
Songlin - Alternate name for Xichang.
Sonmiani - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1962-06-07. Last Launch: 2013-04-10. Number: 113 .
Sope - Abbreviation for Simulated off-the-pad ejection
SORCE - American solar satellite. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-01-25. Last Launch: 2003-01-25. Number: 1 .
Sorlie - American test pilot, 1962-1973. Flights of the M2-F2. Colonel, USAF Selected as a military astronaut candidate in 1973. Later made flights of the M2-F2 lifting body. Retired on 30 June 1973. Status: Inactive. Born: 1923-05-13.
Sorokin - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1964. Soviet Air Force Physician. On the staff of the cosmonaut training center, working in the field of aerospace medicine. Later head of department at several scientific institutes. Status: Deceased; Active 1964-1964. Born: 1931-03-30. Died: 1976-01-23.
Sortie Vehicle - American manned spacecraft, launched from atop a Boeing 747. DARPA study of 1982. Status: Study 1982.
SOUD - System of Orientation and Motion Control (Russian abbreviation)
Sounding Rocket - Taiwanese sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-12-15. Last Launch: 2014-10-07. Number: 8 .
Sounding Rocket Motor - Manufacturer's designation of T-7A Booster Solid rocket engine.
Sounding Rocket-1 - Alternate name for NSPO Booster.
Sounding Rocket-2 - Alternate name for NSPO Sustainer.
SOURCE - need summary - see links
South Africa - South Africa
South China - Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 1995, reaching up to 100 kilometers altitude.
South Uist - British missile test range, occupying a good portion of northwest South Uist island in the Hebrides. Aside from missile testing, it has also been used for launch of Skua and Petrel meteorological rockets. First Launch: 1962-01-01. Last Launch: 1982-03-23. Number: 226 .
Southend - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1980-02-15. Last Launch: 1980-02-23. Number: 2 .
Southwest Regional Spaceport - Alternate name for Spaceport America launch site.
SovCanStar - Russian communications satellite. Study 1990. One of the early Russian-Western satellite programs was SovCanStar, a 1990 joint venture with Canada. Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb).
Sovetskaya Gavan - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1963-08-09. Last Launch: 1964-08-26. Number: 6 .
Sovetskaya Molodyozh - Sovetskaya Molodyozh, Russian newspaper.
Soviet Conquest from Space - The story of Soviet space stations in Earth orbit - Korolev's star wars of 1963!
Soviet Lunar Landing - The Russians were never able to have enough success with the N1 booster to have a serious schedule for the first Soviet lunar landing. In January 1969, before the first N1 launch, it was not expected that a Soviet landing would take place until 1972 at the earliest. Launched: June 1972. Number crew: 2 .
Soviet Space Secrets - James Oberg lists those secrets remaining to be disclosed...
Soviet Space Stations - Category of spacecraft.
Sovietsk - Base for units deployed with R-12 missiles.
Soyuz - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511.
Soyuz - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511L.
Soyuz - Alternate designation for Soyuz-U2.
Soyuz - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511M.
Soyuz - Alternate designation for Soyuz-U.
Soyuz - The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design remained in use with the International Space Station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011.
Soyuz (Almaz) 12 - Planned first crew to the first Almaz space station. Cancelled after the loss of control of Almaz OPS 1 (Salyut 2) in orbit. Launched: 1972 June. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz (Almaz) 13 - Planned second crew to the first Almaz space station. Cancelled after the loss of control of Almaz OPS 1 (Salyut 2) in orbit. Launched: 1972 June. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz (Union ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 19 (ASTP).
Soyuz (Union) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 19 (ASTP).
Soyuz 1 - Space disaster that put back Soviet lunar program 18 months. Soyuz 1 was to dock with Soyuz 2 and transfer crew. Instead Soyuz 1 solar panel didn't deploy; manual reentry; tangled parachute lines; astronaut killed on impact with earth. Launched: 1967-04-23. Returned: 1967-04-24. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 1.12 days.
Soyuz 10 - Intended first space station mission. Hard dock with station could not be achieved. Then stuck and could separate from the station only after repeated attempts. Toxic fumes in air supply during landing overcame one astronaut. Launched: 1971-04-23. Returned: 1971-04-25. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 1.99 days.
Soyuz 11 - First space station mission. Record flight duration. Main telescope inoperative. Fire in space station put out. Fail-safe valve opening during re-entry, resulted in decompression and death of entire crew. Launched: 1971-06-06. Returned: 1971-06-29. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 23.77 days.
Soyuz 11A510 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of R-7 launch vehicle with Vostok second stage and unknown third stage used only twice to launch prototype RORSATs. These satellites were originally to have been launched on the cancelled UR-200 launcher, and operational satellites used Tsyklon-2 launchers. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1965-12-27. Last Launch: 1966-07-20. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 275,000 kg (606,000 lb). Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 4,037.70 kN (907,711 lbf).
Soyuz 11A511 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standardized launch vehicle designed to replace a proliferation of earlier models (8K72, 8A91, 8K74, 8K78, 11A57). Designed initially to support launch of the Soyuz complex (7K manned, 9K rocket stage, and 11k tanker) and Zenit-4 reconnaissance satellite. Later 'U' model extended to cover a range of follow-on satellites. Compared to 11A57, the telemetry system was reduced in mass to no more than 150 kg, and engines were cherry-picked for the vehicle core to ensure that specific impulse was no less than 252 seconds at sea level, 315 in vacuum. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1966-11-28. Last Launch: 1976-10-14. Number: 32 . Gross mass: 308,000 kg (679,000 lb). Payload: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Thrust: 4,037.70 kN (907,711 lbf).
Soyuz 11A511-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 43,000 kg (94,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,550 kg (7,820 lb). Thrust: 994.30 kN (223,528 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz 11A511-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 100,500 kg (221,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Thrust: 977.70 kN (219,796 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz 11A511-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 25,400 kg (55,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Thrust: 294.00 kN (66,093 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz 11A511L - Russian orbital launch vehicle. 11A511 with reinforced second stage, large fairing for earth orbit test of LK lunar lander. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1970-11-24. Last Launch: 1971-08-12. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 300,000 kg (660,000 lb). Payload: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Thrust: 4,054.00 kN (911,375 lbf).
Soyuz 11A511M - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of the Soyuz-M began in 1967 to launch the 6.6 metric ton Soyuz 7K-VI manned military spacecraft into a 65-degree inclination earth orbit. The spacecraft was cancelled, but development continued, and eight Soyuz-M's were built and used to launch Zenit-4MT reconnaissance satellites in 1971-1976. It has been said that these missions flew elements of the 11A511U modifications (such as the 11D511/11D512 variants of the RD-107/8 engines). Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1971-12-27. Last Launch: 1976-03-31. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 300,000 kg (660,000 lb). Payload: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Thrust: 4,054.00 kN (911,375 lbf).
Soyuz 11A511U - Alternate designation for Soyuz-U.
Soyuz 11A511U / Fregat - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Fregat upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for Lavochkin interplanetary probes. Status: Design 2000. Gross mass: 305,000 kg (672,000 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 4,030.00 kN (905,980 lbf).
Soyuz 11A511U / Ikar - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Ikar upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for the Kozlov Yantar series of spy satellites. Status: Design 1999. Gross mass: 305,000 kg (672,000 lb). Payload: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb). Thrust: 4,030.00 kN (905,980 lbf).
Soyuz 11A511U-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Gross mass includes 1190 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 280 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. Status: Design 2000. Gross mass: 44,500 kg (98,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,784 kg (8,342 lb). Thrust: 994.30 kN (223,528 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz 11A511U-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Current version. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. Status: Design 2000. Gross mass: 105,400 kg (232,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,875 kg (15,156 lb). Thrust: 997.09 kN (224,155 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz 11A511U2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz-U2.
Soyuz 11A511U-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: In production.. Gross mass: 25,200 kg (55,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,355 kg (5,191 lb). Thrust: 298.10 kN (67,016 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz 11A511U2-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1996. Gross mass: 42,810 kg (94,370 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,550 kg (7,820 lb). Thrust: 996.30 kN (223,977 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz 11A511U2-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1996. Gross mass: 101,160 kg (223,010 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Thrust: 1,011.00 kN (227,281 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz 11A511U2-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 2007. Gross mass: 25,400 kg (55,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Thrust: 298.10 kN (67,016 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz 11A514 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Soyuz launcher with increased payload, designed to launch Soyuz R military reconnaissance satellite. Cancelled along with the Soyuz R project in 1966. Unknown differences to standard Soyuz to reach payload requirement of circa 6700 kg to 65 degree orbit. Status: Development ended 1966. Payload: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb).
Soyuz 11K55 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Soyuz launcher envisioned for the cancelled Soyuz B translunar rocket stage. Status: Design 1963.
Soyuz 11K56 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Soyuz launcher envisioned for the cancelled Soyuz V tanker spacecraft. Status: Design 1963.
Soyuz 12 - Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Launched: 1973-09-27. Returned: 1973-09-29. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 1.97 days.
Soyuz 12 / DOS 1 - If the Soyuz 11 crew had not perished during return to the earth, the Leonov crew would have been sent for a second visit to the Salyut 1 space station. A 30-day mission duration was planned. Launched: 1971 July 15-20. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz 12 / DOS 2 - Planned first mission to the Salyut DOS 2 space station. Cancelled after DOS 2 was destroyed during launch. Launched: 1972 August. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz 12 / DOS 3 - Planned first mission to the Salyut DOS 3 space station (Cosmos 557). Cancelled after Cosmos 557 failed in orbit. Launched: 1973 June. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz 13 - First Byelorussian astronaut. First space mission devoted to a single scientific instrument. A unique flight of the 7K-T/AF modification of the Soyuz spacecraft. The orbital module was dominated by the large Orion 2 astrophysical camera. Launched: 1973-12-18. Returned: 1973-12-26. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.87 days.
Soyuz 13 / DOS 2 - Planned second mission to the Salyut DOS 2 space station. Cancelled after DOS 2 was destroyed during launch. Launched: 1972 October. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz 13 / DOS 3 - Planned second mission to the Salyut DOS 3 space station (Cosmos 557). Cancelled after Cosmos 557 failed in orbit. Launched: 1973 September. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz 14 - First military space station mission. Manned military reconnaissance of the earth's surface, assessing the fundamental value of such observations, and some supplemental medico-biological research. Launched: 1974-07-03. Returned: 1974-07-19. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 15.73 days.
Soyuz 15 - Second phase of manned operations aboard the Salyut 3 military space station, aborted when the Igla rendezvous system electronics failed and no docking was made. Launched: 1974-08-26. Returned: 1974-08-28. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 2.01 days.
Soyuz 16 - ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz systems modified for Apollo-Soyuz docking in space. Launched: 1974-12-02. Returned: 1974-12-08. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 5.93 days.
Soyuz 16A - Planned but cancelled third mission to the Salyut 3 space station. Launched: 1974 October. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz 17 - First successful Russian civilian space station mission. Docked with Salyut 4. Launched: 1975-01-11. Returned: 1975-02-10. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 29.56 days.
Soyuz 18 - Docked with Salyut 4. Launched: 1975-05-24. Returned: 1975-07-26. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 62.97 days.
Soyuz 18-1 - First manned spaceflight abort. During launch third stage separation failed to occur. Crew aborted to 20 G landing in mountains near Chinese border, sliding down a slope towards a cliff until their parachute snagged on a tree. Launched: 1975-04-05. Returned: 1975-04-05. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 0.0149 days.
Soyuz 19 (ASTP) - First docking between two spacecraft launched from different nations. Culmination of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, a post-moon race 'goodwill' flight to test a US/Soviet common docking system. Launched: 1975-07-15. Returned: 1975-07-21. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 5.94 days.
Soyuz 2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz-ST-B.
Soyuz 21 - Military space station mission. Hand-docked with the Salyut 5 station after failure of automated Igla system. Crew member became psychotic and mission was returned to earth from space station early. Toxic gases in station were suspected. Launched: 1976-07-06. Returned: 1976-08-24. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 49.27 days.
Soyuz 22 - Surplus Soyuz ASTP spacecraft modified with a multi-spectral camera manufactured by Carl Zeiss-Jena in place of the universal docking apparatus. Eight days were spent photographing the earth. Launched: 1976-09-15. Returned: 1976-09-23. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.91 days.
Soyuz 23 - Docking with Salyut 5 military station aborted due to electronics failure. Crew nearly froze to death after an emergency landing in a lake in a blizzard at -20 deg C. It took hours before the capsule could be dragged to shore. Launched: 1976-10-14. Returned: 1976-10-16. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 2.00 days.
Soyuz 24 - The mission, although a short 18 days, was characterized as a busy and successful mission, accomplishing nearly as much as the earlier Soyuz 21's 50 day mission. First complete change of cabin atmosphere for a space station. Launched: 1977-02-07. Returned: 1977-02-25. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 17.73 days.
Soyuz 25 - Unsuccessful mission. Failed to dock with Salyut 6 due to damage to spacecraft's docking mechanism. Launched: 1977-10-09. Returned: 1977-10-11. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 2.03 days.
Soyuz 25A - Mission to the Salyut 5 space station, cancelled when fuel reserves aboard the station were 70 kg below those required for the planned 14 day mission. Launched: 1977 July. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz 26 - Record flight duration. First mission to receive visiting crews launched aboard another spacecraft, and to be resupplied by a logistics spacecraft. First Soviet EVA since Voskhod 2. First Main Expedition aboard Salyut 6. Launched: 1977-12-10. Returned: 1978-03-16. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 96.42 days.
Soyuz 26A - Planned mission to Salyut 6 that would make first docking with rear docking port and be the first crew to swap spacecraft and return in the spacecraft that ferried the Soyuz 25 crew. But Soyuz 25 failed to dock with Salyut 6. Launched: 1977 Late. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz 27 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 26.
Soyuz 27 - First docking to a space station of two manned spacecraft at one time. First station 'lifeboat' swap. First crew to visit another already aboard a space station. Launched: 1978-01-10. Returned: 1978-01-16. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 5.96 days.
Soyuz 27 - Flight back of Salyut 6 EO-1 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz 28 - First Czech astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1978-03-02. Returned: 1978-03-10. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.93 days.
Soyuz 29 - Record flight duration. Docked with Salyut 6. First transfer of a Soyuz from the aft port to the front port of a space station. Launched: 1978-06-15. Returned: 1978-11-02. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 139.62 days.
Soyuz 2A - Soyuz 2 was planned to launch the day after Soyuz 1, to dock with it and transfer crew. Instead Soyuz 1 solar panel didn't deploy; manual reentry; tangled parachute lines; death of cosmonaut. Soyuz 2 cancelled. Launched: 1967 April. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz 3 - Second manned Soyuz flight. Rendezvoused with the unmanned Soyuz 2 but failed to dock, blamed on manual control by cosmonaut who repeatedly overrode automatic systems, and used nearly all of his orientation fuel in his first attempt to dock. Launched: 1968-10-26. Returned: 1968-10-30. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 3.95 days.
Soyuz 30 - First Polish astronaut. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1978-06-27. Returned: 1978-07-05. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.92 days.
Soyuz 31 - First German astronaut. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1978-08-26. Returned: 1978-09-03. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.87 days.
Soyuz 32 - Record flight duration. Docked with Salyut 6. Repaired the propulsion system, which had sprung leaks. Launched: 1979-02-25. Returned: 1979-08-19. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 175.02 days.
Soyuz 33 - First Bulgarian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1979-04-10. Returned: 1979-04-12. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 1.96 days.
Soyuz 34 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 32.
Soyuz 34 - Flight back of Salyut 6 EO-3 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz 35 - Record flight duration. Docked with Salyut 6. Launched: 1980-04-09. Returned: 1980-10-11. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 184.84 days.
Soyuz 36 - First Hungarian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1980-05-26. Returned: 1980-06-03. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.87 days.
Soyuz 37 - First Vietnamese astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1980-07-23. Returned: 1980-07-31. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.86 days.
Soyuz 38 - First Cuban astronaut. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1980-09-18. Returned: 1980-09-26. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.86 days.
Soyuz 39 - First Mongolian astronaut. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1981-03-22. Returned: 1981-03-30. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.86 days.
Soyuz 4 - First Russian docking. Mission successfully completed the simulated lunar orbit docking and crew transfer mission attempted by Soyuz 1 in April 1967. Two crew from Soyuz 5 returned in Soyuz 4. Launched: 1969-01-14. Returned: 1969-01-17. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 2.97 days.
Soyuz 4 - Flight back of Soyuz 4/5 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz 4/5 - First crew transfer in space. Two crew from Soyuz 5 returned in Soyuz 4. Suit hung up on attempt to exit and flow of oxygen shut off; diverted crew, resulting in no film of the world's first space crew transfer. Launched: 1969-01-15. Returned: 1969-01-17. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 1.99 days.
Soyuz 40 - First Rumanian astronaut. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1981-05-14. Returned: 1981-05-22. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.86 days.
Soyuz 5 - Flight up of Soyuz 4/5 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz 5 - Two crew transferred to and returned in Soyuz 4. Remaining astronaut barely survived nose-first reentry of Soyuz 5, still attached to its service module. Launched: 1969-01-15. Returned: 1969-01-18. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 3.04 days.
Soyuz 5 (Khrunov, Yeliseyev) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 4/5 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz 5 (Volynov) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 5 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz 6 - First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. First vacuum welding in space. Rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft, scrubbing three-way spacecraft rendezvous mission. Launched: 1969-10-11. Returned: 1969-10-16. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 4.95 days.
Soyuz 7 - First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. The spacecraft was to have docked with Soyuz 8 and exchanged one crew member from each spacecraft while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft. Launched: 1969-10-12. Returned: 1969-10-17. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 4.94 days.
Soyuz 7K-L1 - Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. The Soyuz 7K-L1, a modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK, was designed for manned circumlunar missions. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-03-10. Last Launch: 1970-10-20. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 5,680 kg (12,520 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,980 kg (10,970 lb). Thrust: 4.17 kN (937 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1 - Planned first manned circumnavigation of the moon. It was decided after the American Apollo 8 lunar orbital flight in December 1968 to cancel any 'second place' Soviet manned circumlunar flights. Launched: 1969 March. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2 - Planned second Soviet circumlunar flight. Cancelled after the success of the American Apollo 8. Launched: 1969 May. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 3 - Planned third and final Russian circumlunar flight. Cancelled after the success of the American Apollo 8 in December 1968. Launched: 1969 July. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz 7K-L1 PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Modification of Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 1967. Gross mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 4.17 kN (937 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Soyuz 7K-L1 SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Increased heat shield protection and presumably reaction control system propellant for re-entry from lunar distances. Reentry capsule. Status: Operational 1967. Gross mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb).
Soyuz 7K-L1 SOK - Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Separates before trans-lunar injection. Jettisonable support cone. Status: Operational 1967. Gross mass: 180 kg (390 lb).
Soyuz 7K-L1A - Russian manned lunar orbiter. Hybrid spacecraft used in N1 launch tests. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-02-21. Last Launch: 1969-07-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6,900 kg (15,200 lb).
Soyuz 7K-L1E - Russian manned lunar orbiter. Modification of Soyuz circumlunar configuration used in propulsion tests of the Block D stage. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-11-28. Last Launch: 1970-12-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 10,380 kg (22,880 lb).
Soyuz 7K-L1S - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-L1A manned lunar orbiter.
Soyuz 7K-LOK - Russian manned lunar orbiter. The two-crew LOK lunar orbiting spacecraft was the largest derivative of Soyuz developed. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-06-26. Last Launch: 1972-11-23. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 9,850 kg (21,710 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,698 kg (14,766 lb). Thrust: 33.22 kN (7,469 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Soyuz 7K-LOK BO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Living section. Status: Operational 1971. Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
Soyuz 7K-LOK SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Increased heat shield protection and presumably reaction control system propellant for re-entry from lunar distances. Reentry capsule. Status: Operational 1971. Gross mass: 2,804 kg (6,181 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,704 kg (5,961 lb).
Soyuz 7K-MF6 - Russian manned spacecraft. Soyuz 22. Soyuz 7K-T modified with installation of East German MF6 multispectral camera. Used for a unique solo Soyuz earth resources mission. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-09-15. Last Launch: 1976-09-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6,510 kg (14,350 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,010 kg (13,240 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz 7K-MF6 BO - Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. MKF6 Camera replaced docking system and Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system deleted. Four windows, BO separated after retrofire. Living section. Status: Operational 1976. Gross mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb).
Soyuz 7K-MF6 PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 1976. Gross mass: 2,610 kg (5,750 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,110 kg (4,650 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz 7K-MF6 SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. Status: Operational 1976. Gross mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb).
Soyuz 7K-OK - Russian manned spacecraft. Development of a three-manned orbital version of the Soyuz, the 7K-OK was approved in December 1963. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-11-28. Last Launch: 1970-06-01. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 6,560 kg (14,460 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,060 kg (13,360 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz 7K-OK BO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Heavy-duty male/female docking system with no internal transfer tunnel. Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Living section. Status: Operational 1966. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
Soyuz 7K-OK PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 1966. Gross mass: 2,650 kg (5,840 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz 7K-OK SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Post-Soyuz 1 modification, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Analogue sequencer and computers operate spacecraft. Reentry capsule. Status: Operational 1966. Gross mass: 2,810 kg (6,190 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,765 kg (6,095 lb).
Soyuz 7K-OK Tether - Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1965. Korolev was always interested in application of artificial gravity for large space stations and interplanetary craft. He sought to test this in orbit from the early days of the Vostok program. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 6,400 kg (14,100 lb).
Soyuz 7K-OKS BO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Lightweight male/female docking system with roller-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Living section. Status: Operational 1971. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
Soyuz 7K-OKS PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 1971. Gross mass: 2,890 kg (6,370 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,390 kg (5,260 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz 7K-OKS SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Post-Soyuz 1 modification, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Analogue sequencer and computers operate spacecraft. Reentry capsule. Status: Operational 1971. Gross mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,755 kg (6,073 lb).
Soyuz 7K-S - Russian manned spacecraft. The Soyuz 7K-S had its genesis in military Soyuz designs of the 1960's. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-08-06. Last Launch: 1976-11-29. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Soyuz 7K-T - Russian manned spacecraft. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-06-26. Last Launch: 1981-05-14. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz 7K-T BO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Lightweight male/female docking system with roller-type probe, internal transfer tunnel (Collar Length: 0.22 m. Probe Length: 0. Living section. Status: Operational 1972. Gross mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb).
Soyuz 7K-T PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 1972. Gross mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz 7K-T SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. Status: Operational 1972. Gross mass: 2,850 kg (6,280 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,805 kg (6,183 lb). Payload: 1,355 kg (2,987 lb).
Soyuz 7K-T/A9 - Russian manned spacecraft. Version of 7K-T for flights to Almaz. Known difference with the basic 7K-T included systems for remote control of the Almaz station and a revised parachute system. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-05-27. Last Launch: 1978-06-27. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz 7K-TK - Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1966. To deliver crews to the Soyuz R 11F71 station Kozlov developed the transport spacecraft 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK. Status: Cancelled 1966. Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb).
Soyuz 7K-TM - Russian manned spacecraft. The Soyuz 7K-T as modified for the docking with Apollo. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-04-03. Last Launch: 1975-07-15. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 6,680 kg (14,720 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz 7KT-OK - Russian manned spacecraft. This was a modification of Soyuz 7K-OK with a lightweight docking system and a crew transfer tunnel. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-04-22. Last Launch: 1971-06-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,290 kg (13,860 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz 8 - First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. The spacecraft was to have docked with Soyuz 7 and exchanged one crew member from each spacecraft while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft. Launched: 1969-10-13. Returned: 1969-10-18. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 4.95 days.
Soyuz 9 - Record flight duration. Head-over-heels rotation of Soyuz to conserve fuel and lack of exercise resulted in terrible condition of astronauts on return. The Soviets almost reconsidered their space station plans as a result. Launched: 1970-06-01. Returned: 1970-06-19. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 17.71 days.
Soyuz A - Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1962. The 7K Soyuz spacecraft was initially designed for rendezvous and docking operations in near earth orbit, leading to piloted circumlunar flight. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 5,880 kg (12,960 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,050 kg (11,130 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz A BO - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Original design with notional docking system with no probe and internal transfer tunnel. Living section. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Soyuz A PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system but with no base flange for a shroud. Equipment-engine section. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,570 kg (3,460 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz A SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Original Soyuz design, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Reentry capsule. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 2,480 kg (5,460 lb).
Soyuz A-1 - Planned Soyuz circumlunar mission. Soyuz would dock with a refueled rocket stage and be accelerated on a loop around the moon. Cancelled in mid-1964 due to delays in Soyuz and decision to race Americans to moon landing. Launched: June 1965. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz A-2 - The planned second manned Soyuz circumlunar mission in 1965 would have been commanded by Bykovsky. The cosmonauts trained docking with the 9K and 11K rocket stages for months before the mission concept was dumped in August 1964. Launched: July 1965. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz A-3 - Planned manned circumlunar flight with a female cosmonaut. Popovich was to have been accompanied by female cosmonaut Ponomaryova in what would have been the first mixed crew flight to the moon in 1965. The program was cancelled in August 1964. Launched: August 1965. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz A-4 - Planned fourth Soyuz circumlunar mission. Cancelled August 1964. Launched: September 1965. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz Almaz 4 - Planned Soyuz flight to dock with the Almaz OPS 4 space station. The mission was cancelled together with the Almaz program in 1981. Launched: 1982 First half. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz ASTP BO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Universal docking system designed for ASTP with three petaled locating system and internal transfer tunnel. No automated rendezvous and docking system. Living section. Status: Operational 1974. Gross mass: 1,224 kg (2,698 lb).
Soyuz ASTP PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 1974. Gross mass: 2,654 kg (5,851 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,154 kg (4,748 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz ASTP SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. Status: Operational 1974. Gross mass: 2,802 kg (6,177 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,757 kg (6,078 lb).
Soyuz B - Russian space tug. Study 1962. In the definitive December 1962 Soyuz draft project, the Soyuz B (9K) rocket acceleration block would be launched into a 225 km orbit by a Soyuz 11A511 booster. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 5,900 kg (13,000 lb).
Soyuz Buran Support - Planned Soyuz flight to Mir. Main purpose was to provide spaceflight experience to Bachurin and Borodai, who had been selected as back-up crew of the first manned Buran flight (the original back-up crew of Levchenko and Shchukin both died in 1988). Cancelled in cut-backs after fall of the Soviet Union. Launched: 1991 December. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz Circumlunar - Alternate designation for DSE-Alpha manned lunar flyby spacecraft.
Soyuz FG - Alternate designation for Soyuz-ST-B.
Soyuz FG - Alternate designation for Soyuz-FG.
Soyuz Kontakt - Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1974. Modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft to test in earth orbit the Kontakt rendezvous and docking system. Status: Cancelled 1974. Gross mass: 6,560 kg (14,460 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,060 kg (13,360 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Soyuz Kontakt A - Final crews selected for a dual Soyuz mission in Earth orbit to test the Kontakt docking system to be used on the lunar landing LOK and LK spacecraft. The Kontakt-A Soyuz would have been the active spacecraft, simulating the LOK lunar orbiter. Launched: 1973 Early. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz Kontakt P - Final crews selected for a dual Soyuz mission in Earth orbit to test the Kontakt docking system to be used on the lunar landing LOK and LK spacecraft. The Kontakt-P Soyuz would have been the passive spacecraft, simulating the LK lunar lander. Launched: 1973 Early. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz M - Rus project was to result in first major propulsion upgrade to R-7 family in forty years, using first stage engines derived from those developed for Zenit second stage to boost performance. It would have permitted launches from Plesetsk with same or greater payload than launch of standard Soyuz-U from Baikonur, permitting move of more launch operations back onto Russian territory. Instead the more modest Soyuz ST / Soyuz FG upgrades were made. Status: Development ended 2000. Gross mass: 309,180 kg (681,620 lb). Payload: 7,900 kg (17,400 lb). Thrust: 4,334.30 kN (974,389 lbf).
Soyuz M - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-TM manned spacecraft.
Soyuz M-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Development ended 2000. Gross mass: 42,200 kg (93,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 872.00 kN (196,033 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz M-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Proposed improved version. Not developed. Status: Development ended 2000. Gross mass: 100,500 kg (221,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 872.00 kN (196,033 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz M-3 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Empty mass estimated. Multiple restart engine. Status: Development ended 2000. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz MS - Russian three-crew manned spacecraft. Evolved from the Soyuz TMA incorporating numerous minor improvements identified over time. New digital computer, more redundancy in attitude control and docking systems, modernized electronics and solar power.
Soyuz MS-01 - ISS Expedition EO-48. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2016-07-07. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz n 17 - Cancelled 16 day mission with Soyuz n 17 to conduct rendezvous and docking operations and demonstrate life support system for the LK manned lunar lander. Launched: November 1969. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz n 18 - Cancelled 16 day mission with Soyuz n 18 to conduct rendezvous and docking operations and demonstrate life support system for the LOK manned lunar orbiter. Launched: November 1969. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz n 19 - The active spacecraft in the second planned test of the Kontakt lunar rendezvous/docking system. These would have been 15 to 16 day missions to demonstrate both the new SZhO life support system for the L3, to conduct rendezvous and docking operations using the L3's Kontakt system, and to conduct EVA transfer of one cosmonaut. Launched: February-March 1970. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz n 20 - Passive spacecraft in the second planned test of the Kontakt lunar rendezvous/docking system. One or two of the crew would have spacewalked to the Soyuz 11 Kontakt and returned in the other spacecraft. Launched: February-March 1970. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz OB-VI - Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1970. In December 1967 OKB-1 chief designer Mishin managed to have Kozlov's Soyuz VI project killed. In its place he proposed to build a manned military station based on his own Soyuz 7K-OK design. Status: Cancelled 1970. Gross mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb).
Soyuz P - Russian manned combat spacecraft. Study 1963. In December 1962 Sergei Korolev released his draft project for a versatile manned spacecraft to follow Vostok. The Soyuz A was primarily designed for manned circumlunar flight. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb).
Soyuz PPK - Russian manned combat spacecraft. Study 1964. The Soyuz 7K-PPK (pilotiruemiy korabl-perekhvatchik, manned interceptor spacecraft) was a revised version of the Soyuz P manned satellite inspection spacecraft. Status: Study 1964. Gross mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb).
Soyuz R - Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1966. A military reconnaissance version of Soyuz, developed by Kozlov at Samara from 1963-1966. It was to consist of an the 11F71 small orbital station and the 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK manned ferry. Status: Cancelled 1966. Gross mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb).
Soyuz s/n 14 - Alternate name for Soyuz sn 14.
Soyuz s/n 15+16 - As of February 1969 Soyuz s/n 15 and 16 were set for a mission with a total of 5 cosmonauts aboard in August-September 1969. They would have remained docked together for three days. Launched: August-September 1969. Number crew: 5 .
Soyuz s/n 18 - Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 18 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz s/n 19 - Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 19 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz s/n 20 - Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 20 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz s/n 21 - Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 21 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz s/n 22 - Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 22 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz s/n 23 - Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 23 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz s/n 3/4 - Prior to the Soyuz 1 disaster, planned second dual Soyuz manned docking mission. Crew Komarov, Bykovsky, Khrunov, and Yeliseyev. Launched: Spring 1967. Number crew: 4 .
Soyuz s/n 5/6 - Prior to the Soyuz 1 disaster, planned third dual Soyuz manned docking mission. Launched: Summer 1967. Number crew: 4 .
Soyuz s/n 7 - Prior to Soyuz 1 disaster, planned solo Soyuz mission to test Vulkan space welding device. Commander was to be either Komarov, Bykovsky, Gagarin, Nikolayev, Beregovoi, or Shatalov. The other two crewmembers were to be either Lankin and Fartushny from the Paton Institute, VVS cosmonaut Kolodin, or an engineer from OKB-1. Launched: Fall 1967. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz sn 14 - As of February 1969 Soyuz s/n 14 was set for a solo seven day mission in April-May 1969. The spacecraft and crew were reassigned to the three-spacecraft Soyuz 6/7/8 mission and flew as Soyuz 6. Launched: April-May 1969. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz sn 18 - Soyuz s/n 18 would have been the active spacecraft of the first dual-spacecraft test of the Kontakt docking system. A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Launched: 1972 Early. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz sn 19 - Soyuz s/n 19 was to have been equipped with the passive Kontakt rendezvous/docking system of the LK lunar lander. It would have been the docking target for Soyuz s/n 18. A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Launched: 1972 Early. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz sn 20 - Soyuz s/n 20 would have been the active spacecraft of the second dual launch to test the Kontakt lunar orbit rendezvous system. A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Launched: 1972 Early. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz sn 21 - Soyuz s/n 21 equipped with the passive Kontakt rendezvous/docking system of the LK lunar lander. Would have served as a docking target for Soyuz s/n 20 . A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Launched: 1972 Early. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz sn 22 - Soyuz s/n 22 would have been the active spacecraft of the second dual launch to test the Kontakt lunar orbit rendezvous system. A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Launched: 1972. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz sn 23 - Soyuz s/n 23 would have been equipped with the passive Kontakt rendezvous/docking system of the LK lunar lander. The spacecraft would have served as a docking target for Soyuz s/n 22. Launched: 1972. Number crew: 1 .
Soyuz ST - Alternate designation for Soyuz-ST-B.
Soyuz ST / Fregat ST - Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Uses Fregat upper stage. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-12-18. Last Launch: 2015-09-11. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 305,000 kg (672,000 lb). Payload: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Thrust: 4,144.70 kN (931,766 lbf).
Soyuz ST-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Gross mass includes 1190 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 280 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. Status: In production. Gross mass: 44,400 kg (97,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,810 kg (8,390 lb). Thrust: 1,021.10 kN (229,552 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz ST-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. Status: In production. Gross mass: 105,400 kg (232,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,875 kg (15,156 lb). Thrust: 999.60 kN (224,719 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz ST-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: In production. Gross mass: 25,200 kg (55,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,355 kg (5,191 lb). Thrust: 294.00 kN (66,093 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Soyuz T - Russian manned spacecraft. Soyuz T had a long gestation, beginning as the Soyuz VI military orbital complex Soyuz in 1967. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-04-04. Last Launch: 1986-03-13. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,150 kg (13,550 lb). Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Soyuz T BO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Living section. Status: Operational 1978. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
Soyuz T PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Improved PAO service module derived from Soyuz 7K-S with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 1978. Gross mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,050 kg (4,510 lb). Thrust: 3.09 kN (694 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Soyuz T SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Significantly improved Soyuz re-entry capsule, based on development done in Soyuz 7K-S program. Accommodation for crew of three in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. Status: Operational 1978. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Soyuz T-10 - Record flight duration. Crew entered the failed darkened station carrying flashlights. Reactivated station, attempted propellant system repairs. After their departure the unoccupied space station abruptly ceased communicating. Launched: 1984-02-08. Returned: 1984-10-02. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 236.95 days.
Soyuz T-10-1 - First manned pad abort. Launch vehicle blew up on pad, crew rescued by launch escape tower, which pulled their capsule away at 20 G's. Launched: 1983-09-26. Returned: 1983-09-26. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 0.0001 days.
Soyuz T-11 - First Indian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1984-04-03. Returned: 1984-04-11. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 7.90 days.
Soyuz T-12 - First woman to walk in space, accomplished for propaganda purposes ahead of plans for NASA female astronaut EVA. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1984-07-17. Returned: 1984-07-29. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 11.80 days.
Soyuz T-13 - See Soyuz T-13 EO-4-b [flights:Salyut 7 EO-4-1b] and [flights:Salyut 7 EO-4-1b] manned spaceflights.
Soyuz T-13 (Dzhanibekov) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-13 EO-4-b manned spaceflight.
Soyuz T-13 (Savinykh) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-13 EO-4-a manned spaceflight.
Soyuz T-13 EO-4-a - First manned operations in a second space station module. The three-man EO-4 TKS-3 crew conducted military experiments with the Cosmos-1686 module. Mission was cut short due to an incapacitating psychological condition developed by Vasyutin. Launched: 1985-06-06. Returned: 1985-11-21. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 168.16 days.
Soyuz T-13 EO-4-b - First docking with and repair of dead-in-space station. Crew carried out emergency repairs. Launched: 1985-06-06. Returned: 1985-09-26. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 112.13 days.
Soyuz T-13A - Planned mission to operate military experiments aboard Salyut 7. Cancelled due to technical and personnel problems aboard station. Launched: 1985 March. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz T-14 - See Soyuz T-14 Salyut 7 EP-5 [flights:Salyut 7 EP-5] and [flights:Salyut 7 EP-5] manned spaceflights.
Soyuz T-14 (Grechko) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-14 Salyut 7 EP-5 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz T-14 (Vasyutin, Volkov Aleksandr) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-14 EO-4-c manned spaceflight.
Soyuz T-14 EO-4-c - First manned operations in a second space station module. The three-man EO-4 TKS-3 crew conducted military experiments with the Cosmos-1686 module. Mission was cut short due to an incapacitating psychological condition developed by Vasyutin. Launched: 1985-09-17. Returned: 1985-11-21. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 64.91 days.
Soyuz T-14 Salyut 7 EP-5 - Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station and conduct an inspection of the repairs conducted the Soyuz T-13 crew. Launched: 1985-09-17. Returned: 1985-09-26. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 8.88 days.
Soyuz T-15 - First spacecraft to fly between two space stations. Epic repair mission. Crew first docked with new Mir station. After six weeks commissioning, flew to dead Salyut 7, returned it to life, recovered experiments. Returned to Mir before returning to earth. Launched: 1986-03-13. Returned: 1986-07-16. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 125.00 days.
Soyuz T-15A - Final 'civilian' expedition to Salyut 7 station with Buran pilot aboard for spaceflight familiarization was cancelled when control of the station was lost. Launched: 1986 Early. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz T-15B - Cancelled second crew to operate TKS-3 military experiments aboard Salyut 7. These had been left uncompleted with the early return of the EO-4-2 crew due to Vasyutin's illness. Launched: 1986 June. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz T-15C - To have docked with Mir. Cancelled all-female flight to be launched on International Woman's Day. Breakdown of Salyut 7, exhaustion of stock of Soyuz T spacecraft, and official resistance led to cancellation of the mission. Launched: 1986 September. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz T-2 - Test flight of new Soyuz T spacecraft; docked with Salyut 6. Launched: 1980-06-05. Returned: 1980-06-09. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 3.93 days.
Soyuz T-3 - Docked with Salyut 6. Tested the improved Soyuz T; carried out repair and preventive maintenance work and some scientific and technical investigation and experiments. Launched: 1980-11-27. Returned: 1980-12-10. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 12.80 days.
Soyuz T-3A - Planned but cancelled manned flight. Crew dissolved when Lazarev failed physical in early 1981. Launched: 1980 November. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz T-4 - Docked with Salyut 6. Carried out repair and preventive maintenance work and some scientific and technical investigation and experiments. Launched: 1981-03-12. Returned: 1981-05-26. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 74.73 days.
Soyuz T-5 - Record flight duration. Ejected a 28-kg amateur radio satellite from a Salyut 7 trash airlock; called this the first launch of a communications satellite from a manned space vehicle. Launched: 1982-05-13. Returned: 1982-12-10. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 211.38 days.
Soyuz T-6 - First French astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1982-06-24. Returned: 1982-07-02. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 7.91 days.
Soyuz T-7 - Second woman in space, launched for propaganda purposes ahead of first flight of NASA female astronauts aboard the shuttle. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1982-08-19. Returned: 1982-08-27. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 7.91 days.
Soyuz T-8 - Unsuccessful mission. Igla approach system antenna was damaged during ascent; failed to rendezvous with Salyut 7. Further attempts to man Salyut 7 could not take place for two months because of launch and abort lighting constraints. Launched: 1983-04-20. Returned: 1983-04-22. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 2.01 days.
Soyuz T-9 - Docked with Salyut 7. Unloaded cargo from Cosmos 1443; loaded 350 kg of payload into it for return to earth. Launched: 1983-06-27. Returned: 1983-11-23. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 149.45 days.
Soyuz TM - Russian manned spacecraft. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-05-21. Last Launch: 2002-04-25. Number: 34 . Gross mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,350 kg (13,990 lb). Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Soyuz TM BO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system . Living section. Status: Operational 1986. Gross mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb).
Soyuz TM PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Further improvement of Soyuz T PAO service module with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 1986. Gross mass: 2,950 kg (6,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,070 kg (4,560 lb). Thrust: 6.20 kN (1,393 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Soyuz TM SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Significantly improved Soyuz re-entry capsule, based on development done in Soyuz 7K-S program. Accommodation for crew of three in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. Status: Operational 1986. Gross mass: 2,850 kg (6,280 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,805 kg (6,183 lb). Payload: 1,355 kg (2,987 lb).
Soyuz TM-10 - Mir Expedition EO-7. Carried out a relatively modest program of geophysical and astrophysical research, biological and biotechnological experiments, and work on space-materials science. Launched: 1990-08-01. Returned: 1990-12-10. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 130.86 days.
Soyuz TM-11 - Mir Expedition EO-8. crew of V M Afanasyev, M Kh Manarov was transported to the Mir orbital station by Soyuz TM-11, together with T Akiyama (Japan) for the purpose of carrying out joint work with the cosmonauts G M Manakov and G M Strekalov. The launch was funded jointly with the private Japanese company TBS. The Japanese television network ended up paying $ 28 million for the first commercial flight to Mir to put Akiyama, the first journalist in space aboard Soyuz TM-11. Akiyama returned to earth on Soyuz TM-10 with the Mir EO-7 crew after a week in space. Launched: 1990-12-02. Returned: 1991-05-26. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 175.08 days.
Soyuz TM-11 (Afanasyev, Manarov) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-11.
Soyuz TM-11 (Afanasyev, Manarov) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-8 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-11 (Akiyama) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-11 Kosmoreporter manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-11 Kosmoreporter - First Japanese astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1990-12-02. Returned: 1990-12-10. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 7.91 days.
Soyuz TM-12 - Docked with Mir; Expedition EO-09. Launched: 1991-05-18. Returned: 1991-10-10. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 144.64 days.
Soyuz TM-12 (Artsebarsky) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-12.
Soyuz TM-12 (Artsebarsky) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-9 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-12 (Krikalyov) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-12 (Sharman) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-12 Juno manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-12 Juno - First British astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats. Launched: 1991-05-18. Returned: 1991-05-26. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 7.88 days.
Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3 - Krikalyov arrived aboard Mir on Soyuz TM-12 as part of the EO-9 crew. However when economic and political priorities resulted in the engineer being bumped from Soyuz TM-13, he stayed aboard for an extended stay as part of the EO-10 crew. Launched: 1991-05-18. Returned: 1992-03-25. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 311.83 days.
Soyuz TM-13 - Mir Expedition EO-10. Only Russian EO crewmember left after a paying British passenger was found and political necessity of flying a Kazakh cosmonaut. EO-9 crew Krikalyov stayed aboard as the other EO-10 crewmember. Launched: 1991-10-02. Returned: 1992-03-25. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 175.12 days.
Soyuz TM-13 (Aubakirov, Viehboeck) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-13 Austromir manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-13 (Volkov Aleksandr) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-13.
Soyuz TM-13 (Volkov Aleksandr) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-10 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-13 Austromir - First Austrian astronaut. First Kazakh astronaut. Swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Launched: 1991-10-02. Returned: 1991-10-10. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.93 days.
Soyuz TM-13A - Soyuz TM-13 and TM-14 crews were reshuffled extensively due to commercial considerations and necessity of flying a Kazakh cosmonaut. This was the original crew assignment. Kaleri and Avdeyev were replaced by Kazakh researchers in the final crew. Launched: 1991 August. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz TM-14 - Mir Expedition EO-11. Launched: 1992-03-17. Returned: 1992-08-10. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 145.59 days.
Soyuz TM-14 (Flade) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-14 Mir 92 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-14 (Kaleri, Viktorenko) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-14.
Soyuz TM-14 (Kaleri, Viktorenko) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-11 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-14 Mir 92 - German 'Mir 92' flight to the Russian space station. Swapped Soyuz lifeboats at station. Launched: 1992-03-17. Returned: 1992-03-25. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 7.91 days.
Soyuz TM-14A - Soyuz TM-13 and TM-14 crews were reshuffled extensively due to commercial seat bookings by Austria and Germany and the necessity of flying a Kazakh-born cosmonaut as part of the Baikonur rental agreement. This was the original crew assignment. The Kazakh researchers were moved to the earlier Soyuz TM-13 flight. Launched: 1991 End. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz TM-14B - Soyuz TM-13 and TM-14 crews were reshuffled extensively due to commercial seat bookings by Austria and Germany and the necessity of flying a Kazakh-born cosmonaut as part of the Baikonur rental agreement. This was the second crew assignment. The Kazakh researchers were moved to the earlier Soyuz TM-13 flight and paying German researchers took their place in the final crew. Launched: 1991 End. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz TM-15 - Mir Expedition EO-12. In-orbit record for a Soyuz spacecraft. Launched: 1992-07-27. Returned: 1993-02-01. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 188.90 days.
Soyuz TM-15 (Avdeyev, Solovyov) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-15.
Soyuz TM-15 (Avdeyev, Solovyov) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-12 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-15 (Tognini) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-15 Antares manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-15 Antares - French astronaut; primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats at station. Launched: 1992-07-27. Returned: 1992-08-10. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 13.79 days.
Soyuz TM-16 - Mir Expedition EO-13. Soyuz carried the APAS androgynous docking system instead of the usual probe system. Launched: 1993-01-24. Returned: 1993-07-22. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 179.03 days.
Soyuz TM-17 - Mir Expedition EO-14. Launched: 1993-07-01. Returned: 1994-01-14. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 196.74 days.
Soyuz TM-17 (Haignere) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-17 Altair manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-17 (Serebrov, Tsibliyev) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-17.
Soyuz TM-17 (Serebrov, Tsibliyev) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-14 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-17 Altair - French astronaut; primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats at station. Launched: 1993-07-01. Returned: 1993-07-22. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 20.67 days.
Soyuz TM-18 - Mir Expedition EO-15. Launched: 1994-01-08. Returned: 1994-07-09. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 182.02 days.
Soyuz TM-18 (Afanasyev, Usachyov) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-18.
Soyuz TM-18 (Afanasyev, Usachyov) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-15 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-18 (Polyakov) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4 - Polyakov set a manned spaceflight record by spending over a year aboard Mir, during which he was part of three Mir crews (EO-15, EO-16, and EO-17). Launched: 1994-01-08. Returned: 1995-03-22. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 437.75 days.
Soyuz TM-19 - Mir Expedition EO-16. Soyuz TM-19 docked at the rear port of the Kvant module (vacated by Progress M-23 on July 2) at 13:55:01 GMT on July 3. Soyuz TM-19 undocked from Mir at 07:29 GMT on November 4. The Soyuz instrument module (PAO, priborno-agregatniy otsek) fired its deorbit engine, and was jettisoned together with the orbital module (BO, bitovoy otsek) at 10:51 GMT, with entry interface for the descent module (SA, spuskaemiy apparat) at 10:54. It landed 170 km north-east of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan on 1994 November 4 at 11:18 GMT. Launched: 1994-07-01. Returned: 1994-11-04. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 125.95 days.
Soyuz TM-2 - Laveykin returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 after concerns developed about his health. Launched: 1987-02-05. Returned: 1987-07-30. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 174.14 days.
Soyuz TM-2 (Laveykin) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-2.
Soyuz TM-2 (Laveykin) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-2 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-2 (Romanenko) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1 - Record flight duration. Romanenko began his record mission aboard Mir as part of EO-2 crew with Laveykin. Laveykin returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 after concerns developed about his health, leaving Romanenko aboard with EO-3. Launched: 1987-02-05. Returned: 1987-12-29. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 326.48 days.
Soyuz TM-20 - Mir Expedition EO-17. During mission crew boarded Soyuz and then redocked with Mir in a test of the station's Kurs system. Launched: 1994-10-03. Returned: 1995-03-22. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 169.22 days.
Soyuz TM-20 (Kondakova, Viktorenko) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-20.
Soyuz TM-20 (Kondakova, Viktorenko) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-17 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-20 (Merbold) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-20 Euromir 94 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-20 Euromir 94 - German astronaut. Primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats. Launched: 1994-10-03. Returned: 1994-11-04. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 31.52 days.
Soyuz TM-21 - First American to fly aboard a Russian spacecraft. Launched: 1995-03-14. Returned: 1995-07-07. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 115.36 days.
Soyuz TM-22 - First ESA astronaut on long-duration Mir crew. Launched: 1995-09-03. Returned: 1996-02-29. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 179.07 days.
Soyuz TM-23 - Mir Expedition EO-21. Soyuz TM-23 docked with Mir at 14:20:35 on February 23. The spacecraft undocked on September 2 at 04:20 GMT, and made a small separation burn at 04:24:40 GMT. Deorbit was at 06:47:20 GMT . The three modules separated at 07:14:36 and the parachute deployed at 07:26 GMT. The landing was at 07:41:40 GMT, 100 km SW of Akmola in Kazakhstan with Yuri Onufrienko, Yuri Usachyov and Claudie Andre-Deshays. This concluded the French 'Cassiopee' mission. Launched: 1996-02-21. Returned: 1996-09-02. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 193.80 days.
Soyuz TM-24 - Mir Expedition EO-22. Valeriy Korzun and Aleksandr Kaleri of the Russian Space Agency (RKA) Claudie Andre-Deshays of the French space agency CNES. This launch was the first of the Soyuz-U booster with a crew aboard following two launch failures of on unmanned flights. Launched: 1996-08-17. Returned: 1997-03-02. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 196.73 days.
Soyuz TM-24 (Andre-Deshays) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-24 Cassiopee manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-24 (Kaleri, Korzun) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-24.
Soyuz TM-24 (Kaleri, Korzun) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-22 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-24 Cassiopee - French astronaut. Primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Launched: 1996-08-17. Returned: 1996-09-02. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 15.77 days.
Soyuz TM-25 - Mir Expedition EO-23. Mission was an endless series of collisions, breakdowns, fires, and other emergencies. The Soyuz landing rockets failed to fire on touchdown, giving one of the roughest landings experienced by a returning Mir crew. Launched: 1997-02-10. Returned: 1997-08-14. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 184.92 days.
Soyuz TM-25 (Ewald) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-25 Mir 97 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-25 (Lazutkin, Tsibliyev) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-25.
Soyuz TM-25 (Lazutkin, Tsibliyev) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-23 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-25 Mir 97 - ESA German astronaut. Primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Launched: 1997-02-10. Returned: 1997-03-02. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 19.69 days.
Soyuz TM-26 - Soyuz docked manually. Over the next six months the crew undertook seven internal and external spacewalks to repair the crippled space station. Launched: 1997-08-05. Returned: 1998-02-19. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 197.73 days.
Soyuz TM-27 - Soyuz TM-27 carried the Mir EO-25 crew and French astronaut Leopold Eyharts. NASA and the Russian Space Agency had hoped Soyuz TM-27 could dock with Mir while Endeavour was still there, resulting in an on-board crew of 13, a record which would have stood for years or decades. But the French vetoed this, saying the commotion and time wasted would ruin Eyharts Pegase experimental program. Launched: 1998-01-29. Returned: 1998-08-25. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 207.53 days.
Soyuz TM-27 (Budarin, Musabayev) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-27.
Soyuz TM-27 (Budarin, Musabayev) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-25 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-27 (Eyharts) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-27 Mir Pegase manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-27 Mir Pegase - French astronaut; primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Record 13 persons in space at same time. Launched: 1998-01-29. Returned: 1998-02-19. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 20.69 days.
Soyuz TM-28 - As only one final Soyuz mission to Mir was planned, with two of the seats on that Soyuz pre-sold to Slovak and French experimenters, Padalka returned to earth without Avdeyev, who had to stay aboard for two extended crew missions. Launched: 1998-08-13. Returned: 1999-02-28. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 198.69 days.
Soyuz TM-28 (Avdeyev) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-28 (Baturin) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-28 Mir EP-4 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-28 (Padalka) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-28.
Soyuz TM-28 (Padalka) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-26 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27 - As only one final Soyuz mission to Mir was planned, with two of the seats on that Soyuz pre-sold to Slovak and French experimenters, Avdeyev had to stay aboard for two extended crew missions. Launched: 1998-08-13. Returned: 1999-08-28. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 379.62 days.
Soyuz TM-28 Mir EP-4 - Member of Russian President's office. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1998-08-13. Returned: 1998-08-25. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 11.82 days.
Soyuz TM-29 - Afanasyev was the only Russian cosmonaut aboard, since two crew seats had been sold to Slovakia and France. This meant that Russian engineer Avdeyev already aboard Mir would have to accept a double-length assignment. Launched: 1999-02-20. Returned: 1999-08-28. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 188.85 days.
Soyuz TM-29 (Afanasyev, Haignere) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-29.
Soyuz TM-29 (Afanasyev, Haignere) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-27 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-29 (Bella) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-29 Mir Stefanik manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-29 Mir Stefanik - First Slovak astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1999-02-20. Returned: 1999-02-28. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 7.91 days.
Soyuz TM-3 - See Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1 [flights:Mir LD-1] and [flights:Mir LD-1] manned spaceflights.
Soyuz TM-3 - Aleksandrov replaced the ailing EO-2 crew member Laveykin and remained aboard Mir with Romanenko. Launched: 1987-07-22. Returned: 1987-12-29. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 160.30 days.
Soyuz TM-3 (Aleksandrov) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-3 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-3 (Faris, Viktorenko) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-3 Mir EP-1 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-3 Mir EP-1 - First Syrian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1987-07-22. Returned: 1987-07-30. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.96 days.
Soyuz TM-30 - The crew reactivated Mir and, using Progress M1-1 and M1-2, resupplied the station and raised the orbit to 360 x 378 km. Launched: 2000-04-04. Returned: 2000-06-16. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 72.82 days.
Soyuz TM-31 - First ISS resident crew. Launched: 2000-10-31. Returned: 2001-03-21. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 140.98 days.
Soyuz TM-32 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-32 ISS EP-1 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-32 ISS EP-1 - First space tourist. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to ISS. Launched: 2001-04-28. Returned: 2001-05-06. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 7.92 days.
Soyuz TM-33 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-33 ISS EP-2 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-33 ISS EP-2 - French cosmonaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2001-10-21. Returned: 2001-10-31. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 9.83 days.
Soyuz TM-34 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-34 ISS EP-3 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-34 ISS EP-3 - First South African astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2002-04-25. Returned: 2002-05-05. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 9.89 days.
Soyuz TM-4 - Record flight duration. Revised software installed as a result of the Soyuz TM-5 abort overloaded the TM-6 computer; first landing aborted. Backup software program used and TM-6 landed successfully. Launched: 1987-12-21. Returned: 1988-12-21. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 365.94 days.
Soyuz TM-4 (Levchenko) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-4 LII-1 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-4 (Manarov, Titov Vladimir) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-4.
Soyuz TM-4 (Manarov, Titov Vladimir) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-3 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-4 LII-1 - Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Levchenko was a prospective Buran pilot sent on the short mission to familiarize himself with spaceflight. Launched: 1987-12-21. Returned: 1987-12-29. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 7.92 days.
Soyuz TM-5 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-6.
Soyuz TM-5 - Flight back of Mir EP-3 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-5 - First successful space station flight of Bulgarian cosmonaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1988-06-07. Returned: 1988-06-17. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 9.84 days.
Soyuz TM-6 - First Afghani astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 1988-08-29. Returned: 1988-09-07. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 8.85 days.
Soyuz TM-6 (Lyakhov, Mohmand) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-6.
Soyuz TM-6 (Lyakhov, Mohmand) - Alternate designation for Mir EP-3 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-6 (Polyakov) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2 - Physician; remained aboard Mir to monitor the EO-3 crew to the end of their record year-long mission and the EO-4 crew for the first months of their mission. Launched: 1988-08-29. Returned: 1989-04-27. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 240.94 days.
Soyuz TM-7 - Mir Expedition EO-4. Mission curtailed when delays in launching the Kvant-2 and Kristall modules to Mir led to the decision to leave the station uninhabited until the add-on modules were ready. Launched: 1988-11-26. Returned: 1989-04-27. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 151.47 days.
Soyuz TM-7 (Chretien) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-7 Aragatz manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-7 (Krikalyov, Volkov Aleksandr) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-7.
Soyuz TM-7 (Krikalyov, Volkov Aleksandr) - Alternate designation for Mir EO-4 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TM-7 Aragatz - French mission to Mir; record duration for a non-Soviet aboard one of their space stations; first French spacewalk. TM-6 computer first landing aborted. Backup software program used and TM-6 landed successfully. Launched: 1988-11-26. Returned: 1988-12-21. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 24.76 days.
Soyuz TM-8 - Mir Expedition EO-5. Attached the new Kvant-2 module to the station; conducted five spacewalks; tested the Soviet UMK manned maneuvering unit. Launched: 1989-09-05. Returned: 1990-02-19. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 166.29 days.
Soyuz TM-8A - Planned flight to ensure continuous occupation cancelled due to budget cutbacks and delay in launching Kvant 2 and Kristall modules. Launched: 1989 April. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz TM-9 - Mir Expedition EO-6. Attached the Kristall module to the station and conducted repairs to their Soyuz TM-9 return spacecraft and Kvant-2 airlock. Launched: 1990-02-11. Returned: 1990-08-09. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 179.05 days.
Soyuz TMA - Russian three-crew manned spacecraft. Designed for use as a lifeboat for the International Space Station. After the retirement of the US shuttle in 2011, Soyuz TMA was the only conveying crews to the ISS. Except for the Chinese Shenzhou, it became mankind's sole means of access to space. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-10-30. Last Launch: 2015-09-02. Number: 40 . Gross mass: 7,220 kg (15,910 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,320 kg (13,930 lb). Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Soyuz TMA BO - Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system with two Kurs antennae, no tower. Living section. Status: Operational 2002. Gross mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb).
Soyuz TMA PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Further improvement of Soyuz T PAO service module with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 2002. Gross mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,020 kg (4,450 lb). Thrust: 6.20 kN (1,393 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Soyuz TMA SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Reentry capsule. Status: Operational 2002. Gross mass: 2,950 kg (6,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,905 kg (6,404 lb). Payload: 1,355 kg (2,987 lb).
Soyuz TMA-01M - ISS Expedition EO-25. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2010-10-07. Returned: 2011-03-15. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 159.78 days.
Soyuz TMA-02M - ISS Expedition EO-28. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2011-06-07. Returned: 2011-11-22. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 167.26 days.
Soyuz TMA-03M - ISS Expedition EO-30. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2011-12-21. Returned: 2012-07-01. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 192.79 days.
Soyuz TMA-04M - ISS Expedition EO-31. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2012-05-15. Returned: 2012-09-17. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 124.99 days.
Soyuz TMA-05M - ISS Expedition EO-32. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2012-07-15. Returned: 2012-11-19. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 126.97 days.
Soyuz TMA-06M - ISS Expedition EO-33. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2012-10-23. Returned: 2013-03-16. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 143.68 days.
Soyuz TMA-07M - ISS Expedition EO-34. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2012-12-19. Returned: 2013-05-14. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 145.60 days.
Soyuz TMA-08M - ISS Expedition EO-35. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2013-03-28. Returned: 2013-09-11. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 166.26 days.
Soyuz TMA-09M - ISS Expedition EO-36. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2013-05-28. Returned: 2013-11-11. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 166.26 days.
Soyuz TMA-1 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-1 ISS EP-4 manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TMA-1 ISS EP-4 - First flight of the Soyuz TMA spacecraft. Belgian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2002-10-30. Returned: 2002-11-10. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 10.87 days.
Soyuz TMA-10 - ISS Expedition EO-15. Six-month, long-term, all-Russian resident crew of the International Space Station. Soyuz reentered with the forward hatch taking the re-entry heating, until the connecting strut burned through. 8.6 G ballistic re-entry, landing 340 km short. Launched: 2007-04-07. Returned: 2007-10-21. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 196.71 days.
Soyuz TMA-10 ISS EP-12 - Space tourist mission of Hungarian-American billionaire. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2007-04-07. Returned: 2007-04-21. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 13.79 days.
Soyuz TMA-10M - ISS Expedition EO-37. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2013-09-25. Returned: 2014-03-11. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 166.27 days.
Soyuz TMA-11 - First female space station commander. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2007-10-10. Returned: 2008-04-19. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 191.80 days.
Soyuz TMA-11 ISS EP-13 - First Malaysian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2007-10-10. Returned: 2007-10-21. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 10.88 days.
Soyuz TMA-11M - ISS Expedition EO-38. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2013-11-07. Returned: 2014-05-14. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 187.91 days.
Soyuz TMA-12 - ISS Expedition EO-17. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2008-04-08. Returned: 2008-10-24. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 198.68 days.
Soyuz TMA-12 ISS EP-14 - First Korean astronaut mission. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2008-04-08. Returned: 2008-04-19. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 10.88 days.
Soyuz TMA-12M - ISS Expedition EO-29. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2014-03-25. Returned: 2014-09-11. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 169.21 days.
Soyuz TMA-13 - ISS Expedition EO-18. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2008-10-12. Returned: 2009-04-08. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 178.01 days.
Soyuz TMA-13 ISS EP-15 - Space tourist. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2008-10-12. Returned: 2008-10-24. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 11.86 days.
Soyuz TMA-13M - ISS Expedition EO-40. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2014-05-28. Returned: 2014-11-10. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 165.33 days.
Soyuz TMA-14 - ISS Expedition EO-19. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2009-03-26. Returned: 2009-10-11. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 198.66 days.
Soyuz TMA-14 ISS EP-16 - First space tourist to fly to space twice; and the last tourist to the ISS. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2009-03-26. Returned: 2009-04-08. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 12.81 days.
Soyuz TMA-14M - ISS Expedition EO-41. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2014-09-25. Returned: 2015-03-12. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 167.24 days.
Soyuz TMA-15 - ISS Expedition EO-20. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2009-05-27. Returned: 2009-12-01. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 187.86 days.
Soyuz TMA-15M - ISS Expedition EO-42. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2014-11-23. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 199.70 days.
Soyuz TMA-16 - ISS Expedition EO-21. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2009-09-30. Returned: 2010-03-18. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 169.17 days.
Soyuz TMA-16M - ISS Expedition EO-43. Padalka also delivered the long-term EP-17 crew of Scott and Korniyenko to the station and returned the short-term crew of Aimbetov and Mogensen to earth. Launched: 2015-03-27. Returned: 2015-12-09. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 168.23 days.
Soyuz TMA-16M ISS EP-17 - ISS Expedition EP-17. First long-term (nearly a year) expedition to the ISS. However despite press reports, several cosmonauts had spent over a year on the Mir station decades earlier. Launched: 2015-03-27. Returned: 2016-03-02. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 340.37 days.
Soyuz TMA-17 - ISS Expedition EO-22. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2009-12-20. Returned: 2010-06-02. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 163.23 days.
Soyuz TMA-17M - ISS Expedition EO-44. Five-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2015-07-22. Returned: 2015-12-11. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 141.70 days.
Soyuz TMA-18 - ISS Expedition EO-23. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2010-04-02. Returned: 2010-09-25. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 176.06 days.
Soyuz TMA-18M - ISS Expedition EO-45. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Volkov also delivered the short-term EP-18 crew of Aimbetov and Morgensen to the station and returned the long term EP-17 crew of Kelly and Korniyenko to earth. Launched: 2015-09-02. Returned: 2016-03-02. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 181.99 days.
Soyuz TMA-18M ISS EP-18 - ISS Expedition EP-18. Short term mission to support swap of long-term crews. First post-Soviet Union Kazakh cosmonaut. Launched: 2015-09-02. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 9.84 days.
Soyuz TMA-19 - ISS Expedition EO-24. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2010-06-15. Returned: 2010-11-25. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 163.30 days.
Soyuz TMA-19M - ISS Expedition EO-46. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2015-12-15. Returned: 2016-06-18. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 185.92 days.
Soyuz TMA-2 - ISS Expedition EO-7. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle was grounded. Replaced three-man crew aboard ISS since before STS-107 disaster. Launched: 2003-04-26. Returned: 2003-10-28. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 184.95 days.
Soyuz TMA-20 - ISS Expedition EO-26. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2010-12-15. Returned: 2011-05-23. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 159.30 days.
Soyuz TMA-20 - Flight up of Soyuz TMA-01M manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TMA-20M - ISS Expedition EO-47. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2016-03-18. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz TMA-21 - ISS Expedition EO-27. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2011-04-04. Returned: 2011-09-16. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 164.24 days.
Soyuz TMA-22 - ISS Expedition EO-29. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2011-11-14. Returned: 2012-05-07. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 165.31 days.
Soyuz TMA-2A - Soyuz TMA-2 was originally to switch lifeboats on the ISS. After the loss of Columbia, and grounding of the remaining shuttles, it was instead flown by a two-man skeleton crew to keep the station alive until shuttle flights could resume. Launched: 2003-04-18. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz TMA-3 - ISS Expedition EO-8. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle was grounded. Replaced EO-7 crew. Launched: 2003-10-18. Returned: 2004-04-30. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 194.77 days.
Soyuz TMA-3 (Duque) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-3 Cervantes manned spaceflight.
Soyuz TMA-3 Cervantes - Spanish / ESA astronaut. Primary mission was to swap Soyuz lifeboats. Launched: 2003-10-18. Returned: 2003-10-28. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 9.88 days.
Soyuz TMA-3A - Soyuz TMA-3 was originally to switch lifeboats on the ISS. After the Columbia disaster, the remaining shuttles were grounded. Soyuz TMA-3 instead flew with a skeleton crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle was grounded. Launched: 2003-11-12. Number crew: 3 .
Soyuz TMA-4 - ISS Expedition EO-9. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of ISS space station while the shuttle was grounded. Replaced EO-8 crew. Launched: 2004-04-19. Returned: 2004-10-24. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 187.89 days.
Soyuz TMA-4 Delta - European Space Agency / Netherlands space mission to the ISS. Primary mission was to swap Soyuz lifeboats. Launched: 2004-04-19. Returned: 2004-04-30. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 10.87 days.
Soyuz TMA-4A - Soyuz TMA-4 was originally to switch lifeboats on the ISS. After the Columbia disaster, the remaining shuttles were grounded. Soyuz TMA-4 instead flew with a skeleton crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle was grounded. Launched: May 2004. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz TMA-5 - ISS Expedition EO-10. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of ISS space station while the shuttle was grounded. Replaced EO-9 crew. Launched: 2004-10-14. Returned: 2005-04-24. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 192.79 days.
Soyuz TMA-5 ISS EP-7 - Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Russian cosmonaut sent for a ten day mission aboard the ISS while the EO-9/EO-10 long duration crews handed duties over to each other. Launched: 2004-10-14. Returned: 2004-10-24. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 9.90 days.
Soyuz TMA-6 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-6 Eneide.
Soyuz TMA-6 - ISS Expedition EO-11. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of ISS space station while the shuttle was grounded. Replaced EO-10 crew. Launched: 2005-04-15. Returned: 2005-10-11. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 179.02 days.
Soyuz TMA-6 Eneide - Italian ESA astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2005-04-15. Returned: 2004-10-24. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 9.89 days.
Soyuz TMA-7 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-7 ISS EP-9.
Soyuz TMA-7 - ISS Expedition EO-12. Six-month long-term resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2005-10-01. Returned: 2006-04-08. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 189.83 days.
Soyuz TMA-7 ISS EP-9 - American space tourist. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2005-10-01. Returned: 2005-10-11. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 9.89 days.
Soyuz TMA-8 - ISS Expedition EO-13. Six-month long-term resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2006-03-30. Returned: 2006-09-29. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 182.95 days.
Soyuz TMA-8 ISS EP-10 - First Brazilian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2006-03-30. Returned: 2006-04-08. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 9.89 days.
Soyuz TMA-9 - ISS Expedition EO-14. Six-month long-term resident crew of the International Space Station. Launched: 2006-09-18. Returned: 2007-04-21. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 215.35 days.
Soyuz TMA-9 ISS EP-11 - First female space tourist. First Iranian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Launched: 2006-09-18. Returned: 2006-09-29. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 10.88 days.
Soyuz V - Russian logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1964. In the definitive December 1962 Soyuz draft project, the Soyuz B (9K) rocket acceleration block would be launched into a 225 km orbit by a Soyuz 11A511 booster. Status: Cancelled 1964. Gross mass: 5,900 kg (13,000 lb).
Soyuz VI - Russian manned combat spacecraft. Cancelled 1965. To determine the usefulness of manned military space flight, two projects were pursued in the second half of the 1960's. Status: Cancelled 1965. Gross mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb).
Soyuz VI Flight 1 - The planned first flight of the Soyuz VI combat spacecraft was planned for early 1969, beating America's equivalent Manned Orbiting Lab. The project was cancelled in 1968 in favor of Mishin's OIS (in turn cancelled in 1970) and Chelomei's Almaz stations. Launched: 1969 Early. Number crew: 2 .
SOYUZ! Article - Out-of-date article -the development of the Soyuz spacecraft, as known in 1987.
Soyuz: Was the Design Stolen? - There was something awfully familiar looking about the Soyuz spacecraft, the most successful in history....
Soyuz-2-1A - Alternate designation for Soyuz-ST-B.
Soyuz-2-1A - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Updated version using a new digital flight control system (replacing the old analogue system, increasing payload by 300 kg. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-11-08. Last Launch: 2015-06-05. Number: 21 .
Soyuz-2-1B - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Incorporates digital flight control system from Soyuz-2-1A with new RD-0124 upper stage engine. Status: Active. First Launch: 2006-12-27. Last Launch: 2015-06-23. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 313,000 kg (690,000 lb). Thrust: 7,600.00 kN (1,708,500 lbf).
Soyuz-2-1V - A major derivative lightweight of the Soyuz, abandoning the four side-mounted conical strapon boosters that were the R-7 family's trademark since the ICBM and Sputnik launches in 1957. The core stage's lower section has been slightly enlarged in iameter and a new propulsion system used - the main engine is the NK-33A based on the NK-33 first developed (but never used) for the N-1 moon rocket in the 1970s. (An Americanized version of the NK-33, the Aerojet AJ-26, is the main engine for Orbital's new Antares rocket). The Soyuz-2-1V second stage is the same Blok-I stage as the existing Soyuz-2-1B, with an RD-0124 engine. An optional Volga third stage is a low-thrust orbit positioning bus derived from the Yantar satellite propulsion system. Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-12-28. Last Launch: 2013-12-28. Number: 1 .
Soyuz-3 - Alternate designation for Onega.
Soyuz-5 - Russian orbital launch vehicle proposed by the Kozlov bureau in 2015. A new lower stage using Lox/Methane propellants would be the basis of a family of launch vehicles.
Soyuz-Almaz-T-1 - Planned launch to tend Almaz-T-1 station. Cancelled after the station's booster exploded on the way to orbit on 29 November 1986. Launched: Middle of 1987. Number crew: 2 .
Soyuz-FG - Uprated Soyuz booster designed for high performance Russian government missions and delivery of Soyuz and Progress spacecraft to the International Space Station. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Unknown differences to Soyuz ST. Status: Active. First Launch: 2001-05-20. Last Launch: 2015-09-02. Number: 53 . Gross mass: 305,000 kg (672,000 lb). Payload: 7,420 kg (16,350 lb). Thrust: 4,143.00 kN (931,383 lbf).
Soyuz-ST-A - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Soyuz-2-1A for launch from the European equatorial launch site at Kourou. Includes some European avionics and electrical systems, adjustments to communications equipment, and certification for the humid tropical climate. Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-12-17. Last Launch: 2014-04-03. Number: 3 .
Soyuz-ST-B - Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern digital avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Can be used with either Ikar or Fregat upper stages. The 'FG' was the military version. Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-10-21. Last Launch: 2014-08-22. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 310,000 kg (680,000 lb). Payload: 7,800 kg (17,100 lb). Thrust: 4,144.70 kN (931,766 lbf).
Soyuz-U - Russian standardized man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. Status: Active. First Launch: 1973-05-18. Last Launch: 2015-10-01. Number: 439 . Gross mass: 310,000 kg (680,000 lb). Payload: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Thrust: 4,030.00 kN (905,980 lbf).
Soyuz-U2 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in first stage for launch of premium reconnaissance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload (200 kg) than the standard 11A511 could offer. Further use of the 11A511U2 abandoned in 1996 due to Sintin production stoppage. Later Soyuz spacecraft launched on standard Soyuz, with reduced payload and rendezvous with Mir in lower orbit accepted. Status: Retired 1995. First Launch: 1982-12-23. Last Launch: 1995-09-03. Number: 72 . Gross mass: 297,800 kg (656,500 lb). Payload: 7,050 kg (15,540 lb). Thrust: 4,060.65 kN (912,870 lbf).
Soyuz-U-PVB - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Soyuz-U with safety modifications to prevent and resist fires in all stages and the upper stage avionics compartment. These were incorporated as a result of the 18 March 1980 disaster at Plesetsk, when the launch vehicle exploded, killing 18 and putting the pad out of commission for three years. Status: Active. First Launch: 1984-03-21. Last Launch: 2012-10-31. Number: 345 .
SOZ - Auxiliary thruster package (Russian abbreviation)
SP - Special Publication (NASA)
SpaB-17 - Manufacturer's designation of EPKM Solid rocket engine.
SpaB-54 - Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. In Production. Kick stage for orbital insertion of Iridium satellites Used on CZ-2C/SD launch vehicle. First flight 1997. Status: In Production. Date: 1990's. Propellants: Solid.
Space Activity Suit - American space suit, tested 1971. Prototype for a Mechanical Counter Pressure suit made up of six layers of elastic material accompanied by a full bubble helmet. Status: tested 1971. Gross mass: 24 kg (52 lb).
Space Adventures - Space Adventures.
Space backache - After being exposed to sustained zero-G, the human spine lengthens about 5 cm. This causes sometimes intense pain in the lower back muscles for the first day or so in space.
Space Base - American manned space station. Study 1970. Growth of Space Station into a 50 man Space Base was a required capability in the Phase B NASA Space Station studies of 1969-1970. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 1,000,000 kg (2,200,000 lb).
Space Based Laser - American military anti-satellite system. Study 1996. The Operational SBLOV (Space Based Laser Orbital Vehicle) was the final space based chemical laser system envisioned at the end of the SDI / Star Wars program. Status: Study 1996. Gross mass: 30,800 kg (67,900 lb).
Space Biotechnological Complex - Russian materials science satellite. Study 1992. In 1991 the Salyut Design Bureau proposed a Space Biotechnological Complex, for production of pharmaceutical products in zero gravity. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Space Block - Alternate designation for R-56 Block K rocket stage.
Space Cadet - The future that never was...
Space Complex for a Piloted Expedition to Mars - Alternate designation for KK manned mars expedition.
Space Cruiser - American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1973. The space cruiser was a US Navy design for a single-place crewed space interceptor designed to destroy Soviet satellites used to track the location of US warships. Status: Study 1973. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Space Data LCLV - American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x M57A1 Status: Retired 1997. First Launch: 1991-02-06. Last Launch: 1997-02-23. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 6,900 kg (15,200 lb).
Space Electric Rocket Test - Alternate designation for SERT ion engine technology satellite.
Space Flyer Unit - Alternate designation for SFU materials science satellite.
Space Gnat - Government designation of Star 5A Solid rocket engine.
Space History Calendar - Find out what happened on any day of the year in the history of space exploration.
Space Imaging - Space Imaging.
Space Industries - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Space Industries Inc, Houston, USA.
Space Infrared Telescope Facility - Alternate designation for SIRTF infrared astronomy satellite.
Space Innovations Ltd - Alternate name for SIL.
Space Laser Demo - American military anti-satellite system. Study 1996. By 1996 the Star Lite space laser was replaced by the more refined and slightly heavier SLD (Space Laser Demo), weighing 17.4 metric tons). Two versions of the 20 meter long spacecraft were envisioned. Status: Study 1996. Gross mass: 17,400 kg (38,300 lb).
Space Launch Corporation - American manufacturer of rockets. Space Launch Corporation, USA.
Space Launching System A-388 - Alternate designation for SLS A-388.
Space Launching System A-410 - Alternate designation for SLS A-410.
Space Launching System AB-825 - Alternate designation for SLS AB-825.
Space Launching System BC-2720 - Alternate designation for SLS BC-2720.
Space Operations Center - American manned space station. Study 1979. The Space Operations Center was proposed by NASA's Johnson Spaceflight Center in 1979. Status: Study 1979.
Space Poetry - Songs of the space age.
Space Race - Although the press and politicians continue to refer to a 'space race' being underway, the real space race was between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1957-1971, with the objective of obtaining space 'firsts' - first artifical satellite of the earth, first manned spaceflight, first space walk, first multi-crew mission, first around the moon, first to land on the moon, and first space station. The United States cancelled post-Apollo Lunar Base and Mars plans in 1969 and dropped out of the running. In 1974, with the cancellation of the N1 booster, the Soviet Union followed suit. Since then manned spaceflight has consisted of an series of missions to low-earth-orbit, and the United States has dominated robot planetary exploration without serious competition. Although periodically there are attempts to energize the public with claims of a 'race to Mars' or moon base plans, funding is never forthcoming.
Space Recovery Experiment - Alternate designation for SRE re-entry vehicle technology satellite.
Space Services - Space Services.
Space Services Inc. - Alternate name for SSI.
Space Ship Experimental - Alternate designation for SSX.
Space Shuttle - American winged orbital launch vehicle. The version of the space shuttle that went into production. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. Status: Retired. First Launch: 1981-04-12. Last Launch: 2011-07-08. Number: 135 . Gross mass: 2,029,633 kg (4,474,574 lb). Payload: 24,400 kg (53,700 lb). Thrust: 25,751.60 kN (5,789,190 lbf).
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor - Alternate designation for Redesigned SRM Solid rocket engine.
Space Sled - American space mobility device, tested 1965. Marquardt developed a sled design in the mid-1960's for maneuvering in the vicinity of a spacecraft. The space sled approach was dropped in preference to the shuttle manned maneuvering unit. Status: tested 1965.
Space Solid Fuel Rocket Carrier Co Ltd - Chinese manufacturer of rockets. Space Solid Fuel Rocket Carrier Co Ltd, China.
Space station - Category of spacecraft.
Space Station 1970 - NASA's baseline Space Station of 1970, which was to be operational at early as 1977, was a large earth orbiting laboratory having a crew of 12 and a minimum operational lifetime of 10 years with resupply flights every 90 days. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 180,000 kg (390,000 lb).
Space Station 1984 - American manned space station. Design as of 1984. President Reagan finally approved a space station project for NASA in January 1984. Status: Design 1984.
Space Station Designs - 1982 - American manned space station. Study 1982. NASA regarded a permanently manned space station as the next 'logical step' in manned spaceflight after the Space Shuttle entered service in April 1981. Status: Study 1982.
Space Station Fred - American manned space station. Design as of 1991. Following the collapse of the Space Station Freedom project, NASA unveiled its new Space Station design in March 1991. Status: Design 1991.
Space Station Freedom - American manned space station. Design as of 1988. NASA's first detailed cost assessment for the US space station caused a political uproar in Congress, where many politicians had started to express doubt about the project. Status: Design 1988.
Space station module - Category of spacecraft.
Space Station Options 1993 - American manned space station. Study 1993. Following the collapse of Space Station Fred, NASA quickly formed a Space Station redesign team which identified three major redesign options in April 1993.... Status: Study 1993.
Space station orbit - Category of spacecraft.
Space Suits - To explore and work in space, human beings must take their environment with them because there is no atmospheric pressure and no oxygen to sustain life. Inside the spacecraft, the atmosphere can be controlled so that special clothing is not needed. But in order to work outside the spacecraft, humans need the protection of a spacesuit.
Space Systems - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Space Systems, USA.
Space Systems/Loral (1990) - Sixth name of Palo Alto.
Space Technology Research Vehicle - Alternate designation for STRV technology satellite.
Space toilet - Going to the bathroom in space is a messy affair, for there was no gravity to prevent the solids and liquids from floating about.
Space Tourist - 2009 - Astronaut training group.
Space Tourist Group - 2000 - Paid space tourist mission to ISS. Date: 2000.
Space Tourist Group - 2001 - Paid space tourist mission to ISS. Date: 2001.
Space Tourist Group - 2005 - Paid space tourist mission to ISS. Date: 2006.
Space Tourist Group - 2006 - Paid space tourist mission to ISS. Date: 2007.
Space Tourist Group - 2007 - Paid space tourist mission to ISS. Date: 2009.
Space Tourist Group - 2008 - Paid space tourist mission to ISS. Date: 2008.
Space Tourist Group - 2009 - Paid space tourist mission to ISS.
Space Transportation System - Alternate designation for Shuttle ISS.
Space Transportation System - Alternate designation for Space Shuttle.
Space Tug - The original Boeing Space Tug design of the early 1970's was sized to be flown either in a single shuttle mission or as a Saturn V payload. Optimum mass was found to be 20.6 metric tons regardless. Status: Design 1974. Gross mass: 20,600 kg (45,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,550 kg (5,620 lb). Thrust: 99.14 kN (22,288 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Space Tugs - Category of spacecraft.
Space tumescence - The same redistribution of body fluids in zero-G that gives astronauts puffy faces and swollen sinuses also causes involuntary expansion of a portion of the male anatomy during sleep. Female astronauts experience similar effects, with the thighs slimming and the breasts enlarging and firming.
Space Vector - American manufacturer of rockets. Space Vector, USA.
Space Vector Corp - Alternate name for SVC.
Spacebus - British winged orbital launch vehicle. The Bristol Spaceplanes Spacebus was a Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) Manned Spaceplane designed to take 50 passengers into space. Status: Design 1990.
Spacebus - Series of communications satellite buses built at Cannes using the Spacebus 4000 bus.
Spacebus 100 - French communications satellite. 3-axis stabilized using bipropellant thrusters (750 kg propellant - unified with apogee insertion and maneuvering propulsion) and momentum wheels. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-08-27. Last Launch: 1994-01-24. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 866 kg (1,909 lb). Payload: 130 kg (280 lb). Thrust: 392 N (88 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Spacebus 2000 - French communications satellite. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-01-24. Last Launch: 1997-01-30. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,890 kg (4,160 lb).
Spacebus 300 - French communications satellite. 3-axis stabilized using bipropellant thrusters (1220 kg propellant - unified with apogee insertion and maneuvering propulsion) and momentum wheels. Status: Operational 1987. First Launch: 1987-11-21. Last Launch: 1990-07-24. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,318 kg (2,905 lb). Payload: 250 kg (550 lb). Thrust: 392 N (88 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Spacebus 3000 - French communications satellite bus. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-07-09. Last Launch: 2010-05-21. Number: 29 . Gross mass: 2,760 kg (6,080 lb).
Spacebus 4000 - European communications satellite bus.The Spacebus 4000 represented a new larger platform to meet customer demand. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-02-03. Last Launch: 2015-08-20. Number: 29 . Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Spacecab - The Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) Concorde-sized Spacecab would deliver a payload of six persons to low Earth orbit. It would serve as a prototype for the larger 50-person Spacebus. Status: Study 1990.
Spacecraft Charging at High Altitude - Alternate designation for SCATHA communications technology satellite.
Spaced Out - Spaceflight is dangerous and unforgiving, which is all the more reason for the astronauts to seek relief in humour...
SpaceDev - SpaceDev, USA.
SpaceDev Hybrid - SpaceDev N2O/Solid hybrid rocket engine. Rocketplane boost. Out of production. Used on Tier One launch vehicle. First flight 2002. Status: Out of production. Date: 2001-2004. Number: 56 . Gross mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 73.50 kN (16,523 lbf). Propellants: N2O/Solid.
SpaceDev ILO - American radio astronomy satellite. Study 2003. Unmanned lunar radio astronomy observatory concept, designed to be landed on the South Pole. Status: Study 2003.
Spacedock - American manned space station. Study 1986. Status: Study 1986.
Spacehab - American manned space station module. Spacehab, Inc was founded by Bob Citron in 1982 in Houston. It was the only entrepreneurial company of the 1900's to successfully develop a commercial manned spaceflight module. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-06-21. Last Launch: 1999-05-27. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Spacehab 01 - Alternate name for STS-57.
Spacehab 02 - Alternate name for STS-60.
Spacehab 03 - Alternate name for STS-76.
Spacehab 03 - Alternate name for STS-63.
Spacehab 04 - Alternate name for STS-77.
Spacehab Double Module - Alternate name for STS-81.
Spacehab Double Module - Alternate name for STS-86.
Spacehab Double Module - Alternate name for STS-107.
Spacehab Double Module - Alternate name for STS-89.
Spacehab Double Module - Alternate name for STS-79.
Spacehab Double Module - Alternate name for STS-84.
Spacehab Logistics Double Module - Alternate name for STS-96.
Spacehab Logistics Module - Alternate name for STS-116.
Spacehab Single Module - Alternate name for STS-118.
SpaceIm - American agency. Space Imaging, Thornton. , Thornton, USA
Spacelab - The European-built Spacelab pressurized module remained attached to space shuttle and permitted conduct of a range of experiments. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-11-28. Last Launch: 1998-04-17. Number: 16 .
Spacelab 2 - Alternate name for STS-51-F.
Spacelab 3 - Alternate name for STS-51-B.
Spacelab D1 - Alternate name for STS-61-A.
Spacelab IML-1 - Alternate name for STS-42.
Spacelab SLS-1 - Alternate name for STS-40.
Spacelab SLS-2 - Alternate name for STS-58.
Spacelab SRL-1 - Alternate name for STS-59.
Spacelab USML-1 - Alternate name for STS-50.
Spacelab-1 - Alternate name for STS-9.
Spacelab-D2 - Alternate name for STS-55.
Spacelab-J - Alternate name for STS-47.
Spacelab-Mir - Alternate name for STS-71.
SpaceLoft - American commercial suborbital rockets marketed by Up Industries. Data given is for first-launched prototype. Status: Active. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Payload: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Thrust: 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SpaceLoft XL - American single-stage commercial sounding rocket. Operational, first launch 2006.09.25. Status: Active. First Launch: 2006-09-25. Last Launch: 2014-10-23. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Payload: 50 kg (110 lb). Propellants: Solid.
SpaceLoft XL-1 - Alternate designation for SpaceLoft.
Spacemaster - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Martin-Marietta shuttle Phase A design. X-24B type lifting body orbiter with unique catamaran-configuration booster. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,587,302 kg (3,499,401 lb). Thrust: 24,905.80 kN (5,599,047 lbf).
Spacemaster-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Unique Catamaran configuration. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,224,490 kg (2,699,530 lb). Unfuelled mass: 203,342 kg (448,292 lb). Thrust: 28,082.54 kN (6,313,206 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Spacemaster-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Delta Winged, Cross Range 2,742 km. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 362,812 kg (799,863 lb). Unfuelled mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Thrust: 4,549.05 kN (1,022,667 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Spacenet - US domestic communications; 87 deg W. C, Ku band communications satellite. Used the AS 3000 bus.
Spaceplane - Alternate designation for Spaceplane USA.
Spaceplane - Category of spacecraft.
Spaceplane USA - Spaceplane, USA. American manufacturer of spacecraft.
Spaceport America - Spaceport America was conceived in the early 1990s by the Southwest Space Task Force, a private group of New Mexican space activists. Studies led them to concentrate on 70 square-km of state-owned land, 72 km north of Las Cruces, New Mexico, near a locale known as Upham. In 2003 the governor and state legislature were finally sold on the idea of developing the site as America's premiere inland commercial spaceport. First Launch: 2006-09-25. Last Launch: 2013-11-12. Number: 14 .
Spaceport Florida - Alternate name for Cape Canaveral.
SpaceShip - American manned spaceplane family.
SpaceShip One - Manned spacecraft component of the Tier One suborbital launch system. N2O/Solid propellant rocket stage. Wing area 15 sq. m. Status: Retired 2004. First Launch: 2003-05-20. Last Launch: 2004-05-13. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Thrust: 73.50 kN (16,523 lbf). Propellants: N2O/Solid.
SpaceShip Two - Manned spacecraft component of the Tier Two suborbital commercial launch system. Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-04-29. Last Launch: 2014-10-31. Number: 4 .
SpaceShipOne Flight 15P - First private manned spaceflight. Fourth powered flight of SpaceShipOne and first flight above 100 km altitude. Spacecraft rolled 90 degrees right and left at motor ignition; attitude control lost at engine shut down; engine fairing collapsed. Launched: 2004-06-21. Returned: 2004-06-21. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0021 days.
SpaceShipOne Flight 16P - Fifth powered flight of Burt Rutan's SpaceShipOne and first of two flights over 100 km that needed to be accomplished in a week to win the $10 million X-Prize. Spacecraft did a series of 60 rolls during last stage of engine burn. Launched: 2004-09-29. Returned: 2004-09-29. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0167 days.
SpaceShipOne Flight 17P - Suborbital altitude record for a manned spaceplane Sixth powered flight of Burt Rutan's SpaceShipOne and winner of the $10 million X-Prize by becoming the second flight over 100 km within a week. Launched: 2004-10-04. Returned: 2004-10-04. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0167 days.
Spaceway - Series of heavy communications satellites for DirecTV. Used the HS 702 bus.
Spacewedge - Code name for X-38 manned spaceplane.
SpaceX - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. SpaceX, USA.
SpaceX McGregor - Alternate name for McGregor.
Spades - Studied relationship between atmospheric density and solar radiation. Spacecraft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Satellite in the USAF OV1 technology series.
Spain - Spain
Spainsat - Satellite series to provide secure communications for the Spanish defense ministry using the FS-1300 bus.
SPAN - Space Physics and Analysis Network. Solar Particle Alert Network.
SPANDAR - Acronym for Space and range radar
Spanker - Alternate designation for MR-UR-100U 15A16.
Spanker - Alternate designation for MR-UR-100.
Spar - Canadian manufacturer of spacecraft. Spar Aerospace, Canada.
Spar Aerospace Robotics Div. (Brampton) - Alternate name for Spar.
Sparoair - American air-launched sounding rocket. Air-launched two stage vehicle consisting of tandem Sparrow air-to-air missile motors. Status: Retired 1966.
Sparoair I - American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F3H Cougar + 1 x Sparrow + 1 x Sparrow Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1960-01-01. Last Launch: 1964-01-18. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf).
Sparoair II - American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F3H Cougar + 1 x Sparrow + 1 x Sparrow Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1961-01-01. Last Launch: 1961-01-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf).
Sparoair II-1 - Alternate name for 1.8KS7800.
Sparoair III - American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F4B Phantom + 1 x Sparrow + 1 x 22.6KS1245 Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1965-07-08. Last Launch: 1966-05-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf).
Sparoair III-2 - Alternate name for 22.6KS1245.
Sparrow - Naval Prop Plant solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1968. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Sparrow Arcas - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1963-10-01. Last Launch: 1971-07-28. Number: 31 . Gross mass: 94 kg (207 lb). Payload: 5.50 kg (12.10 lb). Thrust: 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf).
Sparrow Arcas-2 - Alternate name for MARC 2C2.
Sparrow engine - Alternate designation for 22.6KS1245.
SPARTA - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Redstone + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x BE-3 Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1966-11-28. Last Launch: 1967-11-29. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Payload: 45 kg (99 lb). Thrust: 357.00 kN (80,256 lbf).
SPARTA-3 - Alternate name for BE-3.
Spartan - Alternate designation for Spartan ABM.
Spartan - American solar satellite. The Spartan series consists of low-cost, Shuttle-launched, short-duration, sounding-rocket-type payloads. The payloads were retrievable and reusable with a turnaround time of 6 to 9 months. Spartan operated as an autonomous sub-satellite, and the data was stored on an internal tape recorder. Pointing and stabilization were achieved by an attitude control system capable of three-axis stabilized pointing to any target within +/- 3 arc-minutes. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-06-17. Last Launch: 1998-10-29. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 1,195 kg (2,634 lb).
Spartan ABM - American anti-ballistic missile evolved from the Nike Zeus and designed to intercept ICBM warheads in space. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-500 + 1 x TX-454 + 1 x TX-239 solid propellant motors. Nearly as large and just as costly as the missiles it was designed to intercept. After 20 years of development, deployment was limited by arms agreements, and 30 were only briefly in service in 1975-1976. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1968-03-30. Last Launch: 1975-04-17. Number: 42 . Gross mass: 12,995 kg (28,649 lb). Payload: 2,270 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 2,000.00 kN (449,600 lbf).
Spartan ABM-1 - Alternate name for TX-500.
Spartan ABM-2 - Alternate name for TX-454.
Spartan TX-500 - Alternate designation for TX-500.
Spartan TX-500 - Alternate designation for Spartan ABM-1 rocket stage.
Spartan-Halley - The main objective of this version of the Spartan spacecraft was to obtain UV spectra of the coma and tail of Comet Halley in January 1986 shortly before its perihelion. This spacecraft was lost when Space Shuttle Challenger exploded on launch. Status: Operational 1986.
SPAS - American military strategic defense satellite. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-06-18. Last Launch: 1997-08-07. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 3,230 kg (7,120 lb).
Spate - German Luftwaffe Captain, Commander of the test squadrons for the Me-163. Born: 1911. Died: 1997-01-01.
SPB 7.35 - Alternate designation for Ariane 3-0 P7.35.
SPB 7.35 - Alternate designation for Ariane 3-0 rocket stage.
SPB235 - Alternate designation for Ariane 5-0 P230.
SPB235 - Alternate designation for Ariane 5-0 rocket stage.
SPD 649-1 - Manufacturer's designation of LR47 rocket engine.
SPDM - Abbreviation for Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator
spectrograph - Modification of a spectroscope in which the spectrum is photographed or recorded electronically. A spectroheliograph is a modification of the spectrograph which permits taking pictures of the complete solar disk in monochromatic light.
spectroscope - An optical instrument which spreads a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a spectrum of different wavelengths for visual inspection.
Spectrum Astro - First name of Gilbert.
Spectrum-X - Russian x-ray astronomy satellite.
SPED - Supersonic Planetary Entry Decelerator (suborbital flight test)
Speer - German manager. Hitler's right-hand man. Architect and Reichminister for Armaments and Ammunition. He sponsored V-2 development and tried to keep operation in Wehrmacht hands. Born: 1905. Died: 1981-01-01.
Spektr - Russian manned space station. Spektr was a module of the Mir space station. It began life as a dedicated military research unit. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-05-20. Last Launch: 1995-05-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 19,640 kg (43,290 lb).
Spektr - Original - Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1989. Chelomei designed a spacecraft bus for space based weapons based on his TKS space tug. This was an alternate / competitive design to the NPO Energia USB. Status: Study 1989. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
Sperry - American manufacturer. Sperry, USA.
SPFLA - American agency overseeing development of rockets. Florida Spaceport Authority, USA.
Spherical Heat Shield escape concept - Alternate designation for Rockwell SHS manned rescue spacecraft.
Sphinx - American military technology satellite. Space Plasma High Voltage Interaction Experiment. Research payload carried on test flight of Titan 3E booster. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-02-11. Last Launch: 1974-02-11. Number: 1 .
Spider - Alternate designation for Oka.
Spider - Alternate designation for 9K714B.
SPIKE - American military anti-satellite system. Study 1975. Project SPIKE was a 1970's suborbital conventional warhead ASAT air-launched from an F-106 interceptor. Considerable work was done from the early 1970s under the Missile and Space Defense Program. Status: Study 1975.
Spin-2 - Alternate designation for Yantar-1KFT military surveillance satellite.
SpinSat - The Japanese JEM-RMS robot arm extracted the SSIKLOPS (Cyclops) deployer and its attached SpinSat satellite from the Kibo airlock and positioned it for deployment. The Cyclops then ejected SpinSat into orbit. SpinSat was a Naval Research Lab satellite to test new microthrusters for attitude control. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-11-28. Last Launch: 2014-11-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Spiral 50-50 - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. The Soviet Air Force had an enduring interest in a horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing, manned, reusable space launch system that could ferry crews and priority supplies between earth and space on the same basis as conventional aircraft. Between 1960 and 1976 Mikoyan developed this manned partially reusable space launch system. It consisted of a reusable hypersonic air-breathing booster; two expendable rocket stages; and the reusable Spiral manned spaceplane. The effort was never properly funded by the government, and by the mid-1970's had only reached the stage of flight tests of subscale versions of Spiral. Development was discontinued in 1976 in favor of the Buran, a copy of the US space shuttle. However it was resurrected in improved form in the 1980's as the MAKS spaceplane. Status: Cancelled 1975. Gross mass: 115,000 kg (253,000 lb).
Spiral EPOS - Code name for MiG 105-11 manned spaceplane.
Spiral OS - Russian manned spaceplane, developed 1965-1980s, including subscale flight article tests. Evolved into the MAKS spaceplane. The Spiral was an ambitious air-launched manned space system designed in the 1960's. Status: Design 1965.
Spirale - Système Préparatoire Infra-Rouge pour l'ALErte - preparatory infrared warning system. French government program to develop a missile early warning system, using infrared satellite imagery to detect ballistic missile launch and trajectory during boost phase. The demonstrator system included two 120 kilogram (260 lb) microsatellites and an alert and monitoring ground segment. Status: Operational 2016.
Spiridinov - Russian officer. Seventh Chief Directorate of Ministry of Armaments and Director of Nll-88 1953-1959.
Spirit - Code name for MER mars lander.
spirometer - An instrument to measure the breathing volume.
Spitsa - Russian officer. Commander of TsKIK 1965-1973. Born: 1919. Died: 1992-01-01.
SPK - Russian space mobility device, tested 1990. The Soviet Union developed a manned maneuvering unit and flew it from Mir in 1990. Status: tested 1990. Gross mass: 218 kg (480 lb).
SPN-GNS - Standard Precision Navigator/Gimbaled Electrostatically Suspended Aircraft Navigator
Spohn - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Later returned to Germany and died at Heidelberg, Germany. Born: 1906-01-23. Died: 2005-01-01.
Sponable - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1987. Born: 1955-11-29.
SporeSat - Cubesat for NASA Ames. Released from Falcon second stage.
SPOT - Système Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre - French series of European remote sensing satellites.
SPOT-1-2-3 - French earth land resources satellite. SPOT was the French government-sponsored civil earth observation program, with support from Belgium and Sweden. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-02-22. Last Launch: 1993-09-26. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,869 kg (4,120 lb).
SPOT-4 - French earth land resources satellite. SPOT 4. SPOT was the French government-sponsored civil earth observation program. A single SPOT satellite provides complete coverage of the Earth every 26 days. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-03-24. Last Launch: 1998-03-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,755 kg (6,073 lb).
SPOT-5A-5B - French earth land resources satellite. Trench earth land resources satellite. SPOT was the French government sponsored civil Earth observation program. A single SPOT satellite provided complete coverage of the Earth every 26 days. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-05-04. Last Launch: 2012-09-17. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,850 kg (6,280 lb).
SPOT-Image - French agency.
Spoutnik - Alternate name for PS Model.
SPP - Satellite in the USAF OV1 technology series.
Sprague - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Sprague, Temecula, California, USA.
SPRAN-50 - French solid rocket engine. Daniel first stage. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Propellants: Solid.
SPRD-15 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. S-2 Strela-2 missile, Sopka. Out of Production. Thrust 27 metric tons at cutout - 41at ignition. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1950s. Thrust: 402.00 kN (90,373 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SPRD-30 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. P-15 Termit. Out of Production. Thrust 28 metric tons at cutout - 30 metric tons at ignition. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1950s. Thrust: 294.00 kN (66,093 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SPRD-99 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. MiG-21PFM. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 24.50 kN (5,508 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Spring - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1980-1988. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1988. Born: 1944-09-03. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 6.88 days.
Springer - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1980-1990. US Marine Corps. Flew 550 combat missions in Southeast Asia. Grew up in Ashland, Ohio. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1990. Born: 1942-05-21. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 9.90 days.
Sprint - Alternate designation for Sprint ABM.
SPRINT - Spectroscopic Planet Observatory for Recognition of Interaction of Atmosphere; carried a 0.20-m silicon carbide mirror with an extreme ultraviolet spectrometer in the 550-1450 A range, to study exospheres of planets. Used the NEXTAR NX-300L bus.
Sprint ABM - Nuclear-armed point defense anti-ballistic missile, an incredible high-acceleration weapon that would intercept incoming Soviet ICBMs in the atmosphere within 15 seconds of launch. Deployment limited by arms agreements and only 70 were briefly in service in 1975-1976. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1965-01-01. Last Launch: 1975-04-30. Number: 78 . Gross mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 3,000.00 kN (674,400 lbf).
Sprint ABM-1 - Alternate name for X-265.
Sprint ABM-2 - Alternate name for X-271.
Sprint X265 - Alternate designation for X-265.
Sprint X265 - Alternate designation for Sprint ABM-1 rocket stage.
SpriteSat - Japanese science. Microsatellite stabilized by a gravity gradient boom to study atmospheric sprites, built by Tohoku University, Sendai. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-01-23. Last Launch: 2009-01-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
SPRN - Early Warning System (Russian abbreviation)
SPRN - Alternate designation for the Prognoz SPRN.
SPRN-1 - Alternate designation for Oko military early warning satellite.
SPRN-2 - Alternate designation for Prognoz SPRN military early warning satellite.
SPROUT - Microsatellite with a Nihon University experiment to deploy a 1.5m inflatable triangular membrane. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-05-24. Last Launch: 2014-05-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 7.00 kg (15.40 lb).
SPS - Solar Power Satellite; or Secondary Propulsion System
SPS-Sputnik - Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. Status: Study 1995. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
SPT stage series -
SPT-100 - Stechkin electric rocket engine. Used on Meteor and Gals satellites. In Production. 1.35 kW Hall thruster. Thrust variable 2 to 20 kgf. Marketed in USA by Space Systems/Loral and Fakel. Status: In Production. Date: -1984. Thrust: 196 N (44 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SPT-100-SEP - Stechkin solid rocket engine. In Production. The French company SEP is developing this uprated version of the SPT-100 in cooperation with OKB Fakel. Status: In Production. Propellants: Solid.
SPT-140 - Stechkin solid rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Propellants: Solid.
SPT-200 - Stechkin solid rocket engine. In Production. Thrust variable 8 to 80 kgf Status: In Production. Thrust: 780 N (170 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SPT-290 - Stechkin solid rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Propellants: Solid.
SPT-50 - Stechkin solid rocket engine. Meteor-Priroda. In Production. Status: In Production. Date: 1972-78. Propellants: Solid.
SPT-70 - Stechkin solid rocket engine. Yamal. In Production. Thrust variable 1 to 10 kgf Status: In Production. Date: -1982. Thrust: 98 N (22 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SPTN - Alternate name for Spartan.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for Soyuz ASTP SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-MF6 SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-L1 SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for LOK Energia SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for Soyuz A SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-T SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-OKS SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-OK SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for Soyuz T SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for LEK SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-LOK SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - Russian name (descent module) for Soyuz TMA SA manned spacecraft module.
Spuskaemiy apparat - 'Sharik' (sphere) - Alternate name for Voskhod SA.
Spuskaemiy apparat - 'Sharik' (sphere) - Alternate name for Vostok SA.
Sputnik - Russian for 'satellite'; designation given to first series of Soviet satellites.
Sputnik 1 - Russian technology satellite. Tikhonravov's 1.4 metric ton ISZ satellite was to have been launched by the new R-7 ICBM as the Soviet Union's first satellite, during the International Geophysical Year. Status: Operational 1957. First Launch: 1957-10-04. Last Launch: 1957-10-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 84 kg (185 lb).
Sputnik 11A59 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage version of Vostok 11A57. Used for flight test of prototype Chelomei ASAT after cancellation of UR-200 booster and before availability of Tsyklon. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1963-11-01. Last Launch: 1964-04-12. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 277,000 kg (610,000 lb). Payload: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 3,999.93 kN (899,220 lbf).
Sputnik 2 - Russian biology satellite. Status: Operational 1957. First Launch: 1957-11-03. Last Launch: 1957-11-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 508 kg (1,119 lb).
Sputnik 3 - Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. In July 1956 OKB-1 completed the draft project for the first earth satellite, designated ISZ (Artificial Earth Satellite). Status: Operational 1958. First Launch: 1958-04-27. Last Launch: 1958-05-15. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,327 kg (2,925 lb).
Sputnik 8A91 - Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Modified R-7 ICBM used to launch Sputnik 3. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1958-04-27. Last Launch: 1958-05-15. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 269,300 kg (593,700 lb). Payload: 1,327 kg (2,925 lb). Thrust: 3,784.90 kN (850,879 lbf).
Sputnik 8A91-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 95,000 kg (209,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,100 kg (15,600 lb). Thrust: 804.00 kN (180,746 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Sputnik 8K71PS - Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Relatively unmodified R-7 ICBM test vehicles used to launch first two Sputniks. Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1957-10-04. Last Launch: 1957-11-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 267,000 kg (588,000 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 3,886.00 kN (873,607 lbf).
Sputnik 8K71PS-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1957. Gross mass: 94,000 kg (207,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,495 kg (16,523 lb). Thrust: 912.00 kN (205,025 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
SPW-2000 - SNECMA, Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design 2000. New upper-stage cryogenic engine for the upgraded Ariane-5, the Atlas-5, and other new vehicles. Status: Design 2000. Date: 2000. Thrust: 230.40 kN (51,796 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
SPX - Part of SDI series of missions.
SPX - SpaceX
Squirt - American anti-ballistic test vehicle. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-01-01. Last Launch: 1965-01-01. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb).
Squirt-1 - Solid propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Propellants: Solid.
SR - Suborbital Rocket-Glider (Russian abbreviation); or Special Relativity
SR105 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. 12.75" Improved FFAR . Propellants: Solid.
SR109 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Maverick AGM-65. Propellants: Solid.
SR11 - Hercules solid rocket engine. LGM-30 Retro Motor . Used on Minuteman 1 launch vehicle. Propellants: Solid.
SR110 - Aerodyne solid rocket engine. Super Loki PWN-10, PWN-11, PWN-12. Gross mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Propellants: Solid.
SR113 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. HARM AGM-88. Propellants: Solid.
SR114 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Maverick AGM-65. Propellants: Solid.
SR115 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Maverick AGM-65. Propellants: Solid.
SR116 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Sidewinder AIM-9J/P. Propellants: Solid.
SR118 - Alternate name for Castor 120.
SR119 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Peacekeeper second stage. Status: Retired 2005. Gross mass: 27,800 kg (61,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). Thrust: 1,365.00 kN (306,864 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SR120 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Peacekeeper third stage. Status: Retired 2005. Gross mass: 8,200 kg (18,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 329.00 kN (73,962 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SR121 - Naval Propellant Plant solid rocket engine. Streaker MQM-107 Booster. Propellants: Solid.
SR122 - Rocketdyne solid rocket engine. Also designated WPU-9/B1 (AGM-130). Propellants: Solid.
SR13 - Lockheed solid rocket engine. Propellants: Solid.
SR19 - Alternate designation for SR19 1999.
SR19 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Second stage of Minuteman 2. Surplus motors were used in a variety of anti-ballistic missile test target missiles from the 1980's. Status: In production. Date: 1959-1962. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 7,032 kg (15,502 lb). Unfuelled mass: 795 kg (1,752 lb). Thrust: 267.70 kN (60,181 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SR-19 - Alternate name for SR19.
SR19 1999 - American air-launched target missile. Single stage vehicle consisting of 1 surplus Minuteman 2 SR19AJ1 motor air-dropped from a C-130 transport. Similar to the SVC AltAir concept. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-03-31. Last Launch: 1999-03-31. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf).
SR19/SR19 - American target missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x MLRS + 1 x SR19 + 1 x SR19 Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-09-06. Last Launch: 2013-09-10. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SR-3 - Alternate designation for Blackstar manned spaceplane.
SR45 - Atlantic Research solid rocket engine. Kitty PWN-6, Rooster PWN-7. Propellants: Solid.
SR-47 - Government designation of UA1205 Solid rocket engine.
SR49 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Genie AIR-2. Propellants: Solid.
SR51 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Titan 2 LGM-25C Retro Motor. Propellants: Solid.
SR55 - United Technology Center solid rocket engine. Titan 2 LGM-25C Staging Motor. Propellants: Solid.
SR59 - Atlantic Research solid rocket engine. Minuteman 1 LGM-30 Pitch Motor. Propellants: Solid.
SR61 - Atlantic Research solid rocket engine. Minuteman 1 LGM-30 Spin Motor. Propellants: Solid.
SR71 - Aerodyne solid rocket engine. Loki PWN-8. Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Propellants: Solid.
SR-71 - Alternate designation for SR-71/M-12.
SR-71/M-12 - Jet-powered rocket carrier vehicle. Lockheed Reconnaissance-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Piggy-back, 9,091 kg (12.1 m length x 5.2 m span) at 3,300 kph at 24,390 m (D-21). Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 66,122 kg (145,774 lb). Unfuelled mass: 27,210 kg (59,980 lb). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
SR73 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Minuteman 1 LGM-30 third stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 152.00 kN (34,170 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SR75 - Lockheed solid rocket engine. SRAM AGM-69, ASAT ASM-135. Propellants: Solid.
SR9 - Hercules solid rocket engine. . Propellants: Solid.
SRALT - American target missile. Single stage short range air launched target vehicle consisting of 1 x SR19 Status: Active. First Launch: 2007-03-06. Last Launch: 2015-11-01. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf).
SRAM - Boeing Short Range Attack Missile, an air-launched nuclear-armed solid-propellant stand-off weapon to allow B-52 and FB-111 bombers to penetrate Soviet air space. In service 1972-1990. Retired after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1969-07-29. Last Launch: 1983-07-26. Number: 32 . Gross mass: 1,016 kg (2,239 lb).
SRAM II - Alternate designation for SRAM-2.
SRAM T - Alternate designation for SRAM-2.
SRAM-1 - Alternate name for LPC-415.
SRAM-2 - American Short Range Attack Missile, an air-launched nuclear-armed solid-propellant stand-off weapon to replace the SRAM. Mission was to allow B-52 and B-1 bombers to penetrate Soviet air space. Cancelled in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union without going into service. Gross mass: 877 kg (1,933 lb).
SRATS - Examined solar radiation, thermospheric structure. SRATS (Solar and Thermospheric Radiation Satellite) studied the intereffects of solar radiation and the thermosphere of the earth. National name: Taiyo. Used SS bus.
SRB - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Segmented solid rocket boosters for the compromised space shuttle design. Field joint design led to Challenger shuttle disaster. Production 1981-1985, after which superseded by RSRM's. Solid propellant rocket stage. Original configuration. Status: Prouction 1981-1985.. Number: 232 . Gross mass: 589,670 kg (1,299,990 lb). Unfuelled mass: 86,183 kg (190,000 lb). Thrust: 11,519.80 kN (2,589,754 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SRB CEV - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle design preferred by NASA Administrator Mike Griffin to boost the manned CEV Crew Exploration Vehicle into low earth orbit. A single shuttle solid rocket booster would be mated with an upper stage in the 100 metric ton class. Status: Design 2004. Gross mass: 700,000 kg (1,540,000 lb). Payload: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Thrust: 10,140.00 kN (2,279,560 lbf).
SRB-A - Nissan solid rocket engine. In production. Monolithic motor, shorter than that for H-2, using Thiokol filament wound composite structure. First flight 2001. Status: In production. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 76,400 kg (168,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,400 kg (22,900 lb). Thrust: 2,250.00 kN (505,820 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SRC - British National Space Research Council, UK.
SRDL - US Army Signal Research and Development Laboratory
SRE - Indian re-entry vehicle technology satellite. Indian experimental subscale Discoverer-type re-entry capsule. A test bed for a projected $ 3 billion Indian project to orbit a manned spacecraft by 2014. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-01-10. Last Launch: 2007-01-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb).
SRET - French technology satellite. Test satellite. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-04-04. Last Launch: 1975-06-05. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 23 kg (50 lb).
Sriharikota - India's primary space launch center, located on the east coast of the peninsula with a firing sector over the Bay of Bengal. In use from 1971 to present. First Launch: 1971-10-09. Last Launch: 2014-06-30. Number: 381 .
Sriharikota PSLV - PSLV launch complex. Adapted for GSLV launches. First Launch: 1993-09-20. Last Launch: 2014-06-30. Number: 24 .
Sriharikota RH - Sounding rocket complex
Sriharikota SLP - GSLV launch complex 2. First Launch: 2005-05-05. Last Launch: 2014-01-05. Number: 11 .
Sriharikota SLV - SLV, ASLV launch complex. SLV pad First Launch: 1979-08-10. Last Launch: 1994-05-04. Number: 8 .
SRL - Space Radar Lab, mounted in space shuttle payload bay. Carried JPL's SIR-C Shuttle Imaging Radar and the German/Italian X-SAR radar.
SRM - Abbreviation for Solid Rocket Motor
SRM-1 - CSD solid rocket engine. Used in TOS; IUS-1 on Shuttle, Titan 34D. Known by manufacturer as Orbus 21. Propellant: 86% solids made up of HTPB UTP-19360A. Shape: cylindrical. First flight 1982. Solid propellant rocket stage. IUS-2 stage with simplified electronics. Status: Retired 2004. Number: 84 . Gross mass: 10,841 kg (23,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,134 kg (2,500 lb). Thrust: 181.50 kN (40,803 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SRM-2 - CSD solid rocket engine. Used in Shuttle, Titan 34D; IUS-2. Known by manufacturer as Orbus 6. First flight 1982. Status: Retired 2004. Number: 58 . Gross mass: 3,919 kg (8,639 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Thrust: 78.40 kN (17,625 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
SRMSAT - SRM University in Chennai satellite for greenhouse gas monitoring. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-10-12. Last Launch: 2011-10-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb).
SRNS - Satellite Radio Navigation System (Russian abbreviation)
SROSS - Indian earth magnetosphere satellite. Status: Operational 1987. First Launch: 1987-03-24. Last Launch: 1994-05-04. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb).
SRV - Designation for re-entry vehicles carrying exposed film from SSF KH- series US reconnaissance satellites. Identification with catalogued objects in orbit confused by release of classified subsatellites from the same missions.
SS - Japanese earth magnetosphere satellite. Scientific observations in outer space. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-09-25. Last Launch: 1985-08-18. Number: 6 .
SS- - Surface-to-surface missile (designation numbering series - US DoD)
SS/Loral - Space Systems/Loral, USA, USA
SS-10 - Alternate designation for UR-200.
SS-1000 - Brazilian intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired. Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
SS-11 Mod.1 - Alternate designation for UR-100.
SS-11 Mod.2 - Alternate designation for UR-100M.
SS-11 Mod.3 - Alternate designation for UR-100K.
SS-11 Mod.4 - Alternate designation for UR-100U.
SS-12 - Alternate designation for 9K76.
SS-12M - Alternate designation for 9K76B.
SS-13 Mod.1 - Alternate designation for RT-2.
SS-13 Mod.2 - Alternate designation for RT-2P.
SS-14 - Alternate designation for RT-15.
SS-15 - Alternate designation for RT-20P.
SS-15 - Alternate designation for RT-20.
SS-16 - Alternate designation for Temp-2S.
SS-17 Mod 1 and Mod 2 - Alternate designation for MR-UR-100.
SS-17 Mod.3 - Alternate designation for MR-UR-100U 15A16.
SS-18 Mod. 1-Mod. 2 - Alternate designation for R-36M 15A14.
SS-18 Mod.4 - Alternate designation for R-36MU 15A18.
SS-18 Mod.5 and 6 - Alternate designation for R-36M2 15A18M.
SS-18 Satan - Alternate name for R-36M2-1.
SS-19 Mod 1 and Mod 2 - Alternate designation for UR-100N.
SS-19 Mod 3 - Alternate designation for UR-100NU 15A35.
SS-19 Mod 3 - Alternate designation for UR-100NU.
SS-19 Mod.1 - Alternate designation for Rokot.
SS-19 Mod.1 - Alternate designation for Strela launch vehicle.
SS-1A - Alternate designation for R-1.
SS-1B - Alternate designation for R-11.
SS-1C - Alternate designation for R-11M.
SS-1C - Alternate designation for R-17.
SS-1C Scud B - Alternate name for R-17 stage.
SS2 - Alternate designation for SpaceShip Two.
SS-2 - Alternate designation for R-2.
SS-20 Mod 1 - Alternate designation for 15Zh45.
SS-20 Mod 1 and Mod 2 - Alternate designation for Pioner UTTKh.
SS-20 Mod 1 and Mod 2 - Alternate designation for 15Zh45.
SS-20 Mod 2 - Alternate designation for Pioner UTTKh.
SS-20 Mod 2 - Alternate designation for 15Zh45UTTKh.
SS-20 Mod 3 - Alternate designation for 15Zh53.
SS-21 - Alternate designation for Tochka-U.
SS-21 - Alternate designation for Tochka.
SS-21 - Alternate designation for 9K714B.
SS-21 - Alternate designation for Oka.
SS-22 - Alternate designation for 9K76B.
SS-23 - Alternate designation for Oka.
SS-23 - Alternate designation for 9K714B.
SS-24 - Alternate designation for RT-23 15Zh44.
SS-24 Mod 1 - Alternate designation for RT-23U 15Zh60.
SS-24 Mod 2 - Alternate designation for RT-23 15Zh52.
SS-24 Mod 2 - Alternate designation for RT-23U 15Zh61.
SS-25 - Brazilian tactical ballistic missile. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 129 kg (284 lb). Thrust: 22.50 kN (5,058 lbf).
SS-25 Mod 1 and 2 - Alternate designation for Topol'.
SS-25 Mod 1 and 2 - Alternate designation for Topol.
SS-26 - Alternate designation for RSS-40.
SS-28 - Alternate designation for 15Zh53.
SS-3 Mod 1 - Alternate designation for R-5.
SS-3 Mod.2 - Alternate designation for R-5M.
SS-300 - Brazilian short range ballistic missile. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 6,400 kg (14,100 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
SS-4 - Alternate name for Kosmos A-1.
SS-4 Mod 2 - Alternate designation for R-12U.
SS-4 Mod.1 - Alternate designation for R-12.
SS-5 - Alternate name for Kosmos-1.
SS-5 Mod 1 - Alternate designation for R-14.
SS-5 Mod 2 - Alternate designation for R-14U.
SS-520 - Alternate designation for SS-520 engine.
SS-520 - Japanese test vehicle. The SS-520 was a two-stage rocket, the first stage consisting of the main booster of the S-520. It had a capability of launching a 140 kg payload to an altitude of about 1,000 km, and with addition of a third stage, as a satellite launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-02-05. Last Launch: 2000-12-04. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb).
SS-520 engine - ISAS solid rocket engine. SS-520 second stage. Status: Active. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Unfuelled mass: 111 kg (244 lb). Propellants: Solid.
SS-520-2 - Alternate name for SS-520 engine.
SS-6 Mod 1 - Alternate designation for R-7.
SS-6 Mod 2 - Alternate designation for R-7A.
SS-60 - Brazilian tactical ballistic missile. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 521 kg (1,148 lb). Thrust: 67.60 kN (15,197 lbf).
SS-7 Mod 1 - Alternate designation for R-16.
SS-7 Mod.2 - Alternate designation for R-16U.
SS-8 Mod. 1 - Alternate designation for Romashka.
SS-8 Mod. 2 - Alternate designation for Desna.
SS-8 Mod. 2 - Alternate designation for Dolina.
SS-9 Mod 1 - Alternate designation for Tsiklon.
SS-9 Mod 4 - Alternate designation for R-36 8K67P.
SS-9 Mod.3 - Alternate designation for R-36O 8K69.
SS-9 Mod.3 - Alternate designation for R-36-O.
SSA - Alternate name for NOSS-Subsat.
SSB - Alternate name for NOSS.
SSBS - French medium-range ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1993. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
SSBS S01 - French submarine-launched ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1967-07-25. Last Launch: 1968-11-09. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb).
SSBS S01 - Alternate designation for SSBS. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb).
SSBS S01-2 - Alternate name for SEP 903.
SSBS S02 - French submarine-launched ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1968-12-21. Last Launch: 1973-03-15. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 31,900 kg (70,300 lb).
SSBS S112 - French submarine-launched ballistic missile. Test vehicle. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1965-10-23. Last Launch: 1967-03-02. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 25,100 kg (55,300 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
SSBS S2 - French submarine-launched ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1973-09-18. Last Launch: 1977-03-16. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 31,890 kg (70,300 lb). Payload: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Thrust: 533.40 kN (119,913 lbf).
SSBS S3 - French submarine-launched ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SEP 902 + 1 x Rita II Status: Retired 1993. First Launch: 1976-12-03. Last Launch: 1993-11-03. Number: 21 . Gross mass: 25,750 kg (56,760 lb). Thrust: 534.40 kN (120,138 lbf).
SSBS S3-1 - Alternate name for SEP 902.
SSBS S4 - French submarine-launched ballistic missile. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
SSBUV - Shuttle Solar Backscatter UltraViolet spectrometer, an instrument carried in the space shuttle payload bay. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-10-18. Last Launch: 1989-10-18. Number: 2 .
SSC - Swedish manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Swedish Space Corporation, Sweden.
SSC/MBB/ERNO - Second name of Bremen.
SSD - Space Systems Division, Air Force
SSD - Alternate name for NOSS-Subsat.
SSDC - Abbreviation for US Army Space and Strategic Defense Command
SSERC - Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. Shanghai Satellite Engineering and Research Centre, Shanghai, China.
SSESM - spent stage experimental support module
SSETI - SSETI.
SSETI Express - European civilian surveillance satellite. Student-built technology satellite sponsored by the ESA. It ejected three 1-kg Cubesats after separating from the booster, but then itself lost power less than 14 hours later. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-10-27. Last Launch: 2005-10-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb).
SSF - American military signals intelligence satellite. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-03-18. Last Launch: 1989-08-08. Number: 54 .
SSI - American agency. Space Services Incorporated, USA.
SSL-1300 - Designation for the FS-1300 satellite bus following the acquisition of Ford Aerospace by Space Systems Loral.
SSM Korea - South Korean short range ballistic missile. Status: Active. Gross mass: 230 kg (500 lb).
SSM-A-12 - Alternate designation for Lacrosse.
SSM-A-12 - Alternate designation for Lacrosse missile.
SSM-A-13 - Alternate designation for Hermes C-1.
SSM-A-13 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-2.
SSM-A-14 - Alternate designation for Redstone.
SSM-A-15 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-1.
SSM-A-16 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-3B.
SSM-A-17 - Alternate designation for Corporal.
SSM-A-17 / M2 - Alternate designation for MGM-5B.
SSM-A-17 / M2A1 - Alternate designation for MGM-5A.
SSM-A-23 - Alternate designation for Dart missile.
SSM-A-26 / M15 - Alternate designation for Sergeant.
SSM-A-6 - Alternate designation for Navaho G-38.
SSM-A-9 - Alternate designation for Hermes B-1.
SSME - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. In production. Space Shuttle Main Engines; only high-pressure closed-cycle reusable cryogenic rocket engine ever flown. . Three mounted in the base of the American space shuttle. First flight 1981. Status: In production. Date: 1972. Number: 351 . Unfuelled mass: 3,177 kg (7,004 lb). Thrust: 2,278.00 kN (512,114 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
SSME Demonstrator Booster - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Pressure-fed. Date: 1970. Thrust: 2,445.70 kN (549,815 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
SSME Plus - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. VTOHL studies, 1978. Status: Study 1978. Unfuelled mass: 2,973 kg (6,554 lb). Thrust: 3,728.70 kN (838,245 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
SSME Study - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1967. Status: Study 1967. Thrust: 1,535.20 kN (345,127 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
SSM-G-13 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-2.
SSM-G-13 - Alternate designation for Hermes C-1.
SSM-G-15 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-1.
SSM-G-8 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-3.
SSM-G-8 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-3A.
SSM-G-9 - Alternate designation for Hermes B-1.
SSM-N-1 - Alternate designation for Loon.
SSM-N-2 - Alternate designation for Triton.
SSM-N-4 - Alternate designation for Taurus SSM-N-4.
SSM-N-6 - Alternate designation for Rigel SSM-N-6.
SSM-N-8 - Alternate designation for RGM-6A.
SSM-N-8 - Alternate designation for RGM-6B.
SSM-N-8 - Alternate designation for Regulus 1.
SSM-N-9 - Alternate designation for Regulus 2.
SS-N- - Naval surface-to-surface missile (designation numbering series - US DoD)
SS-N-17 - Alternate designation for R-31.
SS-N-18 - Alternate designation for Volna.
SS-N-18 Mod 1 - Alternate designation for R-29R.
SS-N-18 Mod 2 - Alternate designation for R-29K.
SS-N-18 Mod 3 - Alternate designation for R-29RL.
SS-N-20 - Alternate designation for R-39M.
SS-N-20 - Alternate designation for R-39.
SS-N-20 - Alternate designation for Rif-MA.
SS-N-20 Mod 1 - Alternate designation for 3M20.
SS-N-20 Mod 2 - Alternate designation for 3M65.
SS-N-23 - Alternate designation for Shtil-2/2N.
SS-N-23 - Alternate designation for Shtil'-1.
SS-N-23 - Alternate designation for Shtil-3A.
SS-N-23 - Alternate designation for Shtil-3N.
SS-N-23 - Alternate designation for R-29RM.
SS-N-24 - Alternate designation for P-750.
SS-N-28 - Alternate designation for R-39UTTKh.
SS-N-28 - Alternate designation for R-39M.
SS-N-3C - Alternate designation for P-6.
SS-N-4 - Alternate designation for R-13.
SS-N-5 - Alternate designation for R-21.
SS-N-6 - Alternate designation for R-21A.
SS-N-6 Mod 1 - Alternate designation for R-27.
SS-N-6 Mod 2 - Alternate designation for R-27K.
SS-N-6 Mod 3 - Alternate designation for R-27U.
SS-N-8 - Alternate designation for Vysota.
SS-N-8 Mod 1 - Alternate designation for R-29.
SS-N-8 Mod 2 - Alternate designation for R-29D.
SS-NX-30 - Alternate designation for Bulava.
SSOAR - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. P Seigler founded a company in 1976 to promote his design for a VTOVL SSTO vehicle using a LOx/hydrogen aerospike engine. Status: Design 1976.
SSPF - Abbreviation for Space Station Processing Facility
SSPS - Abbreviation for Sky Survey Prototype System
SSRMS - Abbreviation or acronym for Space Station Remote Manipulator System
SSRT - Abbreviation for Single Stage Rocket Technology
SSS - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Explorer 45. Studies magnetosphere, energetic particles. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-11-15. Last Launch: 1971-11-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 52 kg (114 lb).
SSSat - Japanese technology satellite. Solar sail experiment. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-09-22. Last Launch: 2006-09-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
SSSR - USSR, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian abbreviation)
SST - Alternate designation for SST (abbreviation).
SST - Chinese solar satellite. Study 1998. The SST, an advanced Chinese solar telescope, was to have been part of a sun monitoring system built along the earth's meridian circle at 120 degrees east. Status: Study 1998. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
SST (abbreviation) - Super Sonic Transport
SSTI - Alternate name for Lewis satellite.
SSTL - First name of Surrey.
SSTL 400 - Alternate designation for MiniSat-400.
SSTL 400 - Alternate name for SSTL-400.
SSTL-10 - Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) SNAP-1 Surrey Nanosatellite Applications Platform could accommodate 6-10 kg satellites complete with imagers and propulsion. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-06-28. Last Launch: 2000-06-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Payload: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
SSTL-150 - German civilian surveillance satellite. Surrey satellite bus, notably used for the RapidEye constellation of five environmental monitoring satellites. Mass of 152 kg including 12 kg of propellant. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-10-27. Last Launch: 2014-07-08. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 152 kg (335 lb).
SSTL-300 - Surrey minisatellite bus, 300 kg class. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-08-17. Last Launch: 2015-07-10. Number: 4 .
SSTL-70 - British microsatellite bus. 1 Basic Surrey Microsat bus. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-10-06. Last Launch: 2001-09-30. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Payload: 25 kg (55 lb).
SSTL-900 - Surrey bus used for the Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element, a prototype for the Galileo European navigation satellite network. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-12-28. Last Launch: 2008-04-26. Number: 2 .
SSTO - Category of launch vehicles. Single Stage To Orbit.
SSU - Alternate designation for NOSS-Subsat.
SSUS-A Motor - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. A slightly modified stage 3 Minuteman 3 with TVC and roll control systems removed, provided propulsion for the Douglas Spinning Solid Upper Stage for use with Space Shuttle payloads. Status: In Production. Propellants: Solid.
SSX - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. The X-Rocket was a VTOVL SSTO design by Maxwell Hunter II at Lockheed in the late 1980's. The 227 metric ton vehicle was powered by clustered RL10 engines. Internal reviews at Lockheed rejected the feasibility of the vehicle. After Hunter retired he worked with Gary Hudson to refine the design as the SSX. This was briefed by the pair to Space Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) officials in 1988. It was largely through their efforts that the US government funded the DC-X demonstrator in the 1990's. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 227,000 kg (500,000 lb). Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb).
SS-X-26 - Alternate designation for Iskander.
SS-X-27 / SS-X-29 - Alternate designation for Topol'-M.
SS-X-27 / SS-X-29 - Alternate designation for Topol M.
SS-XZ - Alternate designation for RT-20.
ST - Alternate designation for ST engine.
ST - Singapore/Taiwan communications satellite network operated by Singapore Telecom and Chunghwa Telecom of Taiwan.
ST engine - Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. ST first stage. Status: Retired 1965. Number: 1 . Propellants: Solid.
ST test vehicle - Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1965-11-16. Last Launch: 1965-11-16. Number: 1 .
ST-1 - Alternate name for ST engine.
ST5 - American technology satellite. 3 launched, 2006.03.22 (ST5-A) to (ST5-C). Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-03-22. Last Launch: 2006-03-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
ST-735 - Japanese test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x ST-735 + 1 x ST-735 stage 2 Status: Retired 1994. First Launch: 1984-01-17. Last Launch: 1994-09-16. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 7,400 kg (16,300 lb).
ST-735 1-1 - Alternate name for ST-735-1.
ST-735-1 - ISAS solid rocket engine. ST-735 1 first stage. Status: Retired 1994. Gross mass: 7,400 kg (16,300 lb). Propellants: Solid.
ST-735-2 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1994. Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Propellants: Solid.
STA - Japanese agency overseeing development of rockets. Science and Technology Agency, Japan.
Staats - German electronics engineer, worked for Steinhoff at Peenemuende, but stayed in Germany after war. Founded and led the leading German rocket society 1952-1990 (designated sequentially DAFRA, DRG, HOG, DGLR). Born: 1913-10-27. Died: 2002-05-30.
Stabilo - Romanian manned spacecraft. Study 2013. Stabilo was a suborbital manned system developed by ARCA. Status: Study 2013. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 30.00 kN (6,744 lbf).
Stable Super Loki - Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1972-09-19. Last Launch: 1973-06-26. Number: 26 .
Stack - American engineer, at NASA 1928-1962. Conducted fundamental research on transonic flight which resulted in X-1 being the first manned aircraft to break the sound barrier in 1947. Born: 1906-09-13. Died: 1972-06-01.
Stacksat P87-2 - American technology satellite. 3 launched, 1990.04.11 (USA 56) to (USA 58). The U. S. military's STACKSAT mission involved the launch of three similar spacecraft, POGS, TEX and SCE. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-04-11. Last Launch: 1990-04-11. Number: 3 .
STADAN - Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (see also STDN)
Stafford - American test pilot astronaut 1962-1975. Member of first crew to rendezvous in space. Space speed record (11,107 m/s). Status: Inactive; Active 1962-1975. Born: 1930-09-17. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 21.15 days.
Stahl - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946.
Staib - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988. Left the astronaut corps in July 1988. Later worked at the Pentagon, then at Colorado Springs. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1988. Born: 1955-06-20.
Stainer - German Engineer. Engineer, German glider pilot and rocket pioneer. Born: 1897. Died: 1969-01-01.
Stalin - Georgian-Russian politician. Leader of the Soviet Union, 1924-1953. Born: 1879-12-21. Died: 1953-03-05.
Stamer - German pilot of first rocket-boosted glider. Stamer was the first soaring-teacher at the Wasserkuppe, flew the first rocket airplane and constructed a wide range of gliders.
Standard - US Navy anti-aircraft missile family. Some versions developed for anti-ballistic missile and anti-satellite missions.
Standard 2 ER - Alternate designation for RIM-67D.
Standard 3 ER - Alternate designation for SM-3.
Standard 3 ER - Alternate designation for Standard SM-3.
Standard Missile 2 (ER) - Alternate designation for RIM-67D.
Standard SM-2ER Block IV - Alternate designation for SM-2-IV.
Standard SM-3 - Alternate designation for SM-3.
Standard-ER - Alternate designation for RIM-67B.
Standard-ER - American Navy long range surface-to-air missile family. Later versions had anti-ballistic missile and anti-satellite capability. Status: Active.
Standard-ER - Alternate designation for RIM-67A.
Standley - American engineer. Chief of Mechanical Design for the Atlas. Born: 1912-01-28. Died: 1998-03-22.
Stanford - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Stanford University, USA.
Stankevicius - Lithuanian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1990. Buran Test Pilot, died in crash of a Su-27 fighter at an air show at Treviso, Italy. Status: Deceased; Active 1977-1990. Born: 1944-07-26. Died: 1990-09-09.
Stanley - American engineer. Headed Atlas process engineering and facilities planning. Born: 1916-05-01. Died: 2002-07-08.
Stapp - American USAF flight surgeon. In 1946-1958 pioneer research with rocket sleds and balloons; defined human tolerances for G-forces, altitude, and blast, essential data for design of aerospacecraft. Personally underwent the most grueling tests. Status: Deceased. Born: 1910-07-11. Died: 1999-11-13.
STAR - Status: Retired 2008. First Launch: 2007-11-06. Last Launch: 2008-11-05. Number: 11 .
Star 10 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. SARV Retro MK I was a small, high-performance motor designed for use as a retrograde rocket for an unmanned satellite vehicle. Status: In Production. Number: 46 . Gross mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Thrust: 3.35 kN (754 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 12 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. SARV Retro, MK IV and V was a 60-pound motor using 40 pounds of propellant. It was designed for use as a retrograde rocket for an unmanned satellite vehicle. Status: In Production. Number: 510 . Gross mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Thrust: 5.56 kN (1,250 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 12A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Super SARV Retro was a longer, higher impulse version of the STAR 12, used as a retrograde rocket for an unmanned satellite vehicle. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 34 kg (74 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11 kg (24 lb). Thrust: 7.25 kN (1,629 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 13 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. A braking motor used by NASA for the Anchored Interplanetary Monitoring Platform program. Status: Out of Production. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 36 kg (79 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Thrust: 3.80 kN (854 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 13A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Orbit insertion motor incorporated the lightweight titanium case developed for the STAR 13 with the propellant and nozzle design of the earlier TE-M-444 apogee motor. Status: In Production. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 38 kg (83 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Thrust: 5.87 kN (1,321 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 13B - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Orbit insertion motor incorporated the lightweight case developed for the STAR 13 with the propellant and nozzle design of the earlier TE-M-516 apogee motor. Status: Out of Production. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 47 kg (103 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Thrust: 7.60 kN (1,709 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 13C - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 8,252 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.795. Status: Out of Production. Number: 256 . Gross mass: 38 kg (83 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8.00 kg (17.60 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 13D - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 7,799 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.81. Status: Out of Production. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 35 kg (77 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 13E - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 6,438 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.822. Status: Out of Production. Number: 105 . Gross mass: 31 kg (68 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 13F - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 9,608 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.83. Status: Out of Production. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7.00 kg (15.40 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 15 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 11,109 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.926. Status: Out of Production. Number: 21 . Gross mass: 49 kg (108 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 17 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Skynet 1, NATO 1, and IMP-H & J. Out of production. Used on Atlas LV-3A / Agena D launch vehicle. First flight 1963. Status: Out of production. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 79 kg (174 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Thrust: 10.90 kN (2,450 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 17A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Apogee kick motor, modified with 175 mm straight section added to the Star 17. The 17A was used to circularize orbits for the Skynet 1, NATO 1, and IMP-H & J satellites. Status: In Production. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 126 kg (277 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Thrust: 16.01 kN (3,600 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 20 - Alternate name for Altair 3.
Star 20 Spherical - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 30,198 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.934. Status: Out of Production. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 123 kg (271 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8.00 kg (17.60 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 20A - Alternate name for Altair 3A.
Star 20B - Alternate name for Altair 3B.
Star 20D - Alternate name for Altair 3D.
Star 24 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Skynet 2. In Production. Apogee boost motor was qualified and flown for the Skynet II, later apogee boost motor for NRL and SAMSO. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 218 kg (480 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 24A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-24C. Total impulse 50,965 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.903. Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 198 kg (436 lb). Unfuelled mass: 19 kg (41 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 24B - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-24C. Total impulse 57,236 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.915. Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 219 kg (482 lb). Unfuelled mass: 19 kg (41 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 24C - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Apogee motor designed and qualified for the NASA International Ultraviolet Experiment satellite. Status: In Production. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 239 kg (526 lb). Unfuelled mass: 19 kg (41 lb). Thrust: 21.47 kN (4,826 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 25 - Alternate designation for Altair 2.
Star 25 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 61,086 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.917. Status: Out of Production. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 236 kg (520 lb). Unfuelled mass: 19 kg (41 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 26 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Upper stage motor used in the Sandia Strypi IV vehicle. Total flown included in total for Star-26C. Total impulse 62,800 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.86. First flight 1965. Solid propellant rocket stage. Burner II was a launch vehicle upper stage developed by Boeing for the Air Force Space Systems Division. It was the first solid-fuel upper stage with full control and guidance capability developed for general space applications. Status: In Production. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 268 kg (590 lb). Unfuelled mass: 37 kg (81 lb). Thrust: 39.10 kN (8,790 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 26B - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Upper stage motor flown on the Burner IIA spacecraft for Boeing and the U.S. Air Force. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 261 kg (575 lb). Unfuelled mass: 23 kg (50 lb). Thrust: 34.63 kN (7,784 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 26C - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Upper stage motor used the titanium alloy case and nozzle attachment ring of the STAR 26B design to provide high propellant mass fraction and was insulated for high-spin-rate applications. Status: In Production. Number: 27 . Gross mass: 264 kg (582 lb). Unfuelled mass: 32 kg (70 lb). Thrust: 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 27 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Apogee motor used on CTS, GMS, BS, GPS, GOES satellites. In Production. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 361 kg (795 lb). Unfuelled mass: 27 kg (59 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 27A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 89,684 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.919. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 336 kg (740 lb). Unfuelled mass: 27 kg (59 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 27B - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 92,296 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 345 kg (760 lb). Unfuelled mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 27C - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 88,555 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.918. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 333 kg (734 lb). Unfuelled mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 27D - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 88,668 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 332 kg (731 lb). Unfuelled mass: 26 kg (57 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 27E - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total impulse 88,301 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Status: In Production. Number: 48 . Gross mass: 331 kg (729 lb). Unfuelled mass: 26 kg (57 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 30 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-30A. Total impulse 136,455 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.943. Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 492 kg (1,084 lb). Unfuelled mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 30A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 137,095 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.942. Status: Out of Production. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 492 kg (1,084 lb). Unfuelled mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 30B - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 148,816 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.941. Status: Out of Production. Number: 44 . Gross mass: 537 kg (1,183 lb). Unfuelled mass: 32 kg (70 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 30BP - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Apogee motor used for the HS 376 satellite bus. Incorporated an 89-percent-solids HTPB propellant in a 6AI-4V titanium case insulated with silica-filled EPDM rubber. Status: In Production. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 543 kg (1,197 lb). Unfuelled mass: 38 kg (83 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 30C - Thiokol solid rocket engine. AS 3000. In Production. Apogee motor used for the RCA G-STAR and Martin Marietta series 3000 telecom satellites. Status: In Production. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 630 kg (1,380 lb). Unfuelled mass: 39 kg (85 lb). Thrust: 32.60 kN (7,329 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 30E - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Koreasat. In Production. Apogee motor used for the BAe Skynet 4 satellite, Koreasat and by the ORBEX small orbital launcher. Status: In Production. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 667 kg (1,470 lb). Unfuelled mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Thrust: 35.40 kN (7,958 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 31 - Alternate designation for Antares 1A.
Star 31 - Alternate designation for Antares 3 solid rocket engine.
Star 37 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Total impulse 161,512 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.899. First flight 1963. Solid propellant rocket stage. Burner II was a launch vehicle upper stage developed by Boeing for the Air Force Space Systems Division. It was the first solid-fuel upper stage with full control and guidance capability developed for general space applications. Status: First flight 1963. Number: 180 . Gross mass: 621 kg (1,369 lb). Unfuelled mass: 63 kg (138 lb). Thrust: 43.50 kN (9,779 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37B - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 189,489 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.91. Status: Out of Production. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 718 kg (1,582 lb). Unfuelled mass: 64 kg (141 lb). Thrust: 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37C - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 275,959 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Status: Out of Production. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 1,048 kg (2,310 lb). Unfuelled mass: 83 kg (182 lb). Thrust: 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37D - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 189,489 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.91. Status: Out of Production. Number: 34 . Gross mass: 718 kg (1,582 lb). Unfuelled mass: 64 kg (141 lb). Thrust: 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37E - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 296,635 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.926. Status: Out of Production. Number: 91 . Gross mass: 1,123 kg (2,475 lb). Unfuelled mass: 83 kg (182 lb). Thrust: 68.00 kN (15,287 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37F - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 249,177 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.928. Status: Out of Production. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 934 kg (2,059 lb). Unfuelled mass: 67 kg (147 lb). Thrust: 55.50 kN (12,477 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37FM - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Apogee kick motor for the FLTSTACOM satellite. The motor case contained the same volume as the discontinued STAR 37E. Status: In Production. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 1,147 kg (2,528 lb). Unfuelled mass: 81 kg (178 lb). Thrust: 47.90 kN (10,768 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37G - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 304,620 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.925. Status: Out of Production. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,152 kg (2,539 lb). Unfuelled mass: 86 kg (189 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37N - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 162,102 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.898. Status: Out of Production. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 623 kg (1,373 lb). Unfuelled mass: 64 kg (141 lb). Thrust: 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37S - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 190,590 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.925. Status: Out of Production. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 711 kg (1,567 lb). Unfuelled mass: 53 kg (116 lb). Thrust: 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37X - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 310,668 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.928. Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb). Unfuelled mass: 83 kg (182 lb). Thrust: 51.10 kN (11,488 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37XE - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1980. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Unfuelled mass: 67 kg (147 lb). Thrust: 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37XF - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-37XF-8. Total impulse 259,123 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.929. Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 953 kg (2,101 lb). Unfuelled mass: 68 kg (149 lb). Thrust: 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37XF 8 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 238,809 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.924. Status: Out of Production. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 883 kg (1,946 lb). Unfuelled mass: 68 kg (149 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37XFP - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Orbit insertion motor qualified for Global Positioning Satellite. Used as a replacement for the discontinued STAR 37F. Propellant: 884 kg of AP/HTPB/Al in 6Al-4V titanium case. Status: In Production. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 955 kg (2,105 lb). Unfuelled mass: 71 kg (156 lb). Thrust: 31.50 kN (7,081 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 37Y - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 317,856 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.93. Status: Out of Production. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,152 kg (2,539 lb). Unfuelled mass: 81 kg (178 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 40 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 200,882 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.925. Status: Out of Production. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 979 kg (2,158 lb). Unfuelled mass: 73 kg (160 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 48 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Used in Delta 3900; Conestoga; PAM-S; PAM-D. Total flown included in total for Star-48-8. Total impulse 575,682 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.946. First flight 1982. Status: Out of Production. Number: 125 . Gross mass: 2,114 kg (4,660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 114 kg (251 lb). Thrust: 67.20 kN (15,107 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 48 8 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 587,784 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.945. Status: Out of Production. Number: 49 . Gross mass: 2,116 kg (4,664 lb). Unfuelled mass: 116 kg (255 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 48A l - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total impulse 709,062 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.941. Status: In Production. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,582 kg (5,692 lb). Unfuelled mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 48A s - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Short nozzle upper-stage motor designed to fit within the dimensional envelope of the long nozzle. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 2,574 kg (5,674 lb). Unfuelled mass: 144 kg (317 lb). Thrust: 77.11 kN (17,335 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 48B - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Long nozzle upper-stage motor qualified for the McDonnell Payload Assist Module (PAM) Delta. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 2,137 kg (4,711 lb). Unfuelled mass: 126 kg (277 lb). Thrust: 66.00 kN (14,837 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 48B l - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Lengthened version of Star 48B to provide increased payload capability. The design incorporates a longer cylindrical section in the motor case. Status: In Production. Number: 29 . Gross mass: 2,141 kg (4,720 lb). Unfuelled mass: 131 kg (288 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 48B s - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Short nozzle upper-stage motor qualified for the McDonnell Douglas Payload Assist Module (PAM) Space Transportation System (STS). Status: In Production. Gross mass: 2,134 kg (4,704 lb). Unfuelled mass: 124 kg (273 lb). Thrust: 77.11 kN (17,335 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 48V - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Developed for Conestoga's upper stage, providing some ±4 degrees capability at 30 degree/sec using the same loaded casing as the 48B. First Flight: 1994. Status: In Production. Propellants: Solid.
Star 5 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 405 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.87. Status: Out of Production. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 1.98 kg (4.36 lb). Unfuelled mass: 0.26 kg (0.57 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 5A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Space Gnat was designed to provide a minimum acceleration, extended burn delta-V impulse, for small payload replacement or spin-up applications. Status: In Production. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 4.60 kg (10.10 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2.33 kg (5.13 lb). Thrust: 166 N (37 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 5C - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Titan Retro designed to separate the second stage from the upper stage of the Titan IV launch vehicle. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 2.04 kN (458 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 5C/CB - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Titan Retro designed to separate the second stage from the transtage on the Titan II missile and Titan launch vehicle. The motor was also adapted for other uses. Status: In Production. Number: 915 . Gross mass: 4.46 kg (9.83 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2.40 kg (5.20 lb). Thrust: 1.95 kN (439 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 5CB - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Reduced Al HTPB propellant (2.1 kg) minimizes contamination when Used in a Titan 4 stage separation motor. Diameter: 121 mm. Length: 341 mm. Mass: 4.5 kg. Total impulse: 5.5 kNs. Burn Time: 2.77 sec. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 4.50 kg (9.90 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2.40 kg (5.20 lb). Thrust: 2.00 kN (450 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 6 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-6A. Total impulse 1,395 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.795. Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 6.11 kg (13.47 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1.25 kg (2.75 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 62 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 725,491 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.94. Status: Out of Production. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,618 kg (5,771 lb). Unfuelled mass: 157 kg (346 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 63 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Used in Shuttle, Titan 34D. Used on Delta 7925 launch vehicle. First flight 1990. Status: Active. Number: 104 . Gross mass: 3,697 kg (8,150 lb). Unfuelled mass: 431 kg (950 lb). Thrust: 107.20 kN (24,100 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 63D - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Perigee motor with a range of propellant loads, yielding GTO payloads from 3,080 to 4,588 pounds at a constant velocity of 8,012 feet per second. Status: In Production. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 3,499 kg (7,713 lb). Unfuelled mass: 248 kg (546 lb). Thrust: 84.74 kN (19,050 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 63F - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Provided perigee kick for the McDonnell PAM-D2 system. Another version was the Star 63D (TU-936). Status: In Production. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 4,590 kg (10,110 lb). Unfuelled mass: 326 kg (718 lb). Thrust: 104.63 kN (23,521 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 6A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 935 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.723. Status: Out of Production. Number: 294 . Gross mass: 4.52 kg (9.96 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1.25 kg (2.75 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Star 6B - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Delta-V reentry motor developed as a spin-up and propulsion motor for reentry vehicles. The design incorporated an aluminum case and a plastic nozzle assembly. Status: In Production. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Thrust: 2.51 kN (564 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star 75 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. A demonstration motor tested as a first step in the development of a perigee kick motor in the 4080-7940 kg propellant range. Status: In Production. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 8,068 kg (17,786 lb). Unfuelled mass: 565 kg (1,245 lb). Thrust: 242.80 kN (54,584 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Star bus - American communications satellite bus. The Orbital Star bus was designed for reliable and robust performance in a variety of LEO and GEO missions. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-11-12. Last Launch: 2015-05-27. Number: 34 .
Star Lite - American military anti-satellite system. Study 1991. In 1991 the Star Lite space laser experiment was made public. Star Lite would weigh half that of the previously planned Zenith Star with a launch mass of 16. Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 16,300 kg (35,900 lb).
Star One - Communications satellite series owned by Brazilian operator Star One using the Spacebus 3000 bus.
Star Wars - Category of spacecraft.
Star-2 bus - Version of Star bus.
Star48 - Alternate designation for LDSD.
Starbird - American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Orbus 1 + 1 x Orbus 1 Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1990-12-18. Last Launch: 1990-12-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 7,400 kg (16,300 lb).
Starbird-4 - Alternate name for Orbus 1.
Starchaser 5 - British manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Starchaser Industries, Cheshire, England. The concept used a rocket powered vertical takeoff followed by a parachute descent to land. Status: Study 2004. Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 294.00 kN (66,093 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Starchaser Industries - British manufacturer of spacecraft. Starchaser Industries, UK.
Starclipper - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed ILRV design created for the USAF in 1966. X-24B lifting body configuration orbiter with linear aerospike engine and wrap-around drop tank. Related to Lockheed Shuttle LS200 proposal. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,600,000 kg (3,500,000 lb). Payload: 22,700 kg (50,000 lb). Thrust: 22,840.00 kN (5,134,630 lbf).
Starclipper - Alternate designation for Shuttle LS200.
Starclipper Light - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Downsized version of the Starclipper, equipped with conventional bell nozzle engines, released by NASA for public consumption in 1968. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 300,408 kg (662,286 lb). Payload: 11,340 kg (25,000 lb). Thrust: 4,070.50 kN (915,085 lbf).
Stardust - American comet probe. Stardust encountered comet Wild-2 on 2 January 2004 and collect samples of cometary dust and volatiles while flying through the coma at a distance of 250 km. The samples were returned to Earth in a separable reentry capsule for analysis on 15 January 2006. Following an encounter with comet Tempel-1 on 15 February 2011, Stardust was decommissioned and put into safe mode. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-02-07. Last Launch: 1999-02-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 370 kg (810 lb).
Starfish - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Satellite collected artificial radiation data (resulting from atmospheric and exoatmospheric nuclear explosions). Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-10-26. Last Launch: 1965-09-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,125 kg (2,480 lb).
Starflash - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Sub-satellite of unknown purpose, released from KH-5 photo reconnaissance satellites on two missions. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-06-13. Last Launch: 1964-08-21. Number: 2 .
STAR-H - French winged orbital launch vehicle. Mach 6 hypersonic first stage would launch Hermes spaceplane with an expendable second stage. Status: Study 1990.
Starlette - French earth geodetic satellite. Geodesic satellite. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-02-06. Last Launch: 1975-02-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 47 kg (103 lb).
Starlifter - Alternate designation for Starclipper Light.
Starlifter - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 42,630 kg (93,980 lb). Unfuelled mass: 19,955 kg (43,993 lb). Thrust: 5,217.00 kN (1,172,828 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Starlifter - Alternate designation for Shuttle LS200-1 rocket stage.
Starlifter - Alternate designation for Starclipper.
Starlifter Tank - LOx/LH2 rocket stage. Mass 257,778 kg (568,303 lb). Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 257,778 kg (568,303 lb). Unfuelled mass: 12,971 kg (28,596 lb). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Star-Rad - Alternate name for Starfish.
Star-raker - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Rockwell International's Star-raker was an enormous 1979 heavy-lift ramjet/rocket horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing single-stage-to-orbit concept capable of atmospheric cruise and powered landing for maximum operational flexibility. Status: Study 1979. Gross mass: 2,278,800 kg (5,023,800 lb). Payload: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Thrust: 20,480.00 kN (4,604,080 lbf).
STARS - American test vehicle. Three stage target vehicle for anti-ballistic missile tests, consisting of a surplus Polaris A3 SLBM (A3P first stage + X-260 second stage) and an Orbus 1 third stage. Status: Active. First Launch: 1993-02-26. Last Launch: 2014-08-25. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 16,700 kg (36,800 lb).
Stars My Destination -
STARS-2 - Alternate designation for X-260.
STARS-2 - Microsatellite from Kagawa University. Composed of two sections and a tether, deployed length 300 metres. Believed to have succeeded based on later orbital decay rate. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-02-27. Last Launch: 2014-02-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
Starsem - French agency. Starsem SA, Paris, France.
Starshine - American technology satellite. The small Starshine satellite, built by NRL, was to be observed by students as part of an educational exercise. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-05-27. Last Launch: 2001-09-30. Number: 2 .
Starstruck - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Starstruck Incorporated, USA.
Start - Alternate designation for Start satellite.
START - Alternate designation for START (abbreviation).
Start - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle based on decommissioned SS-25 ICBM's (differs from ICBM/basic Start-1 in having second stage used twice, in tandem, for increased payload). Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 60 metric tons. Status: Retired 1995. First Launch: 1995-03-28. Last Launch: 1995-03-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb). Payload: 645 kg (1,421 lb). Thrust: 887.44 kN (199,504 lbf).
START (abbreviation) - Acronym for Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty
Start satellite - Russian communications technology satellite. Experimental satellite carried on test flight of the Start-1 carrier rocket, a new booster based on SS-25 ICBM. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-03-25. Last Launch: 1993-03-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 260 kg (570 lb).
Start-1 - Alternate designation for MIHT-1.
Start-1 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle based on decommissioned ICBM's. Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 47 metric tons. Status: Active. First Launch: 1993-03-25. Last Launch: 2006-04-25. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 47,200 kg (104,000 lb). Payload: 632 kg (1,393 lb). Thrust: 887.40 kN (199,495 lbf).
Start-1.2 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1997. First Launch: 1997-03-04. Last Launch: 1997-03-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 47,000 kg (103,000 lb). Thrust: 500.00 kN (112,400 lbf).
Start-2 - Alternate name for MIHT-2.
Start-6 - Alternate designation for DS engine.
Start-6 - Alternate name for DS (engine).
STASPRO - Alternate name for Pameungpeuk.
State University of Iowa (Iowa University) - Alternate name for SUI.
Statsenko - Russian officer. Major General, Commander of the KIK space tracking forces 1971-1975. After service in WW2, ascending positions in antiaircraft forces. Moved to RVSN in 1961. Born: 1918. Died: 1987-01-01.
STC - American manufacturer of spacecraft. STC, USA.
STCAEM Cryogenic Aerobrake - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. The STCAEM cryogenic / aerobrake (CAB) concept was used as the NASA reference vehicle. Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 801,000 kg (1,765,000 lb). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
STCAEM Cryogenic Aerobrake MTV - American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1991. The Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) configuration consisted of a transit habitat sized for four crew, an aerobrake, and a transearth injection Propulsion system. Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 163,700 kg (360,800 lb).
STCAEM Cryogenic Aerobrake TMIS - American space tug. Study 1991. The Trans-Mars Injection Stage (TMIS) consisted of a core unit with four advanced space engines (ASE), avionics and cryogenic propellant tanks, and provision for up to four "strap-on" propellant tank sets. Status: Study 1991.
STCAEM MEV - American manned Mars lander. Study 1991. The reference Mars Excursion vehicle (MEV) was a manned lander that could transport a crew of four to the surface. Status: Study 1991.
STCAEM NEP - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. Status: Study 1991. Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
STCAEM NTR - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. Status: Study 1991. Thrust: 333.00 kN (74,861 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
STCAEM SEP - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. The solar electric propulsion (SEP) Mars transfer concept was the only non-nuclear advanced propulsion option in the STCAEM study. Status: Study 1991. Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
STDN - Spacecraft Tracking and Data Network (formerly STADAN)
Steadman - American pilot, winner of many awards and races, one of the Mercury 13 female astronauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. Status: Deceased. Born: 1925-07-09. Died: 2015-03-12.
Steam - Steam rockets used water, heated by an external source prior to launch and stored under pressure, to provide thrust. The heavy pressure vessel means use is usually confined to ground-based reusable applications, such as launch sleds.
Stearns - American physicist, with Rand 1949-1954; assistant Chief Engineer, Lockheed Missile and Space, after 1954. Born: 1922-03-29. Died: 2001-04-18.
Stechkin - Alternate designation for Stechkin bureau.
Stechkin - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1955-1969 of OKB Fakel. At the Academy of Sciences performed attitude control engine work. Born: 1891. Died: 1969-04-02.
Stechkin bureau - Russian manufacturer of electric rocket engines.
STEDI - The small STEDI (Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative) program was also known as the University Explorer (UNEX) series. First launch was the HETE astronomy satellite built by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This was followed by SNOE, the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer, built by the University of Colorado.
Stefanyshyn-Piper - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1996-2009. Engineer. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2009. Born: 1963-02-07. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 27.65 days.
Stein - American journalist and public information manager at NASA 1955-on. Born: 1912.
Steinhoff, Ernst - Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1908-01-11. Died: 1987-02-12.
Steinhoff, Friedrich - German Kriegsmarine Officer, commander of submarine of U-511 and U-873, brother of Dr. Ernst Steinhoff. Promoted the idea of missile launch from submarines within the German navy during World War II. Born: 1909. Died: 1945-01-01.
Steklov - Russian actor cosmonaut, 1997-2000. Status: Inactive; Active 1997-2000. Born: 1949-01-03.
STELLA - French earth geodetic satellite. Laser reflectors. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-09-26. Last Launch: 1993-09-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 48 kg (105 lb).
Stellat - French agency. Stellat, France.
Stellen - Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
Stellenbosch - South African manufacturer of spacecraft. Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
Stelzner - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
STENSAT - American technology satellite. Picosat built by built by the AMSAT-NA (Amateur Satellite, North America) group, and carried an amateur radio transponder. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2000-01-27. Number: 1 .
STEP - Space Test Experiment Program; series of USAF technology test satellites. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-06-22. Last Launch: 2000-06-07. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 267 kg (588 lb).
STEP - USAF experimental satellite using the Eagle bus.
Stepanov - Russian officer. Major General, Deputy Commander of 50 TsNII KS military space research institute 1983-1988. Born: 1934.
Stepanov Design Bureau - Russian designer and manufacturer of low-thrust birpropellant rocket engines, solid fuel ramjets, and liquid-hydrogen scramjets.
Stepanov IS/US 1 kgf - Stepanov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. IS/US. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1960-63. Thrust: 9.80 N (2.20 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Stepanov IS/US 16 kgf - Stepanov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. IS/US. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1960-63. Thrust: 157 N (35 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Stepanov LK/LOK 10 kgf - Stepanov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. LK/LOK attitude. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1965-72. Thrust: 98 N (22 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Stepanov LK/LOK 40 kgf - Stepanov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. LK/LOK attitude. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1965-72. Thrust: 390 N (80 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Stepanov, Eduard - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1992. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1992. Born: 1937-04-14. Died: 2015-10-19.
Stepanov, Vladimir Georgiyevich - Alternate designation for Stepanov Design Bureau.
Stepanov, Yuri - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1985-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1995. Born: 1936-09-27.
Stephens - American test pilot. Flew the X-1B. Status: Inactive.
Stereo - American solar satellite. 2 launched, 2006.10.26 (Stereo Ahead) and (Stereo Behind). Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-10-26. Last Launch: 2006-10-26. Number: 2 .
Sterkh - Dedicated COSPAS-SARSAT search-and-rescue satellite. Total mass 170 kg, including 55 kg payload. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-10-27. Last Launch: 2009-09-17. Number: 8 .
Steurer - Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1913-05-11. Died: 1986-04-12.
Stevenage - British manufacturer. Stevenage, Stevenage, UK.
Stevenson - American oceanographer payload specialist astronaut, 1984. Status: Deceased; Active 1984-1984. Born: 1921-01-15. Died: 2001-08-12.
Stever - American physicist, President of Carnegie-Mellon University, led numerous US government committees, advisory positions, and panels on science policy from 1947-1986. Born: 1916-10-24. Died: 2010-04-09.
Stewart - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1978-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1986. Born: 1954-12-28. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 12.04 days.
Stewart, Homer - American engineer, worked on rocketry and robotic space exploration at Caltech, JPL, and NASA 1938-1980. Original member of the Caltech rocket team, later Chief of JPL's Liquid Propulsion Systems Division, involved in the build and launch of the Explorer 1 satellite. Born: 1915-08-15. Died: 2007-05-26.
STEX - American tether technology satellite. STEX's (Space Technology EXperiments) main equipment was provided by the Naval Research Laboratory. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-10-03. Last Launch: 1998-10-03. Number: 1 .
STG - Abbreviation for Space Task Group
STIG - Alternate designation for STIG-A.
STIG-A - Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-12-04. Last Launch: 2012-01-28. Number: 2 .
STIG-B - Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-10-06. Last Launch: 2013-01-05. Number: 3 .
Stilleto - Alternate designation for UR-100NU 15A35.
Stilleto - Alternate designation for UR-100N.
Stilleto - Alternate designation for UR-100NU.
Stingray - Alternate designation for R-29RL.
Stingray - Alternate designation for R-29K.
Stingray - Alternate designation for R-29R.
STIS - Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer (to replace FOC and GHRS)
STL - Space Technology Laboratories
STLC - American agency. STLC, USA.
STME - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Cancelled 1984. Space Transportation Main Engine. Rocketdyne was teamed with Aerojet and Pratt & Whitney on the STME, which was to have powered the next generation of large launch vehicles. Status: Study 1984. Unfuelled mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Thrust: 2,890.00 kN (649,690 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Stoerk - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France in the engine group at LRBA from 1947 until retiring in 1971.
STOL - Short takeoff and landing aircraft
Stolpe - German telemetry engineer in WW2, worked afterwards in the Soviet Union. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. Born: 1908.
Stone - Alternate designation for Iskander.
Stonechat - British single stage hypersonic test vehicles using variants of the Stonechat solid rocket motor. Status: Retired 1979.
Stonechat I - Alternate designation for Stonechat-1.
Stonechat I - British sounding rocket. Single stage hypersonic test vehicle using the Stonechat I solid rocket motor. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1969-10-01. Last Launch: 1969-10-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,100 kg (11,200 lb).
Stonechat I-1 - Alternate designation for Stonechat-1.
Stonechat I-1 - Alternate name for Stonechat I engine.
Stonechat II - RO solid rocket engine. Falstaff first stage. Status: Retired 1979. Gross mass: 5,100 kg (11,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Thrust: 242.00 kN (54,403 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Stonechat Mk 2 - Royal Ordnance solid rocket engine. Out of production. There seem to have been even larger classified versions. Used on Falstaff launch vehicle. Status: Out of production. Date: 1969. Gross mass: 5,090 kg (11,220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Thrust: 240.00 kN (53,950 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Stonechat-1 - RO solid rocket engine. Largest solid rocket motor ever produced in Britain. Motor developed for hypersonic research vehicle. Subsequently used in Falstaff test vehicle. Stonechat I first stage. Status: Retired 1969. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,800 kg (10,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Thrust: 232.00 kN (52,155 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Storm - American target missile. Two-stage Orbital Sciences vehicle used as targets in THAAD anti-ballistic missile tests. Consisted of a Sergeant first stage and Minuteman third stage as second stage. Twelve were launched January 1992 - December 1995. Status: Retired 1995. First Launch: 1992-01-17. Last Launch: 1995-12-13. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Storm 1 - Alternate designation for Feng Bao 1.
Storm 1 - Alternate designation for FB-1.
Storm-2 - American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-01-29. Last Launch: 2004-11-18. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf).
Storms - American Chief Designer who led development of the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn S-II at North American. Earlier he had led the company to dominance in high-speed flight, with the X-15, F-108, and B-70. Scapegoated for the Apollo fire. Born: 1915-07-15. Died: 1992-07-11.
Stott - American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on. Status: Inactive; active 2000-2015. Born: 1962-11-19. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 103.24 days.
Stoyanov - Bulgarian pilot cosmonaut, 1987-1988. Graduated from Air Force School Pilot, Bulgarian Air Force. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1988. Born: 1961-01-24.
STP-1 - Space Test Payload-1; unclassified military payload carried on DoD flight STS-39. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-04-28. Last Launch: 1991-04-28. Number: 1 .
STPSat - American technology satellite. Operational, first launch 2007.03.09. Status: Operational 2007. Gross mass: 170 kg (370 lb).
STPSat - Technology experiments. Lead satellite of USAF Space Test Program mission S26. Used the Astro-200 bus.
STR - Thermo-regulation System (Russian abbreviation)
STRaND - 3U Cubesat, a technical test project of Surrey Satellite and the Surrey Space Centre. Carried a Google Nexus One smartphone as its main avionics, and featured plasma thrusters and a water-alcohol thruster. Successful; first in STRaND Program.
Strategic Boost Glide Vehicle - Manufacturer's designation for HGV spaceplane.
strategic communications - Category of spacecraft.
Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, DoD - Alternate name for SDIO.
Stratolaunch - Air-launched orbital launch vehicle being developed by Paul Allen. 550,000 kg takeoff mass; 6,000 kg payload or Dragon reusable capsule to low earth orbit. Announced on 13 December 2011 with first flight scheduled for 2016. Status: In development. Gross mass: 550,000 kg (1,210,000 lb). Payload: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Streak - Delayed from May, June, July, 2005. Classified research satellite, said to carry instruments to characterise the space environment in a sun-synchronous orbit. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-09-23. Last Launch: 2005-09-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 417 kg (919 lb).
Strekalov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1973-1995. Survived first manned launch pad abort. Flew in space six times. Status: Deceased; Active 1973-1995. Born: 1940-10-28. Died: 2004-12-25. Spaceflights: 6 . Total time in space: 268.94 days.
Strela - Alternate designation for Strela launch vehicle.
Strela - Military store-dump communications satellite network. The commercial version of GRU Strela-3 military store-dump satellite are designated Gonets-D1. They were to be deployed in a constellation of 12 satellites (2 planes of 6) between 1996 and 1998. Each satellite has a single simultaneous earth-space and space-earth channel. On-board storage is 12 Mbits of data, with a transmission rate of 2.4 kbit/sec. Two preproduction test spacecraft of slightly different configuration called 'Gonets-D' were flown.
Strela launch vehicle - Russian launch vehicle by NPO MASH based on UR-100N ICBMs decommissioned from Ukrainian missile fields. 106 metric ton liftoff mass. Status: Active. First Launch: 2003-12-05. Last Launch: 2014-12-19. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 104,000 kg (229,000 lb). Payload: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Thrust: 1,900.00 kN (427,100 lbf).
Strela-1 - Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-08-18. Last Launch: 1965-09-18. Number: 29 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Strela-1M - Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 3 Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-04-25. Last Launch: 2005-10-27. Number: 371 . Gross mass: 61 kg (134 lb).
Strela-2 - Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-12-28. Last Launch: 1968-08-27. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
Strela-2M - Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-06-27. Last Launch: 1994-12-20. Number: 52 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb).
Strela-3 - Alternate designation for Strela-3 stage.
Strela-3 - Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Said to have initially been developed for the GRU. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-01-15. Last Launch: 2015-09-23. Number: 173 . Gross mass: 220 kg (480 lb).
Strela-3 stage - Solid rocket stage. Status: Active. Propellants: Solid.
Stretched ROhini Satellite Series - Alternate designation for SROSS earth magnetosphere satellite.
Strizh - Russian space suit, operational 1990. The Strizh full-pressure suit was developed for the Buran program. It was qualified to protect the cosmonaut in ejections from the spaceplane at altitudes up to 30 km and speeds of up to Mach 3. Status: operational 1990.
Strizh - Alternate designation for RM-217M.
STRM - Alternate designation for STS-99.
Strobel - German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA as head of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952.
Stroganov - Russian government official. Sector Chief, Central Committee Defense Industries Department.
Stromboli - The second series of Sud Aviation sounding rockets were deployed in the late 1960's. They were designed to carry large diameter payloads, and used Stromboli motors only. Status: Retired 1979. Date: 1962. Gross mass: 1,885 kg (4,155 lb). Unfuelled mass: 645 kg (1,421 lb). Thrust: 143.00 kN (32,147 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Strongarm - American test vehicle. A large five-stage rocket developed by the Army Ballistics Research Laboratory with the cooperation of the University of Michigan. Consisted of an Honest John plus Nike plus Nike plus modified Recruit plus a scaled-down Sergeant. Fired first from Wallops Island on November 10, 1959. Could lift 6.8 kg to 1600 km. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1959-11-10. Last Launch: 1961-07-27. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 3,300 kg (7,200 lb). Thrust: 365.00 kN (82,055 lbf).
Stroud - American meteorologist at NASA, project manager for Tiros I. Born: 1923.
Stroyev - Russian engineer. Director of Gromov LII 1954-1966. Specialized in spacecraft testing and later was on VPK Military-Industrial Commission. Born: 1912. Died: 1997-01-01.
Strughold - German expert in aero medicine during World War II. Worked at aeromedicine institute in Heidelberg after the war.
Struminskiy - Russian scientist. Director of Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 1966-1971. Specialized in liquid hydrogen. Born: 1914-04-29.
STRV - British technology satellite. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-06-17. Last Launch: 2000-11-16. Number: 4 .
Strypi - American target missile. Family of re-entry vehicle test boosters and anti-missile targets using a Castor first stage with two Recruit strap-ons, plus a range of upper stages. Status: Active. First Launch: 1970-05-26. Last Launch: 2015-11-04. Number: 9 .
Strypi Antares - Strypi Antares Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1962-07-09. Last Launch: 1962-10-20. Number: 7 .
Strypi II - Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1979-11-13. Last Launch: 1979-11-13. Number: 1 .
Strypi IIAR - American target missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor 2 Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1974-02-07. Last Launch: 1974-02-07. Number: 1 . Thrust: 586.00 kN (131,738 lbf).
Strypi IIR - American target missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1974-11-03. Last Launch: 1974-11-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Thrust: 586.00 kN (131,738 lbf).
Strypi IV - American target missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x Star 26 Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1966-09-01. Last Launch: 1966-09-01. Number: 1 . Thrust: 586.00 kN (131,738 lbf).
Strypi IVA - Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1974-03-23. Last Launch: 1974-03-23. Number: 1 .
Strypi IVR - Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1976-06-07. Last Launch: 1976-06-07. Number: 1 .
Strypi IX - American target missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 Status: Retired 1995. First Launch: 1995-06-26. Last Launch: 1995-06-29. Number: 2 .
Strypi Tomahawk - American target missile. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x ? + 1 x Tomahawk
Strypi VI - American target missile. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x ? + 1 x ? Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1968-11-01. Last Launch: 1970-06-01. Number: 3 .
Strypi VIIAR - American target missile. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Alcor + 1 x Alcyone Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1972-10-15. Last Launch: 1974-10-01. Number: 2 .
Strypi VIIR - American target missile. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x Alcor IB + 1 x Alcyone Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1975-03-11. Last Launch: 1975-09-18. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 4,600 kg (10,100 lb). Thrust: 499.00 kN (112,179 lbf).
Strypi XI - American target missile. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Star 27 Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1987-01-01. Last Launch: 1991-02-18. Number: 4 .
Strypi XIIR - Status: Retired 1997. First Launch: 1997-02-10. Last Launch: 1997-10-04. Number: 2 .
STS - Alternate designation for Shuttle ISS.
STS - The Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle) was conceived originally as a completely reusable system that would provide cheap, routine access to space and replace all American and civilian military launch vehicles. Crippled by technological overreach, political compromise, and budget limitations, it instead ended up costing more than the expendable rockets it was to have replaced. STS sucked the money out of all other NASA projects for half a century. The military abandoned its use after the Challenger shuttle explosion in the 1980's.
STS - Alternate designation for Space Shuttle.
STS- - The baffling shuttle numbering system originated with a desire not to fly an 'unlucky' STS-13 mission.
STS (Space Transportation System) - Alternate name for Shuttle Orbiter.
STS ASTRO - Shuttle payload bay fixture for attachment of instruments.
STS External Tank Station - American manned space station. Study 1980. NASA studied several concepts in the 1980's using the 'wet workshop' approach to the capacious External Tank carried into orbit with every shuttle flight. Status: Study 1980.
STS spacecraft family - Alternate designation for STS.
STS-1 - First rocketplane flight to orbit. First flight of space shuttle. The only time a new spacecraft was launched manned on its first flight. Many thought it would be a disaster. Launched: 1981-04-12. Returned: 1981-04-14. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 2.26 days.
STS-10 - Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays. Launched: 1983 November. Number crew: 5 .
STS-100 - ISS Assembly flight. Continued the outfitting of the Station. Installed the 18 meter, 1,700 kg Canadarm-2 robotic arm and 4,500 kg of supplies aboard the Italian cargo container Raffaello. Launched: 2001-04-19. Returned: 2001-05-01. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 11.90 days.
STS-101 - First flight with new 'glass cockpit'. ISS Logistics flight. Repair, resupply and construction tasks aboard the international space station. Launched: 2000-05-19. Returned: 2000-05-29. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 9.84 days.
STS-102 - Primary mission was to deliver a multi-rack Italian Leonardo MultiPurpose Logistics Module, LMPLM to the Destiny Module. Launched: 2001-03-08. Returned: 2001-03-21. Number crew: 4 . Duration: 12.83 days.
STS-102 (Helms, Usachyov, Voss) - Alternate designation for STS-102 ISS EO-2 manned spaceflight.
STS-102 ISS EO-2 - ISS Expedition EO-2. Three-person crew to operate the station and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions. Launched: 2001-03-08. Returned: 2001-08-22. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 167.28 days.
STS-103 - Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission SM-3A. Launched: 1999-12-20. Returned: 1999-12-28. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 7.97 days.
STS-104 - ISS Assembly flight. Delivered Quest Airlock. Launched: 2001-07-12. Returned: 2001-07-25. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 12.77 days.
STS-105 - ISS Assembly flight. Delivered five metric tons of supplies, hardware, and a bedroom suite to accommodate a third astronaut in the Destiny module. Installed two science experiment racks delivered in the Leonardo module. Launched: 2001-08-10. Returned: 2001-08-22. Number crew: 4 . Duration: 11.88 days.
STS-105 (Culbertson, Dezhurov, Tyurin) - Alternate designation for STS-105 ISS EO-3 manned spaceflight.
STS-105 ISS EO-3 - Three-person crew to operate the station and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions. Launched: 2001-08-10. Returned: 2001-12-17. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 128.86 days.
STS-106 - Docked with ISS. Outfitted the new Zvezda module for the arrival of the first permanent EO-1 crew. Launched: 2000-09-08. Returned: 2000-09-20. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 11.80 days.
STS-107 - First Israeli astronaut. Conducted experiments in Double Spacehab module. Crew perished when shuttle broke up during re-entry. Cause was damage to a leading-edge RCC from foam breaking off of external tank bipod strut. Launched: 2003-01-16. Returned: 2003-02-01. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 15.94 days.
STS-108 - ISS Logistics flight. Brought supplies to the Station aboard the Raffaello module, Launched: 2001-12-05. Returned: 2001-12-17. Number crew: 4 . Duration: 11.82 days.
STS-108 (Bursch, Onufrienko, Walz) - Alternate designation for STS-108 ISS EO-4 manned spaceflight.
STS-108 ISS EO-4 - Three-person crew to operate the station and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions. Launched: 2001-12-05. Returned: 2002-06-15. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 195.82 days.
STS-109 - Hubble Servicing Mission 3B. Launched: 2002-03-01. Returned: 2002-03-12. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 10.92 days.
STS-110 - ISS Assembly flight. Carried the S0 truss segment to the ISS, the first segment of the main backbone of the station to which the solar arrays would be attached. Launched: 2002-04-08. Returned: 2002-04-19. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 10.82 days.
STS-111 - ISS Logistics flight. Delivered the MBS Mobile Base System and some interior experiment racks. Launched: 2002-06-05. Returned: 2002-06-15. Number crew: 4 . Duration: 13.86 days.
STS-111 (Korzun, Treshchev, Whitson) - Alternate designation for STS-111 ISS EO-5 manned spaceflight.
STS-111 ISS EO-5 - Three-person crew to operate the ISS and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions Progress M1-8, Progress M-46, Progress M1-9, Soyuz TMA-1, Soyuz TM-34 and Space Shuttle in Flights 9A and 11A. Launched: 2002-06-05. Returned: 2002-12-07. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 184.93 days.
STS-112 - ISS Assembly flight. Extended the truss of the exterior rail line with a 14-m, 13-ton girder. At liftoff primary hold-down bolt initiators failed; backups functioned. At T+33s, a piece of the bipod ramp separated, hitting booster-tank attachment. Launched: 2002-10-07. Returned: 2002-10-18. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 10.83 days.
STS-113 - ISS assembly mission. Delivered 13.7-m, 12.5 ton truss to ISS. Four attempts to land on consecutive days, called because of bad weather. Launched: 2002-11-24. Returned: 2002-12-07. Number crew: 4 . Duration: 13.78 days.
STS-113 (Bowersox, Budarin, Pettit) - Alternate designation for STS-113 ISS EO-6 manned spaceflight.
STS-113 ISS EO-6 - First ISS crew to have to return in a lifeboat spacecraft. ISS assembly missions cancelled after Columbia disaster. Crew relieved by two-man crew to keep ISS functioning while shuttle grounded. On return Soyuz guidance failed; 8G ballistic reentry. Launched: 2002-11-24. Returned: 2003-05-04. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 161.05 days.
STS-114 - Shuttle return to flight. Primary objective was to verify fixes made to external tank to prevent foam and ice shedding that killed STS-107 crew. Also resupplied ISS, which had to rely on smaller Progress logistics flights while the shuttle was grounded. Launched: 2005-07-26. Returned: 2005-08-09. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 13.90 days.
STS-115 - ISS logistics flight. Delivered equipment and supplies aboard the Leonardo cargo module. Launched: 2006-09-09. Returned: 2006-09-21. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 11.80 days.
STS-116 - First Swedish astronaut. Most demanding ISS assembly mission to date. Completed installation of the P5 truss, retracted the recalcitrant port P6 solar array wing, and activated the truss electrical and cooling system. Launched: 2006-12-10. Returned: 2006-12-22. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 12.86 days.
STS-116 ISS EO-14 - Williams replaced Reiter as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Record duration female mission. Launched: 2006-12-10. Returned: 2007-06-22. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 194.75 days.
STS-117 - Final major step in assembly of the ISS truss and power-generating solar array segments. The S3/S4 Truss and its solar arrays were delivered and installed. Launched: 2007-06-08. Returned: 2007-06-22. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 13.84 days.
STS-117 ISS EO-15 - NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Anderson replaced Williams as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Launched: 2007-06-08. Returned: 2007-11-07. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 151.77 days.
STS-118 - ISS logistic mission. Delivered consumables, and completed necessary supplementary assembly, repair, and external equipment moves necessary for the next major stage of ISS assembly. Launched: 2007-08-08. Returned: 2007-08-21. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 12.75 days.
STS-119 - ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the fourth starboard truss segment (ITS S6) and fourth set of solar arrays and batteries. Launched: 2009-03-15. Returned: 2009-03-28. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 12.81 days.
STS-119 ISS EO-18 - NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Wakata replaced Magnus as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Launched: 2009-03-15. Returned: 2009-07-31. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 137.63 days.
STS-119A - Flight delayed after the Columbia disaster. STS-119 was to have flown ISS Assembly mission ISS-15A. It would have delivered the fourth and final set of U.S. solar arrays along with the S6 fourth starboard truss segment. Launched: 2004-01-15. Number crew: 7 .
STS-12 - Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled after IUS failures. Launched: 1984 March. Number crew: 5 .
STS-120 - ISS assembly mission. Delivered the Harmony module to the station, and external work moved the P6 truss to its final location and put the ISS into its full-power configuration for the first time. Launched: 2007-10-23. Returned: 2007-11-07. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 15.10 days.
STS-120 ISS EO-16 - NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Tani replaced Anderson as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Launched: 2007-10-23. Returned: 2008-02-20. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 119.94 days.
STS-120A - Flight delayed, then completely reorganized with a different crew and different orbiter after the Columbia disaster. STS-120 would have delivered to the station the second of three station connecting modules, Node 2, on ISS Assembly mission ISS-10A. Launched: 2004-02-19. Number crew: 5 .
STS-121 - ISS logistics flight. Delivered equipment and supplies aboard the Leonardo cargo module. Launched: 2006-07-04. Returned: 2006-07-17. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 12.78 days.
STS-121 Astrolab - Europe's first long-duration mission to the ISS. Thomas Reiter lived and worked on board the ISS for five months. Launched: 2006-07-04. Returned: 2006-12-22. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 171.16 days.
STS-121A - Cancelled after Columbia disaster; would have flown ISS Assembly mission ISS-9A.1, delivering the SPP with 4 Solar Arrays to the station. Launched: Mid-2004. Number crew: 3 .
STS-122 - ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Columbus European Laboratory Module and the Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure - Non-Deployable (MPESS-ND). Launched: 2008-02-07. Returned: 2008-02-20. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 12.77 days.
STS-122 ISS EO-16 - NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Eyharts replaced Tani as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Launched: 2008-02-07. Returned: 2008-03-27. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 48.20 days.
STS-122A - Alternate designation for STS-125 manned spaceflight.
STS-123 - ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Kibo Japanese Experiment Logistics Module - Pressurized Section (ELM-PS) and the Spacelab Pallet - Deployable 1 (SLP-D1) with the Canadian Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (Dextre). Launched: 2008-03-11. Returned: 2008-03-27. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 15.76 days.
STS-123 ISS EO-16 - NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Reisman replaced Eyharts as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Launched: 2008-03-11. Returned: 2008-06-14. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 95.37 days.
STS-123A - Cancelled after Columbia disaster; would have flown ISS resupply mission ISS-UF4. It would have delivered the contents of an Express Pallet, plus the SPDM and AMS to the station Launched: Fall 2004.
STS-124 - ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Pressurized Module (JEM-PM) and the Japanese Remote Manipulator System (JEM RMS). Launched: 2008-05-31. Returned: 2008-06-14. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 13.76 days.
STS-124 ISS EO-17 - NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Chamitoff replaced Reisman as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Launched: 2008-05-31. Returned: 2008-11-29. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 182.02 days.
STS-124A - Alternate designation for STS-123 manned spaceflight.
STS-125 - Fourth and final servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. Only shuttle mission authorized prior to shuttle retirement not to go to the ISS - therefore with no means of space rescue should the heat shield be damaged during ascent to orbit. Launched: 2009-05-11. Returned: 2009-05-24. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 12.90 days.
STS-126 - ISS logistics flight. Station resupply with Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). Launched: 2008-11-15. Returned: 2008-11-29. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 15.85 days.
STS-126 ISS EO-18 - NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Magnus replaced Chamitoff as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Launched: 2008-11-15. Returned: 2009-03-28. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 133.76 days.
STS-126A - Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS resupply mission ISS-UF3; carried an MPLM module and Express Pallet for delivery of equipment and supplies Launched: April 2005.
STS-127 - Delivered to the ISS and installed the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF); Kibo Japanese Experiment Logistics Module - Exposed Section (ELM-ES); and Spacelab Pallet - Deployable 2 (SLP-D2). Launched: 2009-07-15. Returned: 2009-07-31. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 15.60 days.
STS-127 ISS EO-20 - NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. NASA long-term third ISS astronaut, arriving aboard STS-127, and replacing NASDA astronaut Wakata aboard the station. Returned aboard STS-128. Launched: 2009-07-15. Returned: 2009-09-12. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 58.12 days.
STS-127A - Alternate designation for STS-122 manned spaceflight.
STS-128 - Delivered to the ISS and installed the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM); Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC); Three-crew quarters, galley, and second treadmill (TVIS2); and the Crew Health Care System 2 (CHeCS 2). Launched: 2009-08-29. Returned: 2009-09-12. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 13.87 days.
STS-128 ISS EO-20 - NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Final NASA long-term third ISS astronaut, arriving aboard STS-128, replacing astronaut Kopra aboard the station. Returned on STS-129. Launched: 2009-08-29. Returned: 2009-11-27. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 90.45 days.
STS-128A - Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Flight 5. Flight delayed, then cancelled after the Columbia disaster. No crew had been named at the time of the loss of Columbia. Resurrected later after Congressional pressure. Launched: August 2005.
STS-129 - Resupply mission to deliver to the ISS the EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 1 (ELC1) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 2 (ELC2). Launched: 2009-11-16. Returned: 2009-11-27. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 10.80 days.
STS-130 - Deliver to the ISS and install the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC) Launched: 2010-02-08. Returned: 2010-02-22. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 13.75 days.
STS-130A - Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS resupply mission ISS-UF5. Equipment and supplies would have been delivered to the station aboard an MPLM and Express Pallet. Launched: Early 2006.
STS-131 - Contingency flight to assure ISS completion; nominal payload EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 (ELC3) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC4). Launched: 2010-04-05. Returned: 2010-04-20. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 15.12 days.
STS-131A - Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-14A. 4 SPP Arrays and the MMOD would have been delivered to the station. Launched: Spring 2006.
STS-132 - Deliver to the ISS and install Node 3 with Cupola. With this mission ISS assembly is to have been completed. Launched: 2010-05-14. Returned: 2010-05-26. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 11.77 days.
STS-132A - Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS resupply mission ISS-UF6. Supplies and equipment would have been delivered via an MPLM and EXPRESS Pallet in the cargo bay. Launched: Late Spring 2006.
STS-133 - Contingency flight to assure ISS completion; nominal payload EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 5 (ELC5) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 1 (ELC1). Astronaut Skopra was replaced by Bowen one month before launch when he was injured in a bicycle accident. Launched: 2010-11-01. Returned: 2010-11-13. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 12.80 days.
STS-133A - Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-20A. Node 3 would have been delivered to the station. Launched: Summer 2006.
STS-134 - Last ISS assembly mission and last flight of shuttle Endeavour. Launched: 2011-02-26. Returned: 2011-03-13. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 15.74 days.
STS-134A - Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-16A. The Habitation module would have been delivered to the station. Launched: Late 2006.
STS-135 - Last flight of shuttle Atlantis and last space shuttle flight. Delivered supplies to keep ISS running at six-crew level until commercial resupply was to come on line in 2012. Extra contingency mission at end of shuttle program. The crew trained as STS-335, a rescue mission to return the STS-134 crew to earth if they became marooned in space. After the safe return of STS-134, the mission proceeded as STS-135, with a reduced crew that could be returned over an 18 month period aboard Soyuz capsules in case the crew could not return in Atlantis. Launched: 2011-07-08. Returned: 2011-07-20. Number crew: 4 . Duration: 12.77 days.
STS-135A - Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-17A. An MPLM would have delivered Destiny lab racks and a CBA to the station. Launched: Early 2007.
STS-136A - Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-18A. The first US Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) would have been delivered to the station. Launched: Spring 2007.
STS-137A - Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-19A. An MPLM and other station hardware would be delivered. Launched: Mid-2007.
STS-138A - Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS resupply mission ISS-UF7. The Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM) would have been delivered to the station. Launched: Late 2007.
STS-2 - First reuse of a manned space vehicle. First use of a remote manipulator in space. First use of a Spacelab pallet. Second shuttle test flight. Experienced erosion of the primary O-ring in the right SRM aft field joint, the worst until the loss of the space shuttle Challenger. Launched: 1981-11-12. Returned: 1981-11-14. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 2.26 days.
STS-2000 SSTO - French winged orbital launch vehicle. Single stage to orbit ramjet/rocket mix power horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing study of the 1980's. Status: Study 1987.
STS-2000 TSTO - Two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing variant of STS-2000. Ramjet/rocket mixed power first stage. Mach 6 separation of rocket-powered second stage. French study of the 1980's. Status: Study 1987.
STS-26 - First shuttle reflight after Challenger disaster. Deployed TDRS 3. Launched: 1988-09-29. Returned: 1988-10-03. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 4.04 days.
STS-27 - Manned military mission. Robot arm used to deploy a classified satellite. At T+85 seconds a large piece of SRB nose cone struck the shuttle. The orbiter took 707 hits; one tile was knocked off. The crew was unsure if they would survive reentry. Launched: 1988-12-02. Returned: 1988-12-06. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 4.38 days.
STS-28 - Deployed two classified satellites. Launched: 1989-08-08. Returned: 1989-08-13. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 5.04 days.
STS-29 - Deployed TDRS 4. Launched: 1989-03-13. Returned: 1989-03-18. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 4.99 days.
STS-2A - Planned shuttle mission to reboost Skylab space station to higher orbit for use by shuttle. Before the first shuttle flew, Skylab burned up in the atmosphere and crashed into the Australian outback on July 11, 1979. Launched: 1979 Late. Number crew: 2 .
STS-3 - First and only landing by a shuttle at White Sands, New Mexico, after weather at Edwards did not permit landing there. Launched: 1982-03-22. Returned: 1982-03-30. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 8.00 days.
STS-30 - Deployed Magellan Venus probe. One of five General Purpose Computers failed and had to be replaced with a sixth onboard hardware spare. First time a GPC was switched on orbit. Launched: 1989-05-04. Returned: 1989-05-08. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 4.04 days.
STS-31 - Deployed the Hubble Space Telescope. Launched: 1990-04-24. Returned: 1990-04-29. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 5.05 days.
STS-32 - Deployed Leasat 5, retrieved LDEF. Night landing. Second bipod ramp foam loss. Launched: 1990-01-09. Returned: 1990-01-20. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 10.88 days.
STS-32R - Alternate designation for STS-32 manned spaceflight.
STS-33 - Deployed a classified payload. Launched: 1989-11-23. Returned: 1989-11-28. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 5.00 days.
STS-335 - Alternate name for STS-135.
STS-34 - Deployed Galileo Jupiter probe. Launched: 1989-10-18. Returned: 1989-10-23. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 4.99 days.
STS-35 - Carried ASTRO-1 observatory. Launch scrubbed several times due to hydrogen leaks. Launched: 1990-12-02. Returned: 1990-12-11. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 8.96 days.
STS-36 - Classified mission in 62 degree orbit, the highest inclination orbit ever flown by an American mission. Launch delayed due to illness of crew members. Launched: 1990-02-28. Returned: 1990-03-04. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 4.43 days.
STS-37 - Delivered the Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) to orbit. Unscheduled EVA to manually deploy the GRO's high-gain antenna, which failed to deploy upon ground command. Launched: 1991-04-05. Returned: 1991-04-11. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 5.98 days.
STS-38 - Deployed a classified payload. Launch delayed from July 1990 for series of technical problems. First post-Challenger landing at KSC after mission extended one day due to unacceptable crosswinds at original planned landing site, Edwards. Launched: 1990-11-15. Returned: 1990-11-20. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 4.91 days.
STS-39 - Deployed USA-70, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C; deployed and retrieved Infrared Background Signature Survey . Launched: 1991-04-28. Returned: 1991-05-06. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 8.31 days.
STS-4 - First Getaway Specials flown. Fourth space shuttle test flight. Launched: 1982-06-27. Returned: 1982-07-04. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.05 days.
STS-40 - Spacelab SLS-1. Carried life sciences experiments. Launched: 1991-06-05. Returned: 1991-06-14. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 9.09 days.
STS-41 - Deployed Ulysses spacecraft. Launched: 1990-10-06. Returned: 1990-10-10. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 4.09 days.
STS-41-B - First untethered space walk. First shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center. Deployed Westar 6, Palapa B2; tested Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). O-ring erosion in both the right hand nozzle joint and the left SRB forward field joint. Launched: 1984-02-03. Returned: 1984-02-11. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 7.97 days.
STS-41-C - First repair on orbit of a satellite, Solar Maximum Mission, snared by astronaut using MMU. Deployed LDEF. Experienced erosion of the primary O-ring in the right-hand nozzle joint. Launched: 1984-04-06. Returned: 1984-04-13. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 6.99 days.
STS-41-D - First flight of space shuttle Discovery; deployed SBS 4, Leasat 1, Telstar 3C. First launch attempt aborted at T-3 seconds after SSMEs ignited. Toilet failed during mission. First occurrence of blow-by in SRB field joints. Launched: 1984-08-30. Returned: 1984-09-05. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 6.04 days.
STS-41-E - Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure. Launched: 1984 July. Number crew: 5 .
STS-41-F - Canceled after the STS-10 launch abort required reshuffling of the shuttle schedule. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. The STS-41F payload was added to STS-41D.Officially "cancelled due to payload delays". Launched: 1984 August. Number crew: 5 .
STS-41-G - First spaceflight to include two women. First American woman to walk in space. First Canadian astronaut. Record crew size aboard a single spacecraft. Deployed Earth Radiation Budget Satellite; performed high resolution Earth imagery. Launched: 1984-10-05. Returned: 1984-10-13. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 8.22 days.
STS-41-H - Planned Department of Defense or TDRS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure. Launched: 1984 September. Number crew: 7 .
STS-42 - Spacelab International Microgravity Laboratory-1. Launched: 1992-01-22. Returned: 1992-01-30. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 8.05 days.
STS-43 - Deployed TDRS 5 satellite. Launched: 1991-08-02. Returned: 1991-08-11. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 8.89 days.
STS-44 - Deployed Defense Support Program satellite. Launched: 1991-11-25. Returned: 1991-12-02. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 6.95 days.
STS-45 - First Belgian astronaut. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package. Launched: 1992-03-24. Returned: 1992-04-02. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 8.92 days.
STS-46 - First Italian astronaut. First Swiss astronaut. Deployed Eureca-1; failed to deploy Italian tether probe TSS-1. Launched: 1992-07-31. Returned: 1992-08-08. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 7.97 days.
STS-47 - Spacelab-J. First on-time Shuttle launch since November 1985. First Japanese astronaut aboard shuttle. First African-American woman to fly in space. First married couple to fly on the same space mission. Conducted microgravity and biology experiments. Launched: 1992-09-12. Returned: 1992-09-20. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 7.94 days.
STS-48 - Deployed UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite; conducted materials and biological research. Launched: 1991-09-12. Returned: 1991-09-18. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 5.35 days.
STS-49 - First flight of shuttle Endeavour. First three-person spacewalk. First active dual rendezvous of two orbiting spacecraft (Endeavour and Intelsat-6). Retrieved Intelsat 6 and attached new SRM. First deployment of a drag chute on the orbiter fleet. Launched: 1992-05-07. Returned: 1992-05-16. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 8.89 days.
STS-5 - First operational STS mission, first commercial communications satellites deployed, first four-person spacecraft crew. EVA cancelled because one astronaut was vomiting so severely due to space sickness. Launched: 1982-11-11. Returned: 1982-11-16. Number crew: 4 . Duration: 5.09 days.
STS-50 - Spacelab USML-1 (United States Microgravity Laboratory). First extended-duration shuttle mission. Launched: 1992-06-25. Returned: 1992-07-09. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 13.81 days.
STS-51 - First shuttle night landing in Florida. Deployed and retrieved Orfeus-SPAS. During the EVA conducted tests in support of the Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission and future EVAs, including Space Station assembly and maintenance. Launched: 1993-09-12. Returned: 1993-09-22. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 9.84 days.
STS-51-A - First retrieval of two satellites (Palapa B-2 and Westar Vl) for return to earth. Deployed Anik D2, Leasat 2. Launched: 1984-11-08. Returned: 1984-11-16. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 7.99 days.
STS-51-AA - Planned shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays. Launched: 1985 April. Number crew: 6 .
STS-51-B - Spacelab 3. Deployed Nusat. Conducted materials processing, environmental, life science, astrophysics, and technology experiments. Suffered the worst O-ring erosion experienced prior to the loss of Challenger Launched: 1985-04-29. Returned: 1985-05-06. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 7.01 days.
STS-51-C - First shuttle military mission. Deployed USA 8 (Aquacade ELINT spacecraft). Experienced blow-by in both nozzle joints and erosion and blow-by in two case joints. Launched: 1985-01-24. Returned: 1985-01-27. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 3.06 days.
STS-51-D - First politician in space. Deployed Telesat-I (successful) and Syncom IV-3 (motor failed). Inboard right-side brake locked on landing, resulting in severe damage. Senator aboard resented, and had one of the worst cases of space sickness ever recorded. Launched: 1985-04-12. Returned: 1985-04-19. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 7.00 days.
STS-51-DA - Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure. Launched: 1985 July. Number crew: 4 .
STS-51-E - Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure. Launched: 1985 March. Number crew: 7 .
STS-51-F - Spacelab 2. At 5 minutes, 45 seconds into ascent the number one engine shut down prematurely due to a sensor problem and an abort to orbit was declared. Despite the anomaly the mission continued. Launched PDP; carried Spacelab 2. Launched: 1985-07-29. Returned: 1985-08-06. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 7.95 days.
STS-51-G - First Saudi astronaut. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 1; launched Morelos 1, Arabsat 1B, Telstar 3D. Experienced blow-by and erosion in both nozzle joints. Launched: 1985-06-17. Returned: 1985-06-24. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 7.07 days.
STS-51-H - Planned EOM-1/2 shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays. Launched: 1985 November.
STS-51-I - First retrieval, repair, and relaunch of a satellite in orbit (Leasat 3). Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4. Suffered primary O-ring erosion in two locations on the left-hand SRM nozzle joint. Launched: 1985-08-27. Returned: 1985-09-03. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 7.10 days.
STS-51-J - First flight of shuttle Atlantis. Military mission, Deployed USA-11, USA-12. Launched: 1985-10-03. Returned: 1985-10-07. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 4.07 days.
STS-51-K - Planned Spacelab-D1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. No crew selected; renamed STS-61A Launched: 1988 September.
STS-51-L - First shuttle launch from pad LC-39B. An O-ring failure in a solid rocket booster led to leaking of hot gases against the external tank; exploded 73 seconds after launch, all seven crew, with no means of escape, were killed when crew cabin hit the ocean. Launched: 1986-01-28. Returned: 1986-01-28. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 0.0008 days.
STS-52 - Deployed Lageos 2, CTA. External tank lost a 10 x 20 cm corner of the left bipod ramp; orbiter took a higher-than-average 290 hits on upper and lower tiles. Launched: 1992-10-22. Returned: 1992-11-01. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 9.87 days.
STS-53 - Deployed classified military satellite USA-89. The ODERACS payload was unable to be deployed because of payload equipment malfunction. Launched: 1992-12-02. Returned: 1992-12-09. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 7.31 days.
STS-54 - Deployed TDRSS 6. Launched: 1993-01-13. Returned: 1993-01-19. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 5.98 days.
STS-55 - Spacelab-D2. German materials experiments. Launched: 1993-04-25. Returned: 1993-05-05. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 9.99 days.
STS-56 - First radio contact between Shuttle and Mir space station. Carried ATLAS-2; deployed and retrieved Spartan 201. Launched: 1993-04-08. Returned: 1993-04-17. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 9.26 days.
STS-57 - First flight of Spacehab module. Retrieved Eureca-1 spacecraft. Launched: 1993-06-21. Returned: 1993-07-01. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 9.99 days.
STS-58 - Spacelab SLS-2. Biological, microgravity experiments. Launched: 1993-10-18. Returned: 1993-11-01. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 14.01 days.
STS-59 - Spacelab SRL-1 / SIR-C SAR radar. The Space Radar Laboratory obtained radar high-resolution images of approximately 25 percent of the planet's land surfaces. Launched: 1994-04-09. Returned: 1994-04-20. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 11.24 days.
STS-6 - First flight of space shuttle Challenger. First space walk of Shuttle program. Deployed Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. Launched: 1983-04-04. Returned: 1983-04-09. Number crew: 4 . Duration: 5.02 days.
STS-60 - First flight of a Russian cosmonaut aboard an American spacecraft. Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility. Launched: 1994-02-03. Returned: 1994-02-11. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 8.30 days.
STS-61 - Hubble repair mission. Conducted the most EVAs on a Space Shuttle flight to that date. Launched: 1993-12-02. Returned: 1993-12-13. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 10.83 days.
STS-61-A - Spacelab D-1. Record set of eight crew launched aboard a single spacecraft. First Dutch astronaut. Launched GLOMR. Six of the eight crew members were divided into a blue and red team working 12-hour shifts. Experienced O-ring erosion. Launched: 1985-10-30. Returned: 1985-11-06. Number crew: 8 . Duration: 7.03 days.
STS-61-B - Deployed Morelos 2, Aussat 2, Satcom K2, OEX. Experienced primary O-ring erosion in both nozzle joints Launched: 1985-11-27. Returned: 1985-12-03. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 6.88 days.
STS-61-C - Launched Satcom K1. Second politician in space; he bumped Jarvis to later launch on which he was killed. Launch scrub saved crew from death due to undetected jammed SSME valve. Experienced nozzle joint O-ring erosion. Launched: 1986-01-12. Returned: 1986-01-18. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 6.09 days.
STS-61-E - Planned Astro-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1986 March. Number crew: 7 .
STS-61-F - Planned shuttle mission for deployment of Ulysses spacecraft. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1986 May. Number crew: 4 .
STS-61-G - Planned shuttle mission for deployment of Galileo spacecraft. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1986 May. Number crew: 4 .
STS-61-H - Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1986 June. Number crew: 7 .
STS-61-I - Planned shuttle LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) recovery mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1986 September. Number crew: 6 .
STS-61-J - Planned shuttle mission for deployment of Hubble space telescope. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1986 August. Number crew: 5 .
STS-61-K - Planned EOM-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. No crew named, later combined with STS-61K Launched: 1986 October. Number crew: 7 .
STS-61-L - Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Would have launched the first American journalist in space from Launch Complex 39B. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1986 November.
STS-61-M - Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1986 July. Number crew: 6 .
STS-61-N - Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1986 September. Number crew: 6 .
STS-62 - Carried United States Microgravity Payload USMP-2, OAST-2, SAMPIE, TES, EISG experiments. The external tank lost a 2.4 x 7 cm piece of foam in the rear face of the left bipod ramp. Launched: 1994-03-04. Returned: 1994-03-18. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 13.97 days.
STS-62-A - Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Would have been first launch from the ill-fated SLC-6 launch site at Vandenberg, California. Launched: 1986 July. Number crew: 7 .
STS-62-B - Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1986 September.
STS-63 - First African-American to walk in space. First female shuttle pilot. First rendezvous of a shuttle with the Mir space station. Deployed ODERACS 2A-2E; deployed and retrieved Spartan 204. Launched: 1995-02-03. Returned: 1995-02-11. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 8.27 days.
STS-64 - Flew Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201-II experiments. Launched: 1994-09-09. Returned: 1994-09-20. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 10.95 days.
STS-65 - First Japanese woman to fly in space. Carried IML-2; microgravity, biology experiments. Launched: 1994-07-08. Returned: 1994-07-23. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 14.75 days.
STS-66 - Carried Atlas-3 laboratory; deployed and retrieved CRISTA-SPAS. Launched: 1994-11-03. Returned: 1994-11-14. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 10.94 days.
STS-67 - First shuttle mission connected to the Internet. Carried Astro 2 astronomy payload with 3 UV telescopes. Launched: 1995-03-02. Returned: 1995-03-18. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 16.63 days.
STS-68 - Carried SIR-C SAR. Continued high-resolution radar mapping of the earth begun on STS-59. Launched: 1994-09-30. Returned: 1994-10-11. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 11.24 days.
STS-69 - Deployed and retrieved Spartan 201, Wake Shield Facility 2. Launched: 1995-09-07. Returned: 1995-09-18. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 10.85 days.
STS-7 - First US woman in space. Record five crew aboard a single spacecraft to date. Thagard flew as physician to study space sickness, which had severely impacted STS-5 operations. Deployed Anik C2, Palapa B1; deployed and retrieved SPAS platform. Launched: 1983-06-18. Returned: 1983-06-24. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 6.10 days.
STS-70 - Deployed TDRS 7. Launched: 1995-07-13. Returned: 1995-07-22. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 8.93 days.
STS-71 - Spacelab-Mir. First docking of a US spacecraft with the Mir space station. Launched: 1995-06-27. Returned: 1995-07-07. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 9.81 days.
STS-71 (Budarin, Solovyov) - Alternate designation for STS-71 Mir EO-19 manned spaceflight.
STS-71 Mir EO-19 - First Russian crew delivered to Mir space station aboard the space shuttle. Launched: 1995-06-27. Returned: 1995-09-11. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 75.47 days.
STS-71-A - Planned Astro-2 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1987 January.
STS-71-B - Planned shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1986 December. Number crew: 2 .
STS-71-C - Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1987 January.
STS-71-D - Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1987 February.
STS-71-E - Planned SLS-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1987 March. Number crew: 2 .
STS-71-F - Planned shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1987 March. Number crew: 2 .
STS-71-M - Planned Astro-3 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1987 August.
STS-72 - Deployed and retrieved OAST Flyer; retrieved SFU Space Flyer Unit. Beside the two satellite retrievals, the mission included two spacewalks. Launched: 1996-01-11. Returned: 1996-01-20. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 8.92 days.
STS-73 - Carried USML-2 for microgravity experiments. Launched: 1995-10-20. Returned: 1995-11-05. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 15.91 days.
STS-74 - Docked with Mir space station. Delivered the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module to Mir. Launched: 1995-11-12. Returned: 1995-11-20. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 8.19 days.
STS-75 - Carried TSS-1R tether satellite; satellite tether broke during deployment, making TSS-1R an unintentional free flyer. Launched: 1996-02-22. Returned: 1996-03-09. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 15.74 days.
STS-76 - Shuttle-Mir Mission 3. First American EVA on Mir space station. Launched: 1996-03-22. Returned: 1996-03-31. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 9.22 days.
STS-76 (Lucid) - Alternate designation for STS-76 Mir NASA-1 manned spaceflight.
STS-76 Mir NASA-1 - First American aboard Mir for extended stay. Launched: 1996-03-22. Returned: 1996-09-26. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 188.17 days.
STS-77 - Deployed and retrieved Spartan 2; deployed PAMS-STU; carried Spacehab module. Launched: 1996-05-19. Returned: 1996-05-29. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 10.03 days.
STS-78 - Life and Microgravity Spacelab; human biological and microgravity experiments. Launched: 1996-06-20. Returned: 1996-07-07. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 16.91 days.
STS-79 - Carried Spacehab Double Module, containing supplies for the Mir. Launched: 1996-09-16. Returned: 1996-09-26. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 10.14 days.
STS-79 (Blaha) - Alternate designation for STS-79 Mir NASA-2 manned spaceflight.
STS-79 Mir NASA-2 - Blaha relieved Lucid as NASA resident on the Mir station. Launched: 1996-09-16. Returned: 1997-01-22. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 128.23 days.
STS-8 - First African-American in space. First shuttle night launch and night landing. First night launch and night landing. Deployed Insat 1B. Launched: 1983-08-30. Returned: 1983-09-05. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 6.05 days.
STS-80 - Carried the Orfeus astronomy satellite, Wake Shield Facility. The shuttle's exit hatch would not open and NASA cancelled the planned spacewalks of the mission. Launched: 1996-11-19. Returned: 1996-12-07. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 17.66 days.
STS-81 - Transferred 2,715 kg of equipment to and from Mir. Launched: 1997-01-12. Returned: 1997-01-22. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 10.21 days.
STS-81 (Linenger) - Alternate designation for STS-81 Mir NASA-3 manned spaceflight.
STS-81 Mir NASA-3 - Linenger relieved Blaha as NASA resident on the Mir station. Launched: 1997-01-12. Returned: 1997-05-24. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 132.17 days.
STS-81-G - Planned Spacelab-J shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1988 February. Number crew: 2 .
STS-81-M - Planned SLS-2 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Launched: 1988 July.
STS-82 - Hubble repair mission; five spacewalks. Launched: 1997-02-11. Returned: 1997-02-21. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 9.98 days.
STS-83 - First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission. Orbiter recalled to earth after three days of flight when one of three fuel cells failed. Mission reflown as STS-94. Launched: 1997-04-04. Returned: 1997-04-08. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 3.97 days.
STS-84 - Delivered to Mir and returned to earth 2500 kg of payload. Launched: 1997-05-15. Returned: 1997-05-24. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 9.22 days.
STS-84 (Foale) - Alternate designation for STS-84 Mir NASA-4 manned spaceflight.
STS-84 Mir NASA-4 - Foale relieved Linenger as NASA resident on the Mir station. Launched: 1997-05-15. Returned: 1997-10-06. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 144.57 days.
STS-85 - Deployed and retrieved the CRISTA-SPAS-2 (the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2) designed to study Earth's middle atmosphere. Launched: 1997-08-07. Returned: 1997-08-19. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 11.85 days.
STS-86 - Docked with Mir. Flyaround focused on the damaged Spektr Module to determine the location of the puncture in its hull. Launched: 1997-09-26. Returned: 1997-10-06. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 10.81 days.
STS-86 (Wolf) - Alternate designation for STS-86 Mir NASA-5 manned spaceflight.
STS-86 Mir NASA-5 - Wolf relieved Foale as NASA resident on the Mir station. Launched: 1997-09-26. Returned: 1998-01-31. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 127.83 days.
STS-87 - Microgravity science mission. Spartan 201 was released, but had to be recaptured by hand during EVA. Loss of external tank intertank foam results in over 100 hits on orbiter heat shield. Launched: 1997-11-19. Returned: 1997-12-05. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 15.69 days.
STS-88 - First ISS assembly mission. Delivered Unity space station node to orbit. Launched: 1998-12-03. Returned: 1998-12-15. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 11.80 days.
STS-89 - First Uzbek astronaut. First flight of Block IIA SSME engines. Penultimate Shuttle mission to Mir. Launched: 1998-01-23. Returned: 1998-01-31. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 8.82 days.
STS-89 (Thomas Andrew) - Alternate designation for STS-89 Mir NASA-6 manned spaceflight.
STS-89 Mir NASA-6 - Thomas relieved Wolf as NASA resident on the Mir station. Launched: 1998-01-23. Returned: 1998-06-12. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 140.63 days.
STS-9 - Spacelab 1. First West German to fly in space. First Spacelab mission. Record six crew size in a single spacecraft. Suspect exhaust nozzle on right solid rocket booster. Landing delayed when two computers failed. Landed on fire when hydraulic pump leaked. Launched: 1983-11-28. Returned: 1983-12-08. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 10.32 days.
STS-90 - Neurolab. Launched: 1998-04-17. Returned: 1998-05-03. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 15.91 days.
STS-91 - First shuttle flight with super light-weight external tank. Final shuttle-Mir mission. Recovered NASA astronaut Andy Thomas from Mir and took Russian space chief Valeri Ryumin to Mir for an inspection tour. Launched: 1998-06-02. Returned: 1998-06-12. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 9.83 days.
STS-92 - 100th shuttle mission + 100th US spacewalk. ISS Logistics flight; brought the Z-1 Truss , Control Moment Gyros, and Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 to the ISS. Launched: 2000-10-11. Returned: 2000-10-24. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 12.90 days.
STS-93 - Delivered Chandra spacecraft. Hydrogen fuel leaked out during ascent, resulting in shuttle running out of propellant and ending up in an orbit 11 km lower than planned. Launched: 1999-07-23. Returned: 1999-07-28. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 4.95 days.
STS-94 - First shuttle mission reflight (same vehicle, crew, and payload as curtailed STS-83 mission). MSL-1 Microgravity Science Laboratory. Launched: 1997-07-01. Returned: 1997-07-17. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 15.70 days.
STS-95 - First Spanish astronaut. Oldest man in space, longest gap between two flights for an astronaut. The flight of STS-95 provoked more publicity for NASA than any other flight in years. Spartan 201 satellite released and retrieved. Launched: 1998-10-29. Returned: 1998-11-07. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 8.91 days.
STS-96 - First docking with the ISS. Transferred equipment from the Spacehab Logistics Double Module to the interior of the station. Launched: 1999-05-27. Returned: 1999-06-06. Number crew: 7 . Duration: 9.80 days.
STS-97 - Installed a 72 m x 11.4 m, 65 kW double-wing solar panel on the Unity module of the ISS. Launched: 2000-12-01. Returned: 2000-12-11. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 10.83 days.
STS-98 - ISS Assembly flight. Delivered Destiny module and PMA-2 modules. After this mission the ISS was heavier than Mir. Launched: 2001-02-07. Returned: 2001-02-20. Number crew: 5 . Duration: 12.89 days.
STS-99 - Deployed the 61 meter long STRM mast, a side-looking radar that digitally mapped the entire land surface of the Earth between latitudes 60 deg N and 54 deg S. Launched: 2000-02-11. Returned: 2000-02-22. Number crew: 6 . Duration: 11.24 days.
STSat - South Korean technology satellite, built by KAIST. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-09-27. Last Launch: 2013-11-21. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
STScI - Abbreviation or acronym for Space Telescope Science Institute
STSDAS - Abbreviation for Space Telescope Science Data Analysis System
STSS - Space Tracking and Surveillance System for missile launch and flight monitoring using infrared sensors Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-09-25. Last Launch: 2009-09-25. Number: 2 .
STSS - Space Tracking and Surveillance System Advanced Technology Risk Reduction satellite. Used the SA-200 bus.
STTW - Alternate designation for DFH-2.
Stucky -
Studsat - ISRO-sponsored Indian student-designed 1U Cubesat. First Indian picosatellite.
Stuhlinger - German-American engineer. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2. Born: 1913-12-19. Died: 2008-05-25.
Stuhlinger Mars 1957 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1957. In 1954 Ernst Stuhlinger conceived the first Mars expedition using solar-electric propulsion. Status: Study 1957. Gross mass: 660,000 kg (1,450,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 328,000 kg (723,000 lb). Payload: 136,000 kg (299,000 lb). Thrust: 490 N (110 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Cesium.
Stuhlinger Mars 1962 - American manned Mars expedition. By 1962 Ernst Stuhlinger's ion-drive Mars expedition had evolved within the Research Projects Division into five 150 m long spacecraft, housing a total crew of 15. A much shorter 475 day mission time was planned. Status: Design 1962. Gross mass: 360,000 kg (790,000 lb). Payload: 70,000 kg (154,000 lb). Propellants: Electric/Cesium.
Stumke - German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the telemetry section of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952.
Stumough - American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astronauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. Status: Inactive. Born: 1937-01-10.
Sturckow - American test pilot astronaut 1994-2013. Grew up in Lakeside, California. US Marine Corps. Flew 41 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2013. Born: 1961-08-11. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 51.40 days.
Sturgeon - Alternate designation for 3M65.
Sturgeon - Alternate designation for 3M20.
Sturgeon - Alternate designation for R-39.
Sturm - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Worked for the United States at Port Washington, Long Island, New York after the war.
Stuwe - German Engineer. Engineer at Peenemuende and book author. Born: 1919.
STV - European technology satellite. Satellite Test Vehicle. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-11-29. Last Launch: 1970-06-12. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 249 kg (548 lb).
STV 4 - French technology satellite. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-11-05. Last Launch: 1971-11-05. Number: 1 .
STW-1 - Article Number of DFH-2 military communications satellite.
SU - Docking Unit (Russian abbreviation)
submarine-launched - Category of missiles.
Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite - Alternate designation for SWAS infrared astronomy satellite.
Suborbital - Category of launch vehicles.
Suborbital Cabin - Russian manned spacecraft. In 1956 Korolev laid out an outline plan 'Fast Solutions for the Conquest of Space'. Phase I and II of the plan involved experimental manned sub-orbital flights aboard an R-5A single-stage IRBM. Status: Study 1956. Gross mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb).
Suborbital Launch Site - Category of launch sites.
suborbital launch vehicle - Category of launch vehicles.
Subsonic Cruise Armed Decoy - Alternate designation for AGM-86A.
SUD - Alternate designation for SUD (Russian abbreviation).
Sud - French manufacturer of rocket engines. Sud Aviation, France.
SUD (Russian abbreviation) - Guidance System (Russian abbreviation)
Sud Aviation - First name of Sud.
Sudarmono - Indonesian biologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Microbiologist. Later research scientist at the University of Dyakarta. Advisor for Bandung Institute of Technology. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1952-07-31.
SUI - American manufacturer of rockets. State University of Iowa, USA.
Suiting Up - Poem: My name is James McDivitt...
Suitsat - Used Orlan spacesuit equipped with a radio transmitter. Released during an ISS EVA and transmitted for two days in a separate orbit. The astronauts shoved it into space with the words "Goodbye, Mr Smith."
Sukchon - Missile launch site.
Sukhoi - Russian manufacturer of aircraft.
Sulimov - Russian engineer. General Director and Chief Designer of the NPO for Measurement Technology from 1966. Received Lenin Prize for work on Buran. Born: 1928.
Sullivan - American geologist mission specialist astronaut 1978-1993. Geologist, first American woman to walk in space. As of 1999 Ms Sullivan was Director of the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1993. Born: 1951-10-03. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 22.20 days.
Sultanov - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1983-1996. Status: Inactive; Active 1983-1996. Born: 1948-11-18.
Sumbandila - South African imaging satellite with a ground resolution of 6.25 m. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-09-17. Last Launch: 2009-09-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 81 kg (178 lb).
Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship SATellite - Alternate designation for SURFSAT-1 technology satellite.
Summerfield - American scientist. Early American rocket pioneer; co-founder of Aerojet in 1943; American inventor of regenerative cooling for liquid rocket engines. Left in 1944 for theoretical studies and academia, teaching at Princeton 1949-1994. Born: 1916-10-20. Died: 1996-07-18.
Sun Jiadong - Chinese engineer. Chief Designer of China's DF-2 and DF-3 IRBM's and first artificial and remote sensing satellites.
Sun synchronous orbit - Category of spacecraft.
Sundancer - American manned space station. Study 2010. The Sundancer inflatable space station had provisions for three crew. It was to be launched by 2010 aboard a Falcon 9, Zenit-2, or Atlas V booster. Status: Study 2010. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Sundberg - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Later stationed at Pentagon. Retired from USAF in August 1997. Later with NRO. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1985. Born: 1945-04-10.
Sunsat - South African technology satellite. Sunsat was built by students at Stellenbosch University, South Africa and carried a small imager and a message relay payload. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-02-23. Last Launch: 1999-02-23. Number: 1 .
sunspots - Dark, irregular areas on the solar surface with strong magnetic fields (1000 to 2000 Gauss) surrounded by gray zones (penumbra). Sunspots occur mostly in pairs, with opposite magnetic polarity; they persist for periods of days, weeks, or months. Their temperatures are about 2000 K lower than the temperature of the surrounding photosphere (5780° K). The frequency of sunspots follows an eleven-year cycle.
SUPA - Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
Suparco - Pakistani manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission, Pakistan.
Super Arcas - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle, improved version of the original Arcas with a lengthened motor burning for 40 seconds. Payload 4 kg to 100 km or 8 kg to 40 km. Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1968-04-08. Last Launch: 1991-08-09. Number: 243 . Gross mass: 43 kg (94 lb). Payload: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Thrust: 1.50 kN (337 lbf).
Super Arcas-1 - Alternate name for MARC 60A.
Super Chief - Alternate designation for Super Chief I.
Super Chief - Series of large sounding rockets developed by Aerojet Space Data using the Talos booster, various upper stages, and Astrobee electronics.
Super Chief I - American sounding rocket. Series of large sounding rockets developed by Aerojet Space Data using the Talos booster, various upper stages, and Astrobee electronics. Status: Active. First Launch: 1970-10-21. Last Launch: 1970-10-21. Number: 1 .
Super Chief II - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Castor Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1974-03-17. Last Launch: 1974-07-24. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Thrust: 516.00 kN (116,001 lbf).
Super High Altitude Research Project - Alternate designation for SHARP.
Super Lightweight External Tank - Alternate designation for Shuttle Super Lightweight Tank rocket stage.
Super Loki - Alternate designation for Super Loki engine.
Super Loki - American sounding rocket. Larger-diameter version of single-stage Loki sounding rocket, developed originally for NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center. Status: Active. First Launch: 1968-04-22. Last Launch: 2013-07-03. Number: 1155 . Gross mass: 29 kg (63 lb). Payload: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Thrust: 18.00 kN (4,046 lbf).
Super Loki Datasonde - Alternate designation for PWN-10.
Super Loki Datasonde - Alternate designation for PWN-11.
Super Loki engine - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Status: Active. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Thrust: 18.00 kN (4,046 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Super Loki Robin - Alternate designation for PWN-12.
Super Sabre - Alternate designation for LIM-100.
Super SARV Retro - Government designation of Star 12A Solid rocket engine.
Super Strypi - American orbital launch vehicle, designed for launch of multiple Cubesat and Nanosat payloads on a single launch. Spin-stablized, as the earlier Strypi sounding rocket, but otherwise using entirely new stages, launch vehicle, and guidance.
Super Titan - Alternate designation for Titan C.
Super V-2 - French intermediate range ballistic missile. Developed version of German A9 studied by the German team in France in 1946-1948. Cancelled as too ambitious, but led to the Veronique of the 1950's, the Diamant of the 1960's, and the Ariane space booster of 1979-2003. Status: Cancelled 1947. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf).
Superbird - Japanese domestic business communications satellite network
supergranulation - A net-like pattern of irregular cells, 15,000 km (800 naut. ml.) to 40,000 km (22,000 naut. ml.) in diameter, superimposed upon the photospheric granulation network, and caused by plasma convection within the chromosphere. Cell lifetime is about 20 hours. Supergranulation is best observed in the monochromatic light of a calcium spectral line.
Super-Jupiter - Alternate designation for Super-Jupiter stage.
Super-Jupiter - American orbital launch vehicle. The very first design that would lead to Saturn. A 1.5 million pound thrust booster using four E-1 engines - initial consideration of using a single USAF F-1 engine abandoned because of development time. Existing missile tankage was clustered above the engines. Status: Study 1957. Gross mass: 572,840 kg (1,262,890 lb). Payload: 11,000 kg (24,000 lb). Thrust: 6,758.50 kN (1,519,371 lbf).
Super-Jupiter stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Earliest member of what would become the Saturn family. Masses estimated. Status: Study 1957. Gross mass: 317,600 kg (700,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 19,600 kg (43,200 lb). Thrust: 7,538.30 kN (1,694,677 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Super-Jupiter-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Development 1958. Gross mass: 96,700 kg (213,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Thrust: 1,884.59 kN (423,673 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Super-Jupiter-3 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Length estimated. Status: Development 1958. Gross mass: 29,400 kg (64,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Thrust: 412.80 kN (92,801 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Superraket - Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. The ancestor of the N1 lunar launch vehicle, this was the first heavy lift launch vehicle actively considered in the USSR. The 2,000 metric ton liftoff mass was similar to the later N1 design, but the first stage would use a staggering cluster of around 66 Kuznetsov NK-9 engines (as opposed to the modest 24 NK-15's of the first N1 configuration). The real difference was in the second stage, which used the nuclear YaRD engine, giving the launch vehicle nearly double the later N1's payload capacity. Status: Development ended 1959. Gross mass: 2,030,000 kg (4,470,000 lb). Payload: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). Thrust: 29,313.60 kN (6,589,959 lbf).
Superraket Block A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Ancestor of N1 Block A; conical liquid oxygen/kerosene stage using massive cluster of Kuznetsov engines. Gross mass estimated based on 2,000 metric ton total vehicle weight; empty mass estimated. Status: Development ended 1959. Gross mass: 1,150,000 kg (2,530,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Thrust: 33,656.00 kN (7,566,169 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Superraket Block B - Nuclear/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Nuclear engine operating at 3500 deg K. Mass estimated; empty mass calculated. Status: Development ended 1959. Gross mass: 700,000 kg (1,540,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb). Thrust: 8,330.00 kN (1,872,650 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/Ammonia.
Surayev - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-on. Russian Air Force Status: Active 1997-on. Born: 1972-05-24. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 334.51 days.
SURCAL - American military target satellite. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-01-24. Last Launch: 1969-09-30. Number: 9 .
surface-to-air - Category of missiles.
SURFSAT-1 - American technology satellite. SURFSAT. SURFSAT-1 was a small satellite built by undergraduate college students and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to support experiments by NASA's Deep Space Network. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-11-04. Last Launch: 1995-11-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 55 kg (121 lb).
Surinam - Surinam
Surrey - British manufacturer of spacecraft. Surrey Satellite Technologies Ltd. , Guildford, UK
Surveillance - Category of spacecraft.
Surveillance orbit - Category of spacecraft.
Surveyor - American lunar lander. Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Surveyor series soft-landed on the moon, provided images of the lunar surface, and tested the characteristics of the lunar soil. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-11-27. Last Launch: 1968-01-07. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 269 kg (593 lb).
Surveyor Block II - American lunar lander. Study 1964. The Surveyor Block II spacecraft was imagined as an unmanned scout that could reconnoiter a specific lunar landing site for Apollo and assist the manned Lunar Module in making a precise touch down. Status: Study 1964.
Surveyor Lunar Rover - American lunar rover. Cancelled 1965. Follow-on Surveyor unmanned lunar landers were to deploy small nuclear-powered rovers (a carry-over from the cancelled Prospector spacecraft). Status: Cancelled 1965.
Surveyor Orbiter - American lunar orbiter. Study 1965. NASA originally planned to have a version of the Surveyor spacecraft conduct detailed orbital photographic reconnaissance of the moon in preparation for the Apollo manned landings. Status: Study 1965.
Sutterlin - German chief engineer at Blohm and Voss during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Suvorov - Russian officer, Secretary of the NKS Tracking Network Party Commission. Served in RVSN political units from 1959. In 1965-1970, political officer for the Yeniseisk IP tracking station. In 1970 entered service with GUKOS space forces. Born: 1927.
Suzaku - Alternate name for ASTRO E.
SV-5D - Alternate designation for Prime manned spaceplane.
SvalRak - Sounding rocket launch site, in the arctic archipelago of Svalbard, provides unique conditions for rocket studies of the dayside polar cusp, cleft and cap. The site is ideal for scientific exploration of the dayside aurora and processes in the magnetospheric boundary layer. First Launch: 1997-11-20. Last Launch: 2011-12-03. Number: 43 .
SvalRak LONG - Viper launch complex. Longyearbyen First Launch: 2001-07-16. Last Launch: 2001-09-14. Number: 30 .
SVC - American manufacturer of rockets. SVC, USA.
SVEC - Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget - Alternate name for Saab.
Svenska Rymdaktiebolaget (Rymd AB, Swedish Space Corporation) - Alternate name for SSC.
Sverdlovsk - Sverdlovsk air defence base. First Launch: 1960-05-01. Last Launch: 1960-05-01. Number: 1 .
Svetoch - Russian military communications satellite. Communications satellite - KGB. No other details available.
Svezda - Alternate designation for RM-217.
Svobodniy - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1994, equipped with 90 light ICBM (UR-100) silos. The number of operational silos declined to 60 by 1993. The break-up of the Soviet Union left the main Russian cosmodrome on foreign territory (Baikonur, in Kazakhstan). The Northern Cosmodrome at Plesetsk did not have facilities for large launch vehicles and was not suited for support of launches into lower-inclination orbits. Therefore Svobodniy Cosmodrome, located 7,777 km east of Moscow, was established as the Second State Space Trials Launch Centre (GIK-2) on 2 February 1996.
Svobodniy LC5 - Topol launch complex. First Launch: 1997-03-04. Last Launch: 2006-04-25. Number: 5 .
Svyaz - Russian agency. Kosmicheskaya Sviaz, Moscow, Russia.
SW - Abbreviation for Southwest
Swales - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Swales Aerospace, USA.
SwampSat - Cubesat from University of Florida-Gainesville.
Swan - American Test Pilot. Pilot of first American rocket-boosted glider. On 4 January 1931 he stayed aloft for 30 minutes over Atlantic City, New Jersey, in a glider powered with 10 small rockets.
Swanson - American computer scientist mission specialist astronaut 1998-on. Status: Inactive; active 1998-2015. Born: 1960-12-03. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 195.87 days.
SWARM - A follow-up to CHAMP spacecraft, the Swarm was three satellites in three different polar orbits to measure the earth's magnetic field with high precision. Each spacecraft carried an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer; a Vector Field Magnetometer; an Electric Field Instrument; an Accelerometer; and a Laser Range Reflector. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-11-22. Last Launch: 2013-11-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 468 kg (1,031 lb).
SWAS - American infrared astronomy satellite. SWAS, the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, had a 0.6m telescope with a 490 to 550 GHz submillimeter receiver and an acousto-optical spectrometer. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-12-06. Last Launch: 1998-12-06. Number: 1 .
Sweden - Sweden
Swedish Institute for Space Physics - Swedish manufacturer of spacecraft. Swedish Institute for Space Physics, Sweden.
Swedish Jerkin - Swedish pressure suit, operational 1968. Partial coverage garment - two pressure flying suit with diaphragmatic bladder, used with high pressure mask equivalent to A-13 with Hardman kit. Status: operational 1968.
SWF - Abbreviation for ShortWave Fading
Swift - American gamma ray astronomy satellite. Swift was a first-of-its-kind multi-wavelength observatory dedicated to the study of gamma-ray burst (GRB) science. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-11-20. Last Launch: 2004-11-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,331 kg (2,934 lb).
Swigert - American pilot astronaut 1966-1973. Survived first emergency beyond low earth orbit. Altitude (401,056 km) record. Died of complications from cancer. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1973. Born: 1931-08-30. Died: 1982-12-27. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 5.95 days.
Swiss AF - Swiss Air Force.
SwissCube - Cubesat from Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland
Switzerland - Switzerland
SX-1 - Alternate designation for DC-X.
SX-2 - Alternate designation for DC-X2.
SY-5 - Experiment Satellite No 5. Used the CAST2000 bus. Used the [CAST2000] bus.
Sylvania - American manufacturer of rockets. Sylvania Electric, USA.
Sylvania Electric - American manufacturer. Sylvania Electric, USA.
SYMC - Syrian Missile Command
Symington - American politician, Senator 1953-1977, strong advocate of aerospace projects. Born: 1901. Died: 1988-01-01.
Symphonie - French communications technology satellite. Experimental telecommunications satellite, constructed jointly by France and the Federal Republic of Germany. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-12-19. Last Launch: 1974-12-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 221 kg (487 lb).
Syncom - American communications technology satellite. Experimental telecommunications satellite. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-02-14. Last Launch: 1964-08-19. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 39 kg (85 lb).
synoptic - Observing different objects, or different aspects of one object, at the same time.
Synthesis Study - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. On 11 May 1991 President Bush declared that he would support a Space Exploration Initiative program leading to a Mars Landing by 2014. Status: Study 1991.
Syowa Base - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1970-02-10. Last Launch: 1985-09-25. Number: 54 .
Syracuse -
Syria - Syria
Syrian AF - Syrian Air Force.
Syromiatnikov - Russian engineer, designer of docking systems. Inventor of the androgynous system used on international missions and the ISS. Born: 1933-01-07. Died: 2006-09-19.
System 49 - Alternate designation for System 49 Orbiter.
System 49 - Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Study 1981. System 49 was the design that followed Spiral and preceded MAKS in the Soviet quest for a flexible air-launched manned space launcher. Status: Study 1981. Gross mass: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb). Payload: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
System 49 Orbiter - Orbiter for the System 49 launch system, with a single crew member. Gross mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Payload: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
System 49-M - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. The 49M was an application of the system 49 design concept, but with a larger carrier aircraft. The system would have a 770 metric ton gross takeoff mass. Status: Study 1981. Gross mass: 400,000 kg (880,000 lb). Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb).
Systems Research Corporation - First name of Palo Alto.

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