Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: I

I1 - Manufacturer's designation for Polyot military anti-satellite system.
I-1K - Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-09-12. Last Launch: 2015-03-28. Number: 6 .
I1P - Alternate designation for Polyot military anti-satellite system.
I-270 - Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1947. The MiG I-270 rocketplane began as a post-war copy of the German Ju-248 (Me-263) design. The resulting rocketplane had a more refined aerodynamic form than the Me-263 and lower gross weight. Status: Operational 1947. Gross mass: 4,120 kg (9,080 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 14.21 kN (3,195 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
I-2B - Alternate name for Polyot.
I-2K - Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-04-18. Last Launch: 2015-08-27. Number: 11 .
I2M - Manufacturer's designation for IS-P military anti-satellite system target satellite.
I2P - Manufacturer's designation for IS-A military anti-satellite system.
I-3K - Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-12-21. Last Launch: 2015-11-10. Number: 7 .
IABS - N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 1,578 kg (3,478 lb). Unfuelled mass: 275 kg (606 lb). Thrust: 980 N (220 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
IAE - Instituto de Aeronautica e Espace, Brazil. Brazilian agency overseeing development of rocket engines, launch vehicles, and spacecraft.
IAE satellite - American technology satellite. Deployed from Spartan 207 5/20/96; test of inflatable antenna technology. Reentered May 22. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-05-19. Last Launch: 1996-05-19. Number: 1 .
IAI - Israeli manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Israel Aircraft Industries, Israel.
IAI-Arrow-1 - IAI solid rocket engine. Arrow 1 first stage. Status: Retired 1999. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Propellants: Solid.
IAI-Arrow-2 - Alternate name for IAI-Arrow-2-1500.
IAI-Arrow-2 - IAI solid rocket engine family.
IAI-Arrow-2-1500 - IAI solid rocket engine. Status: Active. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Propellants: Solid.
IAI-Arrow-2-500 - IAI solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Propellants: Solid.
IAKM - Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine (Russian abbreviation)
IAP - Institute d'Astrophysiqe de Paris
IAPPP - Abbreviation or acronym for International Amateur/Professional Photoelectric Photometry
IAPS - Hughes electric/mercury rocket engine. Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System work took place in the 1974-1983. Flight ready article prepared, but not flown due to budget cuts. Date: 1974-1983. Propellants: Electric/Mercury.
IATV - Alternate designation for ATV test vehicle.
IAU - Abbreviation for International Astronomical Union
IAUC - Abbreviation for IAU Circular
IBEX - Interstellar Boundary Explorer. Mission was to map, from its high earth orbit, the boundary of the heliosphere, the point at the limits of the solar system where the solar wind is overcome by the interstellar medium. Used the Microstar bus.
Iblefeld - German Luftwaffe Pilot. Colonel and Commander of the JG 1 of the German Luftwaffe.
IBM - First name of STLC.
IBM Satellite Transponder Leasing Corp. - Alternate name for STLC.
IBSS - American satellite. Sensor technology test; retrieved 5/2/91. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-04-28. Last Launch: 1991-04-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,901 kg (4,190 lb).
Ibuki - Japanese earth atmosphere satellite. Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite, renamed Ibuki after launch. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-01-23. Last Launch: 2009-01-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,750 kg (3,850 lb).
ICAN - American space tug. Antimatter-powered nuclear pulse spacecraft designed by Pennsylvania State University.
Icarus - American sounding rocket, developed by students at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in 2003-2007. Took a 7-kg payload to a 61 km altitude. The Loki Research solid rocket engine had a total mass of 44 kg and an empty mass of 4 kg. Status: Active. First Launch: 2007-03-22. Last Launch: 2007-03-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 121 kg (266 lb). Thrust: 15.80 kN (3,552 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Icarus St2 - Loki Research solid rocket engine. Icarus second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 13 kg (28 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Thrust: 4.10 kN (922 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Icarus-2 - Alternate name for Icarus St2.
ICBM - Intercontinental ballistic missile
ICBM Base - Category of launch sites.
ICE - Abbreviation for International Cometary Explorer
Iceland - Iceland
ICESat - American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2003.01.13. Status: Operational 2003.
ICO - Series of satellites launched by British New ICO (formerly ICO Global Communications) to provide mobile communications and data/Internet services.
ICUBE - 2U Cubesat from Unisat-5 for Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad. Successful. First Pakistani cubesat.
IDA - Abbreviation for International Dark-sky Association
IDCSP - American military communications satellite. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-06-16. Last Launch: 1968-06-13. Number: 35 . Gross mass: 45 kg (99 lb).
Ideal Home Station - American manned space station. Study 1959. Designed by Douglas, the Space Vehicle was represented by a full-scale model at the Ideal Home Show in London in 1962. It had a length of 19 m and was 5.2 m in diameter. Status: Study 1959.
Idefix - The Idefix amateur radio Oscar consisted of two small 6 kg boxes attached to the Ariane third stage. The payload was operated by AMSAT-F, the French branch of the amateur radio organization. (The first French satellite was nicknamed Asterix).
IDF - Israeli Defense Forces, Israel.
IDL - Abbreviation for Interactive Data Language
IDP - Abbreviation for Isodecyl pelargonete
IDRDL - Indian agency. Defence Research and Development Laboratory, India.
IE - American earth ionosphere satellite. Explorer 20. Ionospheric research. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-08-25. Last Launch: 1964-08-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 44 kg (97 lb).
IEH - The shuttle's International Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Hitchhiker Payload investigated the solar EUV flux, and the EUV emissions of Jupiter and hot stellar objects. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-09-07. Last Launch: 1997-08-07. Number: 2 .
IESD - Instrumentation and Electronic Systems Division, MSC
If the Sun Dies - Ray Bradbury's peroration to spaceflight as recounted by Oriana Fallaci.
IFO - Abbreviation for Identifiable Flying Object
IGM - Abbreviation for InterGalactic Medium
Ignatov - Russian pilot astronaut 2012- . Status: Active 2012-on. Born: 1982-03-20.
IGS - Japanese military surveillance satellite. Launched in optical and radar versions. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-03-28. Last Launch: 2015-03-26. Number: 14 .
IGY - Abbreviation for International Geophysical Year
IHamsat - Microsatellite providing satellite-based Oscar Amateur Radio services to the international community of Amateur Radio Operators (HAMs). Primarily intended for HAM operators in South Asia. One of the transponders was developed by Indian amateurs.
I-Hawk - Alternate designation for MIM-23B.
IHLLV - Alternate designation for Shuttle C stage.
IHLLV - American orbital launch vehicle. Same concept as Shuttle C. Shuttle orbiter replaced by recoverable pod with shuttle main engines and payload canister. Quick way for US to obtain heavy payload capability and reduce shuttle cost per kg to orbit by 3 X. Status: Study 1980. Gross mass: 1,966,675 kg (4,335,776 lb). Payload: 77,000 kg (169,000 lb). Thrust: 20,299.20 kN (4,563,442 lbf).
IHLLV; Interim Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for Shuttle C stage rocket stage.
IIAE - Instituto de Investigacion Aeronautica y Espacial (Institute of Aeronautics and Space Research).
IIAE Institute of Aeronautics and Space Investigations - Second name of CONAE.
IIAE Orion-1 - Alternate name for Orion-1 engine.
IIAE Orion-2 - Alternate name for Orion-2 engine.
IIAE.Orion - Argentinian sounding rocket family. Status: Retired 1971.
IK - Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. IK, Russia.
Ikar - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Ikar was Yuzhnoye's design for a heavy ICBM, a next-generation replacement for the R-36M2. Design was begun at the beginning of the 1990's under Stanislav Us. It may have used all-solid propellants, and nested rocket stages. Work was quickly dropped after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Status: Cancelled 1991.
Ikar - Alternate designation for Dnepr. Status: Cancelled 1991.
Ikar - Code name for Tselina-D military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Ikar stage - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Derived from propulsion module of Yantar spy satellite, over 30 flights to 1998. 50 restarts. Status: Active. Gross mass: 3,164 kg (6,975 lb). Unfuelled mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Thrust: 2.94 kN (661 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Ikaros - Solar sail test vehicle. Released in solar orbit 0.72 AU x 1.07 AU x 2.0 deg. Deployed sail by 11 June, and acceleration due to the pressure of the light from the sun was as expected. Launched 2010.05.20, Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-05-20. Last Launch: 2010-05-20. Number: 1 .
IK-B-1300 - Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. Intercosmos 22. Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300. Comprehensive investigation of physical processes in the earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-08-07. Last Launch: 1981-08-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
IKI - Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Institute of Space Research, Russia.
Ikon - Code name for Improved Crystal military surveillance satellite.
Ikonos - American civilian surveillance satellite. The first high resolution commercial imaging satellite. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-04-27. Last Launch: 1999-09-24. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 726 kg (1,600 lb).
IL Aerospace Technologies - Israeli manufacturer of spacecraft. IL Aerospace Technologies, Israel.
ILC Dover - American manufacturer of spacecraft. ILC Dover / ILC Space Systems Division, Houston, TX, USA.
Ile du Levant - In October 1950 a military missile test site was established at the French naval base on the Ile du Levant, an offshore island in the Mediterranean near Toulon. This was named CERES (Special Weapons Research and Tests Center) in 1952 and replaced a beach site at Pampelone used for ad-hoc launches since 1948. In 1968 it was expanded to include the La Renardiere site on Pont ST Mandrier and renamed CEM (Mediterranean Test Center). La Renardiere had been used in 1945 for testing the first French liquid propelled rocket, the EA 41. First Launch: 1956-05-01. Last Launch: 1968-05-15. Number: 102 .
Ile du Levant Nemo - MSBS launch complex. Caisson Nemo First Launch: 1966-01-01. Last Launch: 1968-01-01. Number: 5 .
Illarionov - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1970-1992. Graduated from Higher Air Force School, 1967 Soviet Air Force, specialized in communications systems. Served as Capcom during several Soyuz missions. Also involved in the Buran program. Status: Deceased; Active 1970-1992. Born: 1939-06-02. Died: 1999-03-10.
ILRV - Alternate designation for FDL ILRV.
ILRV - In 1967-68, the US Air Force issued a number of study contracts for "Integral Launch and Re-entry Vehicles" (ILRVs). This configuration consisted of a reusable single-stage VTHL RLV with expendable propellant tanks to reduce the weight, size and development cost of the spaceplane.
ILS - International Launch Services
Ilyin - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1966. Born: 1937-08-17.
Ilyushin - Alternate designation for Ilyushin bureau.
Ilyushin - Russian test pilot. Most tangible phantom cosmonaut, purported first man in orbit according to French press report two days before Gagarin. A real person and test pilot, but no evidence he ever flew in space or trained as a cosmonaut.
Ilyushin bureau - Russian manufacturer of aircraft and missiles.
IM-70 - Alternate designation for Talos.
IM-99A - Alternate designation for CIM-10A.
IM-99B - Alternate designation for CIM-10B.
IMAGE - American solar satellite. The IMAGE spacecraft imaged remote particle populations in the magnetosphere. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-03-25. Last Launch: 2000-03-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 494 kg (1,089 lb).
Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration - Alternate designation for IMAGE solar satellite.
ImageSat - Israeli agency. ImageSat, Tel Aviv, Israel.
IMBP - Institute for the Study of Biomedical Problems, Russia.
IMBP Group 1 - 1972 - Requirement: physicians for Salyut space station missions. Date: 1972.
IMBP Group 2 - 1978 - Requirement: physicians for Mir space station missions. Date: 1978.
IMBP Group 3 - 1980 - Requirement: female physicians to visit Salyut and Mir space stations, primarily for propaganda purposes, to upstage American female astronaut flights aboard the shuttle. Date: 1980.
IMBP Group 4 - 1985 - Requirement: physicians for Mir space station missions. Date: 1985.
IMBP Group 5 - 1989 - Requirement: physicians for Mir space station missions. Date: 1989.
IMBP Group 6 - 2003 - Requirement: physicians for ISS space station missions. Date: 2003.
IMBP-1 - Alternate name for IMBP Group 1 - 1972.
IMBP-2 - Alternate name for IMBP Group 2 - 1978.
IMBP-3 - Alternate name for IMBP Group 3 - 1980.
IMBP-4 - Alternate name for IMBP Group 4 - 1985.
IMBP-5 - Alternate name for IMBP Group 5 - 1989.
IME - Interplanetary meteoroid experiment
Imeni Gastello - Alternate name for Derzhavinsk.
IMEWS - Code name for DSP military early warning satellite.
IMHO - Abbreviation for In My Humble Opinion
IMIS 1968 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1968. In January 1968 Boeing issued a report that was the result of a 14 month study on manned Mars missions. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 1,225,500 kg (2,701,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 352,500 kg (777,100 lb). Thrust: 2,601.70 kN (584,885 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
IMLSS - American space mobility device. Cancelled 1969. In 1968-69 Hamilton Standard developed this Integrated Maneuvering Life Support System (IMLSS) for the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. Status: Cancelled 1969.
IMO - Abbreviation for International Meteor Organization
IMP - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-11-27. Last Launch: 1973-10-26. Number: 10 .
Improved Crystal - American military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1992.11.28. Improved CRYSTAL was an optical reconnaissance satellite built for the US National Reconnaissance Office. Prime contractor was thought to be Lockheed. Status: Operational 1992. Gross mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11,000 kg (24,000 lb).
Improved Electrothermal Hydrazine Thruster - Alternate designation for MR-502 Hydrazine rocket engine.
Improved Honest John - Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1958-06-17. Last Launch: 1959-07-02. Number: 31 .
Improved Orion - American sounding rocket. Unguided solid propellant single stage rocket using a military surplus M112 Hawk rocket motor. The motor was a dual thrust burner with a boost phase of 5 seconds and a sustainer phase of approximately 21 seconds. The rocket accelerated the payload then for 26 seconds with peak acceleration during the boost phase of 21g. A payload mass of 100 kg could be carried to an apogee of approximately 110 km. Status: Active. First Launch: 1990-03-06. Last Launch: 2015-03-18. Number: 62 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 7.00 kN (1,574 lbf).
Improved Orion engine - Aerojet solid rocket engine, originally designed for the Improved Hawk surface-to-air missile. Surplus motors were used in sounding rockets. Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Thrust: 13.00 kN (2,922 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Improved Orion-1 - Alternate name for Improved Orion engine.
Improved TIROS Operational System - Alternate designation for ITOS earth weather satellite.
IMS - Indian military surveillance radar satellite. Indian Mini Satellite, a small imaging satellite. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-04-28. Last Launch: 2008-04-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb).
IMU - Abbreviation for Inertial measurement unit
in - inch(es)
Index - Plasma Science Technology. INDEX, renamed Reimei ("Dawn") after launch, was a test satellite with new lightweight satellite components, and a demonstration auroral imager payload.
India - India
Indian AF - Indian Air Force.
Indian Manned Spacecraft - India began its national manned space program in 2006. As of 2014, the design had evolved to this 7.8-metric-ton version. In December 2014 a boilerplate of the reentry capsule had been tested, but funding limitations meant no date was set for testing of an all-up spacecraft, to be launched by the GSLV-III launch vehicle. Status: Design 2014. First Launch: 2014-12-18. Last Launch: 2014-12-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 7,800 kg (17,100 lb).
Indonesia - Indonesia
Indostar - Indonesian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. PT Media Citra Indostar, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Indostar - Communications satellite series for Indostar using the Star bus bus.
Industrial Launch Vehicle - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Low-cost hybrid launch vehicle proposed by AMROC in the 1980's. Status: Design 1988. Gross mass: 591,180 kg (1,303,320 lb). Payload: 1,818 kg (4,008 lb). Thrust: 11,136.70 kN (2,503,630 lbf).
Industrial Sounding System - Canadian gun-launched sounding rocket. Columbiad Launch Services announced itself publicly in August 2003. They were then developing a high-volume Industrial Sounding System based on gun propulsion technology, which was scheduled to be fully operational by late 2004. This would also serve as a prototype for a follow-on orbital gun-based launch system. Status: Cancelled 2003. Payload: 10 kg (22 lb).
Industrial Space Facility - American manned space station module. Study 1982. In 1982 Space Industries Inc. planned to develop an 'Industrial Space Facility' (ISF), a 'mini space station' that would fly unmanned most of the time but be serviced regularly by the Space Shuttle. Status: Study 1982.
INETI - Portuguese agency. INETI, Portugal.
INF - The Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty banned intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe.
Inflatable Antenna Experiment - Alternate designation for IAE satellite.
Inflatable Antenna Experiment - Alternate designation for IAE Inflatable Antenna Experiment technology satellite.
Informator - Russian communications satellite. Oscar 21. Informator was the spacecraft component of the planned Koskon medium earth-orbit communications satellite system. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-01-29. Last Launch: 1991-01-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
Informk. - AO Informkosmos, Russia
InfraRed Astronomical Satellite - Alternate designation for IRAS infrared astronomy satellite.
Infrared astronomy satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Infrared Background Signature Survey - Alternate designation for IBSS infrared astronomy satellite.
Infrared Space Observatory - Alternate designation for ISO infrared astronomy satellite.
Ingul - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-01M.
Ingul - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-3.
Initial Defense Communications Satellite Program - Alternate designation for IDCSP military communications satellite.
Initial Defense Communictions Satellite Program - Alternate name for IDCSP.
Initial UR-500 - While Chelomei's OKB was still preparing the UR-200 draft project, it was proposed to use this as the basis for the UR-500 heavy universal rocket, with five times the payload capacity. These initial 1961 studies consisted of 4 two-stage UR-200 rockets lashed together, the first and second stages working in parallel in clusters. A third stage would be modified from the UR-200 second stage. However analysis indicated that the payload capacity could not meet the military's requirements. Status: Design 1962. Gross mass: 571,050 kg (1,258,940 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 7,994.70 kN (1,797,280 lbf).
Injun - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Radiation decay data satellite. May also have been a cover for some NRL ELINT satellites. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-06-29. Last Launch: 1968-08-08. Number: 5 .
Inmarsat - International Maritime Satellite Organization, an international agency developing and operating the earliest mobile communications satellite network. Initially for ships at sea, the system was later expanded to portable satellite phones.
INPE - Brazilian agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espacias, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil.
Insat - Insat (Indian National Satellite System) was a multipurpose satellite system for telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology and search and rescue services.
Insat - Communications satellite for the Indian Navy using the I-2K bus.
Insat 1 - Indian communications satellite. Experimental communications satellite. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-06-19. Last Launch: 1990-06-12. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb).
Insat 2 - Indian communications satellite. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-07-09. Last Launch: 1999-04-02. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,960 kg (4,320 lb).
Insat 3 - Indian communications satellite bus. The multipurpose satellite design provided telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological and search and rescue services. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-03-21. Last Launch: 2013-07-25. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 2,950 kg (6,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Thrust: 400 N (90 lbf). Propellants: MON/MMH.
INSATRAC - American military anti-satellite system. Study 1965. Follow-on to SAINT anti-satellite. No information available beyond the name. Status: Study 1965.
Inside Baikonur - James Oberg's account of a visit to the long-secret Baikonur cosmodrome.
Inspector - German logistics spacecraft. X-Mir Inspector. Robotic spacecraft designed for free flight and camera inspection of the exterior of the Space Shuttle or International Space Station. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-10-05. Last Launch: 1997-10-05. Number: 1 .
Institut Kosmicheksiye Issledovaniya - Alternate name for IKI.
Institut mediko-biologicheskikh problem - Alternate name for IMBP.
Institute 601 - Chinese manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Institute 601, China.
Institute 611 - Chinese manufacturer.
Instituto de Aeronautica e Espa\'{c}o - Alternate name for IAE.
Instituto de Aeronautica e Espacio - Alternate designation for IAE.
Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inova\,cao - Alternate name for INETI.
Instrument Unit - Alternate designation for S-IVB IU manned space station module.
INTA - The Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial was tasked in 1967 to develop Spain's first sounding rocket. INTA contracted with British Aerojet to provide the necessary technical expertise and designed a rocket built from existing British solid motors. This was followed by versions using Spanish-manufactured versions of British motors. The stop-and-go program extended over nearly 30 years. Status: Retired 1994. First Launch: 1984-01-01. Last Launch: 1991-01-01. Number: 12 .
INTA-100 - Spanish 2-stage sounding rocket of indigenous design. Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1984-01-01. Last Launch: 1991-01-01. Number: 12 .
INTA-255 - Spanish sounding rocket. Vehicle consisting of 4 x Chick + 1 x Goose. All motors ignited simultaneously at lift-off, the Chicks burning for 0.2 seconds, while the Goose continued for 17 seconds. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1969-07-19. Last Launch: 1970-12-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Thrust: 42.00 kN (9,441 lbf).
INTA-255-0 - Alternate name for Chick.
INTA-255-1 - Alternate name for Goose II.
INTA-300 - Spanish sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Heron + 1 x Snipe Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1974-10-09. Last Launch: 1981-02-18. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 503 kg (1,108 lb). Thrust: 138.00 kN (31,023 lbf).
INTA-300-1 - Alternate name for Gosling 4.
INTA-300B - Spanish sounding rocket. Later version for heavier payloads fired in 1993-1994. Status: Retired 1994. First Launch: 1993-10-21. Last Launch: 1994-04-16. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Intasat - Spanish communications technology satellite. Spanish communications satellite. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-11-15. Last Launch: 1974-11-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb).
Integral - European gamma ray astronomy satellite. INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) was a European (ESA) astrophysics satellite. The four-ton (with fuel) cylindrical (5 m height and 3. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-10-17. Last Launch: 2002-10-17. Number: 1 .
Integrated Apogee Boost Subsystem - Alternate designation for IABS rocket stage.
Integrated Cargo Carrier - Alternate designation for ATV ICC space tug.
Integrated Launch and Re-entry Vehicle - Alternate designation for FDL ILRV manned spaceplane.
Integrated Maneuvering Life Support System, 1968 - Alternate designation for IMLSS space suit.
Integrated Manned Interplanetary Spacecraft - Alternate designation for IMIS 1968 manned mars expedition.
Integrated Missile Early Warning Satellites - Manufacturer's designation for DSP military early warning satellite.
Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator - Manufacturer's designation of IPD LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
Integrated Rendezvous Target - Alternate designation for IRT technology satellite.
Integrated Test Range - Alternate name for Balasore.
INTEL - Int'l Telecommunications Satellite Organization, UN
Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, Washington DC, USA. Intelsat operated the world's first commercial communications satellite. It has provided scheduled transoceanic television and voice and data communications service ever since using satellites with the Intelsat and Galaxy designations.
Intelsat 1 - American communications satellite. Intelsat 1, also called Early Bird, was the world's first commercial communications satellite. It provided the first scheduled transoceanic TV service and was operational for 3.5 years. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-04-06. Last Launch: 1965-04-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 39 kg (85 lb).
Intelsat 2 - American communications satellite. The Intelsat 2 series expanded ITSO coverage to include 2/3 of the Earth's surface. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-10-26. Last Launch: 1967-09-28. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 192 kg (423 lb).
Intelsat 3 - American communications satellite. Intelsat 3 spacecraft were used to relay commercial global telecommunications including live TV. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-09-19. Last Launch: 1970-07-23. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 287 kg (633 lb).
Intelsat 4 - American communications satellite. The Intelsat 4 series continued the growth of the Intelsat communications network. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-01-26. Last Launch: 1975-05-22. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 1,410 kg (3,100 lb).
Intelsat 4A - American communications satellite. Intelsat 4A satellites increased satellite capacity to 7250 voice circuits or 2 TV channels. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-09-26. Last Launch: 1981-02-21. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 1,520 kg (3,350 lb).
Intelsat 5 - American communications satellite. The last five of the nine spacecraft in this block carry a maritime mobile payload (seven additional transponders) for lease by Inmarsat. Status: Operational 1980. First Launch: 1980-12-06. Last Launch: 1984-06-09. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Intelsat 5A - American communications satellite. The Intelsat 5A series was derived from the Intelsat 5. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-03-22. Last Launch: 1989-01-27. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 2,013 kg (4,437 lb).
Interbol - Alternate designation for Prognoz-M earth magnetosphere satellite.
Intercosmos - International cooperative satellites with a variety of missions, launched by Soviet boosters.
Intercosmos Group - 1976 - Requirement: pilots from friendly socialist countries to visit Salyut space stations for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange missions. Date: 1976.
Intercosmos Group - 1978 - Requirement: pilots from friendly socialist countries to visit Salyut space stations for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange missions. Date: 1978.
Intercosmos Group - 1979 - Requirement: pilots from friendly socialist countries to visit Salyut space stations for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange missions. Date: 1979.
Interfer - American agency. Interfer, USA.
Interim Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for Shuttle C stage.
Interim Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for IHLLV.
Interim HOTOL - Alternate designation for Interim HOTOL stage.
Interim HOTOL - Initiated by a British Aerospace team led by Dr Bob Parkinson in 1991, this was a less ambitious, scaled-back version of the original HOTOL. The single-stage to orbit winged launch vehicle using four Russian rocket engines. It was to have been air-launched from a Ukrainian An-225 Mriya (Dream) aircraft. Interim HOTOL would separate from the carrier aircraft at subsonic speeds, and would then pull up for the ascent to orbit. It would return via a gliding re-entry and landing on gear on a conventional runway. Interim HOTOL suffered from the same aerodynamic design challenges as HOTOL and went through many, many design iterations in the quest for a practical design. Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 250,000 kg (550,000 lb). Thrust: 7,800.00 kN (1,753,500 lbf).
Interim HOTOL stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 250,000 kg (550,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 33,100 kg (72,900 lb). Thrust: 7,840.00 kN (1,762,500 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Interkosmos - Alternate name for IK.
International - International
International Group - 1980 - Requirement: French pilot astronaut to visit Salyut space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange missions. Date: 1980.
International Group - 1982 - Requirement: pilots from India to visit Salyut space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission. Date: 1982.
International Group - 1985 - Requirement: pilots from Syria to visit Salyut space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission. Date: 1985.
International Group - 1986 - Requirement: French test pilot for missions aboard Hermes, Mir, and Buran. Date: 1986.
International Group - 1987 - Requirement: pilot from Bulgaria to visit Mir space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission. This was compensation mission due to failure to deliver Bulgarian cosmonaut on earlier mission to Salyut. Date: 1987.
International Group - 1988 - Requirement: pilots from Afghanistan to visit Salyut space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission. Date: 1988.
International Group - 1997 - Requirement: pilots from Slovakia to visit Mir space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission. Date: 1997.
International Sun-Earth Explorer - Alternate designation for ISEE earth magnetosphere satellite.
International Ultraviolet Explorer. - Alternate designation for IUE ultraviolet astronomy satellite.
Interorbital Systems - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Interorbital Systems, USA.
Interorbital Tug - Alternate designation for Interorbital Tug stage.
Interorbital Tug - Russian space tug. Cancelled 1991. Upper stage / space tug - nuclear electric space tug, to be launched by Energia-2. Developed 1978-1991, ultimately cancelled. Status: Cancelled 1991. Gross mass: 65,700 kg (144,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15,700 kg (34,600 lb). Thrust: 25 N (6 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
Interorbital Tug stage - Electric/Xenon propellant rocket stage. Beginning in 1978 the 11B97 nuclear electric engine was studied for use in a reusable interorbital space tug for launch by Energia-Buran. In 1982, according to the decree of 5 February 1981, NPO Energia developed for the Ministry of Defense the interorbital tug Gerkules with 550 kWt maximum output and continuous operation in the 50-150 kWt range for 3 to 5 years. In 1986 a civilian interorbital tug was studied to solve the specific application of transporting heavy satellites of 100 metric tons to geostationary orbit, launched by Energia. Status: Development 1986. Gross mass: 65,700 kg (144,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15,700 kg (34,600 lb). Thrust: 25 N (6 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
Interplanetary Monitoring Platform - Alternate designation for IMP earth magnetosphere satellite.
Intersp. - AO Intersputnik, Moscow, Russia
Intersputnik - Russian agency. Intersputnik, Russia.
Interstage Adapter Subsystem - Alternate designation for ISAS satellite.
Interstate - American manufacturer of rockets. Interstate, USA.
Interstate BQ-4-TDR.htm - Alternate designation for BQ-4-TDR.
Intruder - Intruder was a naval electronic intelligence satellite for the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-06-08. Last Launch: 2015-10-08. Number: 26 .
Invader - Cubesat from Tama Art University.
INVAP - Argentinian manufacturer of spacecraft. INVAP SA, Bariloche, Argentina.
Investigaciones Aplicads Sociedad del Estado (INVAP SE) - Alternate name for INVAP.
Ion - Electric/Mercury propellant rocket stage. 1981 conceptual design of ion upper stage sized for use in the shuttle. It was nuclear-electric and intended for trans-Jovian planetary missions. Status: Study. Gross mass: 15,627 kg (34,451 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,498 kg (12,121 lb). Thrust: 274 N (61 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Mercury.
Ion engine technology satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Ionosfernaya - Russian earth ionosphere satellite. Ionospheric studies. Used the basic KAUR-1 bus, consisting of a 2. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-12-27. Last Launch: 1970-12-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
ionosphere - Region of ionized gases surrounding the Earth and extending from about 60 km (33 naut. mi) to distances up to several hundred kilometers. The ionization in this region is due to bombardment by ultraviolet radiation and X-rays from the Sun, and by cosmic rays. The existence of this region makes possible long range radio communications through reflection of terrestrial radio transmission.
Ionosphere Explorer - Alternate designation for IE earth ionosphere satellite.
Ionosphere sat - Category of spacecraft.
Iosifyian - Armenian-Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1941-1974 of Nll-627/VNIIEM. Specialized in power sources and remote-sensing spacecraft. Born: 1905. Died: 1993-01-01.
IOTA - Abbreviation for Infrared-Optical Telescope Array
IP - Tracking station (Russian abbreviation)
IPD - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Development ended 2006. Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator, end goal was flight-rated, full-flow, hydrogen-fueled, staged combustion rocket engine in the 1.1-million-newton thrust class. Status: Development ended 2006. Date: 2001-. Thrust: 1,100.00 kN (247,200 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
IPDI - Isophorone diiosocyanate
IPEX - 1U Cubesat built by Cal Poly to test systems and algorithms for JPL.
IPS - Abbreviation for Inertial Pointing System
IPST - Israel Program for Scientific Information
Ipstar - Communications satellite series for PanAmSat.
IQ224 - Brigade 224, Iraqi Army
IQA - Iraqi Army
IQSY - American solar satellite. Explorer 30. Solar radiation data. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-11-19. Last Launch: 1965-11-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 57 kg (125 lb).
IR - Islamic State of Iran; Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
IR (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for InfraRed
IRAF - Abbreviation for Image Reduction and Analysis Facility
Iran - Iran, following a thirty year effort to acquire foreign technology however possible, launched its first satellite in 2009.
Iran Telecom - Iran Telecommunications Company.
Iran-130 - Iranian short range ballistic missile. Status: Active.
Iraq - Iraq
Iraq MIC - Iraq MIC
IraqGun350 - Alternate designation for Babylon Gun.
Iraqi Army - Iraqi Army
Iraqi Gun Projectile - Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1990-06-22. Last Launch: 1990-09-24. Number: 3 .
IRAS - American infrared astronomy satellite. All-sky survey of astronomical IR bodies. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-01-26. Last Launch: 1983-01-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,073 kg (2,365 lb).
IRBM - Intermediate range ballistic missile
IRBM Base - Category of launch sites.
IRCM Base - Category of launch sites.
IRDT - Russian manned rescue spacecraft. Inflatable re-entry and descent technology vehicle designed to return payloads from space to the earth or another planet. Tested three times, with only one partially successful recovery. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-02-08. Last Launch: 2000-02-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Payload: 250 kg (550 lb).
Ireland - Ireland
IRF - Swedish Inst. for Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden
IRFNA - Abbreviation or acronym for Inhibited Red Fuming Nitric Acid
Iridium - Iridium Inc, Washington DC, USA. Iridium developed a commercial communications network comprised of a constellation of 66 LEO spacecraft. The system used L-Band to provide global communications services through portable handsets.
Iridium - Medium earth orbit communications satellite constellation using the LM 700 bus.
Iris - Alternate designation for Iris engine.
IRIS - Alternate designation for IRIS Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph.
Iris - American sounding rocket. Sounding rocket developed by Navy, then handed over to NASA. Flown only four times, but then used in unique Hydra-Iris test series. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1960-07-22. Last Launch: 1962-05-03. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 602 kg (1,327 lb). Payload: 45 kg (99 lb). Thrust: 17.00 kN (3,821 lbf).
IRIS - Used ESRO satellite bus.
Iris engine - BPD solid rocket engine. Out of production. Used on CZ-1M launch vehicle. CZ-1M third stage. Status: Out of production. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,830 kg (4,030 lb). Unfuelled mass: 256 kg (564 lb). Thrust: 29.40 kN (6,609 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
IRIS Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph - NASA Small Explorer program; the IRIS Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph was designed to obtain high resolution (0.3 arcseconds) high cadence (1 second intervals) imaging and spectra of the sun with its 20-cm telescope, in two far-UV bands (1332-1358A, 1380-1406A) and one near-UV band (2785-2835A). Air dropped in Point Mugu Drop Zone. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-06-28. Last Launch: 2013-06-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
Iris-0 - Alternate name for MARC 14B1.
Irkutsk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1982-present. Division moved from Lithuania. Base for units deployed with 36 RT-2PM launchers.
IRLS - Interrogation, recording, and location system
IRNSS - Indian operational navigation satellite series, part of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System. Provided L-band and S-band navigation signals.
IRR - Alternate designation for AMROC IRR rocket stage.
IRS - Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. Remote sensing of the Earth for natural resources management applications. Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-03-17. Last Launch: 2012-04-26. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb).
IRS-1 - India's first space astronomy observatory. The satellite carried near and far ultraviolet telescopes, a large X-ray proportional counter array, a soft-X-ray imaging telescope, a hard X-ray coded mask telescope, and a monitor to detect flaring X-ray sources. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-09-28. Last Launch: 2015-09-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,530 kg (3,370 lb).
IRSA - Iranian Space Agency
IRT - American technology satellite. Deployed from STS 41B 2/5/84. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-02-03. Last Launch: 1984-02-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 91 kg (200 lb).
Irwin - American test pilot astronaut 1966-1972. Eighth person to walk on the moon. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1972. Born: 1930-03-17. Died: 1991-08-08. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.30 days.
IS - Alternate designation for IS (Russian abbreviation).
IS - Alternate designation for IS-A military anti-satellite system.
IS (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for communications satellites in the Intelsat constellation.
IS (Russian abbreviation) - Antisatellite satellite (ASAT) (Russian abbreviation)
ISA - Alternate designation for ISA Interstage Adapter.
ISA - Israeli agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Israeli Space Agency, Israel.
IS-A - Russian military anti-satellite system. First operational ASAT. Tested in 1967-1971 and deployed through the late 1970's. Design as revised by Yangel and Korolev from Chelomei's original. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-10-27. Last Launch: 1982-06-18. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
ISA Interstage Adapter - ISA (Interstage Adapter) satellite launched with Clementine placed in a highly eccentric Earth orbit. It carried a set of space environment experiments. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-01-25. Last Launch: 1994-01-25. Number: 1 .
ISAC - Japanese agency. Telecom Information Sharing and Analysis Centre.
Isakov - Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1983. Born: 1940-04-04.
ISAS - Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan. Agency overseeing development of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines.
ISAS satellite - Interstage Adapter Subsystem, consisting of the STAR-37M solid rocket motor, the Interstage Adapter for Clementine, and radiation detectors. It transmitted radiation data on the Van Allen Radiation belts for three months. American military technology satellite. One launch, 1994.01.25. Status: Operational 1994.
Isaulov - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1970-1982. Status: Inactive; Active 1970-1982. Born: 1943-08-13.
Isayev - Alternate designation for Isayev bureau.
Isayev - Soviet Chief Designer at OKB-2, 1947-1971. Developed storable rocket engines for missiles, supplying innovative engines for Scuds, SLBM's. Leading designer of restartable space engines for satellites, manned spacecraft, and space stations. Born: 1908-10-24. Died: 1971-06-10.
Isayev 218 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 166.00 kN (37,318 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Isayev bureau - Russian manufacturer of rocket engines.
Isayev DOS-3/4 - Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. DOS-3/4. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1972-74. Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Isayev P-15 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. P-15 Termit. Out of Production. Designation unknown. Thrust range 11.895-5.43 kN. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1955-60. Thrust: 11.90 kN (2,675 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Isayev Polet engine series -
Isayev Polet/IS - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Polyot/IS. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1960-63. Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Isayev R-17 - Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. R-17. Out of production. Designation unknown. First flight 1961. Status: Out of production. Date: 1958-64. Number: 15 . Unfuelled mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 131.20 kN (29,495 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
Isayev TKS attitude - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. TKS, Almaz. In Production. Status: In Production. Date: 1972-77. Thrust: 390 N (80 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Isayev V-750V - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. SAM-missile V-750V. Out of Production. Designation unknown. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1954-57. Unfuelled mass: 43 kg (94 lb). Thrust: 30.40 kN (6,834 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
ISBN - International Standard Book Number, an internationally-agreed system of numbering publications.
I-Scud - Russian short-range ballistic missile. Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
ISEE - American earth magnetosphere satellite. These Explorer-class heliocentric spacecraft were part of the mother/daughter/heliocentric mission (ISEE 1, 2, and 3). Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-10-22. Last Launch: 1978-08-12. Number: 3 .
ISFC - Strategic Forces Command, Nuclear Command Authority
Ishlinskiy - Russian scientist. Director of Institute of Mechanics 1964-1989. Prepared space communiqués. Born: 1913-08-06.
Isinglass - CIA air-launched, single-crew, rocket-powered high speed manned vehicle project of 1965-1968 that developed basic technologies used in later shuttle and reusable launch vehicle programs. Status: Cancelled 1968.
Isis - Canadian earth magnetosphere satellite. Ionospheric measurements; data correlated with measurements from Alouette 1. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-01-30. Last Launch: 1971-04-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 253 kg (557 lb).
Iskander - New Russian tactical ballistic missile, conceived as a follow-on to the Scud. First fired on 25 October 1995. Status: Active. First Launch: 1991-01-01. Last Launch: 1997-01-01. Number: 7 .
Iskander-M - Status: Active. First Launch: 1996-01-01. Last Launch: 2013-10-30. Number: 3 .
Iskra - Russian amateur radio communications satellite. Launched from Salyut 7 airlock. Conduct of experiments in the field of amateur radio communications. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-07-10. Last Launch: 1982-11-18. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 28 kg (61 lb).
Iskra bureau - Design bureau wthin the Moscow Aviation Institute, Russia.
ISM - Abbreviation for InterStellar Medium
IS-MU - Russian military anti-satellite system. Reportedly deployed in 1990. Improved modernized ASAT/ABM. Reportedly deployed in 1980's without flight test, replacing IS-A. Accepted into military service in 1991. Status: Operational 1990. Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
ISO - Alternate designation for ISO (abbreviation).
ISO - European infrared astronomy satellite. Infrared astrophysics. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-11-17. Last Launch: 1995-11-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
ISO (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for International Standards Organization
Isopropylnitrate - Isopropylnitrate was tested as a monopropellant for missiles in the 1940's in the US (Lark) and 1950's in Russia (SAM's). However instability due to compression deflagration resulted to it being abandoned in both cases.
isotope - Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons in their nuclei, and hence represent the same element, but they differ in the number of neutrons and therefore in mass number.
IS-P - Russian military anti-satellite system target satellite. ASAT Target, launched by R-36. Evidently a derivative of the first IS-A ASAT itself. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-04-24. Last Launch: 1970-10-20. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
ISPM - International Solar Polar Mission (now Ulysses)
Israel - Israel
Israel Defense Forces (IAF Israeli Air Force) - Alternate name for IDF.
Israeli Aircraft Industries, Mabat factory - Alternate name for IAI.
ISRC - Abbreviation for Commissione Ricerche Spaziali
ISRO - Indian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Indian Space Research Organization, India.
ISRO Satellite Center - Alternate name for ISAC.
ISS - International Space Station. Development from 1994. Assembled in orbit over 13 years, 1998-2011. Status: Operational 1998.
ISS 7A.1 - Alternate designation for STS-105 manned spaceflight.
ISS Astrolab - Alternate name for STS-121 Astrolab.
ISS Cervantes - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-3 Cervantes.
ISS Columbus Orbiting Facility - European manned space station. Launched 2008.02.07. In October 1993, ESA decided to further slash its overall budget by a combined $4.8 billion in 1994-2000. The Columbus space station module survived, but in a reduced form. Status: Operational 2008.
ISS Commercial Enterprise Module - American manned space station module. Study 1999. The Russian economic crisis provided some intriguing opportunities for private industry. Status: Study 1999.
ISS Delta - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-4 Delta.
ISS deployed - Satellites deployed from the ISS are given a COSPAR number linked to the original ISS Alpha module launch, regardless of the cargo ship that delivered the satellite to the ISS.
ISS Destiny - American manned space station module. Launched 2001. American ISS module, a cylindrical structure that functioned as a science and technology module and the primary control module for the ISS. Status: Operational 2001. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
ISS EMU - American space suit, operational 1993. Upgraded version of the Shuttle EMU with improved sizing and mobility, 25 EVA certification, Hamilton Standard and ILC Dover. Status: operational 1993.
ISS Eneide - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-6 Eneide manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-1 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-31 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-10 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-5 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-11 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-6 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-12 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-7 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-13 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-8 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-14 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-9 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-14-1 - Alternate name for STS-116 ISS EO-14.
ISS EO-15 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-10 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-15-1 - Alternate name for STS-117 ISS EO-15.
ISS EO-16 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-11 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-16-1 - Alternate name for STS-120 ISS EO-16.
ISS EO-16-2 - Alternate name for STS-122 ISS EO-16.
ISS EO-16-3 - Alternate name for STS-123 ISS EO-16.
ISS EO-17 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-12 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-17-1 - Alternate name for STS-124 ISS EO-17.
ISS EO-18 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-13 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-18-1 - Alternate name for STS-126 ISS EO-18.
ISS EO-18-2 - Alternate name for STS-119 ISS EO-18.
ISS EO-19 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-14 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-2 - Alternate name for STS-102 ISS EO-2.
ISS EO-20 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-15 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-20-1 - Alternate name for STS-127 ISS EO-20.
ISS EO-20-2 - Alternate name for STS-128 ISS EO-20.
ISS EO-21 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-16 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-22 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-17 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-23 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-18 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-24 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-19 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-25 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-01M.
ISS EO-26 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-20.
ISS EO-27 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-21.
ISS EO-28 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-02M.
ISS EO-29 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-22.
ISS EO-3 - Alternate name for STS-105 ISS EO-3.
ISS EO-30 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-03M.
ISS EO-31 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-04M.
ISS EO-32 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-05M.
ISS EO-33 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-06M.
ISS EO-34 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-07M.
ISS EO-35 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-08M.
ISS EO-36 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-09M.
ISS EO-37 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-10M.
ISS EO-38 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-11M.
ISS EO-39 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-12M.
ISS EO-4 - Alternate name for STS-108 ISS EO-4.
ISS EO-40 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-13M.
ISS EO-5 - Alternate name for STS-111 ISS EO-5.
ISS EO-6 - Alternate name for STS-113 ISS EO-6.
ISS EO-7 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-2 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-8 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-3 manned spaceflight.
ISS EO-9 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-4 manned spaceflight.
ISS EP-1 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-32 ISS EP-1.
ISS EP-10 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-8 ISS EP-10.
ISS EP-11 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-9 ISS EP-11.
ISS EP-12 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-10 ISS EP-12.
ISS EP-13 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-11 ISS EP-13.
ISS EP-14 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-12 ISS EP-14.
ISS EP-15 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-13 ISS EP-15.
ISS EP-16 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-14 ISS EP-16.
ISS EP-2 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-33 ISS EP-2.
ISS EP-3 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-34 ISS EP-3.
ISS EP-4 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-1 ISS EP-4.
ISS EP-5 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-3 Cervantes manned spaceflight.
ISS EP-6 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-4 Delta manned spaceflight.
ISS EP-7 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-5 ISS EP-7.
ISS EP-8 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-6 Eneide.
ISS EP-9 - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-7 ISS EP-9.
ISS Japanese Experiment Module - Japanese manned space station module. Launched to ISS in three sections, 2008-2009. The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) has been a rare island of stability in the often tumultuous Space Station program. Status: Operational 2008.
ISS Leonardo - American manned space station module. need summary - see links Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-08-29. Last Launch: 2009-08-29. Number: 1 .
ISS Mini PLM - American manned space station module. Study 1992. Status: Study 1992.
ISS MPLM - American manned space station reusable supply module. Launched and returned to earth, 2001-2011. When the International Space Station (ISS) was redesigned again in 1993, it was decided to expand the original Mini-Pressurized Logistics Module design. Status: Operational 2001.
ISS Pirs - Russian manned space station module. One launch, 2001.09.14. Russian docking and airlock module for the International Space Station. The Stikovochniy Otsek No. 1 (SO1, Docking Module 1), article 240GK No. Status: Operational 2001. Gross mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb).
ISS Quest Joint Airlock - American manned space station module. One launch, 2001.07.12. The Quest Joint Airlock was delivered to the ISS by STS-104 and installed onto the Unity module. Status: Operational 2001. Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
ISS Russian Science and Power Platform - Russian manned space station module. Cancelled 1994. The RSPP was originally going to be launched on six Russian Proton rockets fairly early during the ISS assembly phase. Status: Cancelled 1994.
ISS Space Station Remote Manipulator System - Canadian manned space station module. One launch, 2001.02.07. When the Space Station plan was changed in 1987, its satellite servicing element was postponed indefinitely. Status: Operational 2001.
ISS Space Telescope - American visible astronomy satellite. Study 1988. The Space Station's free-flying unmanned platforms were all deleted in 1987-90 to compensate for the budget cuts. However, some of them may yet be reintroduced in the 21st century. Status: Study 1988.
ISS UF-1 - Alternate designation for STS-108 manned spaceflight.
ISS UF-2 - Alternate designation for STS-111 manned spaceflight.
ISS Unity - American manned space station. Unity. Unity was the first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-12-04. Last Launch: 1998-12-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 11,600 kg (25,500 lb).
ISS Zarya - Russian manned space station. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-11-20. Last Launch: 1998-11-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb).
ISS Zvezda - Russian manned space station. Zvezda. The Zvezda service module of the International Space Station had its origins a quarter century before it was launched. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-07-12. Last Launch: 2000-07-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
ISS-10A - Alternate designation for STS-120 manned spaceflight.
ISS-10S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-6.
ISS-10S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-11 manned spaceflight.
ISS-11A - Alternate designation for STS-113 manned spaceflight.
ISS-12A - Alternate designation for STS-115 manned spaceflight.
ISS-12A.1 - Alternate designation for STS-116 manned spaceflight.
ISS-13A - Alternate designation for STS-117 manned spaceflight.
ISS-13A.1 - Alternate designation for STS-118 manned spaceflight.
ISS-14A - Alternate designation for STS-131A manned spaceflight.
ISS-14S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-10.
ISS-14S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-15 manned spaceflight.
ISS-15A - Alternate designation for STS-119 manned spaceflight.
ISS-15S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-11.
ISS-15S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-16 manned spaceflight.
ISS-16A - Alternate designation for STS-134A manned spaceflight.
ISS-16S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-12.
ISS-16S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-17 manned spaceflight.
ISS-17A - Alternate designation for STS-128 manned spaceflight.
ISS-17S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-13.
ISS-17S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-18 manned spaceflight.
ISS-18A - Alternate designation for STS-136A manned spaceflight.
ISS-18S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-14.
ISS-18S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-19 manned spaceflight.
ISS-19A - Alternate designation for STS-130 manned spaceflight.
ISS-19S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-15.
ISS-19S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-20 manned spaceflight.
ISS-1E - Alternate designation for STS-122 manned spaceflight.
ISS-1J - Alternate designation for STS-124 manned spaceflight.
ISS-1J/A - Alternate designation for STS-123 manned spaceflight.
ISS-20A - Alternate designation for STS-132 manned spaceflight.
ISS-20S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-16.
ISS-20S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-21 manned spaceflight.
ISS-21S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-17.
ISS-21S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-22 manned spaceflight.
ISS-22S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-18.
ISS-22S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-23 manned spaceflight.
ISS-23S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-19.
ISS-23S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-24 manned spaceflight.
ISS-24S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-01M manned spaceflight.
ISS-2A - Alternate designation for STS-88 manned spaceflight.
ISS-2A.1 - Alternate designation for STS-96 manned spaceflight.
ISS-2A.2a - Alternate designation for STS-101 manned spaceflight.
ISS-2A.2b - Alternate designation for STS-106 manned spaceflight.
ISS-2J/A - Alternate designation for STS-127 manned spaceflight.
ISS-2R - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-31.
ISS-2R - Alternate designation for ISS EO-1 manned spaceflight.
ISS-2S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-32 ISS EP-1 manned spaceflight.
ISS-3A - Alternate designation for STS-92 manned spaceflight.
ISS-3S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-33 ISS EP-2 manned spaceflight.
ISS-4A - Alternate designation for STS-97 manned spaceflight.
ISS-4S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-34 ISS EP-3 manned spaceflight.
ISS-5 - Alternate designation for STS-111 manned spaceflight.
ISS-5A - Alternate designation for STS-98 manned spaceflight.
ISS-5A.1 - Alternate designation for STS-102 manned spaceflight.
ISS-5S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-1 ISS EP-4 manned spaceflight.
ISS-6A - Alternate designation for STS-100 manned spaceflight.
ISS-6S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-2.
ISS-6S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-7 manned spaceflight.
ISS-6SA - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-2A manned spaceflight.
ISS-7A - Alternate designation for STS-104 manned spaceflight.
ISS-7S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-3.
ISS-7S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-8 manned spaceflight.
ISS-7SA - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-3A manned spaceflight.
ISS-8A - Alternate designation for STS-110 manned spaceflight.
ISS-8S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-4.
ISS-8S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-9 manned spaceflight.
ISS-8SA - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-4A manned spaceflight.
ISS-9A - Alternate designation for STS-112 manned spaceflight.
ISS-9A.1 - Alternate designation for STS-121A manned spaceflight.
ISS-9S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-5 ISS EP-7.
ISS-9S - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-5.
ISS-9S - Alternate designation for ISS EO-10 manned spaceflight.
ISS-UF3 - Alternate designation for STS-126A manned spaceflight.
ISS-UF4 - Alternate designation for STS-123A manned spaceflight.
ISS-UF5 - Alternate designation for STS-130A manned spaceflight.
ISS-UF6 - Alternate designation for STS-132A manned spaceflight.
ISS-UF7 - Alternate designation for STS-138A manned spaceflight.
ISS-ULF1 - Alternate designation for STS-114 manned spaceflight.
ISS-ULF1.1 - Alternate designation for STS-121 manned spaceflight.
ISS-ULF2 - Alternate designation for STS-126 manned spaceflight.
ISS-ULF3 - Alternate designation for STS-129 manned spaceflight.
ISS-ULF4 - Alternate designation for STS-131 manned spaceflight.
ISS-ULF5 - Alternate designation for STS-133 manned spaceflight.
ISS-ULF6 - Alternate name for STS-134.
IS-T - Alternate designation for IS-P military anti-satellite system target satellite.
Istochnikov - Russian phantom cosmonaut, reported lost aboard Soyuz 2, an unmanned spacecraft that was the docking target for Soyuz 3. Actually an elaborate 1998 modern art exercise by Joan Fontcuberta. Casual Internet surfers took it to be a real person. Died: 1968-10-25.
ISY - Abbreviation for International Space Year
ISZ - Alternate designation for Sputnik 3 earth magnetosphere satellite.
ISZ - Artificial earth satellite (Russian abbreviation)
Italian AF - Italian AF.
Italian Army - Italian Army.
Italian Space Agency Group - 1990 - Requirement: Italian astronauts for missions aboard Hermes, Mir, and Shuttle. Date: 1990.
Italsat - Italian communications satellite.talian communications satellite. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-01-15. Last Launch: 2009-04-20. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 1,865 kg (4,111 lb).
Italy - Italy
ITAMsat - ITAMsat was built by AMSAT-ITALY. Its mission was to store and forward Oscar amateur radio messages.
Itatka - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1978. Operated R-16 launchers.
ITF - Cubesat from Tsukuba University.
Ithacus - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. An adaptation of Phillip Bono's enormous ROMBUS plug-nozzle semi-single-stage-orbit launch vehicle as a 1,200 soldier intercontinental troop transport!! Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 6,363,000 kg (14,028,000 lb). Payload: 450,000 kg (990,000 lb). Thrust: 80,230.00 kN (18,036,420 lbf).
Ithacus Senior - Alternate designation for Ithacus.
ITOS - American earth weather satellite. ITOS was the follow-on to the TIROS series of polar-orbiting US weather satellites, and marked the beginning of the use of the NOAA designator. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-01-23. Last Launch: 1976-07-29. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 330 kg (720 lb).
ITSO - Abbreviation for Intelsat, International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, Washington DC, USA,
ITU-p-SAT - Cubesat from Istanbul Teknik Universitesi.
ITV - American military anti-satellite system target satellite. Instrumented Target Vehicle - a satellite balloon target for tests of the American F-15 launched ASAT anti-satellite missile. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-12-13. Last Launch: 1985-12-13. Number: 4 .
IU - Abbreviation for Instrument Unit
IUE - American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-01-26. Last Launch: 1978-01-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 672 kg (1,481 lb).
IUS - Inertial Upper Stage; earlier Interim Upper Stage for Space Shuttle (called orbit-to-orbit stage, or OOS, by Air Force. Originally conceived as an interim replacement for the never-realized Space Tug) .
IUS-1 - Alternate name for SRM-1.
IUS-2 - Alternate name for SRM-2.
IVA - Intra-vehicular activity. Work conducted in a spacesuit, at zero-G and in a depressurized cabin, but without exiting the spacecraft.
Ivanchenkov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1973-1993. Graduated MAI, 1964 Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Trained for a Buran flight. From 1993 served as deputy director of 29th Department, RKK Energia. Status: Inactive; Active 1973-1993. Born: 1940-09-28. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 147.53 days.
Ivanishin - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2003-on. Ivanishin was a Captain in the Russian Air Force at Petrozavodsk when selected. A senior fighter pilot with the VVS, he had flown MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters. Russian Air Force Status: Active 2003-on. Born: 1969-01-15.
Ivanov - Russian sounding rocket project. P I Ivanov at RNII (Reaction Scientific Research Institute) developed a four-stage solid rocket capable of reaching 40 km altitude in 1944-1946. Two launches were made, but the project was considered generally unsuccessful and not followed up. Status: Retired 1946. First Launch: 1946-03-19. Last Launch: 1946-06-01. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 90 kg (198 lb).
Ivanov, Georgi - Bulgarian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1979. First Bulgarian astronaut. Changed his name when he was selected for cosmonaut training because Kakalov had a scatological meaning in Russian. Later member of the Bulgarian Parliament. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1979. Born: 1940-07-02. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 1.96 days.
Ivanov, I - Russian physician cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Medical doctor. Selected as a cosmonaut, but on 26 May 1964 the selection was rejected by the government commission. Status: Inactive.
Ivanov, Ivan - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of Yangel design bureau. Led work on the engine for the LK manned lunar lander. Born: 1918.
Ivanov, Leonid - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1976-1980. Graduated from Higher Air Force School, Kachinsk, 1971 Major and pilot, Soviet Air Force. Cosmonaut training 23 August 1976 - 30 January 1979. Died in the crash of a MiG-27 aircraft during a test flight. Status: Deceased; Active 1976-1980. Born: 1950-06-25. Died: 1980-10-24.
Ivanov, Vladimir - Russian officer. Colonel-General, Commander of the Russian Space Forces (VKS) 1992-1997. Served in rocket forces in a series of ascending positions, beginning at Plesetsk in 1958. Born: 1936.
Ivanov-0 - Rocket stage used on RNII Sounding Rocket. Status: Retired 1946. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Ivanov-2 - Rocket stage used on RNII Sounding Rocket. Status: Retired 1946. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Ivanova - Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1983-1994. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1994. Born: 1949-10-03.
Ivanovich - Russian phantom cosmonaut. Two Vostok test flights used a mannequin, dubbed 'Ivan Ivanovich'. To prevent confusion by peasants who might think he was a dead cosmonaut or alien, a sign reading 'MAKET' (dummy) was placed under his visor.
Ivanovskiy - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1971-1983 of Lavochkin design bureau. Began career at Korolev's bureau, working on Sputnik and Vostok. Born: 1922-01-18.
IVAR - Insertion velocity adjust routine (spacecraft maneuver)
Ivashutin - Russian bureaucrat. First Deputy Chairman of KGB 1959-1963. GRU Chief 1963-1988. As GRU chief he was instrumental in establishing the requirements and directing development and operation of Russian optical surveillance and signal intelligence satellites. Born: 1909-09-05. Died: 2002-01-01.
Ivensen - Russian engineer. Participated in the early development of Proton and Salyut. Chelomei design bureau engineer. Born: 1908-06-02. Died: 1999-10-22.
Ivins - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1984-2010. NASA flight engineer. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-2010. Born: 1951-04-15. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 55.91 days.
Ivoninskiy - Russian officer. Major-General, Head of the Trials Directorate at Plesetsk, 1981-1985. Served in Kapustin Yar 1955-1963, then transferred to Plesetsk. Born: 1932.
IXV - ESA's Intermediate Experimental Vehicle was a reentry vehicle designed to study hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-02-11. Last Launch: 2015-02-11. Number: 1 .
Izmiran - Russian agency. Izmiran, Russia.
Izotov - Alternate designation for Izotov bureau.
Izotov - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1960-1983 of OKB- 117. Although predominately an aircraft turbine engine designer, he also developed the engines for Chelomei's UR-100 missile and LK-700 manned lunar lander. Born: 1917-06-30. Died: 1983-05-06.
Izotov bureau - Russian manufacturer of jet and rocket engines.
Izotov LK-700 - Izotov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. LK-700. Developed 1966-69. Status: Developed 1966-69. Date: 1966-69. Thrust: 131.00 kN (29,449 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Izotov UR-100 stage 2 vernier - Izotov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-100 stage II vernier. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1963-67. Thrust: 58.00 kN (13,038 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.

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