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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: M

m - meter (SI abbreviation)
M (Mu) Family - Family of Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicles,
M=1, =2, etc. - Revolution in which rendezvous is to take place
M1 - Ames' original design for a blunt lifting body. Technical details are for single-crew version proposed in 1958 as a lower-cost alternate to Dynasoar. Status: Design 1958. Gross mass: 3,299 kg (7,273 lb). Payload: 454 kg (1,000 lb).
M1 - Alternate name of Nike Ajax.
M1 - Manufacturer's designation for Mars M1 mars orbiter.
M-1 - Alternate name of Volna V-601.
M-1 - Alternate name of Volna V-601M.
M-1 - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1961. Engine developed 1962-1966 for Uprated Saturn and Nova million-pound payload boosters to support manned Mars missions. Reached component test stage before cancellation. Status: Study 1961. Unfuelled mass: 9,068 kg (19,991 lb). Thrust: 5,335.90 kN (1,199,558 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
M-1 - Alternate designation for S-25.
M-10 - Nissan solid rocket engine. Mu-4S first stage. Status: Retired 1979. Gross mass: 26,600 kg (58,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,907 kg (13,022 lb). Thrust: 737.00 kN (165,684 lbf). More at: Solid
M-100 - Two-stage, solid propellant, fin stabilized, unguided Russian sounding rocket, fired in greater numbers than any other. At least 6,640 of all models were fired to the edge of space before the vehicle was discontinued in 1990. 4,908 of the basic M-100 model were fired from 1957-07-11 to 1983-09-28. Status: Retired 1993. First Launch: 1957-07-11. Last Launch: 1986-12-01. Number: 5888 . Gross mass: 475 kg (1,047 lb). Payload: 15 kg (33 lb).
M-100 (A-1) - Russian two-stage sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1958-09-22. Last Launch: 1958-12-27. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
M-100-100 - Russian solid rocket engine. M-100 second stage. Status: Retired 1993. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 55 kg (121 lb). More at: Solid
M-100-2 - Alternate name for M-100-100.
M-100-300 - Russian solid rocket engine. M-100B first stage. Status: Retired 1993. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 110 kg (240 lb). More at: Solid
M-100A - Russian sounding rocket. Special modification, only fired twice on 1976-11-10 and 1976-12-22. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1976-11-10. Last Launch: 1976-12-22. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
M-100B - Russian sounding rocket. Model calibrated with Western sounding rockets and part of the World Meteorological Network. 1,730 launched from 1976-01-07 to 1990-12-. Status: Retired 2008. First Launch: 1976-01-07. Last Launch: 2008-09-11. Number: 1820 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
M-100B-1 - Alternate name for M-100-300.
M-11 - Alternate name of Shkval 4K60.
M-11 - Alternate name of Shkval 4K65.
M-11 - Alternate name of Shkval.
M-11 - Alternate designation for DF-11.
M112 - Alternate name for Improved Orion engine.
M-112 - American missile.
M12 - Alternate name of M21.
M13 - Alternate name of Shillelagh MGM-51.
M-13 - Alternate designation for Mu-3S-1 rocket stage.
M-13 - Nissan solid rocket engine. Used on Mu-3S launch vehicle. First flight 1969. Status: Retired 1995. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 34,800 kg (76,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,640 kg (16,840 lb). Thrust: 1,262.40 kN (283,799 lbf). More at: Solid
M-13TVC - Alternate name for M-13.
M14 - Alternate name of Pershing.
M14 - Alternate name of Pershing MGM-31A.
M14 - Nissan solid rocket engine. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997. M-V first stage. Status: Active. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 83,560 kg (184,210 lb). Unfuelled mass: 12,070 kg (26,600 lb). Thrust: 3,780.30 kN (849,845 lbf). More at: Solid
M14 - Alternate designation for Pershing 1.
M15 - Alternate name of Sergeant.
M16 - Alternate name of M21.
M16 - Alternate name of Hawk.
M17 - Alternate name of M21.
M18 - Alternate name of Hawk.
M19 - Alternate name of Pershing.
M19 - Alternate designation for Pershing 1A.
M2 - American 1950's US Army target rocket.
M2 - Alternate name of Corporal.
M-2 - Alternate designation for MG-18.
M-2 - Alternate designation for V-753.
M-2 - Alternate designation for Scout X-3M-4 rocket stage.
M20 - Alternate name of M21.
M-20 - Nissan solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 9,900 kg (21,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,779 kg (6,126 lb). Thrust: 285.00 kN (64,070 lbf). More at: Solid
M-20 - Alternate designation for Sergeant.
M21 - American 1950's US Army 4.5" barrage rocket.
M21 - Alternate name of Firebee BGM-34.
M-22 - Alternate name of Uragan 9K37M1.
M-22 - Alternate name of Uragan.
M-22 - Alternate name of Uragan 3M90.
M-22 - Nissan solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1984. Gross mass: 9,800 kg (21,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,607 kg (5,747 lb). Thrust: 285.00 kN (64,070 lbf). More at: Solid
M22E8 - Alternate name for Orion engine.
M23 - Alternate name of MQM-33.
M-23 - Alternate designation for Mu-3S-2 and [Mu-3S-2] rocket stages.
M-23-J - Nissan solid rocket engine. In development. Used on J-1 launch vehicle. First flight 1996. Solid propellant rocket stage. Version for J-1 F2 has 300 kg heavier empty mass. J-1 second stage. Status: In development. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 12,800 kg (28,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Thrust: 524.80 kN (117,980 lbf). More at: Solid
M-23-Mu - Nissan solid rocket engine. Used on Mu-3S launch vehicle. First flight 1969. Mu-3S second stage. Status: Retired 1995. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 13,100 kg (28,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Thrust: 524.00 kN (117,799 lbf). More at: Solid
M24 - Nissan solid rocket engine. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997. M-V second stage. Status: Active. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 34,470 kg (75,990 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,410 kg (7,510 lb). Thrust: 1,245.30 kN (279,955 lbf). More at: Solid
M-24 - Alternate designation for M24.
M-24 - Alternate designation for M-V-2 rocket stage.
M25 - Alternate name of M27.
M26 - Alternate designation for MLRS.
M27 - American 1950's US Army 7.2" chemical rocket.
M28 - Alternate name of Super Bazooka M28.
M-28 - Alternate designation for Davy Crockett M-28.
M29 - Alternate name of Super Bazooka M28.
M-29 - Alternate designation for Davy Crockett XM-29.
M2A - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L); Alcatel Espace (payload) for Pasifik Satelit Nasantara (PSN). Used the SSL-1300S bus. Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
M2b - Version of M2 lifting body proposed in 1958 as an alternate to the Dynasoar winged glider configuration. Status: Design 1958. Gross mass: 4,259 kg (9,389 lb).
M2-F2 - American manned spaceplane. Study 1966. The least stable of the lifting body designs. The 'flying bathtub' had a rounded belly / flat top layout as opposed to the flat belly / rounded top of the other designs. Status: Study 1966. More at: Lox/Alcohol
M2-F3 - American manned spaceplane. 43 launches, 1966.07.12 to 1971.12.21 . The crashed M2-F2 was rebuilt as the M2-F3 with enlarged vertical stabilizers. Maximum speed achieved was Mach 1.6, top altitude 21,800 m. Status: Operational 1966. Gross mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 26.40 kN (5,935 lbf). More at: Lox/Alcohol
M3 - Alternate name of Hawk.
M-3 - Alternate name of V-800.
M-3 - Nissan solid rocket engine family.
M-3 satellite - Technology satellite for Missouri University of Science and Technology, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
M30 - Alternate designation for MGR-1A.
M30 - Alternate name of Super Bazooka M28.
M-30 - Nissan solid rocket engine. Mu-3D third stage. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 773 kg (1,704 lb). Thrust: 128.00 kN (28,775 lbf). More at: Solid
M31 - Alternate designation for MGR-1A.
M31 - Alternate name of Honest John.
M31, M13, M57, etc - Refers to number in catalog of nebula compiled by the astronomer Messier
M31/M50 - Alternate name of Honest John.
M33-20-4 - Alternate name for Castor 1.
M34 - Nissan solid rocket engine. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997. M-V third stage. Status: Active. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 11,000 kg (24,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 294.20 kN (66,139 lbf). More at: Solid
M-34 - Alternate designation for M34.
M-34 - Alternate designation for M-V-3 rocket stage.
M-3A - Nissan solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1984. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Thrust: 61.00 kN (13,713 lbf). More at: Solid
M-3B-J - Nissan solid rocket engine. In development. Used on J-1 launch vehicle. First flight 1996. Status: In development. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 132.10 kN (29,697 lbf). More at: Solid
M-3B-Mu - Nissan solid rocket engine. Used on Mu-3S launch vehicle. First flight 1969. Status: In development. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 3,590 kg (7,910 lb). Unfuelled mass: 490 kg (1,080 lb). Thrust: 132.10 kN (29,697 lbf). More at: Solid
M3MSat (exactView 7, EV 7) - Experimental communication satellite built by COM DEV for CSA, Canada. Launched 2016. Used AIM bus. First Launch: 2016-06-22. Last Launch: 2016-06-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 95 kg (209 lb).
M3MSat-Dummy - Mass model satellite, Russia. Launched 2014. First Launch: 2014-07-08. Last Launch: 2014-07-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 95 kg (209 lb).
M4 - Alternate name of Lacrosse.
M-40 - Alternate designation for Buran M-40.
M-40 - Nissan solid rocket engine. Mu-4S fourth stage. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Unfuelled mass: 73 kg (160 lb). Thrust: 26.50 kN (5,957 lbf). More at: Solid
M42 - Alternate designation for XM-42.
M-42 - Alternate name for Buran M-42.
M-44 - Alternate name for Buran M-44.
M47 - Alternate name of Dragon FGM-77.
M47 - Alternate name of Little John.
M47 + M32, M51 + M34, M15 motors - Alternate designation for Little John.
M47/M51 - Alternate name of Little John.
M-48 - Alternate name for Buran M-48.
M50 - Alternate name of Honest John.
M50 - Alternate designation for MGR-1B.
M51 - Alternate designation for MSBS M51.
M51 - Alternate name of Little John.
M-51 - Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Intercontinental cruise missile based on M-50 manned bomber. Subsonic cruise with Mach 2 dash into the target area. Status: Cancelled 1960. Gross mass: 210,000 kg (460,000 lb). Thrust: 313.00 kN (70,365 lbf).
M55 - Thiokol solid rocket engine family.
M55 rocket - American 1950's US Army chemical warfare rocket; Army.
M55/TX-55/Tu-122 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In production. Proposed as strap-on booster for Saturn IB-C, Saturn INT-14, Saturn INT-15, Saturn INT-19 variants. First flight 2000. Solid propellant rocket stage. First stage of Minuteman I. Proposed as zero stage for various Saturn variants in 1960's. Surplus motors used in ABM SDI tests in 1980's and 1990's. Minuteman first stage. Status: In production. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 23,077 kg (50,876 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,292 kg (5,052 lb). Thrust: 792.00 kN (178,048 lbf). More at: Solid
M55A1 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Minuteman 1A T first stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 22,900 kg (50,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 792.00 kN (178,048 lbf). More at: Solid
M55E1 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M55E1 + 1 x SR19AJ1 Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1974-09-08. Last Launch: 1974-09-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Thrust: 935.00 kN (210,196 lbf).
M56A1 - American single-stage target missile using Minuteman 1 second stage. Status: Retired 2006. First Launch: 1998-11-20. Last Launch: 2006-12-07. Number: 11 .
M56A-1 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Used in Aries. Solid propellant rocket stage. Second stage of Minuteman I. Used as first stage of Aries sounding rocket and various SDI targets in 1980's. Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 5,170 kg (11,390 lb). Unfuelled mass: 466 kg (1,027 lb). Thrust: 228.50 kN (51,369 lbf). More at: Solid
M57A1 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Hera second stage. Status: Retired 1999. Gross mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf). More at: Solid
M5E1 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Nike booster motor. The interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Nike in sounding rocket applications and lip-fit into the second stage nozzle. Solid propellant rocket stage. The average sea level thrust of the Nike rocket motor was 190.3 kN. The interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Nike and consisted of a conical shaped adapter which slip-fit into the second stage nozzle, thus providing for drag separation at Nike burnout. Each Nike fin was 0.45 square meters in area. Normally, the fins were canted to provide a two revolutions per second spin rate at Nike burnout. HJ Nike Nike third stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 599 kg (1,320 lb). Unfuelled mass: 256 kg (564 lb). Thrust: 195.60 kN (43,973 lbf). More at: Solid
M6 - Alternate designation for MGR-1A.
M6 - Alternate name of Nike Hercules.
M-6 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Taurus rocket motor originally developed for the Army Honest John tactical missile. In sounding rocket applications the interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Taurus. Solid propellant rocket stage. Rocket motor originally developed for the Army Honest John tactical missile. In sounding rocket applications the interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Taurus and consisted of a conical shaped adapter which slip-fit into the second stage nozzle, thus providing for drag separation at Taurus burnout. Each Taurus fin was 0.46 square meters in area. Normally, the fins were canted to provide a two revolutions per second spin rate at Taurus burnout. The weight of the booster system is 3005 pounds. HJ Nike first stage. Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 954 kg (2,103 lb). Thrust: 365.00 kN (82,055 lbf). More at: Solid
M6 Honest John - Alternate designation for M-6.
M6 Honest John - Alternate designation for HJ Nike-1 rocket stage.
M6, M30, M31 - Alternate designation for MGR-1A.
M-7 - Chinese short range ballistic missile. Surface-to-surface derivative of the HQ-2 air defense missile. US designation is CSS-8. Exported to Iran as Tamdar & Tondar in Iran. Status: Active. Gross mass: 2,540 kg (5,590 lb).
M-71 - Manufacturer's designation for Mars M-71 mars lander.
M72 - Alternate name of LAW M72.
M73 - Alternate name of LAW M72.
M-73 - Manufacturer's designation for Mars M-73 mars lander.
M74 - American 1950's US Army 66 mm incendiary rocket.
M8 - American 1950's US Army 4.5" HE rocket.
M8 - Alternate name of Redstone.
M9 - Alternate name of Redstone.
M9 - Alternate name of M21.
M-9 - Alternate designation for DF-15.
M-99 - American missile.
MA- - Mercury-Atlas. Designation series for Mercury spaceflights.
Ma Zizhong - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Ma was a PLAAF regiment Deputy Party Commissar when selected. Selected as Chinese astronaut in March 1971. Status: Inactive.
MA-1 - Manufacturer's designation of XLR89-1 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
MA-2 - Manufacturer's designation of assembly of XLR105-5 LOx-Kerosene rocket engines.
MA-3 - Manufacturer's designation of assembly of LR105-5 and [LR105-5] LOx-Kerosene rocket engines.
MA-31 - American designation for Russian Kh-31A missile used as a target drone.
MA-5 - Manufacturer's designation of assembly of LR89-7 and [LR89-7] LOx-Kerosene rocket engines.
MA-5A - Manufacturer's designation of assembly of RS-56-OSA and [RS-56-OSA] LOx-Kerosene rocket engines.
MA-5A - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of Production. Atlas Engine System, an updated version of the MA-5, included replacements with selected RS-27 components for sea-level Isp increase of 4 seconds. First flight 1991. Status: Out of Production. Unfuelled mass: 1,610 kg (3,540 lb). Thrust: 2,100.00 kN (472,000 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
MAA (ANDE-MAA, NO 61, Navy-OSCAR 61) - Research (Atmospheric density) satellite, USA. Launched 2006. First Launch: 2006-12-10. Last Launch: 2006-12-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
MABES - Japanese technology satellite. MABES (Jindai). Experiment on the levitation of the magnetic bearing flywheel under zero-g condition. Technology satellite operated by NASDA, Japan. Launched 1986. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-08-12. Last Launch: 1986-08-12. Number: 1 .
Mabuhay - Communications satellite series for MPSC using the FS-1300 bus.
Mabuhay - Mabuhay Comms Corp, Manila., Philippines
Mabuhay Philippines Satellite Corp - Alternate name for MPSC.
MAC - McDonnell Aircraft Corporation
MAC-200 - Canadian Space Agency satellite with two payloads: the CASCADE high bandwith Ka-band communications relay package and the ePOP suite of instruments to study the polar ionosphere. The satellite was built by MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates (MDA Ltd.) using a Bristol Aerospace spacecraft bus. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-09-29. Last Launch: 2013-09-29. Number: 1 .
Mace - Alternate designation for CGM-13A.
Mace - Alternate designation for Bulava.
Mace - American intermediate range cruise missile. Intermediate range cruise missile. Only Cape Canaveral launches are listed here, but over 30 launches were also conducted from Launch Area Able-51 by Detachment 1, 4504th CCTW at Holloman AFB, New Mexico from October 1959 through 1963. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1959-10-29. Last Launch: 1963-07-17. Number: 44 . Gross mass: 8,500 kg (18,700 lb).
Mace South Korea - Mace/Matador operating location 1956-1966.
Mace Taiwan - Mace/Matador operating location 1956-1966.
Mace, Timothy Kristian Charles - British engineer cosmonaut, 1989-1998. Was married to the daughter of former Soviet Cosmonaut V Zholobov. Status: Deceased; Active 1989-1998. Born: 1955-11-20. Died: 2014-09-14.
Mace-B - Alternate designation for CGM-13B.
Machine Production Scientific Production Assn - Russian manufacturer. Machine Production Scientific Production Association, Russia.
Machinski, Georgi Vladimirovich - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1972-1974. Worked at the IMBP in Moscow. Left cosmonaut group for medical reasons after being injured in an automobile accident. He resumed work at the IMBP, reaching the position of senior-scientist. Status: Inactive; Active 1972-1974. Born: 1937-10-11.
MacLean, Steven Glenwood - Canadian physicist mission specialist astronaut 1983-2008. Selected Aug 1996; he had been Payload Specialist on STS-52 Mission LAGEOS-2 (responsible for the Space Visions System). Status: Inactive; Active 1983-2008. Born: 1954-12-14. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 21.67 days.
Macleay, Lachlan 'Mac' - American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1969. Born: 1931-06-13.
MacNabb, Byron Gordon - American engineer. Headed Convair operations at Cape Canaveral throughout development flight test of the Atlas. Born: 1910-08-04. Died: 1997-08-01.
MACRO - Abbreviation or acronym for Monopoles, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory
MACSAT - American military communications satellite. Experimental communication (store and forward) satellite built by DSI for DARPA, USA. Launched 1990. Used MAESTRO Bus. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-05-09. Last Launch: 1990-05-09. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 68 kg (149 lb).
Macuh Laboratories - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Macuh Laboratories, USA.
Macuh Suit - American space suit, tested 1962. Closed cell foam suit concept by Macuh Laboratories, USAF/NASA study, report MLTRD-62-13. Status: tested 1962.
MAESTRO - Satellite bus built by OSC (ex CTA ex DSI), USA.
Maetzke, Helmut - German expert in rocket development during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Magdeburg - Rudolf Nebel's subscale prototype for a man-carrying rocket was flown eight times in 1933. Further tests were prohibited by the Nazi government. This would be the largest German rocket launched until the A3 in 1937. Status: Retired 1933. First Launch: 1933-06-29. Last Launch: 1933-09-18. Number: 8 . Thrust: 1.96 kN (441 lbf).
Mage 1 - SEP solid rocket engine. Out of production. Orbital circularization motor. First flight 1979. Status: Out of production. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 369 kg (813 lb). Unfuelled mass: 34 kg (74 lb). Thrust: 19.40 kN (4,361 lbf). More at: Solid
Mage 2 - SEP solid rocket engine. Orbital circularization motor for Advanced Scout, Ariane 2/3. First flight 1984. Status: First flight 1984. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 530 kg (1,160 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Thrust: 45.50 kN (10,229 lbf). More at: Solid
Magellan - American Venus probe. The primary objectives of the Magellan mission were to map the surface of Venus with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and to determine the topographic relief of the planet. Venus lander built by Martin Marietta (Spacecraft); Hughes (Radar) for NASA, USA. Launched 1989. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-05-04. Last Launch: 1989-05-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,444 kg (7,592 lb).
Maggots - Alternate name for NASA Group 10 - 1984.
Maggots - Alternate name of NASA-10 astronaut group, 1984.
Magic - French air-to-air missile. Status: Operational 1975.
Magic 2 - French air-to-air missile. Air superiority. Gross mass: 90 kg (198 lb).
Magic R.550 - French air-to-air missile. Status: Operational 1975. Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Payload: 13 kg (28 lb).
Magik - Alternate name of Interkosmos 18 (Magik, AUOS-Z-M-IK #1).
Magilton, Gerard Edward 'Jerry' - American engineer payload specialist astronaut 1985-1986. Worked with RCA Astro Electronics Division. Backup for Robert Cenker (STS-61C). Program manager for on-orbit performance, Martin Marietta Astro Space in Princeton, New Jersey. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1942-05-07.
Magion - Czech earth magnetosphere satellite. The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION researched the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth. Science, magnetosphere satellite, Czechoslovakia. Launched 1978. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-10-24. Last Launch: 1996-08-29. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 39 kg (85 lb).
Magion 2, 3, 4, 5 - Science, magnetosphere satellite, Czechoslovakia. Launched 1989 - 1996. First Launch: 1989-09-28. Last Launch: 1996-08-29. Number: 4 .
Magnetosphere - The region around the Earth above about 160 km (90 naut. mi.) and below the magnetopause (about 15 earth radii in the solar direction, and at least 40 earth radii in the antisolar direction ) . Inside the magnetosphere, the Earth's magnetic field is dominant; outside, the interplanetary magnetic field dominates.
Magnetosphere sat - Category of spacecraft.
Magnum - American military signals intelligence satellite. Shuttle-launched geostationary ELINT satellite model that replaced Rhyolite/Aquacade. ELINT satellite built by TRW for USAF, USA. Launched 1985 - 1989. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-01-24. Last Launch: 1989-11-23. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb).
Magnum Core - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Alternative configurations used 2 to 3 RS-68 engines. Status: Study 1996. Gross mass: 830,000 kg (1,820,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 70,000 kg (154,000 lb). Thrust: 9,112.38 kN (2,048,544 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Magnum HLLV - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Notional NASA/MSFC heavy lift booster design, using no shuttle components but instead new technologies from the EELV and RLV programs that supposedly would reduce launch cost by a large factor. A composite core vehicle powered by RS-68 engines was flanked by two shuttle liquid rocket boosters. Baseline launch vehicle used in most NASA manned lunar and Mars mission studies 1996-2004. Status: Study 1996. Gross mass: 2,130,000 kg (4,690,000 lb). Payload: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Thrust: 30,000.00 kN (6,744,000 lbf).
Magnus, Kurt - German professor, gyroscope theorist. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union 1946-1953. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. After return to Germany taught at Freiburg, Stuttgart, and Munich. Born: 1912-09-08. Died: 1993-12-12.
Magnus, Sandra Hall - American materials scientist mission specialist astronaut 1996-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2012. Born: 1964-10-30. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 157.36 days.
Magsat - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Measured near-Earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies. Research satellite built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for NASA, USGS, USA. Launched 1979. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-10-30. Last Launch: 1979-10-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 181 kg (399 lb).
Magyari Béla - Hungarian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1980. Graduated from Gyorgy Kilian military pilot school, 1969. Graduated from Budapest Technical University, 1986. Aeronautical engineer and pilot, Hungarian Air Force. Involved in space research work. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1980. Born: 1949-08-08.
MAI - Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russia.
MAI Hall thruster - MAI electric rocket engine. 1.35 kW Hall thruster
Maichong Xing Shiyan Weixing - Alternate name of XPNAV 1 (Maichong Xing Shiyan Weixing).
Maido 1 - Alternate name of SOHLA 1 (Maido 1).
Mak - Russian earth atmosphere satellite. Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features of the Earth's atmosphere. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-06-17. Last Launch: 1992-10-27. Number: 2 .
MAK 1, 2, 3 - Science satellite built by NIIPME, Russia. Launched 1991 - 1992. First Launch: 1991-05-30. Last Launch: 1992-10-27. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 16 kg (35 lb).
Makarov, Aleksandr Maksimovich - Russian engineer. From 1961-1986 Director of the Yuzhnoye Machinery Factory and General Director of PO Yuzhmash.
Makarov, Oleg Grigoriyevich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1966-1986. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1986. Born: 1933-01-06. Died: 2003-05-28. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 20.74 days.
Makat - Tactical missile base. First Launch: 1961-03-02. Last Launch: 1965-04-24. Number: 34 .
MakerSat 0 - Technology satellite for Northwest Nazarene University, USA. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Makeyev (1976) - Third name of Makeyev bureau.
Makeyev bureau - Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines, Kolomna, Russia.
Makeyev, Viktor Petrovich - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1955-1985 of SKB-385. Leading designer of tactical and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. Innovations included submerged engines, stellar-updated inertial navigation, and extendible nozzles. Born: 1924-10-25. Died: 1985-10-25.
Mako - American low-cost long-endurance tactical mini-UAV.
Makrushin, Valeri Grigoriyevich - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1987. Studied from 1957 to 1963 at Leningrad Institute of Aircraft Design (LIAP). Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Returned to NPO Mashinostroyeniye. Status: Inactive; Active 1972-1987. Born: 1940-01-14.
MAKS - Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the air-launched spaceplane studies conducted by NPO Molniya. Status: Cancelled 1988. Gross mass: 275,000 kg (606,000 lb). Payload: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Thrust: 3,900.00 kN (876,700 lbf).
MAKS Orbiter - LOx/Kerosene/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Empty mass without 9300 kg payload. Status: Development ended 1988. Gross mass: 18,600 kg (41,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18,600 kg (41,000 lb). Thrust: 3,618.77 kN (813,532 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene/LH2
MAKS series - Russian manned spaceplane. Reached advanced stage of development testing and prototype construction when project was cancelled in 1988. The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the OK-M studies NPO Molniya conducted with NPO Energia. Status: Cancelled 1988. Gross mass: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb). Payload: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb).
MAKS Tank - LOx/Kerosene/LH2 rocket stage. Mass 248,100 kg (546,967 lb). Status: Development ended 1988. Gross mass: 248,100 kg (546,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,820 kg (23,850 lb). More at: Lox/Kerosene/LH2
MAKS-D - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. NPO Molniya, Antonov, and TsAGI proposed a spaceplane demonstrator project to the European Space Agency in 1993-1994 under the RADEM project. This would be a scaled-back version of the cancelled MAKS spaceplane using existing rocket engines. An unmanned prototype of the MAKS would be fitted out with RD-120 LOx/Kerosene engines. Launched from atop the An-225, the MAKS-D would reach an altitude of 80 to 90 km and a speed of Mach 14 to 15. Status: Study 1981. Gross mass: 185,000 kg (407,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Maksim, Yu P - Russian military officer.
Maksimenko, Valeri Yevgeniyevich - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1991. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1991. Born: 1950-07-16.
Maksimov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich - Russian officer. Deputy Chief of TsKIK. Later Commander of GUKOS / UNKS 1979-1989. Born: 1923-08-29. Died: 1990-10-12.
MAKS-M - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable unpiloted version of MAKS, similar to Interim HOTOL. Air launched from An-225. MAKS was found to have superior payload, lower non-recurring cost and technical risk. MAKS-M would require new materials. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Payload bay 7.0 m long x 4.6 m diameter. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 275,000 kg (606,000 lb). Payload: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb).
MAKS-T - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. All cargo version of MAKS. Air-launched heavy-lift launcher would use an expendable second stage with a payload container. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Payload bay 13.0 m long x 5.0 m diameter. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 275,000 kg (606,000 lb). Payload: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb).
Malaface - French tactical ballistic missile. Status: Active. Payload: 701 kg (1,545 lb).
Malafon - French anti-submarine missile. Status: Operational 1965. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 119.60 kN (26,887 lbf).
Malakhit - Alternate name of P-120.
Malaysia - Malaysia
Malaysia astronaut group, 2006 -
Malaysian-OSCAR 46 - Alternate name of TiungSat 1 (MySat 1, Malaysian-OSCAR 46, MO 46).
MALD ADM-160 - Northrop Grumman (Teledyne Ryan) air launched decoy.
Maldives - Maldives
Malemute - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle with a Thiokol Malemute TU-758 rocket motor which was designed especially for high altitude research rocket applications. Status: Retired 1999. First Launch: 1976-07-22. Last Launch: 1999-07-01. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 57.00 kN (12,814 lbf).
Malenchenko, Yuri Ivanovich - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1987-2016. Call sign: Agat (Agate). 827 cumulative days in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-2016. Born: 1961-12-22. Spaceflights: 6 . Total time in space: 827.39 days.
Malenkov, Georgiy Maksimiliyanovich - Russian politician. First Chairman of Special Committee 2 1946-1947. Oversaw missile program. Born: 1902-01-02. Died: 1988-01-23.
Malerba, Franco Egidio - Italian biologist payload specialist astronaut 1989-1992. First Italian astronaut. ESA; STS-46 Mission TSS-1. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1992. Born: 1946-10-10. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.97 days.
Malhotra, Ravish - Indian pilot cosmonaut, 1982-1984. Indian Air Force test pilot, stationed at the Bangalore space test center. Later worked for Dynamatic Technologies. Brigadier General (Air Commodore), Retired. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1984. Born: 1943-12-25.
Malina, Frank J - American engineer, one of the inventors of the American liquid fuel rocket at Caltech in the 1930's. Led development of the WAC-Corporal rocket, but uninterested in military projects. Moved to Paris to work with UN and later was an artist. Born: 1912-10-02. Died: 1981-11-01.
Malinovskiy, Rodion Yakovlevich - Russian officer. Minister of Defense 1957-1967. Opponent of piloted space programs. Born: 1898-11-23. Died: 1967-03-31.
Malkara - Australian anti-tank missile. Status: Operational 1958. Gross mass: 93 kg (205 lb). Payload: 26 kg (57 lb).
MALLIR - Acronym for Manned Lunar Landing Involving Rendezvous
Malmstrom AFB - Minuteman ICBM base.
Malmstrom AFB Site A-01 -
Maloy, Travis L - American engineer. Manager of flight test and launch operations for the Atlas. Born: 1915-08-23. Died: 2006-07-22.
Malyshev, Vyecheslav Aleksandrovich - Russian politician. Minister of Medium Machine Building 1953-1955. First manager of the Soviet defense industry. Born: 1902-02-16. Died: 1957-02-20.
Malyshev, Yuri Vasiliyevich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1967-1988. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1988. Born: 1941-08-27. Died: 1999-11-08. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 11.83 days.
Malyutka - Russian anti-tank missile. Status: Operational 1965. Gross mass: 11 kg (25 lb). Payload: 2.70 kg (5.90 lb).
Malyutka 9K11-2 - Russian anti-tank missile. 1990 upgrade. Gross mass: 13 kg (28 lb).
Malyutka 9K11M - Russian anti-tank missile. Man-portable/vehicle mounted antitank guided missile. License produced in several countries. Gross mass: 11 kg (24 lb).
Malyutka 9M14 - Russian anti-tank missile.
Malyutka 9M14M - Russian anti-tank missile.
Malyutka rocketplane - Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1944. The Malyutka rocket point interceptor was designed by Polikarpov beginning in 1943. Status: Cancelled 1944. Gross mass: 2,795 kg (6,161 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,295 kg (2,854 lb). Thrust: 11.70 kN (2,630 lbf). More at: Nitric acid/Kerosene
Malyutka-M - Alternate name of Malyutka 9K11-2.
Malyutka-M - Alternate name of Malyutka 9K11M.
Mamba - German anti-tank missile. Status: Operational 1975. Gross mass: 11 kg (25 lb). Payload: 2.70 kg (5.90 lb).
Mammouth - Alternate designation for NA801.
Mammouth - French solid rocket engine. 1900 kg 'Plastolite' propellant. Empty mass estimated. Originally developed as the booster for the SSBT missile. Used on Agate launch vehicle. First flight 1961. Gross mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 190.00 kN (42,710 lbf). More at: Solid
Man Out Of Space - Alternate name for MOOSE.
Man Out Of Space, Easiest - Alternate designation for MOOSE manned rescue spacecraft.
Manakov, Gennadi Mikhailovich - Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1985-1996. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred to TsPK cosmonaut detachment 1987. Call sign: Vulkan (Volcano). Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1996. Born: 1950-06-01. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 309.89 days.
Manarov, Musa Khiromanovich - Lakets-Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1992. 541 cumulative days in space. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute with an engineering diploma in 1974 Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Later a Director of Smolsat. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1992. Born: 1951-03-22. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 541.02 days.
Manchester - Manchester.
Mandel, Carl Heinz - German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II, member of von Braun rocket team. As of 1960, Head of Gyro and Stabilizer Branch, Guidance and Control Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Madison, Alabama. Born: 1908-11-22. Died: 1982-03-01.
Mangalyaan - Alternate name of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM, "Mangalyaan").
Man-high - American manned balloon. Project Manhigh was established in December 1955 to obtain scientific data on the behavior of a balloon in an environment above 99% of the earth's atmosphere and to investigate cosmic rays and their effects on man. Status: Flown 1957-1958. Gross mass: 747 kg (1,646 lb).
Man-In-Space-Soonest - The beginning of the Air Force's Man-In-Space-Soonest program has been traced back to a staff meeting of General Thomas S Power, Commander of the Air Research and Development Command (ARDC) in Baltimore on 15 February 1956. Power wanted studies to begin on manned space vehicles that would follow the X-15 rocketplane. These were to include winged and ballistic approaches - the ballistic rocket was seen as being a militarily useful intercontinental troop and cargo vehicle. First Launch: 1958-04-24. Last Launch: 1958-04-24. Number: 1 .
Man-In-Space-Soonest Group - 1958 - To provide pilots for the USAF Project 7969 MISS "Man-In-Space-Soonest" manned spacecraft. On 25 June 1958 the Air Force completed a preliminary astronaut selection for the project. The list was prioritized according to the weight of the pilot due to the low payload available. The 150-175 pound group consisted of test pilots Bob or Robert Walker, Scott Crossfield, Neil Armstrong, and Robert Rushworth. In the 175 to 200 pound group were William Bridgeman, Alvin White, Iven Kincheloe, Robert White, and Jack McKay. It was the first astronaut selection in history.
Manke, John A - American NASA test pilot 1962-1981. Flew record 42 lifting body rocketplane missions. Status: Inactive. Born: 1931-11-13.
Mann, Nicole Victoria Aunapu - American pilot astronaut 2013- . Status: Active 2013-on. Born: 1977-06-27.
Manned - Category of spacecraft, including spacecraft designed to have crews aboard, as well as logistics spacecraft designed to resupply them with consumables and spare parts.
Manned Circumlunar - Boosting a manned spacecraft on a loop around the moon, without entering lunar orbit, allows a trip to be made near the moon with a total low earth orbit mass of as little as 20 metric tons. This was attractive during the space race as a manned mission that could be accomplished early with limited booster power. Gemini, Apollo, and Soyuz were all supposed to have made circumlunar flights. Only Soyuz reached the circumlunar flight-test stage under the L1 program. Any L1 manned missions were cancelled after the Americans reached lunar orbit with Apollo 8. The idea was resurrected in 2005 when a $100 million commercial flight around the moon was proposed, again using Soyuz.
Manned Earth Reconnaissance - Alternate designation for Project Mer manned spacecraft.
Manned Flying System - Alternate designation for MFS manned lunar flyer.
Manned Orbital Rendezvous and Docking - Alternate designation for MORAD manned spacecraft.
Manned Orbital Research Laboratory - Alternate designation for MORL manned space station.
Manned Orbiting Facility - American manned space station. Study 1974. NASA carried out a number of space station studies while the Shuttle was being developed in the mid-1970s. Status: Study 1974.
Manned Orbiting Laboratory - Alternate designation for MOL manned space station.
Manned Orbiting Laboratory Suit, 1963 - Alternate designation for MOL Space Suit space suit.
Manned Orbiting Shuttle Escape System - Alternate designation for MOSES manned rescue spacecraft.
Manned Reusable Capsule - Alternate designation for Multi-Role Recovery Capsule manned spacecraft.
Manned Space Firsts - Who did what when ? -- a list of manned space firsts...
Manned Space Flight Center - Third name of NASA Houston.
Manned spacecraft - Category of spacecraft.
Manned spacecraft module - Category of spacecraft.
Manned Spaceflight - A list of all manned spaceflights .. defined as a suborbital flight over 100 km altitude, or an orbital flight that launched, even if it did not attain orbit. A flight is defined as the same persons going into space and returning together; therefore astronauts who were on a particular launch, but returned to earth on a different spacecraft from other crewmembers on the same launch, are considered a different 'flight' and listed separately.
Manned Spaceflights - See Crewed Spaceflights.
Manned Upper Reusable Payload - Alternate designation for MURP manned spaceplane.
Manned V-2 - While the V-2 rocket could not achieve orbit, it was capable of putting a man into space on a suborbital trajectory. The space race might have been very different if the Russians had put their first cosmonaut in space in 1948! But in four countries, prior to Sputnik in 1957, there was resistance to the idea.
Manned Venus Orbiting Mission - American manned Venus orbiter. A 1967 a NASA study examined requirements for a manned Venus orbiter. It concluded such a mission could be mounted by 1975 using Apollo technology. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 54,400 kg (119,900 lb).
Manned Vulkan-launched version - Manufacturer's designation for Lunokhod LEK manned lunar rover.
Manno, Vittorio - Italian Physicist. Vittorio Manno is an Italian physicist who was a senior scientist at ESA's Science Directorate from 1972-1989. From 1989-1995, Manno served as the scientific attaché at the Italian Embassy in Vienna. Born: 1938.
Manolito - 2U Cubesat from Argentina.
Manta Ray - American Mini-UAV.
Mantz, Michael Ray - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1987. Born: 1953-02-16.
Many Thanks! - Contributors and acknowledgements.
Manzovka/Ussuriysk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1970, probably operating R-12 launchers. In the 1950's the base for originally fielded two R-1 launchers, followed by eight R-5 launchers.
Mao - Alternate name for DFH-1.
MAP - American infrared astronomy satellite. NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe was placed at the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrangian point 1.5 million km from Earth to observe the dark extragalactic sky with differential microwave radiometers using two 1.5-meter reflectors working at 22 to 90 GHz. Research (Cosmology) satellite built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Swales Aerospace for NASA, USA. Launched 2001. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-06-30. Last Launch: 2001-06-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 840 kg (1,850 lb). Unfuelled mass: 768 kg (1,693 lb).
MAP astronaut group, 1980 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1981.
MAPO - tris(1-(2-methyl) aziridinyl) phosphine oxide
Mapping and Survey System - Alternate designation for Apollo MSS manned lunar orbiter.
MAPS - Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites instrument carried in shuttle bay; measured the distribution of carbon monoxide in the Earth's lower atmosphere (3 to 10 kilometers above the surface), from latitude 57 degrees North to latitude 57 degrees South. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-04-09. Last Launch: 1994-09-30. Number: 2 .
MAPSAR - Earth observation, radar satellite for INPE, Brazil.
MAQSAT - European technology satellite. MAQSATs were mass model and technology satellites built by Kayser-Threde, Munich, and lofted during the test flights of the Ariane 5. Vehicle evaluation payload built by Kayser-Threde for Arianespace, Europe. Launched 1997. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-10-30. Last Launch: 2005-02-12. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,340 kg (5,150 lb).
MaqSat 3 - Vehicle evaluation payload built by Kayser-Threde for Arianespace, Europe. Launched 1998. First Launch: 1998-10-21. Last Launch: 1998-10-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb).
MaqSat B2 - Vehicle evaluation payload built by Kayser-Threde for Arianespace, Europe. Launched 2005. First Launch: 2005-02-12. Last Launch: 2005-02-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,622 kg (7,985 lb).
MaqSat H and for TEAMSAT - Vehicle evaluation payload built by Kayser-Threde for Arianespace, Europe. Launched 1997. First Launch: 1997-10-30. Last Launch: 1997-10-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,290 kg (5,040 lb).
MaqSat H2 - Vehicle evaluation payload built by Kayser-Threde for Arianespace. Gross mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb).
Mar Chiquita - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1968-01-24. Last Launch: 1976-12-09. Number: 76 .
Marambio - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1975-09-30. Last Launch: 1982-02-26. Number: 7 .
MARC 13A1 - ARC solid rocket engine. Hydra-Iris first stage. Status: Retired 1968. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 112 kg (246 lb). Thrust: 17.00 kN (3,821 lbf). More at: Solid
MARC 14A1 - ARC solid rocket engine. Boosted Arcas first stage. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 16 kg (35 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11 kg (24 lb). Thrust: 12.00 kN (2,697 lbf). More at: Solid
MARC 14B1 - ARC solid rocket engine. Cluster of Sparrow motors. Status: Retired 1968. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 59 kg (130 lb). Thrust: 84.00 kN (18,883 lbf). More at: Solid
MARC 2B1 - ARC solid rocket engine. Boosted Arcas 2 second stage. Status: Retired 1991. Unfuelled mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Thrust: 1.50 kN (337 lbf). More at: Solid
MARC 2C2 - ARC solid rocket engine. Sparrow Arcas second stage. Status: Retired 1975. Unfuelled mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Thrust: 1.50 kN (337 lbf). More at: Solid
MARC 42A1 - ARC solid rocket engine. Boosted Arcas 2 first stage. Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Thrust: 12.20 kN (2,743 lbf). More at: Solid
MARC 60A - ARC solid rocket engine. Super Arcas first stage. Status: Retired 1991. Gross mass: 38 kg (83 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Thrust: 1.50 kN (337 lbf). More at: Solid
MarCO - Satellite for NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus.
Marco Polo - Designation of series of communications satellites launched by British Satellite Broadcasting Ltd.
Marco Polo 1, 2 (BSB 1, 2) / Sirius 1 / Thor 1 - Communication (Direct broadcasting) satellite built by Hughes for British Satellite Broadcasting Ltd. (BSB) => Nordiska Satellitaktiebolaget (#1), Telenor (#2), UK. Launched 1989 - 1990. Used the HS-376 bus. Launched 1989-1990. First Launch: 1989-08-27. Last Launch: 1990-08-18. Number: 2 .
Marconi - British manufacturer. Marconi, UK.
MARECS - Geostationary maritime communications satellite series, which formed part of INMARSAT's world-wide maritime communications satellite network. Used the ECS/OTS bus.
MARECS - Geostationary maritime communications satellites, which form part of INMARSAT's world-wide maritime communications satellite network. The program began as the experimental Maritime Orbital Test Satellite (Marots) in 1973, but was subsequently changed to an operational system resulting in a name change, a satellite redesign, and delayed development. Marecs is operated by ESA for Inmarsat.
MARECS A, B, B2 - Communication satellite built by British Aerospace BAe (prime) for Inmarsat, International. Launched 1981 - 1984. Used the ECS-Bus bus. First Launch: 1981-12-20. Last Launch: 1984-11-10. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,060 kg (2,330 lb).
Marine Observation Satellite - Japanese earth sea satellite. The MOS 1A and 1B satellites, also known as Momo 1A and 1B, were Japan's first Earth resources satellites. Status: Operational 1987. First Launch: 1987-02-19. Last Launch: 1990-02-07. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 742 kg (1,635 lb).
Mariner - Mariner spacecraft were built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for early exploration of the nearby planets. The Mariner series became the first spacecraft to return significant data on the surface and atmosphere conditions of Venus, Mars, and Mercury.
Mariner 1, 2 - Venus flyby satellite built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA, USA. Launched 1962. First Launch: 1962-07-22. Last Launch: 1962-08-27. Number: 2 .
Mariner 10 - American Mercury probe. Status: Operational 1973. First Launch: 1973-11-03. Last Launch: 1973-11-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 526 kg (1,159 lb).
Mariner 1-2 - American Venus probe. The world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-07-22. Last Launch: 1962-08-27. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
Mariner 3-4 - American Mars flyby probe. This spacecraft completed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. Mars flyby satellite built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA, USA. Launched 1964. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-11-05. Last Launch: 1964-11-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 260 kg (570 lb).
Mariner 5 - American Venus probe. Mariner 5 was a refurbished backup spacecraft for the Mariner 4 Mars mission converted to fly a Venus mission. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-06-14. Last Launch: 1967-06-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 244 kg (537 lb).
Mariner 6-7 - American Mars flyby probe. Mariner 6 and 7 comprised a dual-spacecraft mission to Mars. Mars flyby satellite built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA, USA. Launched 1969. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-02-25. Last Launch: 1969-03-27. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 412 kg (908 lb).
Mariner 8-9 - American Mars orbiter. The Mariner Mars 71 mission was planned to consist of two spacecraft on complementary missions. Mars lander built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA, USA. Launched 1971. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-05-09. Last Launch: 1971-05-30. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 985 kg (2,171 lb).
Mariner Mark II - Manufacturer's designation for CRAF comet probe.
Mariner R - American Venus probe. Study 1961. Planned 1961 JPL crash program to beat the Soviet Union in launching the first probe to another planet. Status: Study 1961.
Marisat - American communications satellite. Maritime communications. Communication satellite built by Hughes for Marisat => Inmarsat, International. Launched 1976. Used the HS-356 bus. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-02-19. Last Launch: 1976-10-14. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 655 kg (1,444 lb).
Mark 1 Mod III - American pressure suit, operational 1956. While the USAF concentrated on partial pressure suits, the US Navy worked on omni-environmental full pressure suits to combine altitude and immersion protection. Status: operational 1956.
Mark I - Alternate designation for Mark 1 Mod III.
Mark I ELSS - American space suit, tested 1958-59. The USAF Mark I Extravehicular and Lunar Surface Suit was tested during 1958-59, and led to subsequent development of more refined and satisfactory RX-series "Moon Suits" for NASA. Status: tested 1958.
Mark IV Model 3 Type I - American pressure suit, operational 1958. Production suit which US Navy aircrew wore on high altitude flights during its cold weather operations. Status: operational 1958.
Mark IV USAF - Manufacturer's designation for A/P 22S-3 space suit.
Mark Ridge Suit - American pressure suit, tested 1933. The first full pressure suit was made by a London diving suit firm for the American balloonist Mark Ridge. Status: tested 1933.
Mark, Hans - German-American physicist, Secretary of the Air Force 1979-1981, NASA deputy administrator 1981-1984. Born: 1929-06-17.
Marka - Marka Range. Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1983-11-30. Last Launch: 1984-01-15. Number: 12 .
Maroc - Maroc-Tubsat was built by the Technical University of Berlin for the Centre Royal de Teledetection Spatiale, Morocco, and had a mass of 47 kg. It carried an imager and a store-forward communications test payload. Used the Tubsat bus.
Maroc-Tubsat (Zarkae Al Yamama) - Earth Observing satellite built by CRTS (payload), TU-Berlin (bus) for CRTS, TU-Berlin, Morocco. Launched 2001. Used the Tubsat-C Bus bus. First Launch: 2001-12-10. Last Launch: 2001-12-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 47 kg (103 lb).
MAROTS - ESRO Maritime Orbital Test Satellite
Marpost - Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 2000. In December 2000 Leonid Gorshkov of RKK Energia proposed a manned Mars orbital expedition as an alternative to Russian participation in the International Space Station. Status: Study 2000. Gross mass: 400,000 kg (880,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 399,800 kg (881,400 lb). Thrust: 441 N (99 lbf). More at: Electric/Xenon
Marquardt - Van Nuys, CA, USA.
Marquardt Space Sled - Alternate designation for Space Sled space suit.
Mars - Soviet Mars probes were intended to photograph Mars on flyby trajectories, followed by Mars orbit, landing, and Fobos reconnaissance missions. Essentially all of the series failed. American and European probes were more successful, but still suffered a high failure rate.
Mars 1975 - Code name for Mars 5NM mars lander.
Mars 1986 - Russian manned Mars expedition. Studied 1978-1986. NPO Energia resumed study of a Mars project once development began of the new Energia booster in place of the cancelled N1. Status: Study 1978. Gross mass: 365,000 kg (804,000 lb). Thrust: 441 N (99 lbf). More at: Electric/Xenon
Mars 1989 - Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. In 1989 yet another Mars project was proposed by NPO Energia. Status: Study 1989. Gross mass: 355,000 kg (782,000 lb). Thrust: 441 N (99 lbf). More at: Electric/Xenon
Mars 1994 - Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1994. Soviet / Russian design for a Mars expedition powered by RD-0410 bi-modal nuclear thermal engines. A crew of five would complete the trip to Mars and back in 460 days. Status: Study 1994. Gross mass: 800,000 kg (1,760,000 lb). Payload: 400,000 kg (880,000 lb). Thrust: 784.00 kN (176,250 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Mars 1M - Russian Mars flyby probe. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-10-10. Last Launch: 1960-10-14. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 640 kg (1,410 lb).
Mars 2001 Lander - Mars Lander with rover satellite operated by NASA, USA.
Mars 2020 - Mars rover satellite operated by NASA, USA. Gross mass: 3,839 kg (8,463 lb).
Mars 2MV-1 - Russian Venus probe. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-08-25. Last Launch: 1962-09-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb).
Mars 2MV-2 - Russian Venus probe. Sputnik 21. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-09-12. Last Launch: 1962-09-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb).
Mars 2MV-3 - Russian Venus probe. Sputnik 24. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-11-04. Last Launch: 1962-11-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb).
Mars 2MV-4 - Russian Mars flyby probe. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-10-24. Last Launch: 1962-11-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 894 kg (1,970 lb).
Mars 3MV-4A - Russian Mars flyby probe. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Elaboration of station systems and scientific research in interplanetary space. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-11-30. Last Launch: 1965-07-18. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 925 kg (2,039 lb).
Mars 5M - Russian Mars lander. Cancelled 1978. The 5M was a second attempt by the Lavochkin bureau to design and fly a Soviet Martian soil return mission. Design and development was undertaken from 1974 to 1978. Status: Cancelled 1978. Gross mass: 9,135 kg (20,139 lb).
Mars 5NM - Russian Mars lander. Cancelled 1974. The 5NM was the first attempt by the Lavochkin bureau to design and fly a Soviet Martian soil return mission. Design and development was undertaken from 1970 to 1974. Status: Cancelled 1974. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
Mars Climate Orbiter - Alternate designation for MCO Mars orbiter.
Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) - Mars lander operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1998. First Launch: 1998-12-11. Last Launch: 1998-12-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 629 kg (1,386 lb).
Mars Confectionery - Mars Confectionery.
Mars Cycler - American manned Mars flyby. Study 1989. As part of a space infrastructure, it was proposed that four space stations be placed in cyclical orbits. These would allow departures for a six-month journey to Mars every 26 months. Status: Study 1989.
Mars Direct - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. In 1991 Martin Marietta and NASA Ames (Zubrin, Baker, and Gwynne) proposed 'Mars Direct' - a Mars expedition faster, cheaper, and better than the standard NASA plan. Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 160,000 kg (350,000 lb).
Mars Evolution 1988 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. In 1988 NASA made four case studies of a rapid response to the threat of a Soviet manned expedition to Mars. Status: Study 1988.
Mars Evolution 1989 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. In 1989 NASA's Mars Evolution case study examined one approach to develop a permanent, largely self-sufficient Mars outpost with significant scientific research capability. Status: Study 1989.
Mars Excursion Module - Alternate designation for MEM manned mars lander.
Mars Expedition 88 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. In 1988, in response to a perceived Soviet plan to start a new space race to Mars, NASA made in depth case studies of a rapid US response. Status: Study 1988.
Mars Expedition 89 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. The primary objective of the 1989 Mars Expedition case study was to determine how to accomplish a single human expedition to the surface of Mars as early in the 21st century as practical. Status: Study 1989.
Mars Expedition NASA Lewis 1960 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. The first NASA study of a manned Mars expedition outlined an opposition-class, nuclear thermal rocket powered spacecraft that would take seven astronauts to the planet's surface for 40 days. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 614,000 kg (1,353,000 lb). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Mars Expeditionary Complex - Manufacturer's designation for MEK manned mars expedition.
Mars Expeditions - Since Wernher von Braun first sketched out his Marsprojekt in 1946, a succession of designs and mission profiles were seriously studied in the United States and the Soviet Union. By the late 1960's Von Braun had come to favor nuclear thermal rocket powered expeditions, while his Soviet counterpart Korolev decided that nuclear electric propulsion was the way to go. All such work stopped in both countries in the 1970's, after the cancellation of the Apollo program in the United States and the N1 booster in the Soviet Union.
Mars Exploration Rover - Manufacturer's designation for MER mars lander.
Mars Exploration Rover A, B (MER A, B / Spirit / Opportunity) - Mars Lander / Rover satellite built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory for Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA, USA. Launched 2003. First Launch: 2003-06-10. Last Launch: 2003-07-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,063 kg (2,343 lb).
Mars Express - European Mars orbiter. The European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter, designed to be built more quickly than any other comparable planetary mission, was a resounding success. Mars orbiter, Mars lander (Beagle 2) satellite built by Astrium for ESA, Europe. Launched 2003. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-06-02. Last Launch: 2003-06-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,042 kg (2,297 lb).
Mars Flyby - Category of spacecraft.
Mars Global Surveyor - American Mars orbiter. Mars Global Surveyor was a polar orbiting spacecraft designed to monitor Martian global weather and provide comprehensive maps of surface topography and the distribution of minerals. Mars lander operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1996. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-11-07. Last Launch: 1996-11-07. Number: 1 .
Mars lander - Category of spacecraft.
Mars M1 - Russian Mars orbiter. Mars orbiter, 2 landers, 2 surface penetrators satellite, Russia. Launched 1996. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-11-16. Last Launch: 1996-11-16. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb).
Mars M-69 - Russian Mars orbiter. Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars.
Mars M-71 - Russian Mars lander. Mars spacecraft built by Lavochkin for 1971 campaign. The spacecraft consists of a bus/orbiter module and an attached descent/lander module. Mars orbiter, landers satellite, Russia. Launched 1971. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-05-10. Last Launch: 1971-05-28. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 4,647 kg (10,244 lb).
Mars M-73 - Russian Mars lander. The M-73 spacecraft series was built for 1973 Mars missions. Mars lander, Russia. Launched 1973. Status: Operational 1973. First Launch: 1973-07-21. Last Launch: 1973-08-09. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 3,440 kg (7,580 lb).
Mars Observer - American Mars orbiter. Mars Observer was a NASA mission to study the surface, atmosphere, interior and magnetic field of Mars from Martian orbit. Mars lander built by RCA Astro => GE Astro for NASA, USA. Launched 1992. Used Observer Bus. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-09-25. Last Launch: 1992-09-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,573 kg (5,672 lb).
Mars Odyssey - American Mars orbiter built by Lockheed Martin for NASA, USA. Launched 2001. Mars Odyssey had the primary science mission of mapping the amount and distribution of chemical elements and minerals that make up the Martian surface. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-04-07. Last Launch: 2001-04-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 725 kg (1,598 lb). Unfuelled mass: 376 kg (830 lb). Payload: 45 kg (99 lb).
Mars orbiter - Category of spacecraft.
Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM, Mangalyaan) - Mars lander for ISRO, India. Launched 2013. Used the I-1K (I-1000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2013-11-05. Last Launch: 2013-11-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb).
Mars Oz - Australian manned Mars expedition. Study 2006. 2001 design study by the Mars Society Australia that incorporated many innovative elements to produce a minimum-mass non-nuclear Mars expedition concept. Status: Study 2006. Gross mass: 694,000 kg (1,530,000 lb). More at: Lox/LH2
Mars Pathfinder - American Mars rover. Mars lander with surface rover. Landed a mini-rover to the Mars surface. Test of airbag and rover technologies. First successful Mars landing mission since Viking. Mars Lander / Rover satellite built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA, USA. Launched 1996. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-12-04. Last Launch: 1996-12-04. Number: 3 .
Mars Piloted Orbital Station - Alternate designation for Marpost manned mars expedition.
Mars Polar Lander - American Mars lander. The Mars Polar Lander had the mission of studying Martian volatiles (frozen water and carbon dioxide) and climate history. The Martian polar regions were the best places to conduct these studies. No telemetry was received from the lander from just prior to its reentry on 3 December 1999. The investigation team concluded that just 40 m above the Martian surface the deployment of the landing legs was interpreted by the spacecraft as touchdown on the surface, shutting down the engines. The fiasco led to major changes in future planetary probes, including adequate funding and telemetry all the way to the surface. Mars lander operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1999. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-01-03. Last Launch: 1999-01-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 576 kg (1,269 lb).
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter - American Mars orbiter. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was the first spacecraft designed from the beginning for aerobraking to place it into the desired orbit around Mars. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-08-12. Last Launch: 2005-08-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,180 kg (4,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,031 kg (2,272 lb).
Mars rover - Category of spacecraft.
Mars Rovers - Nearly every conceptual mission to Mars has included pressurized rovers to allow the astronauts to get around the surface.
Mars Science Laboratory - Alternate designation for MSL mars rover.
Mars Semi-Direct 1991 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. Mars Semi-Direct was a NASA concept bridge between Zubrin's Mars Direct and NASA's Design Reference Mission 1.0. It was essentially a low-cost version of Boeing's STCAEM. Status: Study 1991.
Mars Society - Mars Society.
Mars Society Mission - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1999. In 1999 the Mars Society, noting certain defects in NASA's Design Reference Mission, requested California Institute of Technology to develop an alternative scenario to meet these concerns. Status: Study 1999.
Mars Surveyor - A series of lower-cost missions devoted to the mapping of Mars from Mars orbit. Designed to accomplish at less cost the mission assigned to the failed Mars Observer.
Mars tactical rocket - Russian tactical ballistic rocket. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 2,399 kg (5,288 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) - Mars lander built by Lockheed Martin for NASA. Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
Mars Together - Russian Mars orbiter. Study 1994. In 1994-95, RKK Energia, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory analyzed the project 'Mars Together'. Status: Study 1994. Gross mass: 150 kg (330 lb).
Mars via Solar Sail - British manned Mars expedition. Study 1982. In 1982 a minimum-mass approach to a Mars expedition was proposed, using aerocapture at Mars and the use of a long-duration solar sail cargo transport. Status: Study 1982. Gross mass: 1,300,000 kg (2,800,000 lb).
Mars-96 - Alternate name for Mars M1.
MARScom - Alternate name of RAFT1 (NO 60, Navy-OSCAR 60) / MARScom (NMARS).
Marshall, Frank - American engineer. Part of the Atlas management team; headed the Golden Ram program that cleared the Atlas missile for operations. Born: 1930-07-01.
Marshburn, Thomas Henry 'Tom' - American physician mission specialist astronaut 2004-on. Status: Active 2004-on. Born: 1960-08-29. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 161.29 days.
Marsokhod - Russian manned Mars rover. Study 1961. Surface transports were part of all Soviet Mars expeditions. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb).
Marte - Italian anti-ship missile. Status: Operational 1976.
Marte 1 - Italian anti-ship missile. Status: Operational 1976. Gross mass: 299 kg (659 lb). Payload: 35 kg (77 lb). Thrust: 39.20 kN (8,813 lbf).
Marte 2 - Italian anti-ship missile. Gross mass: 344 kg (758 lb). Payload: 70 kg (154 lb).
Marte 2A - Italian anti-ship missile. Antiship missile. Qualified on MB-339. Gross mass: 267 kg (588 lb).
Marte 2B - Italian anti-ship missile. Gross mass: 259 kg (570 lb).
Marte 2N - Italian anti-ship missile. Ship-launched antiship weapon. Gross mass: 324 kg (714 lb).
Marte 2S - Italian anti-ship missile. Italian Navy contract for EH 101 qualification. Gross mass: 324 kg (714 lb).
Marte Mk. 1 - Alternate name of Marte 1.
Marte Mk. 2 - Alternate name of Marte 2.
Marte Mk. 2/A - Alternate name of Marte 2A.
Marte Mk. 2/B - Alternate name of Marte 2B.
Marte Mk. 2/N - Alternate name of Marte 2N.
Marte Mk. 2/S - Alternate name of Marte 2S.
Martel - French anti-ship missile. Status: Operational 1969. Gross mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb).
Martian Piloted Complex - Alternate designation for MPK manned mars expedition.
Martin - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (1956), Denver, CO, USA.
Martin Astrorocket - Martin winged orbital launch vehicle design of 1962. Early two-stage-to-orbit shuttle study, using storable propellants, Dynasoar-configuration delta wing orbiter and booster. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 1,133,786 kg (2,499,570 lb). Payload: 2,270 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 12,952.80 kN (2,911,905 lbf).
Martin HATV - American orbital launch vehicle. The Martin HATV 1946 design used a single Aerojet engine of unconventional design to achieve single-stage-to-orbit performance. Status: Design 1946. Gross mass: 46,550 kg (102,620 lb). Thrust: 1,334.00 kN (299,895 lbf).
Martin Marietta - Second name of Valley Forge.
Martin Marietta (1961-1995) - Second name of Martin.
Martin Marietta Astro Space (1993-1996) - Third name of East Windsor.
Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (1956) - Fourth name of Martin.
Martin Marietta SDV - American orbital launch vehicle. The Martin Marietta Class I SDV would lead to the Shuttle-C, using the shuttle aft fuselage with SSME engines to power a cargo canister into orbit. Status: Study 1983. Payload: 61,024 kg (134,534 lb).
Martin Plan C - Alternate designation for Titan C.
Martin Project 7969 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Martin's proposal for the Air Force manned space project was a zero-lift vehicle launched by a Titan I with controlled flight in orbit. The spacecraft would be boosted into a 240 km orbit for a 24 hour mission. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb).
Martin, John F - American test pilot; chief test pilot for Douglas in 1948; first pilot to fly the D-558-II. Born: 1907-07-01. Died: 1977-09-14.
Martin, John J - American engineer, at NASA 1984-1985.
Martin, Richard - American engineer. Structural dynamicist for all versions of the Atlas. Born: 1928-11-01.
Martlet - Canadian gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. In 1962-1967 Canada's Gerard Bull led development of the Martlet system for gun-launched access to space. The program was cancelled before the objective of gun launch to orbit was attained. Status: Retired 1966.
Martlet 1 - Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet One Flight Vehicle was designed in mid-1962 as a first generation test vehicle for the HARP project. The primary role of the Martlet One was to test the fundamental technologies that were to be used in the Martlet Two vehicle. These included the internal ballistics of the 16" L45 smooth-bored gun system, the pusher plate/ laminated plywood sabot system and the ability to receive radio telemetry from a gun launched vehicle in flight. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1963-01-21. Last Launch: 1963-02-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 205 kg (451 lb). Payload: 205 kg (451 lb).
Martlet 2 - Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 2 series were the primary 16" gun-launched sub-orbital flight vehicles used during the High Altitude Research Program (HARP). Martlet 2's were used to conduct extensive research at altitudes of up to 180 km with some 200 flights being conducted between 1963 and 1967. The very low cost per flight, about $3,000, made it ideal for a wide variety of applications. Typical mission payloads included chemical ejection to produce an observable atmospheric trail and assorted sensors with multi-channel telemetry. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1963-01-01. Last Launch: 1967-06-22. Number: 148 . Gross mass: 190 kg (410 lb). Payload: 84 kg (185 lb).
Martlet 2-1 - Solid rocket stage. Mass 200 kg (441 lb). Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 170 kg (370 lb). More at: Solid
Martlet 2C - Canadian gun-launched sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1965-06-03. Last Launch: 1966-11-20. Number: 29 .
Martlet 2G - Canadian sounding rocket. This derivative of the Martlet 2 gun-fired suborbital space probe achieved a higher scientific payload through use of a lighter sabot. 12 were flown before the program was ended. Status: Hardware 1967. Gross mass: 159 kg (350 lb). Payload: 160 kg (350 lb).
Martlet 2G-1 - Canadian gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. The Martlet 2G-1 was the absolute minimum gun-launched satellite vehicle. Conceived when the HARP project was under threat, it was a seven-inch diameter, two-stage solid propellant vehicle that would be sabot-launched from the HARP 16 inch gun. Its total payload in orbit would have been just two kilograms - ideal for today's planned nano-satellites. Unfortunately even this minimum orbital launch vehicle could not be demonstrated before the program was shut down. Status: Development ended 1966. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Payload: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Martlet 2G1-1 - Solid rocket stage. Mass 130 kg (287 lb). Status: Development ended 1966. Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Unfuelled mass: 21 kg (46 lb). More at: Solid
Martlet 2G1-2 - Solid rocket stage. Mass 41 kg (90 lb). Status: Development ended 1966. Gross mass: 41 kg (90 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7.00 kg (15.40 lb). More at: Solid
Martlet 3 - Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage, gun-launched vehicle. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
Martlet 3-1 - Solid rocket stage. Mass 200 kg (441 lb). Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 170 kg (370 lb). More at: Solid
Martlet 3A - Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 3A was the first serious attempt to produce a sub-caliber, gun-launched, rocket-assisted, vehicle for the 16 inch gun system. The basic design criteria for the Martlet 3A was to gun launch a vehicle containing a rocket motor that could provide a velocity boost equal to or greater then the initial gun-launch velocity.

The theoretical performance of the Martlet 3A was for an 18 kg payload to be carried to an altitude of some 500 km at gun-launch accelerations of 12-14,000 g's and gun launch velocities in the range of 2100 m/sec (similar to the Martlet 2 series maximum launch parameters). Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1963-09-05. Last Launch: 1964-01-15. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 180 kg (390 lb). Payload: 18 kg (39 lb).


Martlet 3B - Canadian sounding rocket. Once the fundamental design flaws of the Martlet 3A vehicle were identified the system was redesigned and a new vehicle, the Martlet 3B, was created.

The Martlet 3B vehicle was similar in design to the 3A vehicle but sported several design changes intended to improve the system performance. The first major change was to replace the aluminum airframe with a alloy steel airframe in the hopes the stronger material would lead to higher mass fractions. Other improvements included the use of a larger diameter rocket motor (increasing the outer diameter to 8 inches / 20 cm) and the use of six fixed fins instead of the 3A's four fins. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-07-01. Last Launch: 1965-11-17. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 180 kg (390 lb).


Martlet 3D - Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 3D concept was intended to serve as a sub-orbital vehicle capable of lifting heavy payloads to satellite altitudes. The Martlet 3D was simply the first stage of the Martlet 4 vehicle ( Martlet 4A) with the two upper stages and the satellite payload being replaced with a single large payload. Payload: 90 kg (198 lb).
Martlet 3E - Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 3E vehicle was designed to take advantage of the portability of the HARP 7 inch guns. Unlike the big fixed 16 inch guns the 7 inch HARP guns, were portable and could be relocated to conduct launches from a wide variety of sites. It was soon determined that a gun-launched rocket vehicle for the 7 inch gun would have a similar performance to the Martlet 2 glide probe launched from the fixed 16 inch guns. Launch costs would also be about the same. Gross mass: 155 kg (341 lb). Payload: 20 kg (44 lb).
Martlet 3E stage - Solid rocket stage. Mass 61 kg (134 lb). Gross mass: 61 kg (134 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18 kg (39 lb). More at: Solid
Martlet 4 - Canadian gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. The Martlet 4 was ultimate goal of the HARP program - a gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. Two versions were considered: a preliminary version with two solid propellant upper stages, and a later model with two liquid propellant upper stages. Payload of the liquid propellant version would have reached 90 kg. The initial version was in an advanced stage of suborbital flight test when the HARP program was cancelled in 1967. Status: Development ended 1966. Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Payload: 23 kg (50 lb). Thrust: 47.40 kN (10,656 lbf).
Martlet 4-1 - Bull solid rocket engine. Development ended 1966. Used on Martlet 4 launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1966. Gross mass: 570 kg (1,250 lb). Unfuelled mass: 110 kg (240 lb). Thrust: 67.70 kN (15,220 lbf). More at: Solid
Martlet 4-2 - Bull solid rocket engine. Development ended 1966. Used on Martlet 4 launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1966. Gross mass: 175 kg (385 lb). Unfuelled mass: 35 kg (77 lb). Thrust: 20.60 kN (4,631 lbf). More at: Solid
Martlet 4-3 - Bull solid rocket engine. Development ended 1966. Used on Martlet 4 launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1966. Gross mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Thrust: 5.39 kN (1,212 lbf). More at: Solid
Martlet 4A - Alternate name for Martlet 4-1.
Martlet 4B - Alternate name for Martlet 4-2.
Martlet 4C - Alternate name for Martlet 4-3.
Martlet 4i-1 - Alternate name for Martlet 4-1.
Martlet 4i-2 - Alternate name for Martlet 4-2.
Martlet 4i-3 - Alternate name for Martlet 4-3.
Martlet 4L-2 - Alternate designation for Martlet 4-2.
Martlet 4L-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study. Gross mass: 243 kg (535 lb). Unfuelled mass: 46 kg (101 lb). Thrust: 20.50 kN (4,609 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Martlet 4L-3 - Alternate designation for Martlet 4-3.
Martlet 4L-3 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study. Gross mass: 58 kg (127 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Thrust: 5.39 kN (1,212 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Martynov, Ivan Moiseyevich - Russian officer. Major-General. Deputy Chief and Chief of the Political Units for the KIK space tracking forces in 1969-1980. Born: 1921.
Maryland - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. University of Maryland, USA.
MAS - Test satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. Used SRET bus.
MAS 2 - Alternate name of SRET 2 (MAS 2).
Masalca - French surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 2,720 kg (5,990 lb).
MaSat - Student 1U Cubesat from the Budapest University of
MaSat 1 (MO 72, MaSat-OSCAR 72) - Technology satellite for Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary. Launched 2012. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2012-02-13. Last Launch: 2012-02-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
MaSat-OSCAR 72 - Alternate name of MaSat 1 (MO 72, MaSat-OSCAR 72).
MASCOT - Attached to Hayabusa-2 Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-12-03. Last Launch: 2014-12-03. Number: 1 .
Mashad - 14th Tactical Air Base.
Mass spectrometer - An instrument which determines the masses of atoms and molecules.
Mass. Inst of Technology - Alternate name for MIT.
Massey, Sir Harrie Stewart Wilson - Australian physicist, first chairman of the British National Committee for Space Research in the early 1960's. Subsequently he was the first Chairman of the European Space Sciences Committee, the first Chairman of the Council for Scientific Policy and helped found the European Space Research Organization as well as the Mullard Space Science Laboratory at University College London. Born: 1908-05-16. Died: 1983-11-27.
Massimino, Michael James - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1996-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2012. Born: 1962-08-19. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 23.83 days.
MAST - Multi Application Survivable Tether experiment, built by Tethers Unlimited Inc and Stanford University. MAST consisted of the TED (Tether Deployer) Cubesat, with a 1 km deployable multi-strand tether; RALPH, a small end mass satellite.
MAST - Technology satellite for Tethers Unlimited, Inc., USA. Launched 2007. Used the CubeSats bus. First Launch: 2007-04-17. Last Launch: 2007-04-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb).
Mastiff III - American drone missile. Reconnaissance / surveillance / target acqusition drone, UAV, out of production, USN, USMC
Mastracchio, Richard Alan 'Rick' - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1996--2015. Status: Inactive; active 1996-2015. Born: 1960-02-11. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 227.57 days.
Masurca - French surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 948 kg (2,089 lb). Payload: 120 kg (260 lb).
Masurca MD3 - French surface-to-air missile. Status: Operational 1971. Gross mass: 1,989 kg (4,384 lb). Payload: 48 kg (105 lb). Thrust: 333.00 kN (74,861 lbf).
Matador - American intermediate range cruise missile by Glenn L. Martin. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1948-12-01. Last Launch: 1961-06-01. Number: 311 . Gross mass: 6,260 kg (13,800 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 231.40 kN (52,021 lbf).
Matador M-16 - Allison turbojet engine, cruise motor for Matador M-16. More at: Air/Kerosene
Matagorda Island - Launch site for sounding rockets and commercial launch vehicles. Good site for southerly launches into a variety of orbits but no tracking facilities. First Launch: 1981-08-05. Last Launch: 1982-09-09. Number: 2 .
Materials - Category of spacecraft.
Materials science satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Matheis, Fritz - German measurement technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. Born: 1916.
Mathogo - Argentinian anti-tank missile. Payload: 2.70 kg (5.90 lb).
MATI - Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. MATI, Russia.
Matinchenko, Aleksandr Nikolayevich - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1972. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1972. Born: 1927-09-04. Died: 1999-06-18.
Matra - Third name of Toulouse.
Matra Aerospace Fairchild Space (1989) - Second name of Germantown.
MATRA BAe Dynamics - FormerlyHawker Siddeley.
MATRA BAe Dynamics (Hawker Siddeley) - Alternate name of Hawker Siddeley.
Matra Marconi - French manufacturer of spacecraft. Matra Marconi, France.
Matra Marconi Space - First name of Stevenage.
Matra Marconi Space - First name of Marconi.
Matra Marconi Space-France - First name of Toulouse.
Matra/British Aerospace - Third name of Hawker Siddeley.
MATS - Aeronomy satellite built by OHB Sweden, ĊAC Microtec (bus); Department of Meteorology (MISU) at Stockholm University, Department of Earth and Space Sciences at Chalmers, Space and Plasma Physics Group at KTH, Omnisys Instruments (payload), Sweden. Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Matthes, Franz - German professor and chemist. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Born: 1909.
Matthiesen, David Henry - American materials scientist payload specialist astronaut, 1994-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-1995. Born: 1958-08-31.
Mattingly, Thomas Kenneth II 'Ken' - American test pilot astronaut 1966-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1985. Born: 1936-03-17. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 21.19 days.
Matveyev, Denis Vladimirovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2010- Status: Active 2010-on. Born: 1983-04-25.
Maul - Austrian manufacturer of rockets. Maul, Austria.
Maul Camera Rocket - German sounding rocket. Maul conceived of using powder rockets to launch film cameras for military reconnaissance in 1901, beginning an 11 year development process. Status: Cancelled 1913. Gross mass: 42 kg (92 lb).
Mauler MIM-46 - General Dynamics mobile surface-to-air missile. American surface-to-air naval missile, development started in 1960. Program cancelled in 1965. Also MIM-46A version planned.. Gross mass: 54 kg (119 lb).
Maurer, Matthias - German mission specialist astronaut, selected 2017. Background in materials science.
Mauritania - Mauritania
Mauritius - Mauritius
Maus, Hans Hermann - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1905-09-06. Died: 1999-03-01.
MAVEN - Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN orbiter designed to study the escape of gases from the upper Martian atmosphere. It carried particles and fields instruments and an imaging ultraviolet spectrometer. Mars lander built by Lockheed Martin for NASA, USA. Launched 2013. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-11-18. Last Launch: 2013-11-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,454 kg (5,410 lb).
Maverick AGM-65 - Raytheon (Hughes) air-to-surface missile.
Maverick AGM-65A - American air-to-surface missile. TV-guided, range: 16 km, warhead: 75 kg Status: Operational 1973. Gross mass: 209 kg (460 lb). Payload: 60 kg (132 lb).
Maverick AGM-65B - American air-to-surface missile. TV-guided, warhead: 75 kg Gross mass: 209 kg (460 lb). Payload: 60 kg (132 lb).
Maverick AGM-65C - American air-to-surface missile. Warhead: 75 kg
Maverick AGM-65D - American air-to-surface missile. Day/night capability. In production. Status: Operational 1983. Gross mass: 215 kg (473 lb). Payload: 60 kg (132 lb).
Maverick AGM-65E - American air-to-surface missile. Status: Operational 1985. Gross mass: 293 kg (645 lb). Payload: 140 kg (300 lb).
Maverick AGM-65F - American air-to-surface missile. Gross mass: 306 kg (674 lb).
Maverick AGM-65G - American air-to-surface missile. Anti-ship. Used in USAF attack aircraft. In production. Being upgraded with G2 tracking software. IIR-guided, warhead with blast penetrator, variable delay fuze Gross mass: 304 kg (670 lb). Payload: 135 kg (297 lb).
Maverick AGM-65H - American air-to-surface missile. In development for USAF, FMS. Upgraded CCD guidance for -65A/B/D. Gross mass: 210 kg (460 lb).
Maverick R22 - American commercial Robinson R22 helicopter modified to unmanned configuration to serve as a flight control system testbed for the A160 Hummingbird UAV.
Mavr - Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1963. A variation of the TMK-1 scenario by Maksimov's unit would still use a single N1 launch. However a flyby of Venus would be undertaken on the return voyage from Mars. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Max Faget: Master Builder - James Oberg's tribute to the 'American Korolev'...
Max Valier Sat - Astronomy, X-Ray; technology satellite for Gewerbeoberschule "Max Valier" Bozen, Gewerbeoberschule "Oskar von Miller" Meran, Amateurastronomen "Max Valier", Italy. Launched 2017. First Launch: 2017-05-25. Last Launch: 2017-05-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 15 kg (33 lb).
Max-Planck-Institut - German manufacturer of spacecraft. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany.
Maxus - The MAXUS microgravity program was a collaboration between Sweden and Germany. The single-stage vehicle developed for the program used a Castor 4B motor, the largest fired from Western Europe. Status: Active. First Launch: 1991-05-08. Last Launch: 2017-04-07. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 12,300 kg (27,100 lb). Payload: 720 kg (1,580 lb). Thrust: 450.00 kN (101,160 lbf).
May, Eugene F - American Test Pilot. Douglas test pilot.
Mayak - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. New family of modular medium-sized launch vehicles proposed by the Ukraine in 2005. No known development or production funding was forthcoming. Status: Design 2005. Gross mass: 320,000 kg (700,000 lb). Thrust: 4,310.00 kN (968,920 lbf).
Mayak (Beacon ) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-10.
Mayak (Beacon ) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-3.
Mayak (Beacon ) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-15.
Mayak (Beacon) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-15.
Mayak (Beacon) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-10.
Mayak (Beacon) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-3.
Mayak satellite - Russian communications satellite. Study 1990. In 1990 the Applied Mechanics NPO announced that it was developing a successor to the Molniya series of spacecraft. Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Payload: 580 kg (1,270 lb).
Mayak techsat - Technology satellite built by CosmoMayak for Your sector of space / MSUME, Russia. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2017-06-29. Last Launch: 2017-06-29. Number: 1 .
Mayflower - American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital seaplane-spacecraft of Advent Launch Services of Houston, Texas. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. Status: Study 2004.
Mayflower-Caerus - Technology satellite built by Northrop Grumman; University of Southern California; Pumpkin Inc. (Caerus) for Northrop Grumman (Mayflower); University of Southern California (Caerus), USA. Launched 2010. Used the CubeSat (3U) consisting of a 1U bus and 2U payload modules, two deployable solar arrays. Launched 2010. First Launch: 2010-12-08. Last Launch: 2010-12-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
Mayfly-300 - WRE solid rocket engine. Long Tom second stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 62.00 kN (13,938 lbf). More at: Solid
Mayfly-600 - WRE solid rocket engine. Long Tom first stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Thrust: 190.00 kN (42,710 lbf). More at: Solid
Maynard, Owen - Canadian-American engineer, at NASA 1960-1970, a key systems engineering figure during the Apollo program, credited with laying out the lunar module and designing the Apollo mission sequence. Born: 1924. Died: 2000-01-01.
Mayo, Itzhak - Israeli pilot payload specialist astronaut, 1997-2000. Status: Inactive; Active 1997-2000. Born: 1954-09-14.
Mayport DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone. Mayport, Florida, Warning Area, North Atlantic Ocean.
Mazlat - American manufacturer. Mazlat Ltd (IAI/AAI, USA.
Mazur, Yevgeni Vasilyevich - Russian government official. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1982. Died: 1982-01-01.
MB (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Manned Base
MB sounding rocket series -
MB/EE-150 - Brazilian short range ballistic missile. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
MB/EE-350 - Brazilian short range ballistic missile. Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
MB/EE-600 - Brazilian intermediate range ballistic missile. Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
MB-1 - Alternate name of Genie.
MB-1 - Alternate name of Genie AIR-2A.
MB-1 - American pressure suit, tested 1957. MB-1 & 2 were experimental test pilot's partial pressure suits using the K-1 helmet. Status: tested 1957.
MB-1 - Alternate designation for Astrobee 500-1 rocket stage.
MB-1 - Manufacturer's designation of LR79-7 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 156.00 kN (35,070 lbf).
MB-1 engine - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 156.00 kN (35,070 lbf). More at: Solid
MB-17 - Alternate name of Aphrodite.
MB-3 Press Mod - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Test 1962. Used on Sea Horse launch vehicle. Status: Test 1962. Unfuelled mass: 643 kg (1,417 lb). Thrust: 755.10 kN (169,753 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
MB-3-1 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Boosted Delta A, B, C, Thor Able-Star. First flight 1960. Status: Out of production. Date: 1957. Number: 43 . Unfuelled mass: 643 kg (1,417 lb). Thrust: 760.60 kN (170,990 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
MB-3-3 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of Production. License built in Japan for H-1. First flight 1964. Status: Out of Production. Number: 96 . Unfuelled mass: 723 kg (1,593 lb). Thrust: 866.70 kN (194,842 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
MB-35 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design 2004. Mitsubishi / Boeing joint project for an engine for Delta IV cryogenic upper stages. Expander bleed, pump-fed. Status: Design 2004. Date: 1999. Unfuelled mass: 345 kg (760 lb). Thrust: 156.00 kN (35,070 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
MB-3-J - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. N Booster . Gas generator, pump-fed. Joint MHI (Japan) / Rocketdyne project, evolved from MB-3. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1975. Status: Out of production. Date: 1960's. Thrust: 755.89 kN (169,931 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
MB-45 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design 2004. Mitsubishi / Boeing joint project for an engine for Delta IV cryogenic upper stages, announced February 2000. Status: Design 2004. Date: 1999. Thrust: 200.00 kN (44,960 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
MB-60 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design 2004. Mitsubishi / Boeing joint project for an engine for Delta IV cryogenic upper stages. Expander bleed, pump-fed. Status: Design 2004. Date: 1999. Unfuelled mass: 591 kg (1,302 lb). Thrust: 266.70 kN (59,957 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
MBB - German manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm Gmbh, Munich, Germany.
MBB-ATC500 - MBB LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1969. Used on Beta launch vehicle. Status: Study 1969. Thrust: 441.30 kN (99,208 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
MBC - Japanese agency. Mobile Broadcasting Corp, Japan.
MBD 1, 2 - Alternate name of ORS Tech 1, 2 (MBD 1, 2).
MBR - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. 'Sealed unit' liquid propellant ICBM proposed by Reshetnev in 1960. Status: Cancelled 1961.
MBSAT - MBC satellite providing mobile S-band digital broadcasting services for home and automobile users in Japan. Used the FS-1300 bus.
MBSat 1( ABS 2i( ABS 4 (Mobisat) - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for Mobile Broadcasting Corp. (MBC) => Asia Broadcast Satellite (ABS), Japan. Launched 2004. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 2004-03-13. Last Launch: 2004-03-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,143 kg (9,133 lb).
MBT - MBT
MB-XX - Alternate designation for MB-60 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
MC-1 - American pressure suit, operational 1956. Modified S-2 partial pressure capstan suit with chest breathing bladder, 12 sizes, high altitude, fighters and bombers, smaller capstan in torso area, pressure gloves, K-1 or MB-5 helmet, David Clark Company. Status: operational 1956.
MC-2 - American pressure suit, operational 1958. The XMC-2 full pressure suit developed in the mid-1950s jointly by Wright Field personnel and the David Clark Company for X-15 pilots. Status: operational 1958.
MC-3 - American pressure suit, operational 1957. A capstan partial pressure suit with horizontal shoulder zipper, sewn break lines, no anti-G, height/weight sizing criteria, used on bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, came in 12 sizes. Status: operational 1957.
MC-3A - American pressure suit, operational 1958. A modified MC-3 suit with vertical shoulder laces and adjustable break lines. Produced by David Clark and Berger Brothers. MA-2 helmet by ILC Dover. Status: operational 1958.
MC-4A - American pressure suit, operational 1958. A modified MC-4 with height/weight fit for fighter aircraft, anti-G suit. Suits produced by David Clark, Berger Brothers and Seymour Wallace. Status: operational 1958.
McArthur, Katherine Megan - American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on. Status: Active 2000-on. Born: 1971-08-30. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.90 days.
McArthur, William Surles Jr 'Bill' - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1990-2012. US Army. Grew up in Wakulla, North Carolina. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2012. Born: 1951-07-26. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 224.93 days.
McAuliffe, Sharon Christa Corrigan - American teacher payload specialist astronaut 1985-1986. Was to have been the first teacher in space. Died in Challenger accident. Status: Deceased; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1948-09-02. Died: 1986-01-28. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.0008 days.
McBride, Jon Andrew - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1989. Heavyset Navy pilot with a talent for playing to a crowd. Flew 64 combat missions in Vietnam. Later ran in, but lost, the Republican primary for governor of West Virginia. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1989. Born: 1943-08-14. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 8.22 days.
MCC - Abbreviation for Mission Control Center
McCandless, Bruce II - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1966-1990. Made first untethered space walk. Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1990. Born: 1937-06-08. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 13.02 days.
McClain, Anne Charlotte - American pilot astronaut 2013- . Status: Active 2013-on. Born: 1977-06-07.
McCone, John A - American manager, director of the Central Intelligence Agency 1961-1965, during initial exploitation of satellite reconnaissance systems. Born: 1902-01-04. Died: 1991-02-14.
McConnell AFB - Titan 2 ICBM base.
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McCool, William Cameron 'Willie' - American test pilot astronaut 1996-2003. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. Status: Deceased; Active 1996-2003. Born: 1961-09-23. Died: 2003-02-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.93 days.
McCulley, Michael James - American test pilot astronaut 1984-1990. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1990. Born: 1943-08-04. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 4.99 days.
McDivitt, James Alton - American test pilot astronaut 1962-1972. Flew 145 combat missions during the Korean War. Status: Inactive; Active 1962-1972. Born: 1929-06-10. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 14.12 days.
McDonald, Frank B - American scientist, at NASA 1959-1989. Served as project scientist on nine NASA satellite programs, NASA Chief Scientist 1982-1987. Born: 1925-05-28. Died: 2012-08-31.
McDonnell Douglas - American manufacturer. McDonnell Douglas, USA.
McDonnell Douglas (1994 to 1997) - Third name of Convair.
McDonnell Douglas astronaut group, 1983 -
McDonnell Douglas astronaut group, 1985 -
McDonnell Douglas Huntington Beach - Second name of Douglas.
McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Corp. (MDSSC-HB) - Alternate name for MDSSC.
McDonnell Project 7969 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. McDonnell's design for the Air Force initial manned space project was a ballistic vehicle coordinated with Faget's NACA proposal and resembling the later Soviet Soyuz descent module. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 1,090 kg (2,400 lb).
McDonnell Spaceplane 1963 - American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In June 1962 NASA funded studies with several contractors on Operations and Logistics for Space Stations. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb).
McDonnell, James S - American engineer, president of McDonnell Aircraft 1939-1972. His innovative fighter designs were initially unsuccessful, but the F-4 and F-15 were the premier US fighters after 1960. Contractor for the Mercury, Gemini , and MOL spacecraft. Born: 1899-04-01. Died: 1980-08-01.
McDonnell-Douglas - Alternate name for Gemini LORV.
McDonnell-Douglas ILRV - American winged orbital launch vehicle. The McDonnell-Douglas ILRV design featured fold-out wings for improved low-speed lift-to-drag ratio during final descent and landing. All of the vehicle's propellants were moved outside the orbiter into two large hydrogen tanks and two smaller oxygen tanks. The original concept was sized for an 11,340kg, 9.44m x 4.57m payload. Status: Design 1968. Gross mass: 1,324,489 kg (2,919,998 lb). Payload: 22,680 kg (50,000 lb). Thrust: 16,240.00 kN (3,650,890 lbf).
McDonnell-Douglas ILRV Drop Tanks - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket drop tank for ILRV design. Status: Study. Gross mass: 1,084,086 kg (2,390,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40,823 kg (89,999 lb). More at: Lox/LH2
McDonnell-Douglas ILRV stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. High-pressure Lox/Lh2 engine. Status: Study. Gross mass: 215,000 kg (473,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 95,254 kg (209,999 lb). Thrust: 16,242.82 kN (3,651,532 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
McElroy, Neil H - American manager, secretary of defense 1957-1959. Born: 1904-10-30. Died: 1972-11-01.
McGregor - SpaceX McGregor Test Site First Launch: 2012-09-21. Last Launch: 2014-08-22. Number: 12 .
McKay, John Barron - American NASA test pilot, 1952-1962. Flew into space on X-15 Flight 150, but seriously injured in an X-15 crash in 1962. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1962. Born: 1922-12-08. Died: 1975-04-15. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.0083 days.
McKay, Michael John - Canadian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1992-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-1995. Born: 1963-05-10.
McKinsey - McKinsey.
McLean - American manufacturer. McLean, McLean, USA.
McMaster - McMaster.
McMonagle, Donald Ray - American test pilot astronaut 1987-1997. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1997. Born: 1952-05-14. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 25.23 days.
McMurdo Station - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1962-06-19. Last Launch: 1963-10-03. Number: 28 .
McMurtry, Thomas C - American test pilot, US Navy and Lockheed 1958-1967. NASA test pilot and administrator at NASA Dryden, 1967-1999. Flew among many other aircraft the X-24 lifting body and 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. Status: Inactive. Born: 1935-04-06.
McNair, Ronald Erwin - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1978-1986. The first American black astronaut to fly in space. Died in Challenger accident. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1986. Born: 1950-10-21. Died: 1986-01-28. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 7.97 days.
McNamara, Robert S - American Secretary of Defense under Kennedy and Johnson, 1961-1968. Supported offloading manned space to NASA, killed X-20 Dynasoar, Blue Gemini, and SAINT. Created MOL as substitute. Born: 1916-06-09. Died: 2009-07-06.
MCO - Alternate name of Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO).
MCO - American Mars orbiter. Mars Climate Orbiter. The Mars Climate Orbiter was to have accomplished mapping and weather studies of Mars and served as a relay for data from the Mars Polar Lander. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-12-11. Last Launch: 1998-12-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 629 kg (1,386 lb). Unfuelled mass: 338 kg (745 lb). Thrust: 637 N (143 lbf).
MCSB - NASA Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Enviroment Explorer mission. It carried an ultraviolet spectrometer, a lunar dust experiment, a neutral mass spectrometer, and a laser communications experiment. An Aerojet Rocketdyne/Redmond R-4D-15 HiPAT 455N thruster, with 135 kg of propellant, was used for lunar orbit insertion and orbit maneuvers. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-09-07. Last Launch: 2013-09-07. Number: 1 .
MCubed - 1U Cubesat from the University of Michigan with technology experiments, including a low resolution imager.
M-Cubed/COVE - Technology satellite built by University of Michigan, Jet Propulsion Laboratory for University of Michigan, USA. Launched 2011 - 2013. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2011-10-28. Last Launch: 2013-12-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
MD-01 - French sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1962-12-07. Last Launch: 1963-05-29. Number: 4 .
MD-620 - First Israeli ballistic missile. Developed by Assault in France as the MD-620. Test series included both one and two stage prototypes. Follow-on versions were said to have differed. Status: Active. First Launch: 1965-02-01. Last Launch: 1968-09-30. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Payload: 750 kg (1,650 lb).
MD-620 engine - Dassault N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Number: 1 . More at: N2O4/UDMH
MDA - American agency. Missile Defense Agency, USA.
MDAC - American manufacturer of spacecraft. McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co., USA
MDD - American manufacturer. MDD, USA.
MDF - Manipulator Development Facility. Simulator at Houston to train astronauts in use of the RMS (Remote Manipulator System), the shuttle robot arm. It included a full-sized mockup of the 16-m-long arm suspended by wires to simulate weightlessness, a full sized cargo bay, and helium-buoyed balloons representing shuttle payloads with their grappling fixtures.
MDPB - American manned space station module. Study 2015. Propulsion module for space stations based on Bigelow Nautilus inflatable habitats. Status: Study 2015.
MDS - Japanese technology satellite. MDS (Mission Demonstration Satellite) was a technology demonstrator to flight-qualify commercial subsystems. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-02-04. Last Launch: 2002-02-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 449 kg (989 lb).
MDS (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Malfunction detection system
MDS 1 (Tsubasa) - Technology satellite built by NEC for NASDA, Japan. Launched 2002. First Launch: 2002-02-04. Last Launch: 2002-02-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 449 kg (989 lb).
MDS 2 - Technology satellite operated by NASDA, Japan. Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
MDSSC - American agency. McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Corp, USA.
Me- - Messerschmitt (German aircraft designation series); or megacycles
Me-163 - German winged rocketplane. The rocket-powered Messerschmitt Me-163 was the world's first and only operational pure rocket fighter and represented the culmination of Alexander Lippisch's years of research in rocketplanes, tail-less aircraft, and delta wings. As a weapon, the Me-163 had tremendous speed but very limited range. However the concepts developed by Lippisch contributed to the Space Shuttle and Buran orbiters of a quarter century later. Status: Cancelled 1945. Gross mass: 3,955 kg (8,719 lb). Payload: 250 kg (550 lb). Thrust: 16.60 kN (3,732 lbf).
Mea Huaka'i (Voyager) - Technology satellite built by University of Hawai'i, One Stop Satellite Solutions (OSSS) (bus) for University of Hawai'i, USA. Launched 2006. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2006-07-26. Last Launch: 2006-07-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Meade, Carl Joseph - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1985-1996. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1996. Born: 1950-11-16. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 29.68 days.
Measat - Malaysian communications satellite project.
MEASAT 1, 2 / Africasat 1, 2 - Communication satellite built by Hughes for Binariang Sdn. Bhd. => MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia. Launched 1996. Used the HS-376 bus. First Launch: 1996-01-12. Last Launch: 1996-11-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb).
MEASAT 3 - Communication satellite built by Boeing for MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia. Launched 2006. Used the BSS-601HP bus. First Launch: 2006-12-11. Last Launch: 2006-12-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,765 kg (10,505 lb).
MEASAT 3a - Communication satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia. Launched 2009. Used the Star-2 Bus bus. First Launch: 2009-06-21. Last Launch: 2009-06-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,367 kg (5,218 lb).
MEASAT 3b (Jabiru 2) - Communication satellite built by EADS Astrium => Airbus Defence and Space for MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia. Launched 2014. Used the Eurostar-3000 bus. First Launch: 2014-09-11. Last Launch: 2014-09-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,897 kg (13,000 lb).
MEASAT 3c - Alternate name of Jabiru 1 (MEASAT 3c).
MEASAT 4 - Communicationsatellite built by ISRO (Antrix) for MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd.. Used the I-3K (I-3000) Bus bus.
Mech - Alternate designation for Almaz.
Mech - Code name for Almaz OPS manned space stations.
Mechanical Astronaut, Mercury - American phantom cosmonaut. The MAS was an electronic mannequin that could 'inhale' and 'exhale' man-like quantities of gas, heat, and water vapor. It flew twice - on the MA 3 launch abort 1961-04-25 and one orbit on MA-4 on 1961-09-13.
Mech-K - Code name for Almaz-T civilian surveillance radar satellite.
MECO - Abbreviation for Main Engine Cut Off
Medaris, John Bruce - American US Army officer, commanded Army Ballistic Missile Agency in the 1950's during development of Redstone, Jupiter, and Saturn I. Born: 1902-05-12. Died: 1990-07-11.
Mediterranean Sea - Drop zone over the Mediterranean Sea for air-launched Israeli antimissile target launches. First Launch: 2008-04-15. Last Launch: 2013-09-03. Number: 3 .
Medium earth orbit - Category of spacecraft.
Medium Range Target Vehicle - Alternate designation for Castor-M57A1.
Medium Range Target Vehicle - Alternate designation for ait-2.
Medved - Early ballistic missile operating base, 1953-1960, for units deployed with two R-2 launchers, later eight R-5 missiles.
Medvedka - Russian missile.
Mega Rover - American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. The Mega Rover was conceived to support a crew of six over thousands of kilometers of traverses. Variants had masses as great as 45 metric tons, exclusive of the descent and landing system. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 45,000 kg (99,000 lb).
Megaroc - In December 1946 R A Smith proposed launch of a British pilot into space atop a heavily modified V-2. The proposal was rejected, and the first British citizen would not fly into space until 45 years later, when Helen Sharman visited the Mir space station. Status: Study 1946. Gross mass: 21,200 kg (46,700 lb). Payload: 586 kg (1,291 lb). Thrust: 265.00 kN (59,574 lbf). More at: Lox/Alcohol
Megha - Alternate name for IRS.
Megha-Tropiques - Earth Science satellite built by Alcatel Space, ISRO for ISRO, CNES, India. Launched 2011. Used IRS Bus. First Launch: 2011-10-12. Last Launch: 2011-10-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Megsat - MegSat, Gruppo Meggiorin, Brescia, Italy. Builder of the first private Italian satellites, Megsats were microsatellites designed to transmit scientific and commercial data. Italian communications technology satellite. Communication (store & forward) satellite for MegSat, Italy. Launched 1999-2000. Used MegSat Bus. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-04-28. Last Launch: 2000-09-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 35 kg (77 lb).
MEI - Experimental Design Bureau of the Moscow Power Institute (Russian abbreviation)
Meier, Otto - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Laboratory Department. Born: 1918-07-24.
Meir, Jessica Ulrika - American pilot astronaut 2013- . Status: Active 2013-on. Born: 1977-07-15.
Meischeider, Herbert - German expert in rocket research during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
MEK - Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1969. The Mars Expeditionary Complex (MEK) was designed to take a crew of from three to six to Mars and back with a total mission duration of 630 days. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). Thrust: 61 N (14 lbf). More at: Electric/Xenon
Melanie - SEPR solid rocket engine. Out of production. 22 kg propellant. Empty mass estimated. Used on Berenice launch vehicle. First flight 1962. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 32 kg (70 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Thrust: 11.10 kN (2,495 lbf). More at: Solid
Melanie-1 - Alternate name for Melanie.
Melco - Japanese manufacturer of spacecraft. Melco, Japan.
Melnick, Bruce Edward 'Mel' - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1987-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1992. Born: 1949-12-05. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 12.98 days.
Melnikov, Mikhail Vasilyevich - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1960-1974 at Korolev design bureau. Specialized in engines, including Blok D. Born: 1919-09-22. Died: 1996-01-01.
Melroy, Pamela Ann - American test pilot astronaut 1994-2009. Grew up in Pittsford, New York. US Air Force test pilot. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2009. Born: 1961-09-17. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 38.84 days.
Melusine - CFTH-HB solid rocket engine. Grannos second stage. Status: Retired 1969. Unfuelled mass: 29 kg (63 lb). More at: Solid
Melvill, Michael Winston 'Mike' - South African-American test pilot rocketplane pilot 2000-2007. Status: Inactive; Active -2007. Born: 1941. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 0.0187 days.
Melvin, Leland Devon 'Lee' - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1998-2010. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2010. Born: 1964-02-15. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 23.57 days.
MEM - American manned Mars lander. Study 1967. The Mars Excursion Module was designed by North American for the Marshall Spaceflight Center in an October 1966-August 1967 study. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 49,400 kg (108,900 lb). More at: Lox/LCH4
MEMS - American communications technology satellite. DARPA/Aerospace Corp. MEMS (Micro Electro-mechanical Systems) were 0. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2000-01-27. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 0.25 kg (0.55 lb).
MEMS Picosat (DARPA Picosat) - Experimental satellite built by Aerospace Corp. for DARPA, USA. Launched 2000. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2000-07-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 0 kg (0 lb).
MemSat - Technology satellite for Rowan University, USA. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus.
Menaka II - Indian sounding rocket. Related to RH-125. Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1970-01-01. Last Launch: 1977-01-01. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Menaka II-2 - Alternate name for RH-125S.
Meng Senlin - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Joined PLA in 1965. He was a PLAAF squadron commander when selected. Selected as Chinese astronaut in March 1971. Status: Inactive. Born: 1947.
Mengel, John T - American physicist, at USN 1942-1958. Developed tracking systems for Vanguard. At NASA 1958-1973, in charge of tracking and data systems. Born: 1918-04-16. Died: 2003-10-22.
Menke - German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France as part of the pump and metering group at LRBA from 1947-1955. Then emigrated to Brazil.
MEO - Medium earth orbit
MEP - Ministry of Electronics Industry (Russian abbreviation)
MEPSI - American tether technology satellite. MEPSI (Micro-Electromechanical-based Picosat Satellite Inspection Experiment) consisted of two 1 kg boxes attached to each other by a 15-m tether. Experimental satellite built by Aerospace Corp. for DARPA, USA. Launched 2002 - 2006. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-11-24. Last Launch: 2002-11-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
MER - American Mars lander. NASA's rover mission design for the 2003 Mars launch opportunity. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-06-10. Last Launch: 2003-07-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,063 kg (2,343 lb).
MER A, B - Alternate name of Mars Exploration Rover A, B (MER A, B / Spirit / Opportunity).
MER-6 - Alternate designation for Blue Scout ERCS.
MERA - Russian sounding rocket. Two-stage small meteorological sounding rocket, consisting of two identical solid rocket motors in tandem, stabilized by fins, topped by a payload dart with instrumentation. Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1992-12-01. Last Launch: 1992-12-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Payload: 1.20 kg (2.60 lb).
MERA-1 - Rocket stage used on MERA test vehicle. Status: Retired 1992. Gross mass: 40 kg (88 lb).
Merbold, Ulf Dietrich - German physicist payload specialist astronaut 1978-1998. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1998. Born: 1941-06-20. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 49.90 days.
Mercedes - Alternate name for Villa Reynolds.
Merchez, Marianne - Belgian physician cosmonaut, 1992-1995. Was married to astronaut Maurizio Cheli. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-1995. Born: 1960-10-25.
Mercury - American single-crew manned spacecraft. Mercury was America's first man-in-space project, but ran second in the space race, trailing behind the achievements of the Soviet Vostok spacecraft. However lessons learned in Mercury were applied to the follow-on Gemini, which would put America in the space race lead, heading toward final victory with the American moon landing nine years later. ELINT satellite NRO, USA. Launched 1994 - 1998. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-01-21. Last Launch: 1963-05-15. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 1,355 kg (2,987 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,136 kg (2,504 lb). Thrust: 13.33 kN (2,997 lbf). More at: Solid
Mercury & Gemini Spacecraft Systems Development Diaries - Detailed chronologies of development of Mercury & Gemini spacecraft systems, arranged by system and configuration.....
Mercury (fuel) - Elemental mercury, used as propellant for some early ion motors.
Mercury 13 astronaut group, 1961 - Group of 13 female pilots who passed astronaut physical testing in 1961 to prove that women were also qualified for spaceflight. NASA never considered them, maintaining that astronauts had to be qualified test pilots (all of whom were white males). Nickname: The Mercury Thirteen
Mercury Balloon Flight Tests - In January 1959, balloon flights were planned for qualification of the Mercury spacecraft. These would occur from July 1959 to January 1961. Final flights would be manned tests of up to 24 hours duration, with recovery of the capsule at sea. Cancelled May 1959. Launched: January 1961. Number crew: 1 .
Mercury Balloon-Subsat 1, 2 - Satellite for NASA Langley Research Center, USA. Launched 1962-1963. First Launch: 1962-05-24. Last Launch: 1963-05-15. Number: 2 .
Mercury Capsule - American manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). Reentry capsule. Status: Operational 1960. Gross mass: 1,118 kg (2,464 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,104 kg (2,434 lb).
Mercury ECS - Mercury ECS Development Diary
Mercury ELINT - American electronic intelligence satellite. Class of heavy signals intelligence satellites introduced at the end of the 1990's. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-08-27. Last Launch: 2014-04-10. Number: 4 .
Mercury Escape Tower - Mercury Escape Tower Development Diary
Mercury Flight History - Mercury Flight History
Mercury Heat Shield - Mercury Heat Shield Development Diary
Mercury MA-10 - Planned second one-day Mercury flight. Cancelled as too risky after Mercury MA-9 achieved objective only after failure of many spacecraft systems. Launched: 1963 October. Number crew: 1 .
Mercury MA-11 - Planned third one-day Mercury flight. Cancelled as too risky after Mercury MA-9 achieved objective, but only after failure of many spacecraft systems. Launched: By the end of 1963. Number crew: 1 .
Mercury MA-12 - Planned fourth one-day Mercury flight. Cancelled mid-1962 in order to move on to Gemini. Launched: By the end of 1963. Number crew: 1 .
Mercury MA-6 - First US manned orbital mission, three orbits. False landing bag deploy light led to reentry being started with retropack left in place. It turned out the indicator light was false, but a spectacular reentry ensued. Launched: 1962-02-20. Returned: 1962-02-20. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.21 days.
Mercury MA-7 - Second US manned orbital mission. Excessive fuel use and pilot error led to late re-entry, and landing 300 km past the intended point. Capsule ran out of orientation fuel during re-entry. Launched: 1962-05-24. Returned: 1962-05-24. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.21 days.
Mercury MA-7 Delta 7 - Planned second US manned orbital flight. Cancelled 18 March 1962 when astronaut's minor heart condition became public. Launched: 1962 May. Number crew: 1 .
Mercury MA-8 - Most successful American manned space flight to that date, six orbits, returning to earth precisely, with astronaut aboard recovery ship 40 minutes after landing. Speed record (7,850 m/s). Launched: 1962-10-03. Returned: 1962-10-03. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.38 days.
Mercury MA-9 - Final Mercury mission, After 22 orbits, virtually all capsule systems failed. Nevertheless the astronaut was able to manually guide the spacecraft to a pinpoint landing. Launched: 1963-05-15. Returned: 1963-05-16. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 1.43 days.
Mercury MA-9A - Planned Mercury six-orbit mission. Canceled and NASA moved directly to an 18-orbit mission due to astronaut shortage and change in concept (flights no longer used just to train astronauts). Launched: By the end of 1962. Number crew: 1 .
Mercury Mark I - American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Proposed derivatives of the basic one-crew Mercury capsule for investigation of earth orbit rendezvous, lifting re-entry and land landing. Status: Study 1959.
Mercury MR-3 - First American in space, less than a month after Gagarin, but only on a 15 minute suborbital flight. First manual orientation of a manned spacecraft. Launched: 1961-05-05. Returned: 1961-05-05. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0107 days.
Mercury MR-3A - Planned manned Mercury flight that would have put an American in space before the Russians. But after booster problems on Mercury MR-2, von Braun insisted on a further unmanned booster test. This proved to be unnecessary. If NASA had overruled Von Braun, Shepard would have been the first man in space, beating Gagarin's flight by three weeks. Launched: 1961-03-24. Number crew: 1 .
Mercury MR-4 - Suborbital flight; second American in space. Hatch blew after splashdown; capsule sank; astronaut barely saved before drowning. Launched: 1961-07-21. Returned: 1961-07-21. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0108 days.
Mercury MR-5 - Planned Mercury suborbital flight. After Soviet full-day orbital flight in August 1961, NASA's suborbital hops looked pathetic. Further suborbital Mercury flights were cancelled. Launched: 1961 Late summer. Number crew: 1 .
Mercury MR-6 - Planned Mercury suborbital flight. Cancelled July 1961; delays in Redstone flights meant Atlas orbital flights were imminent. Launched: 1961 Autumn. Number crew: 1 .
Mercury Parachute - Mercury Parachute Development Diary
Mercury probe - Category of spacecraft.
Mercury Retropack - American manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). Status: Operational 1960. Gross mass: 237 kg (522 lb). Unfuelled mass: 177 kg (390 lb). Thrust: 15.47 kN (3,479 lbf). More at: Solid
Mercury Retrorockets - Mercury Retrorockets Development Diary
Mercury site - Sounding rocket launch location for support of nuclear tests. First Launch: 1957-07-01. Last Launch: 1957-10-01. Number: 9 .
Mercury Space Suit - American space suit, operational 1960. The Mercury spacesuit was a custom-fitted, modified version of the Goodrich U.S. Navy Mark IV high altitude jet aircraft pressure suit. Status: operational 1960.
MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging mission - Alternate designation for Messenger mercury probe.
Mercury-Jupiter 2 (MJ-2) - Planned manned Mercury long-range suborbital flights using the Jupiter IRBM as a booster. These were considered as an intermediary step in the Mercury program before use of the Jupiter booster in the program was cancelled in July 1959 on cost grounds. Launched: End 1961. Number crew: 1 .
Mercury-Scout 1 (MS 1, MNTV 1) - Technology satellite built by Ford Aeronutronics for NASA, USA. Launched 1961. First Launch: 1961-11-01. Last Launch: 1961-11-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 68 kg (149 lb).
Meridian - Russian new-generation military 12-hour elliptical orbit communications satellite designed to replace the Molniya series. Communication satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (ex NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM), Russia. Launched 2006 - 2014. Used 3-Axis stabilized Uragan-M bus. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-12-24. Last Launch: 2014-10-30. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Merk, Ernst Helmut - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. Worked at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland. Born: 1911-04-01. Died: 2005-01-01.
Merkur - Alternate designation for Tekos materials science satellite.
Merlin - SpaceX LOx/Kerosene rocket engine family. For the Falcon booster family.
Merlin 1A - SpaceX LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. Completed development in early 2005. Pintle injector concept. Replaced by Merlin 1C. First flight 2006. Status: Hardware. Date: 2000-2004. Thrust: 378.04 kN (84,987 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Merlin 1C - SpaceX LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. Regeneratively cooled; turbo-pump also provided high pressure kerosene for the hydraulic actuators. Actuated turbine exhaust nozzle provided roll control. First flight 2008. Status: Hardware. Date: 2006-2009. Thrust: 614.70 kN (138,190 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Merlin 1Cvac - SpaceX LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Hardware. Upper stage version of the Merlin developed for the Falcon 9 second stage. Based on the Merlin 1C and using a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber. First flight 2009. Status: Hardware. Date: 2006-2009. Thrust: 411.40 kN (92,486 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Merlin 1D - SpaceX LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Hardware. First stage version of the Merlin developed for the Falcon 9.1. Based on the Merlin 1C and using a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber. First flight 2014. Status: Hardware. Date: 2013-. Gross mass: 490 kg (1,080 lb). Thrust: 716.00 kN (160,963 lbf).
Merlin 1Dvac - SpaceX LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Hardware. Version of the Merlin 1D for upper stage use, with an expansion nozzle greater than 117 resulting in a specific impulse said to be 340 seconds but probably even greater based on the vehicle performance. Status: Hardware. Date: 2013-. Gross mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Thrust: 801.00 kN (180,071 lbf).
Merlin 1V - Alternate name for Merlin 1Cvac.
MERLIN satellite - Earth sciences satellite built by DLR, CNES; Airbus Defence and Space (bus) for DLR, CNES. Used the AstroBus-300 (AstroBus-S) / Myriade-Evolutions bus. Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb).
MEROPE - Technology satellite for Montana State University, USA. Launched 2006. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2006-07-26. Last Launch: 2006-07-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Merryweather - Alternate name of PropCube 1, 2, 3 (Flora, Fauna, Merryweather).
MESA - Modularized equipment stowage assembly (Apollo LM component)
Mesbah - Iranian technology satellite. Study 2006. Technology satellite with imaging and communications payloads. Planned as the operational payload of the Iranian Shahab-3 orbital launch vehicle. The satellite would be cube-shaped, 50 cm on a side. Status: Study 2006. Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb).
Mesbah 1 - Technology satellite built by Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA. Used MITA-Bus. Gross mass: 65 kg (143 lb).
Mesbah-2 - Iranian civilian store-dump communications satellite. One launch, 2005.10.27, Sinah-1. Prototype of a store-forward communications system satellite for survivable communications. To be launched by a foreign launch vehicle, originally slated for 2005. Status: Operational 2005. Gross mass: 170 kg (370 lb).
Meshcheryakov, Ivan Vasilyevich - Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Chief 50-TsNII KS military space research institute 1983-1988. Born: 1922.
Mesquito - Single stage solid propellant sounding rocket capable of reaching 95 km altitude. Status: Retired 2009. First Launch: 2008-05-06. Last Launch: 2009-12-16. Number: 3 .
Messenger - American Mercury probe. NASA probe, launched in 2004 with the challenging mission of comprehensively mapping Mercury from orbit between March 2011 and March 2012. Mercury lander built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for NASA, USA. Launched 2004. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-08-03. Last Launch: 2004-08-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Payload: 50 kg (110 lb). Thrust: 666 N (149 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Messerschmid, Ernst Willi - German physicist payload specialist astronaut 1982-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1985. Born: 1945-05-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.03 days.
Messerschmitt - First name of MBB.
Messerschmitt, Willy - German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm GMbH (MBB) - Alternate name for MBB.
Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm GMbH (MBB) - Alternate name of MBB.
MET; METS - Mobile equipment transporter; modularized equipment transport system (for Apollo lunar landing missions)
Metcalf-Lindenburger, Dorothy Marie 'Dottie' - American teacher mission specialist astronaut 2004-2013. Status: Inactive; Active 2004-2013. Born: 1975-05-02. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.12 days.
Metel - Alternate name of 85R.
Metel - Alternate name of 85R Metel.
Meteo - French sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.
Meteo-1 - Solid propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb). More at: Solid
Meteo-MD - Alternate designation for MD-01.
Meteor - Russian earth weather satellite. The first Soviet weather satellite. Development began with a decree of 30 October 1960. The bus was the basis for a series of Russian earth weather satellites flown in three generations 1964-2009. The first generation bus was adapted for earth resource payloads and flown under the Resurs and Priroda designations as well. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-08-28. Last Launch: 2014-07-08. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb).
meteor (definition) - The light resulting from the transition of a solid particle (meteoroid) from space through the Earth's atmosphere, commonly called a "shooting star" or "falling star."
Meteor (USA) - American earth weather satellite. One launch, 1995.10.23, Meteor RV. Meteor commercial microgravity recoverable spacecraft built by EER Systems. Destroyed in failure of first test flight of Conestoga commercial launch vehicle. Status: Operational 1995.
Meteor AAM-N-5 - MIT/Bell 1950's US Navy air-to-air missile. Gross mass: 230 kg (500 lb).
Meteor M 11F614 - Russian earth weather satellite. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. Meteorology satellite built by VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 1964 - 1977. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-03-26. Last Launch: 1977-04-05. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb).
METEOR Microgravity Satellite - Microgravity satellite built by CSTAR (prime), replaced by EER; CTA (service module); Westinghouse Electric Corp. (reentry module) for NASA, USA. Launched 1995. First Launch: 1995-10-23. Last Launch: 1995-10-23. Number: 1 .
Meteor sounding rocket - Family of Polish sounding rockets developed by the Polish Aviation Institute for the Polish Hydro-Meteorological institute beginning in 1962. Status: Retired 1974.
Meteor-1 - Polish sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1963-01-01. Last Launch: 1973-09-15. Number: 110 . Gross mass: 33 kg (72 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13 kg (28 lb). Payload: 4.50 kg (9.90 lb). Thrust: 14.00 kN (3,147 lbf). More at: Solid
Meteor-2 - Russian earth weather satellite. Successor to the Meteor-1 weather satellite. Meteorology satellite built by VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 1975 - 1993. Used SP-1 bus. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-07-11. Last Launch: 1993-08-31. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb).
Meteor-2-GVM - Mass model of Meteor-2 satellite. First Launch: 1978-10-26. Last Launch: 1978-10-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).
Meteor-2H - Polish sounding rocket. Larger version of Meteor, capable of taking twice the payload to twice the altitude. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1968-01-01. Last Launch: 1970-01-01. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 368 kg (811 lb). Unfuelled mass: 126 kg (277 lb). Payload: 4.50 kg (9.90 lb). Thrust: 24.00 kN (5,395 lbf).
Meteor-2K - The most powerful Polish rocket ever flown. 2 stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Meteor 1 + 1 x Meteor-2. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1970-07-10. Last Launch: 1970-10-07. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 420 kg (920 lb). Thrust: 52.00 kN (11,690 lbf). More at: Solid
Meteor-3 - Russian earth weather satellite. Meteor-3 began in 1972 as an improved replacement for the Meteor-2 weather satellite. Meteorology satellite built by VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 1984 - 1994. Used SP-2 bus. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-11-27. Last Launch: 1994-01-25. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb).
Meteor-3 sounding rocket - Polish sounding rocket. Development of the Meteor-3 began in 1967. The two stage vehicle consisted of two modified Meteor-1 stages in tandem. It was launched from a 12-m rail launcher and could take the 4.5 kg dart payload to 65 km. Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1968-10-01. Last Launch: 1974-06-06. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Payload: 4.50 kg (9.90 lb). Thrust: 14.00 kN (3,147 lbf).
Meteor-3M - Russian earth weather satellite. The Meteor-3 weather satellite was to be followed in 1996 by the first of the Meteor-3M class, which was finally put into orbit in 2001. No furthussian earth weather satellite. The Meteor-3 weather satellite was to be followed in 1996 by the first of the Meteor-3M class, which was finally put into orbit in 2001. No further launches, and succeeded by the Meteor-M in 2010. Meteorology satellite built by NPP VNIIEM for Roskosmos, Russia. Launched 2001. Used SP-2 bus. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-12-10. Last Launch: 2001-12-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
Meteorit - Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Development of three variants of this cruise missile was authorized on 9 December 1976. The Meteorit-M strategic version would be deployed from 667M submarines with 12 launchers per boat. The air-launched Meteorit-A would be launched from Tu-95 bombers. The land-based version was designated Meteorit-N. The missile was also sometimes referred to by the code-name Grom. The first test launch, on 20 May 1980, was unsuccessful, as were the next three attempts. The first successful flight did not come until 16 December 1981. The first launch from a 667M submarine took place on 26 December 1983 from the Barents Sea. However all variants were cancelled in 1988 as a result of the INF Treaty. Status: Cancelled 1988.
Meteorit-A - Alternate name of Kh-90.
meteorite - A solid particle from space which enters the Earth's atmosphere and reaches the surface. Meteorites are classified as iron meteorites (siderites) and stone meteorites (aerolites) according to their compositions.
Meteorit-M - Alternate designation for P-750.
Meteor-M - New-generation Russian weather satellite, successor to the Meteor-3M, with new electronics and designed for launch by the Soyuz ST launch vehicle rather than the discontinued Tsiklon-3 and non-Russian Zenit-2. Meteorology satellite built by NPP VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 2009 - 2014. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-09-17. Last Launch: 2009-09-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb).
Meteor-M 3 - Meteorology satellite built by NPP VNIIEM, Russia. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
meteoroid - A solid object moving through interplanetary space of a size considerably smaller than an asteroid and considerably larger than an atom or molecule. When the object glows while traveling through the Earth's atmosphere, it is called a meteor; when it reaches the surface of the Earth, it is called a meteorite.
Meteoroid Technology Satellite - Alternate designation for MTS earth micrometeoroid satellite.
Meteorologischer Dienst der DDR - Alternate name for MDD.
Meteor-Priroda - Code name for Resurs-O1 earth land resources satellite.
Meteor-Priroda - Russian earth land resources satellite. Meteorology, earth observation satellite built by VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 1974 - 1981. Used SP-1 bus. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-07-09. Last Launch: 1981-07-10. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb).
Meteosat - European earth weather satellite. Meteorology satellite built by Aerospatiale for ESA => EUMETSAT, Europe. Launched 1977 - 1997. Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-11-23. Last Launch: 1997-09-02. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 692 kg (1,525 lb).
Meteosat 12, 14, 15, 17 - Alternate name of MTG-I 1, 2, 3, 4 (Meteosat 12, 14, 15, 17).
Meteosat 13, 16 - Alternate name of MTG-S 1, 2 (Meteosat 13, 16 / Sentinel 4A, 4B).
Metis - Russian anti-tank missile.
Metis 9K115 - Russian anti-tank missile. Light antitank guided missile. Gross mass: 5.50 kg (12.10 lb).
Metis 9M115 - Russian anti-tank missile.
Metis 9M116 - Russian anti-tank missile.
Metis-2 - Alternate name of Metis 9M116.
Metis-2 - Alternate name of Metis-M 9K115-2.
Metis-M - Russian anti-tank missile.
Metis-M 9K115-2 - Russian anti-tank missile. Enlarged Metis/AT-7. Gross mass: 13 kg (28 lb).
Metis-M 9M131 - Russian anti-tank missile.
Metop - European earth weather satellite. MetOp was Europe's first polar-orbiting satellite dedicated to operational meteorology. Meteorology satellite built by Astrium for ESA, EUMETSAT, Europe. Launched 2006 - 2012. Used the PPF/SPOT Mk.3 bus. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-10-19. Last Launch: 2006-10-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,093 kg (9,023 lb).
METOP-SG-A 1, 2, 3 - Meteorology satellite built by Airbus Defense and Space for ESA, EUMETSAT. Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
METOP-SG-B 1, 2, 3 - Meteorology satellite built by Airbus Defense and Space for ESA, EUMETSAT. Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
METSAT - Indian earth weather satellite. One launch, 2002.09.12. METSAT was an Indian (ISRO) meteorological, geostationary satellite designed to simultaneously obtain atmospheric cloud cover, water vapor, and temperature data. Status: Operational 2002.
METSAT 1 / Kalpana 1 - Meteorology satellite for ISRO, India. Launched 2002. Used the I-1K (I-1000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2002-09-12. Last Launch: 2002-09-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,060 kg (2,330 lb).
Mettler, Ruben F - American engineer, at TRW 1955-1988, president and COO, 1969-1977; chairman of the board and CEO, 1977-1988. Born: 1924-02-23. Died: 2006-05-23.
Metz, Richard - German Officer. Major General and Commander of V-2 units.
MeV - Abbreviation for million electron volts
MEV 1 - Satellite servicing satellite for Orbital ATK, USA. Used Gemini Bus.
Mexico - Mexico
Mexico astronaut group, 1985 -
Mexico-OSCAR 30 - Alternate name of UNAMSAT A, B (Mexico-OSCAR 30, MO 30).
Mexsat - Domestic Mexican Mobile Satellite Services using 12 Ku-band and 12 C-band transponders. Used the Star bus.
MEXSAT 1, 2 (Centenario, Morelos 3) - Communication satellite built by Boeing Satellite Systems for Secretaria de Communicaciones y Transportes (SCT) of MTxico, Mexico. Launched 2015. Used the BSS-702HP-GEM (Geomobile) bus. First Launch: 2015-05-16. Last Launch: 2015-10-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 5,325 kg (11,739 lb).
MEXSAT 3 (Bicentenario) - Communication satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for Secretaria de Communicaciones y Transportes (SCT) of MTxico, Mexico. Launched 2012. Used the Star-2.4 Bus bus. First Launch: 2012-12-19. Last Launch: 2012-12-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,050 kg (6,720 lb).
Meytarchan, Vyacheslav Georgyevich - Ukrainian scientist cosmonaut, 1996-1996. Status: Inactive. Born: 1965-12-07.
MFD - Japanese Manipulator Flight Demonstration payload contained in the shuttle bay. Demonstrated the performance of a robot arm similar to that later used on the Japanese portion of the ISS. The robot arm was operated by crew members in the Aft Flight Deck of the Shuttle Orbiter using hand controllers. First Launch: 2002-12-11. Last Launch: 2002-12-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
MFD VEP - Vehicle evaluation payload built by Kayser-Threde for Arianespace, Europe. Launched 2002. First Launch: 2002-12-11. Last Launch: 2002-12-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
MFEX - Module of Mars Pathfinder.
MFS - American manned lunar flyer. Study 1965. Bell Aerosystems designed a Manned Flying System for Apollo as a tool for lunar surface exploration. Status: Study 1965. Payload: 136 kg (299 lb).
MFS (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Mission flight schedule
MG-18 - LPC solid rocket engine. Scout X-3M fourth stage. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). More at: Solid
MGA / MAP astronaut group, 1990 - Requirement: pilot cosmonaut for Mir missions. Date: 1991.
MGM - Alternate name of Mars Odyssey.
MGM-1 - Alternate designation for Matador.
MGM-109H - Ramjet missile stage. Status: Retired 1985. Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). More at: Air/Kerosene
MGM-140 - Alternate designation for ATACMS.
MGM-140 Block 1 - US DoD designation for ATACMS.
MGM-140 Block 1 - Alternate designation for Block 1.
MGM-140 Block 1A - US DoD designation for ATACMS.
MGM-140 Block 1A - Alternate designation for Block 1A.
MGM-140 Block 2 - US DoD designation for ATACMS.
MGM-140 Block 2 - Alternate designation for Block 2.
MGM-164 - Alternate designation for ATACMS II.
MGM-18A - Alternate designation for Lacrosse.
MGM-18A - DoD designation for Lacrosse.
MGM-1A - American intermediate range cruise missile.
MGM-1B - American intermediate range cruise missile.
MGM-1C - American intermediate range cruise missile.
MGM-21 - Nord mobile surface-to-surface missile.
MGM-29A - Alternate designation for Sergeant.
MGM-31 - Alternate designation for Pershing.
MGM-31A - Alternate designation for Pershing 1.
MGM-31B - Alternate designation for Pershing 1A.
MGM-31C - Alternate designation for Pershing 2.
MGM-31D - American intermediate range ballistic missile. Cancelled. Pershing II RR Reduced Range
MGM-5 - Alternate designation for Corporal.
MGM-52 - Alternate designation for Lance.
MGM-52A - American short range ballistic missile. Gross mass: 1,527 kg (3,366 lb). Payload: 211 kg (465 lb). Thrust: 186.00 kN (41,814 lbf).
MGM-52C - American short range ballistic missile. Simplified inertial guided, nuclear or conventional warhead
MGM-5A - American short range ballistic missile. First production version.
MGM-5B - American short range ballistic missile. Second production version.
MGR-1 - US Army tactical ballistic rocket version. Status: Active. First Launch: 1951-06-29. Last Launch: 1955-07-28. Number: 438 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
MGR-1 - Alternate designation for Honest John.
MGR-1A - US DoD designation for Honest John.
MGR-1A - American tactical ballistic rocket first deployed version. Gross mass: 2,720 kg (5,990 lb). Payload: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Thrust: 400.10 kN (89,946 lbf).
MGR-1A/B/C - US DoD designation for Honest John.
MGR-1B - American tactical ballistic rocket. Three different warhead sections were possible: M27, M47 and M-48 with yields 2-20-40 kt. M72 training warhead also used. Gross mass: 2,040 kg (4,490 lb). Payload: 737 kg (1,624 lb). Thrust: 382.00 kN (85,877 lbf).
MGR-1B/C - US DoD designation for Honest John.
MGR-3 - Alternate designation for Little John.
MGR-3A - US DoD designation for Little John.
MGS - Alternate name for Mars Global Surveyor.
MGU-250 - Alternate name of Universitetsky (Tatyana, MGU-250, RS 23).
MGWS - American Modular Guided Weapon System bomb.
MHD - Abbreviation for Magneto-hydrodynamic
MHR - Marshall Historical Report
MHz - megahertz (million cycles per second)
mi - mile(s)
MIAN - Mathematics Institute of the Academy of Sciences (Russian abbreviation)
MICA - French air-to-air missile. End of development was Mica IR version. Earlier active radar version tested. Gross mass: 110 kg (240 lb).
Michel, Frank Curtis 'Curt' - American scientist astronaut, 1965-1969. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1969. Born: 1934-06-05. Died: 2015-02-23.
Michel, Josef Martin - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1917-10-19. Died: 1997-06-29.
Michelle-B - American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of TGV Rockets, Bethesda, Maryland. As of 2005, flight testing of the Michelle-B was expected to begin no earlier than 2007. Status: Study 2004. Gross mass: 27,800 kg (61,200 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 194.10 kN (43,635 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Michibiki - Alternate name for DS2000.
Michibiki 1 - Alternate name of QZS 1 (Michibiki 1).
Michibiki 2, 4 - Alternate name of QZS 2, 4 (Michibiki 2, 4).
Michibiki 3 - Alternate name of QZS 3 (Michibiki 3).
Michigan - American agency overseeing development of rockets. University of Michigan, USA.
Michoud - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Michoud, USA.
MICOM - US Army Missile Command
Micon - Swiss rocket family based on a dual-thrust (45 kN then 22 kN) solid propellant motor providing a total impulse of 900 kN-sec.
Micon SAM - Swiss surface-to-air missile using the dual-thrust solid propellant motor. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 798 kg (1,759 lb). Thrust: 57.80 kN (12,994 lbf).
Micon Zenit - Swiss sounding rocket. Sounding rocket using the motor developed for the Micon surface-to-air missile. The Cuckoo was used as a booster on the final two tests. Gross mass: 610 kg (1,340 lb). Payload: 25 kg (55 lb). Thrust: 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf).
MicroCarb - Earth science satellite built by CNES (prime), Airbus Defence and Space (payload) for CNES, France. Used the Myriade bus. Gross mass: 170 kg (370 lb).
Microcosm - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Microcosm, USA.
Microcosm 22N - Microcosm LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. Pressure-fed, ablatively cooled engine using liquid oxygen and jet fuel as propellants. Flown 1999/2001. Status: Hardware. Date: 2000-2004. Thrust: 22.25 kN (5,002 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Microcosm 356N - Microcosm LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. Funded under AFRL SBIR Phase 1 contract of 2006. Ablative chamber, LOX/Jet A propellant engines designed for very low-cost, robust design margins. Status: Hardware. Date: 2000-2004. Thrust: 356.00 kN (80,031 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Microcosm 89N - Microcosm LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. In 2005 tests were conducted of this low-cost ablative composite rocket engine for responsive launch vehicle applications. Status: Hardware. Date: 2000-2004. Thrust: 89.00 kN (20,007 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
MicroCraft - American manufacturer of spacecraft. MicroCraft, USA.
MicroDragon - Technology satellite for VNSC, Vietnam. Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Microlab - Lightning mapper; GPS radio occultation. . Used the Microstar bus.
MicroLab 1 - Alternate name of OrbView 1 (MicroLab 1).
Micro-Lab-Sat 1 - Alternate name of LabSat 1 (Micro-Lab-Sat 1).
MicroMAS - Earth observation, technology satellite for Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Space Systems Laboratory (MIT SSL), USA. Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2014-07-13. Last Launch: 2014-07-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
MicroMAS - Three-axis stabilized 3U Cubesat by the Space Systems Laboratory. Carried an MIT Lincoln Laboratory microwave radiometer payload.
MicroMAS 2a, 2b - Earth observation, technology satellite for Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Space Systems Laboratory (MIT SSL), USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
MIcro-Measurements Of Satellite Acceleration - Alternate designation for Mimosa earth atmosphere satellite.
Micron 1 (KS5MF2, MS-1-TK) - Ocean Observation satellite built by Yuzhnoye for NKAU, Ukraine. Launched 2004. First Launch: 2004-12-24. Last Launch: 2004-12-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 66 kg (145 lb).
Microsat - Amateur radio satellite in Oscar series.
Microsat - American military communications satellite. Satellites used in a DARPA test of an LEO quick-reaction network for global communications. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-07-17. Last Launch: 1991-07-17. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
Microsat (SCS) - Experimental communication satellite built by DSI for DARPA, USA. Launched 1991. First Launch: 1991-07-17. Last Launch: 1991-07-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
MicroSat 1a, 1b - Experimental Communication satellite for SpaceX, USA.
MicroSat 2a, 2b - Experimental Communication satellite for SpaceX, USA. Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb).
Microsat SSTL - Alternate manufacturer's designation for the first three launches of the MicroSat-70 spacecraft bus.
Microsat SSTL - Alternate designation for SSTL-70.
MicroSat-100 - British microsatellite bus. Enlarged version of the basic Surrey Microsat-70 bus. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-11-28. Last Launch: 2012-07-22. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Payload: 40 kg (88 lb).
MicroSat-70 - Alternate manufacturer's designation for the SSTL-70 spacecraft bus.
Microsatellite Technology Experiment - Alternate designation for Mitex military anti-satellite system.
MicroSats - American manufacturer. MicroSats, USA.
MICROSCOPE - Science satellite for CNES, France. Launched 2016. Used the Myriade bus. First Launch: 2016-04-25. Last Launch: 2016-04-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 303 kg (668 lb).
Micro-Space - Micro-Space.
Microstar - Manufacturer's satellite bus designation for Teledesic and [Teledesic] communications satellite.
Microstar - American communications technology satellite. Small satellite bus, specially designed for multiple launch by Pegasus or Taurus family launch vehicles. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-04-03. Last Launch: 2008-10-19. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 43 kg (94 lb).
Microstar sounding rocket - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1992-08-22. Last Launch: 1992-08-22. Number: 1 .
MicroStar-1 - ?Constellation satellite bus for use in ?LEO orbit and launch by ?Rideshare, Pegasus or Minotaur I. Lifetime ?1-3 years and delivery possible ?12-15 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 360W Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 15 kg (33 lb).
Microvariability and Oscillations Of STars - Alternate designation for Most visible astronomy satellite.
Midas - American military early warning satellite. Part of a then-secret USAF program known as WS-117L, the MIDAS (Missile Defense Alarm System) program began in November 1958. Early Warning satellite built by Lockheed (prime), Aerojet-General (payload) for USAF, USA. Launched 1962 - 1963. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-02-26. Last Launch: 1966-10-05. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 1,840 kg (4,050 lb).
MIDAS 1, 2 (MIDAS Series 1) - Early Warning satellite built by Lockheed (prime), Aerojet-General (payload) for USAF, USA. Launched 1960. First Launch: 1960-02-26. Last Launch: 1960-05-24. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb).
MIDAS 3, 4, 5 (MIDAS Series 2) - Early Warning satellite built by Lockheed (prime), Baird-Atomic (payload) for USAF, USA. Launched 1961 - 1962. First Launch: 1961-07-12. Last Launch: 1962-04-09. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
MIDAS Series 1 - Alternate name of MIDAS 1, 2 (MIDAS Series 1).
MIDAS Series 2 - Alternate name of MIDAS 3, 4, 5 (MIDAS Series 2).
MIDAS-RTS-1 1, 2, 3 - Alternate name of RTS-1 1, 2, 3 (MIDAS-RTS-1 1, 2, 3 / AFP-461).
Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport - Alternate name for Wallops Island.
Midcourse Space Experiment - Alternate designation for MSX military strategic defense satellite.
MIDEX 6 - Alternate name of WISE( NEOWISE (MIDEX 6).
Midgetman - Alternate designation for SICBM.
Midgetman - American intercontinental ballistic missile. Early 1960's two-stage version of Minuteman. Status: Cancelled 1962.
Midgetman MGM-134 - Martin Marietta mobile surface-to-surface missile.
Midori - Alternate name for Adeos.
Midori 2 - Alternate name of ADEOS 2 (Midori 2).
Midstar - American technology satellite. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-03-09. Last Launch: 2007-03-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 120 kg (260 lb).
MidSTAR 1 - Technology satellite for U.S. Naval Academy, USA. Launched 2007. Used Midstar-1 mod.1 bus. First Launch: 2007-03-09. Last Launch: 2007-03-09. Number: 1 .
MidSTAR 2 - Technology satellite for U.S. Naval Academy. Used Midstar-1 mod.1 bus.
Midway - Midway Island is approximately half way between North America and Asia. The uninhabited place was seized as an American possession in 1903 to provide a base for the first transpacific cable. It was later developed into a naval air station and figured importantly in early military and commercial aviation as a refuelling point for transpacific flights. It consists of two major atolls, Sand Island and Eastern Island, both of them almost entirely taken up by airfields.
Midway Island NDZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone north of Midway, 1500 km from Shemya. First Launch: 2004-05-03. Last Launch: 2009-12-11. Number: 2 .
Midway Island SDZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone south of Midway. First Launch: 2005-09-26. Last Launch: 2005-09-26. Number: 1 .
MiG - Russian manufacturer of aircraft and spacecraft. Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau, Russia.
MiG 105-11 - Russian manned spaceplane. 8 launches, 1976.10.11 to 1978.09.15 . Atmospheric flight test version of the Spiral OS manned spaceplane. The 105-11 incorporated the airframe and some of the systems of the planned orbital version. Status: Operational 1976. Gross mass: 4,220 kg (9,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,720 kg (8,200 lb). Thrust: 14.70 kN (3,305 lbf).
MiG-2000 - Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched single stage to orbit vehicle with air-breathing propulsion to Mach 5 (subsonic combustion). The sled would accelerate the launch vehicle to Mach 0.8. Propellants were slush hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The vehicle would have a 3000 km cross-range on re-entry. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 300,000 kg (660,000 lb). Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb).
MiG-25 - Mach 3 rocket launch aircraft. Mikoyan Interceptor-cropped delta. Maximum release conditions: Wing mounted, 750 kg (6.3 m length x 2.2 m wingspan) at 3,161 kph at 24,000 m altitude Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 32,136 kg (70,847 lb). Unfuelled mass: 19,995 kg (44,081 lb). Payload: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Thrust: 182.34 kN (40,993 lbf). More at: Air/Kerosene
MiG-31NS - Russian air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Orbital launch vehicle air-launched from a MiG-31 fighter. Status: Study 2000.
MIGAKS - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Turbojet/ramjet-powered two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing vehicle. Mach 6 stage separation. The orbiter had a 2000 km cross-range capability with landing on airfields with runways of 3500 m length or more. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 420,000 kg (920,000 lb). Payload: 12,600 kg (27,700 lb).
Mighty Mouse - Alternate designation for FFAR.
Mighty Mouse 2.75-inch FFAR - NOTS 1950's US Navy unguided air-launched rocket.
Mightysat - Series of USAF Philips Laboratory/Space Experiments Directorate technology demonstration satellites.
MightySat 1 - American military technology satellite. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-12-04. Last Launch: 1998-12-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 320 kg (700 lb).
Mightysat 1 (P97-2) - Experimental satellite built by CTA => Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for USAF Phillips Laboratory / STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1998. First Launch: 1998-12-04. Last Launch: 1998-12-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 68 kg (149 lb).
Mightysat-2 (P99-1) - Experimental satellite built by Spectrum Astro for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 2000. Used the SA-200B bus. First Launch: 2000-07-19. Last Launch: 2000-07-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 124 kg (273 lb).
MIHT-1 - MIHT solid rocket engine. Start-1. In production. Used in Start-1. Estimated values. First flight 1993. Solid propellant rocket stage. All estimated. Start first stage. Status: In production. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 26,000 kg (57,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 980.60 kN (220,448 lbf). More at: Solid
MIHT-2 - solid rocket engine. Start-2. In production. Used in Start-2. Estimated values. First flight 1993. Solid propellant rocket stage. All estimated except stage gross mass. Start second stage. Status: In production. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 490.30 kN (110,224 lbf). More at: Solid
MIHT-3 - MIHT solid rocket engine. Start-3. In production. Used in Start-3. Estimated values. First flight 1993. Solid propellant rocket stage. All estimated. Status: In production. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 245.20 kN (55,123 lbf). More at: Solid
MIHT-4 - MIHT solid rocket engine. Start-4. In production. Used in Start-4. Estimated values. First flight 1993. Solid propellant rocket stage. All estimated. Status: In production. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 9.80 kN (2,203 lbf). More at: Solid
MIK - Assembly and Test Building (Russian abbreviation)
Mikhailov, Gennady - Russian phantom cosmonaut, said to have died 1962.01.24, reported by Cordiglia brothers in 1962 and later Edwards book. Based on 1959 photo of high altitude equipment tester. Died: 1961-02-04.
Mikoyan 301 - Russian intermediate range cruise missile. The 301 was designed as a military bomber, with a Mach 4 / 4,250 km/hr cruise capability at 25,000 to 27,000 m altitude. It was equipped with two turboramjets, had a gross takeoff mass of 80 metric tons, of which half was fuel. It may be related to the first stage of the MIGAKS two-stage vehicle. Status: Design 1989. Gross mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb).
Mikoyan, Andrei - Russian phantom cosmonaut. Story made rounds at ESA in 2000 of two Russian cosmonauts that died in 1969 on lunar landing attempt. Source was TV series, 'The Cape', episode 'Buried in Peace', aired 1996.10.28. Died: 1969-07-01.
Mikoyan, Artem Ivanovich - Russian Chief Designer, brother of Stalin's foreign minister, headed MiG design bureau, preeminent manufacturer of light Soviet fighters. Dabbled in rocketplanes and built and flew the MiG-105 Spiral spaceplane. Born: 1905-08-05. Died: 1970-12-09.
Mikron - Code name for MS-1 earth land resources satellite.
Milan - French anti-tank missile. Antitank, medium-range. Joint Franco-German weapon. Also Milan 2T/3. Status: Operational 1973. Gross mass: 6.80 kg (14.90 lb).
Milan 2 - Alternate name of Milan.
Milan2 - Alternate name of Milan.
Milas - Italian anti-submarine missile. Pre-production. Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
Milde, Hans Walter - German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. After the war worked at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland. Died at Grant, Alabama. Born: 1909-07-03. Died: 1990-09-15.
Milekhin, Yuri Mikhailovich - Russian engineer. From 1996 General Director of the Soyuz Federal Centre for Dual Technology in Dzerzhinskiy The primary Russian designer of solid propellant motors.
Milena - Name of one Galileo Navsat.
Military - Category of spacecraft.
Military Aircraft & Missile System - Military Aircraft & Missile System.
Military anti-satellite system - Category of spacecraft.
Military communications sat - Category of spacecraft.
Military early warning sat - Category of spacecraft.
Military naval signals reconnsat - Category of spacecraft.
Military orbital bombardment sat - Category of spacecraft.
Military satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Military Spaceflight Engineer Astronaut - Astronauts trained for military spaceflight but not to pilot spacecraft.
Military store-dump comsat - Category of spacecraft.
Military Strategic and Tactical Relay System - Alternate designation for Milstar military communications satellite.
Military strategic defense sat - Category of spacecraft.
Military surveillance radarsat - Category of spacecraft.
Military surveillance sat - Category of spacecraft.
Military target sat - Category of spacecraft.
Military technology sat - Category of spacecraft.
Millennium Express - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Space Systems Division proposal for the 1990 SDIO competition was a VTOL SSTO named Millennium Express. The final vehicle was a 15 degree cone with a 20%-length Rocketdyne aerospike engine. Payload was specified as 4500 kg into a polar low earth orbit. The Express could carry on its nose a payload module, a small Apollo-type two-crew separable manned capsule, or a six-crew module that remained attached to the vehicle for recovery. The similar Douglas Delta Clipper was selected by the USAF for further development. Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 576,000 kg (1,269,000 lb). Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Millikan, Robert A - American physicist, Nobel prize winner, did early research on cosmic rays, built Caltech into preeminent engineering school. Born: 1868. Died: 1953-01-01.
Millinger, Heinz Albert - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Later returned to Germany; as of 2008 living in Marburg, Germany. Born: 1920-05-07.
Milstar - American military communications satellite. Milstar was a series of advanced US military communications satellites designed to provide global jam-resistant communications for military users. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-02-07. Last Launch: 2003-04-08. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Milstar 1, 2 - Alternate name of Milstar-1 1, 2 (Milstar 1, 2).
Milstar 3, 4, 5, 6 - Alternate name of Milstar-2 1, 2, 3, 4 (Milstar 3, 4, 5, 6).
Milstar-1 1, 2 (Milstar 1, 2) - Comsat satellite built by Lockheed Martin (Bus), TRW (LDR payload) for USAF, USA. Launched 1994 - 1995. Used the Milstar Bus bus. First Launch: 1994-02-07. Last Launch: 1995-11-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Milstar-2 1, 2, 3, 4 (Milstar 3, 4, 5, 6) - Comsat satellite built by Lockheed Martin (Bus), TRW (LDR payload), Hughes / Boeing (MDR payload) for USAF, USA. Launched 1999 - 2003. Used the Milstar Bus bus. First Launch: 1999-04-30. Last Launch: 2003-04-08. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
MIM-104 - Alternate designation for Patriot.
MIM-104A - Alternate designation for PAC-3.
MIM-104A - American surface-to-air missile. Command-guided / semi-active radar-homing. Range 160 km in PAC-1 with software changes. PAC-2 modification with bigger warhead. Gross mass: 902 kg (1,988 lb). Payload: 90 kg (198 lb).
MIM-14 - Alternate designation for Nike Hercules.
MIM-14A - American surface-to-air missile. W31 Mod 2 warhead. Two different warhead sections were possible: M22 and M97, with yields of 1-20-40 kt. Gross mass: 4,530 kg (9,980 lb). Payload: 510 kg (1,120 lb). Thrust: 775.00 kN (174,226 lbf).
MIM-14B - American surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
MIM-23 - Alternate designation for Hawk.
MIM-23A - American surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 587 kg (1,294 lb). Payload: 74 kg (163 lb).
MIM-23B - American surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 623 kg (1,373 lb). Payload: 81 kg (178 lb).
MIM-3A - Alternate designation for Nike Ajax.
Mimosa - Czech earth atmosphere satellite. Satellite by the Czech Astronomical Institute for study of the density of the upper atmosphere using the sensitive Macek accelerometer. Atmosphere density satellite built by Space Devices Ltd. of Praha for Astronomical Insitute of the Czech Academy of Sciences (Astronomicky ustav AV CR), Czechoslovakia. Launched 2003. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-06-30. Last Launch: 2003-06-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 66 kg (145 lb).
min - minute(s)
Min Guirong - Chinese Engineer. Spacecraft thermal control specialist.
Minakh - Syrian missile base north of Alleppo. First Launch: 2001-07-01. Last Launch: 2005-05-27. Number: 4 .
Minerva II - Attached to Hayabusa-2 Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-12-03. Last Launch: 2014-12-03. Number: 3 .
Mini Space Station - European manned space station. Potential European independent space station consisting of two docked ATV's with additional life support systems. Status: Study 2000. Gross mass: 38,000 kg (83,000 lb).
Minibus - British technology satellite. Study 1999. UoSAT-12 was the first test of the Minibus platform, at 325 kg a larger spacecraft than earlier 50 kg Surrey UoSATs. It carried a mobile radio experiment (MERLION), a GPS receiver, and imaging cameras. Status: Study 1999. Gross mass: 325 kg (716 lb).
Minisat - Spanish technology satellite. The Minisat spacecraft were built for the Spanish space Agency by CASA. Experimental satellite built by CASA for INTA, Spain. Launched 1997. Used Minisat-0 Bus. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-04-21. Last Launch: 1997-04-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 209 kg (460 lb).
Minisat SSTL - Alternate manufacturer's designation for MiniSat-400 technology satellite.
MiniSat-400 - British technology satellite. Basic Surrey Minisat bus. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-04-21. Last Launch: 1999-04-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Payload: 200 kg (440 lb).
Minisatellite-SSB - Joint project between the French space agency CNES and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) for ocean studies. Carried the Altika Ka-band altimeter. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-02-25. Last Launch: 2013-02-25. Number: 1 .
Mini-shuttle - American manned rocketplane. Study 1972. In August 1972 it was proposed to test a subscale version of the shuttle to test the aerodynamics. The 13,750 kg vehicle would be 11 m long and have a wingspan of 7 m. Status: Study 1972. Gross mass: 13,750 kg (30,310 lb). More at: Lox/Ammonia
MiniSil - Project for On-Board Autonomy technology satellite. Launched 2009.11.02, Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-11-02. Last Launch: 2009-11-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb).
Ministerstvo Voenniy Sili? - Alternate name for MVS.
Ministry of Aviation Industry - Alternate name for MAI.
Ministry of Defence, London - Alternate name for MoD.
Minning, Rudolf Friedrich Franz - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1914-05-08. Died: 1998-09-11.
MinOboroni - Alternate name for MO.
Minobshchemash - Alternate name for MOM.
Minot AFB - Minuteman ICBM base.
Minot AFB Site N-01 -
Minot AFB Site O-01 -
Minotaur - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Minotaur was developed for the US Air Force's Orbital/Suborbital Program (OSP) as a low-cost, four-stage Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) using a combination of government-supplied surplus Minuteman II ICBM motors and proven Orbital space launch technologies. The Minotaur 4 version used surplus Peacekeeper rocket stages. Status: Active. Gross mass: 36,200 kg (79,800 lb). Payload: 640 kg (1,410 lb). Thrust: 720.00 kN (161,860 lbf).
Minotaur 1 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Orbital launch vehicle consisting of a surplus Minuteman M55A1 first stage, Minuteman SR19 second stage, and new Orion 50XL third stage, Orion 38 fourth stage, and optional HAPS fifth stage for velocity trim and multiple payload deployment. Payload 580 kg to an 185 km, 28.5 degree orbit from Cape Canaveral; 310 kg to a 740 km sun-synchronous orbit from Vandenberg. Status: Active. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2013-11-20. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 36,300 kg (80,000 lb). Thrust: 340.00 kN (76,430 lbf).
Minotaur 2 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Suborbital target vehicle consisting of an M55A1 first stage, SR19 second stage, and M57 third stage - essentially a Minuteman II with Orbital guidance and control systems. 440 kg payload on a 6700 km suborbital trajectory. Status: Active. First Launch: 2000-05-28. Last Launch: 2008-09-24. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 33,100 kg (72,900 lb).
Minotaur 4 - Alternate designation for Minotaur IV.
Minotaur IV - Orbital launch vehicle using surplus Peacekeeper rocket stages: an SR-118 first stage, SR-119 second stage, SR-120 third stage, new Orion 38 fourth stage and optional HAPS fifth stage. Payload 1720 kg to an 185 km, 28.5 degree orbit from Cape Canaveral; 1000 kg to a 740 km sun-synchronous orbit from Vandenberg. Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-09-30. Last Launch: 2010-11-20. Number: 2 .
Minotaur IV Lite - American launch vehicle. 3 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SR118 + 1 x SR119 + 1 x SR120. Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-04-23. Last Launch: 2011-08-11. Number: 2 .
Minotaur IV-Plus - Uprated Minotaur IV with an ATK Star 48V motor replacing the Orion 38 upper stage. Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-09-27. Last Launch: 2011-09-27. Number: 1 .
Minotaur V - American test vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SR118 + 1 x SR119 + 1 x SR120 + 1 x Star 48V + 1 x Star 37FM. Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-09-07. Last Launch: 2013-09-07. Number: 1 .
Minotaur-1 HAPS (Minotaur-I HAPS, OSP-SLV) - American suborbital test vehicle.
Minotaur-2+ (Minotaur-II+, OSP-TLV) - American suborbital test vehicle.
Minotaur-3 (Minotaur-III, OSP-2 Peacekeeper TLV) - American suborbital test vehicle.
Minotaur-4 Orion-38 (Minotaur-IV Orion-38, OSP-2 Peacekeeper SLV) - American suborbital test vehicle.
Minotaur-6 (Minotaur-VI, OSP-2 Peacekeeper SLV) - American suborbital test vehicle.
Minotaur-6-plus (Minotaur-VI+, OSP-2 Peacekeeper SLV) - American suborbital test vehicle.
Minotaur-I HAPS - Alternate name of Minotaur-1 HAPS (Minotaur-I HAPS, OSP-SLV).
Minotaur-II+ - Alternate name of Minotaur-2+ (Minotaur-II+, OSP-TLV).
Minotaur-III - Alternate name of Minotaur-3 (Minotaur-III, OSP-2 Peacekeeper TLV).
Minotaur-IV Orion-38 - Alternate name of Minotaur-4 Orion-38 (Minotaur-IV Orion-38, OSP-2 Peacekeeper SLV).
Minotaur-VI - Alternate name of Minotaur-6 (Minotaur-VI, OSP-2 Peacekeeper SLV).
Minuteman - American intercontinental ballistic missile. Mainstay of the US deterrent. 1,000 Minuteman silos were built in the early 1960's, and the missile was to remain in service to the mid-21st Century. As versions were retired and updated, they provided a plentiful source of surplus rocket motors for other projects, notably targets for anti-ballistic missile tests. Status: Retired 1993.
Minuteman 1 - First test version of the Minuteman ICBM. Succeeded by the Minuteman 1A in initial production. Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1970-03-14. Last Launch: 1974-10-24. Number: 2 .
Minuteman 1 - Alternate designation for LGM-30C.
Minuteman 1A - American intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial production version, 3 stage vehicle. The Minuteman IA used exclusively the Mk.5 RV with the W59 (1 MT) warhead. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1959-09-15. Last Launch: 1966-10-03. Number: 82 . Gross mass: 31,704 kg (69,895 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 756.00 kN (169,955 lbf).
Minuteman 1A T - American intercontinental ballistic missile. Single stage test vehicle. Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Thrust: 935.00 kN (210,196 lbf).
Minuteman 1A T-1 - Alternate name for M55A1.
Minuteman 1B - American intercontinental ballistic missile. Full production version. Minuteman IB used the Mk.5 RV with the W59 (1 MT), the Mk.11 with the W56 (1.2 MT) and the Mk.11A with the W56 as well. Status: Retired 1993. First Launch: 1962-12-07. Last Launch: 1993-06-15. Number: 298 . Gross mass: 31,704 kg (69,895 lb). Payload: 590 kg (1,300 lb). Thrust: 756.00 kN (169,955 lbf).
Minuteman 2 - American intercontinental ballistic missile. US ICBM. 3 stage vehicle. The LGM-30F Minuteman II used the W56 warhead exclusively with either the Mk. 11B or Mk. 11C re-entry vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1964-09-24. Last Launch: 2001-07-15. Number: 189 . Gross mass: 33,014 kg (72,783 lb). Payload: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Thrust: 780.00 kN (175,350 lbf).
Minuteman 2 PLV - American target missile. Launch vehicle using surplus missile motors. PLV was part of the Boeing Lead System Integration (LSI) effort on the National Missile Defense (NMD) program. Lockheed Martin was the manufacturer and prime integrator. PLV used elements first seen on the ERIS program. Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-06-24. Last Launch: 2002-12-11. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf).
Minuteman 2-2 - Alternate name for SR19.
Minuteman 3 - American four-stage solid-propellant intercontinental ballistic missile. In the 21st Century, the sole remaining US ICBM. Status: Active. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 2017-02-09. Number: 299 . Gross mass: 35,400 kg (78,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 935.00 kN (210,196 lbf).
Minuteman ERCS - American strategic communications missile.
Minuteman II - Alternate designation for Midgetman.
Minuteman-1 - Alternate name for M55/TX-55/Tu-122.
MinXSS 1, 2 (Helio 4) - Research, solar satellite built by University of Colorado at Boulder for University of Colorado at Boulder, USA. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2015-12-06. Last Launch: 2015-12-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
MIP - Indian lunar impact probe. Moon Impact Probe, released from Chandraayan-1 in lunar orbit. The MIP fired its own deorbit motor and impacted the moon near the Shackleton Crater at the south pole. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-10-22. Last Launch: 2008-10-22. Number: 1 .
MiR - Technology testbed built by Reshetnev with the Siberian State Aerospace University, Krasnoyarsk. Used Yubeleiniy bus.
Mir - The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space program. The core module was launched on 1986-02-20. It was built to last only five years, and consisted of a station core derived from the Salyut space station, with docking ports to accomodate additional modules for specialized research. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were were delivered years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. The Mir complex in the end consisting of 7 modules with 11.5 metric tons of scientific equipment. It cost $220 to $240 million per year to keep in operation. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-02-19. Last Launch: 1986-02-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 19,800 kg (43,600 lb). Thrust: 5.88 kN (1,322 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Mir / DOS 7 - Space station core module satellite operated by MOM → RKA, Russia. Launched 1986. First Launch: 1986-02-19. Last Launch: 1986-02-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb).
Mir 92 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-14 Mir 92.
Mir 97 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-25 Mir 97.
Mir Altair - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-17 Altair.
Mir Antares - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-15 Antares.
Mir Aragatz - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-7 Aragatz.
Mir Austromir - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-13 Austromir.
Mir Cassiopee - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-24 Cassiopee.
Mir complex - Russian manned space station. Assembled 1986 to 1996. Designation given to the entire Mir space station. Status: Operational 1986.
Mir EO-1 - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-15 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-10 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-13 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-11 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-14 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-12 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-15 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-13 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-16 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-14 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-17 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-15 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-18 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-16 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-19 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-17 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-20 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-18 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-21 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-19 - Alternate name for STS-71 Mir EO-19.
Mir EO-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-2 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-20 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-22 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-21 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-23 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-22 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-24 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-23 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-25 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-24 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-26 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-25 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-27 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-26 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-28 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-26/-27 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27.
Mir EO-27 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-29 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-28 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-30 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-3 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-4 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-4 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-7 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-5 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-8 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-6 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-9 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-7 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-10 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-8 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-11 manned spaceflight.
Mir EO-9 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-12 manned spaceflight.
Mir EP-1 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-3 Mir EP-1.
Mir EP-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-5 manned spaceflight.
Mir EP-3 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-6 manned spaceflight.
Mir EP-4 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-28 Mir EP-4.
Mir Euromir 94 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-20 Euromir 94.
Mir Euromir 95 - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-22.
Mir Euromir 95 - Alternate designation for Mir EO-20 manned spaceflight.
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Mir Juno - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-12 Juno.
Mir Kosmoreporter - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-11 Kosmoreporter.
Mir LD-1 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-2 Mir LD-1.
Mir LD-2 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-6 Mir LD-2.
Mir LD-3 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3.
Mir LD-4 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-18 Mir LD-4.
Mir LII-1 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-4 LII-1.
Mir Modules-FGB - Russian manned space station. Study 1985. Space station modules derived from the Chelomei TKS ferry. See entries for Kvant-2, Priroda, Spektr, and Kristall for details on each. Status: Study 1985.
Mir NASA-1 - Alternate name for STS-76 Mir NASA-1.
Mir NASA-2 - Alternate name for STS-79 Mir NASA-2.
Mir NASA-3 - Alternate name for STS-81 Mir NASA-3.
Mir NASA-4 - Alternate name for STS-84 Mir NASA-4.
Mir NASA-5 - Alternate name for STS-86 Mir NASA-5.
Mir NASA-6 - Alternate name for STS-89 Mir NASA-6.
Mir Pegase - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-27 Mir Pegase.
Mir Perseus - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-29.
Mir Perseus - Alternate designation for Mir EO-27 manned spaceflight.
Mir Stefanik - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-29 Mir Stefanik.
Mir-2 - Russian manned space station. Study 1989. The Mir-2 space station was originally authorized in the February 1976 resolution setting forth plans for development of third generation Soviet space systems. Status: Study 1989. Gross mass: 450,000 kg (990,000 lb).
Mir-2 KB Salyut - Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1988. Alternative design for the Mir-2 space station by KB Salyut. If Polyus had successfully made it to orbit, it might have been the core for such a station. Status: Cancelled 1988.
MIR-29 - Planned EO-29 long-duration crew for Mir. Cancelled due to financial reasons following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Prime crew Sharipov and Vinogradov; Backup crew Musabayev and Baturin. Launched: 2000-11-30.
MIR-30 - Planned EO-30 long-duration crew for Mir. Cancelled in November 2000 for financial reasons following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Prime crew Musabayev and Baturin. Launched: 2001-02-28.
Mirage 4A - Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Dassault Bomber-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Belly mounted, 7,256 kg at 2,345 kph at 20,000 m altitude Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 26,213 kg (57,789 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14,494 kg (31,953 lb). Payload: 7,256 kg (15,996 lb). Thrust: 96.05 kN (21,592 lbf). More at: Air/Kerosene
Mirak - Alternate designation for ARS.
Mirak - Mirak - a 'Minimum Rocket' - was conceived by Rudolf Nebel to demonstrate the practicality of the liquid rocket, using the thrust chamber developed for the abandoned Oberth rocket. Mirak was realized not by Nebel, but talented engineer Riedel. It flew over 100 times in 1931-1932 and convinced the German Army of the practicality of the rocket as a weapon of war. Status: Retired 1932. First Launch: 1931-05-10. Last Launch: 1932-08-01. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Thrust: 588 N (132 lbf).
Miranda - British technology satellite. Satellite technology. Anticipated life: longer than 50 years. Technology satellite built by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics, Ltd., UK. Launched 1974. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-03-09. Last Launch: 1974-03-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 93 kg (205 lb).
Miranda VRSS - Chinese remote sensing satellite delivered for Venezuela into a sun-synchronous orbit. Originally designated VRSS-1 (Venezuela Remote Sensing Satellite 1), it was renamed Miranda in orbit after Sebastian Francisco de Miranda Rodriguez. Used the CAST2000 bus.
MiRaTA - Earth observation, technology satellite for Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Lincoln Laboratory, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
MIRAX - Astronomy, X-Ray satellite for INPE, Brazil. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
Mirka - German re-entry vehicle technology satellite. German miniature re-entry vehicle attached to exterior of Russian Resurs satellite. After release from Resurs landed in Kazakhstan Oct 23. Reentry Technology satellite built by Kayser-Threde, DASA for DARA, Germany. Launched 1997. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-10-09. Last Launch: 1997-10-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 154 kg (339 lb).
Mirniy - Alternate name for Plesetsk launch site.
Mir-Shuttle Docking Module - Russian manned space station. A specialized SO docking module was originally designed for docking the Buran space shuttle with the Mir-2 space station. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-11-12. Last Launch: 1995-11-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6,134 kg (13,523 lb).
Mishin astronaut group, 1966 -
Mishin, Vasili Pavlovich - Soviet Chief Designer, superseding Korolev, 1966-1974. Led the bureau in the flight test stages of the L1 and N1-L3 manned lunar programs, the Soyuz, and the Salyut space station. Replaced by Glushko after failures in all of these programs. Born: 1917-01-18. Died: 2001-10-10.
MisrSat - MisrSat/Egyptsat carried an imaging payload for Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences. Used the MS-1 bus.
MisrSat 1 - Alternate name of EgyptSat 1 (MisrSat 1).
MisrSat 2 - Alternate name of EgyptSat 2 (MisrSat 2).
MisrSat A - Alternate name of EgyptSat A (MisrSat A).
MISS Flight 1 - In the USAF Man-In-Space Soonest program plan issued on 15 June 1958 targeted the first manned flight for April 1960. Ten days later the first astronaut group was identified - consisting of Robert Walker, Scott Crossfield, Neil Armstrong, and Robert Rushworth. But a month later the project was stopped, and NASA was handed the program in September 1959. NASA's project Mercury wouldn't orbit an American until 1962. Launched: October 1960.
Missile Defense Alarm System - Alternate designation for Midas military early warning satellite.
Missile Division (NK MPAF) Choson MIK - Alternate name for CMIK.
Mission Module - Alternate name for MM.
Mission Module - Alternate name for MOL MM.
Mission Specialist Astronaut - Astronauts trained for spaceflight but not to pilot spacecraft.
MIST - Technology, thermospheric research satellite built by Luleċ Tekniska Universitet, Open Cosmos for Luleċ Tekniska Universitet, Sweden. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Mistral - French surface-to-air missile. Operational. Gross mass: 20 kg (43 lb). Payload: 3.20 kg (7.00 lb).
Misty - American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. Reconnaissance, electro-optical, stealth satellite built by Lockheed Martin for NRO, USA. Launched 1990 - 1999. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-02-28. Last Launch: 1999-05-22. Number: 2 .
Misurkin, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, VVS and PVO 4th Army (Rostov-on-Don; North-Caucasian VO) Status: Active 2006-on. Born: 1977-09-23. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 166.26 days.
MIT - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
MIT - First name of Lincoln.
MITA - Italian technology satellite. MITA was an Italian Space Agency experimental microsatellite built by Carlo Gavazzi Space of Milano and carried the NINA particle detector and an experimental attitude control system. Technology, Science (cosmic rays) satellite built by Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA for ASI, Italy. Launched 2000. Used MITA-Bus. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-07-15. Last Launch: 2000-07-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 170 kg (370 lb).
Mitchell, Edgar Dean 'Ed' - American pilot astronaut 1966-1972. Sixth person to walk on the moon. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1972. Born: 1930-09-17. Died: 2016-02-04. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.00 days.
Mitchell, Elliott - American engineer, involved at USN with solid rocket development, 1942-1958, chief of the solid rocket development program 1958-1961. Important role in development of Polaris.
MITE - American Micro Tactical Expendable air vehicles for US Navy applications.
MiTEE 1 - Technology satellite for University of Michigan, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus.
Mitex - American military anti-satellite system. 3 launched, 2006.06.21 (USA 187) to (USA 189). Technology satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corp. (OSC) for DARPA, USA. Launched 2006. Used the Aquila-Bus bus. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-06-21. Last Launch: 2006-06-21. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 250 kg (550 lb).
MITEx B - Technology satellite built by Lockheed Martin for DARPA, USA. Launched 2006. First Launch: 2006-06-21. Last Launch: 2006-06-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 225 kg (496 lb).
MITEx Upper Stage - Technology satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for DARPA, USA. Launched 2006. First Launch: 2006-06-21. Last Launch: 2006-06-21. Number: 1 .
Mitkov, Andrei - Russian phantom cosmonaut. In 1959 Italian news reported a series of cosmonaut deaths on suborbital flights, among these Mitkov. No historical evidence ever emerged of any Soviet suborbital flights. Died: 1959-01-01.
Mitsub. - Mitsubishi, Japan, Japan
Mitsubishi - Japanese manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Mitsubishi Electric Corp, Japan.
Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki-gaisha, Kamakura Works - Alternate name for Melco.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - First name of Mitsubishi.
Mittauer, Richard T - American journalist, worked in NASA public information 1959-1972. Born: 1927-06-20. Died: 1973-07-01.
MJ-2 - Alternate name of Mercury-Jupiter 2 (MJ-2).
MK - The Mikron microsatellite was equipped with a small visible range video camera. The information from the satellite was to be used to provide remote sensing of topography and meteorology. Used the MS-1 bus.
MK - Interplanetary spacecraft (Russian abbreviation)
Mk 104 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. SM-3 second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 128 kg (282 lb). More at: Solid
Mk 17 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Sidewinder-Arcas first stage. Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Thrust: 17.70 kN (3,979 lbf). More at: Solid
MK 2 - Alternate name of ASROC RUR-5.
Mk 30 - ARC solid rocket engine. SM-1ER second stage. Status: Retired 1995. Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). More at: Solid
Mk 36 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Sidewinder-Raven first stage. Status: Retired 1964. Gross mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18 kg (39 lb). More at: Solid
Mk 39 - Texas Instruments solid rocket engine for Shrike missile. CleanSweep IIIB first stage. Status: Retired 1966. More at: Solid
Mk 6 Mod 3 - Alternate designation for 1.8KS7800.
Mk 6 Mod 3 - Alternate designation for Sparoair II-1 rocket stage.
Mk 72 - CSD solid rocket engine. SM-2-IV first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Unfuelled mass: 243 kg (535 lb). More at: Solid
MK ZPS - American space suit, tested 1985. NASA Zero Pre-breathe full pressure Suit developed to preclude the need for denitrogenation prior to EVA. Status: tested 1985.
MK, Mk - Abbreviation for Mark (as in Mark 1, Mark 2 versions of equipment)
Mk. 1 - Alternate designation for Jupiter IRBM.
Mk. 11B or Mk. 11C - Alternate designation for Minuteman 2.
Mk. 12A - Alternate designation for Minuteman 3.
Mk. 2 - Alternate designation for Thor.
Mk. 2/3 - Alternate designation for Atlas C.
Mk. 20A - Alternate designation for Polaris A1.
Mk. 20B - Alternate designation for Polaris A2.
Mk. 3 - Alternate designation for Titan I.
Mk. 3 - Alternate designation for Titan 1.
Mk. 4 - Alternate designation for Atlas E CGM-16E.
Mk. 400 - Alternate designation for Trident C-4.
Mk. 5 - Alternate designation for Minuteman 1A.
Mk. 5, Mk.11, or Mk.11A - Alternate designation for Minuteman 1B.
Mk. 500 - Alternate designation for Trident D-5.
Mk. 6 - Alternate designation for Titan II.
Mk. 6 - Alternate designation for Titan 2.
Mk.100 - Alternate designation for Polaris A3.
Mk.124 Mod 0 - Alternate name of SMAW HEAA.
Mk.300 - Alternate designation for Poseidon C3.
Mk7 - Multiple-source solid rocket engine. Double FFAR second stage. Status: Retired 1954. Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Thrust: 9.80 kN (2,203 lbf). More at: Solid
MK-700 - Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1972. Chelomei was the only Chief Designer to complete an Aelita draft project and present it to the Soviet government. Status: Study 1972. Gross mass: 1,400,000 kg (3,000,000 lb). More at: Nuclear/LH2
MKA-FKI - Equipped with L-band UHF panoramic radiometer to map soil moisture and water salinity, studying the land-ocean-atmosphere energy system; and a multi-spectral Pribor EK camera. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-07-22. Last Launch: 2012-07-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 156 kg (343 lb).
MKA-N 1, 2 - Earth observation satellite built by Dauria for Roskosmos, Russia. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. First Launch: 2017-06-29. Last Launch: 2017-06-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb).
MKA-PN 1 - Alternate name of Zond-PP (MKA-PN 1).
MKA-PN 3 - Alternate name of Konus (MKA-PN 3).
MKA-PN 4 - Alternate name of Strannik (MKA-PN 4).
MKA-PN 4 - Alternate name of ARKA (MKA-PN 4).
MKB - Machine-Building Design Bureau (Russian abbreviation)
MKB Iskra - Second name of Kartukov.
MKBS - Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1974. The culmination of ten years of designs for N1-launched space stations, the MKBS would be cancelled together with the N1. Status: Cancelled 1974. Gross mass: 250,000 kg (550,000 lb).
MKR - Russian intercontinental cruise missile. A wide range of MKR (intercontinental winged missiles) were studied in 1957-1960 in accordance with a decree of the General Staff. The trade-off studies encompassed long-range air-breathing aircraft, winged rockets, and aircraft launchers for air-breathing missiles. Status: Study 1957.
MKS - Reusable Space System (Russian abbreviation)
MKS astronaut group, 1996 -
MKTS - Reusable aerospacecraft (Russian abbreviation)
MLIT - Japanese agency. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Japan.
MLLV - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1969, for Saturn follow-on. Plug nozzle, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle could itself put 1 million pounds payload into orbit. By addition of up to 12 260 inch solid motors up to 3.5 million pounds payload into orbit with a single launch. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 25,132,660 kg (55,408,030 lb). Thrust: 313,624.20 kN (70,505,525 lbf).
MLLV Core - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Boeing study, 1969. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 5,352,400 kg (11,800,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 317,400 kg (699,700 lb). Thrust: 71,171.70 kN (16,000,035 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
MLLV-0 - Alternate name for AJ-260X.
MLM-U (Nauka) - ISS module built by GKNPTs Khrunichev for Rosaviakosmos. Gross mass: 20,300 kg (44,700 lb).
MLRS - American tactical ballistic rocket. Multiple Launch Rocket System. US Army assault weapon. Status: Active. Gross mass: 318 kg (701 lb). More at: Solid
MLRS ER - American tactical ballistic rocket. In production. Gross mass: 318 kg (701 lb).
MLRS Extended Range - Alternate designation for MLRS ER.
MM - American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1968. The Mission Module (MM) could be modified according to requirements of a particular interplanetary manned mission. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 37,600 kg (82,800 lb).
mm (abbreviation) - millimeter(s)
MMAS - Martin Marietta Astro Space, USA, USA
MMB-1 - Alternate name of Super Genie.
MMH - Monomethylhydrazine (CH3NHNH2) is a storable liquid fuel that found favor in the United States for use in orbital spacecraft engines. Its advantages in comparison to UDMH are higher density and slightly higher performance.
MMR-06 - Russian solid propellant single stage sounding rocket, capable of lofting 5 to 11 kg to 60 km altitude. Launch mass 130 kg, 9 seconds burn time. Nose ejects at apogee. Flown in both conical nose and boosted dart configurations. Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1969-10-13. Last Launch: 1992-04-10. Number: 826 . Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Unfuelled mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Payload: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). More at: Solid
MMRBM - American surface-to-surface ballistic missile, development started in 1961. Program cancelled in 1965. Status: Cancelled 1964. Gross mass: 5,440 kg (11,990 lb).
MMS - Magnetospheric Research satellite for NASA SwRI, USA. Launched 2015. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-03-13. Last Launch: 2015-03-13. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb).
MMS (Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft) - Fairchild low earth orbit satellite bus. Launched 1982-1992.
MMS-F - Matra Marconi Space-France, Toulouse, France
MMS-S - Matra Marconi Space-UK, Stevenage, UK
MMS-UK - Matra Marconi Space-UK, Stevenage, UK
MMT - Abbreviation for Multiple Mirror Telescope
MMU - Abbreviation for Manned Maneuvering Unit
MMZ - Moscow Machine-Building Plant (Russian abbreviation)
Mnatsakanian, Armen Sergeyevich - Armenian-Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1953-1969 of Nll-648. Specialized in spacecraft telemetry and radar systems. Born: 1918-11-07. Died: 1992-01-01.
MNF - Meteorologie Nationale
MNII - Moscow Scientific-Research Institute (Russian abbreviation)
MNIIRS - Moscow Scientific-Research Institute for Radio Communications (Russian abbreviation)
MNRAS - Abbreviation or acronym for Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
MNTV 1 - Alternate name of Mercury-Scout 1 (MS 1, MNTV 1).
MO - Ministry of Defense, Russia.
MO 30 - Alternate name of UNAMSAT A, B (Mexico-OSCAR 30, MO 30).
MO 46 - Alternate name of TiungSat 1 (MySat 1, Malaysian-OSCAR 46, MO 46).
MO 72 - Alternate name of MaSat 1 (MO 72, MaSat-OSCAR 72).
MO 76 - Alternate name of 50SAT (Eagle 2, MO 76, Morehead-OSCAR 76).
mo, mos - month, months
MOAB - American Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb.
MOBEV - NASA commissioned multiple contractors to study Lunar Surface MObility Systems and EVolution in order to identify the best solution for astronauts to roam around the lunar surface or even escape to lunar orbit. The studies, completed in 1966-1967, analyzed a variety of rovers, crawlers, leapers, and flyers. These were based on Apollo CM / LM / Surveyor hardware as well as completely new designs. Although preferred designs were selected, the work was abandoned with the cancellation of the Apollo follow-on lunar program in 1967.
MOBEV F1B - American manned lunar flyer. Study 1966. The MOBEV F1B one-man pogo flying vehicle was the selected configuration for the one-man pogo application from three alternatives. Maximum operational mass with astronaut and payload, 258 kg. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 82 kg (180 lb). Unfuelled mass: 49 kg (109 lb).
MOBEV F2B - American manned lunar flyer. Cancelled 1968. The F2B was the MOBEV selected configuration for a multi-man surface-to-surface flying vehicle. Maximum operational mass with 2 astronauts and payload, 844 kg. Status: Cancelled 1968. Gross mass: 392 kg (864 lb). Unfuelled mass: 206 kg (454 lb).
MOBEV F2E - American manned lunar flyer. Study 1966. The MOBEV selected return to orbit vehicle, F2E, was provided with six degree of freedom control for rendezvous as well as normal attitude control. Maximum operational mass with 2 astronauts and payload, 1364.5 kg. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,107 kg (2,440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 339 kg (747 lb).
MOBEV R0AE - American lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R0AE was based on the cancelled Surveyor Lunar Roving Vehicle, originally conceived for the Apollo site selection program. Status: Study 1966.
MOBEV R0CE - American lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R0CE utilized a Surveyor probe from a lunar orbiting vehicle. The rover would operate in lunar day or night and have a total range capability of 200 km over a 90-day period. Status: Study 1966.
MOBEV R0DE - American lunar rover. Study 1966. Robotic vehicle delivered to the lunar surface with a LM-Shelter or a LM-Truck-Shelter and used during and after the manned mission to explore areas prior to committing a man. Status: Study 1966.
MOBEV R1B - American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Early manned operations would utilize the basic Apollo LM or an augmented version of it. The augmented version would a small mobility unit. Status: Study 1966.
MOBEV R1CB - American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R1CB Base Support Vehicle -- Special Purpose was a manned lunar tractor, which provided base support capability in terms of earth moving, towing, and general utility within close proximity of the base. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 4,539 kg (10,006 lb).
MOBEV R1DE - American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R1DE recommended Lunar Station Vehicle was a Cabined LSSM, a manned exploration vehicle designed to provide a shirt-sleeve (open spacesuit faceplate) environment. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,935 kg (4,265 lb).
MOBEV R2C(1)E - American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R2C(1)E manned Mobile Laboratory Vehicle (MOLAB) was to be used for exploration of the moon. The MOLAB provided complete life support capabilities for its two-man crew during a 14-day, 400-km mission. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 3,398 kg (7,491 lb).
MOBEV R3DE - American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R3DE Extended Traverse Vehicle was a 90-Day MOBEX, a manned mobile laboratory used for exploration of the moon. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 8,344 kg (18,395 lb).
MOBEV RIB(1)E - American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV RIB(1)E recommended Lunar Station Vehicle was a Greater Versatility LSSM, an exploration vehicle designed for both manned and unmanned operation. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,272 kg (2,804 lb). Payload: 320 kg (700 lb).
Mobile Command Module - Alternate designation for MOCOM manned lunar rover.
Mobile Equipment Transporter - Alternate designation for Apollo MET space suit.
Mobile LM Shelter - Alternate designation for MOLEM manned lunar rover.
Mobile Lunar Laboratory - Manufacturer's designation for Molab manned lunar rover.
Mobisat - Alternate name of MBSat 1( ABS 2i( ABS 4 (Mobisat).
MOC - Mars Observer Camera (on Mars Observer)
MOCAN - American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOCAN was a manned Lunar Rover using the planned Boeing pressurized Apollo Multipurpose Mission Module (CAN) as the basic structure and MOLAB wheels Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 4,077 kg (8,988 lb).
MOCOM - American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Third generation versions of the CM were studied by North American in 1966 to further modify a CM shelter to provide mobility. Essentially the CM was mounted on a four-wheel chassis. Status: Study 1966.
MOCR - Abbreviation for Mission Operations Control Room
MoD - British agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of Defence, UK.
MoD - First name of Farnborough.
MOD-1 -
Modarelli, James J - American NASA designer, credited with the NASA logo.
Model 1001 - Alternate name of Cardinal MQM-39A.
Model 1019 - Alternate name of AQM-37.
Model 1019 - Alternate name of AQM-37B.
Model 1019 - Alternate name of AQM-37A.
Model 1025 - Alternate name of Cardinal MQM-61.
Model 124 - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34B.
Model 124 - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34C.
Model 124 - Alternate name of Firebee BQM-34AJ.
Model 124 - Alternate name of Firebee BQM-34S.
Model 124E - Alternate name of Firebee MQM-34D.
Model 147A - Alternate name of Firebee BQM-34A.
Model 147H - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34N.
Model 147NA - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34G.
Model 147NC - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34H.
Model 147NCM-1 - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34J.
Model 147SC - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34L.
Model 147SC - Alternate name of Firebee YAQM-34U.
Model 147SC/TV - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34L/TV.
Model 147SD - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34M.
Model 147SDL - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34ML.
Model 147SRE - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34K.
Model 147T - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34P.
Model 147TE - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34Q.
Model 147TF - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34R.
Model 166 - Alternate name of Firebee XBQM-34E.
Model 166 - Alternate name of Firebee BQM-34T.
Model 166 - Alternate name of Firebee BQM-34F.
Model 166 - Alternate name of Firebee BQM-34E.
Model 234 - Alternate name of Firebee BGM-34A.
Model 234 - Alternate name of Firebee BGM-34B.
Model 235 - Alternate name of R-Tern GQM-98.
Model 251 - Alternate name of Firebee MQM-34D MO.
Model 255 - Alternate name of Firebee AQM-34V.
Model 258 - Alternate name of Firebrand BQM-111.
Model 259 - Alternate name of Firebee BGM-34C.
Model 262 - Alternate name of STAR.
Model 305 - Alternate name of Firebolt AQM-81N.
Model 305 - Alternate name of Firebolt AQM-81A.
Model 320 - Alternate name of SLAT AQM-127.
Model 39 - Thiel LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Used on V-2 missile. Work began June 1936. Interim design, but went into production. Used 18 x 1.5 metric ton thrust chambers, feeding common mixing chamber. Tested from 1939, mass production 1943-1945. Number: 4300 . Unfuelled mass: 931 kg (2,052 lb). Thrust: 311.80 kN (70,095 lbf). More at: Lox/Alcohol
Model 39a - Thiel LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Single chamber engine for V-2 series C, A9. Tested 1942-45. Never went into production in Germany, but formed the basis for successful post-war American and French rocket engines. Status: Tested 1942-45. Thrust: 288.70 kN (64,902 lbf). More at: Lox/Alcohol
Model 4 - American pressure suit, operational 1950. The Model 4 Full Pressure Suit was developed for D-558-2 Douglas Skyrocket test pilots. It was first flown by Navy test pilot Marion Carl for a 26 km altitude record flight. Status: operational 1950.
Model 671 - Manufacturer's designation for D-558-3 manned rocketplane.
Model 995 / 997 - Alternate name of BQM-126.
Model 999 - Alternate name of Streaker MQM-107.
Model FDL-23 - Alternate name of AQM-103.
Model L450F - Alternate name of GQM-93.
Model NV-105 - Alternate name of Chukar MQM-74C.
Model R4E-40 - Alternate name of SkyEye.
Model RP-71 - Alternate name of Falconer MQM-57.
Model RP-76 / RP-78 - Alternate name of AQM-38.
Model XAE-2/3 - Alternate name of Overseer MQM-58.
Moderate Capacity Mobile Laboratory - Alternate designation for Molab manned lunar rover.
Modified Nord CT.41 - Alternate name of PQM-56.
MODS - Manned orbital development system
Modularized Space Station - American manned space station. Study 1972. Space station design of 1972 using modules sized for transport in the Space Shuttle payload bay. could be carried inside the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. Status: Study 1972. Gross mass: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb).
Mogensen, Andreas Enevold - Danish engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1976-11-02. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.84 days.
Mogila, Anatoli Iosifovich - Russian officer. Major-General, chief of the fourth trials directorate of 5 NIIP MO 1974-1980. Worked at Baikonur from 1958, participating in trials of the R-7, R-9, Proton, and Tsyklon rockets. Born: 1924.
Mohmand, Abdul Ahad 'Abdulah' - Afghani pilot cosmonaut 1988. First Afghani astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1988-1988. Born: 1959. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 8.85 days.
Mohr - German manufacturer of rockets. Mohr, Germany.
Mohr Rocket - Engineer Ernst Mohr of Wuppertal, under the auspices of the German Rocket Society, developed a sounding rocket that was designed to reach altitudes of 50 km. A solid rocket motor with 7800 kgf would take the separable payload section to a speed of 1200 m/s. The booster had a diameter of 0.30 m, a length of 1.7 m, a total mass of 135 kg including 75 kg of solid propellant. The payload dart was 56 mm in diameter, 1.25 m long, and had a total mass of 15 kg. Status: Retired 1959. Gross mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Payload: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Thrust: 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf).
Mohri, Mamoru - Japanese chemist mission specialist astronaut 1985-2000. NASDA; Spacelab-J specialist. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2000. Born: 1948-01-29. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 19.17 days.
Mohts, Hermann - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Moiseyev, Yevgeni Georgeyevich - Russian officer. Colonel, Chief of Sixth Trials Directorate of 5 NIIP MO at Baikonur, 1967-1974. Born: 1921.
Mojave - Mojave Spaceport. Location of Scaled Composites flight test facility, and the first FAA-certified inland spaceport. It was used for 17 launches of the Tier One manned spaceplane from 2003 to 2004, reaching up to 112 kilometers altitude. First Launch: 2003-05-20. Last Launch: 2014-01-17. Number: 59 .
Mojave RW12/30 - Tier One launch runway. First Launch: 2003-05-20. Last Launch: 2014-01-17. Number: 54 .
MOK - Multirole Orbital Complex or Martian Orbital Complex or Multi-module Orbital Complex (Russian abbreviations)
MOK - Code name for MKBS manned space station.
MOL - American manned space station. Cancelled 1969. MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory) was the US Air Force's manned space project after Dynasoar was cancelled, until it in turn was cancelled in 1969. The earth orbit station used a helium-oxygen atmosphere. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-11-03. Last Launch: 1966-11-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 14,476 kg (31,914 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14,376 kg (31,693 lb). Payload: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). More at: Solid
MOL 3 - At the time of the cancellation of the MOL program in June 1969, the first manned mission was planned for early 1972. A crew of two would have spent thirty days in orbit operating sophisticated military reconnaissance equipment and other experiments. Launched: 1972 Early. Number crew: 2 .
MOL 4 - Planned date of second manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation. Launched: 1972 Late. Number crew: 2 .
MOL 5 - Planned date of third manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation. Launched: 1973. Number crew: 2 .
MOL 6 - Planned date of fourth manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation. From the beginning of the project, the Navy had demanded that this be an all-Navy crew, which would limit the crew to Truly, with either Overmyer or Crippen as co-pilot. Launched: 1974. Number crew: 2 .
MOL 7 - Planned date of fifth manned MOL mission. This mission was already deleted from the FY 1970 budget request in April 1969, two months before the entire project was cancelled. Launched: 1975. Number crew: 2 .
MOL LM - American manned space station module. Cancelled 1969. The Laboratory Module consisted of a forward unpressurized section 2.43 m long, followed by an aft pressurized section, a 3.37 m long cylinder with 2.79 m diameter hemispherical bulkheads at each end. Space station military. Status: Cancelled 1969. Payload: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). More at: Solid
MOL MM - American manned space station module. Cancelled 1969. The MOL Mission Module took up most of the spacecraft. It had a length of 11.24 m and was divided into two major bays, the forward section 4.42 m long, and the aft section 6.82 m long. Status: Cancelled 1969.
MOL Space Suit - American space suit. Cancelled 1969. Space suit designed to support launch/re-entry and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) aboard the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Developed from 1965-1969, when MOL was cancelled. Status: Cancelled 1969.
MOL-1 astronaut group, 1965 - Requirement: crews for flights of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, a classified military manned space station. Date: 1965.
MOL-2 astronaut group, 1966 - Requirement: crews for flights of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, a classified military manned space station. Date: 1966.
MOL-3 astronaut group, 1967 - Requirement: crews for flights of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, a classified military manned space station. Date: 1967.
MOLA - Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (on Mars Observer)
Molab - American manned lunar rover. Cancelled 1968. The moderate capacity mobile laboratory (MOLAB) concept was studied in two NASA/MT contracts to determine configurations and capabilities of vehicles in the 2950 to 3850 kg class. Status: Cancelled 1968. Gross mass: 3,732 kg (8,227 lb).
MOLEM - American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Third generation versions of LM derivative equipment were studied by Grumman in a report delivered on 10 May 1966. Status: Study 1966.
Molesworth - US base in the 1980's for 6 BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.
Moller, Rolf - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Molly Brown (from Broadway play 'The Unsinkable..') - Alternate name for Gemini 3.
Molniya - First Soviet communications satellite network, using satellites in an inclined 12-hour orbit ensuring reception in northern latitudes.
Molniya 8K78 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Four stage derivative of the R-7 ICBM developed on a crash-program basis in 1960 for Soviet lunar and planetary deep space probe missions. The third stage found later use in the Voskhod and Soyuz launchers. By the 1970's mature versions of the launch vehicle were used almost entirely for launch of Molniya communications satellites and Oko missile early warning spacecraft into elliptical, 12-hour earth orbits. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1960-10-10. Last Launch: 1967-10-22. Number: 40 . Gross mass: 303,500 kg (669,100 lb). Payload: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 3,999.93 kN (899,220 lbf).
Molniya 8K78/E6 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Molniya adaptation for launch of E-6 lunar probes. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 306,200 kg (675,000 lb). Thrust: 4,054.00 kN (911,375 lbf).
Molniya 8K78-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 43,400 kg (95,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Thrust: 995.30 kN (223,752 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Molniya 8K78-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 100,500 kg (221,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Thrust: 941.00 kN (211,545 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Molniya 8K78-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 24,300 kg (53,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 294.00 kN (66,093 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Molniya 8K78-3 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Stage designed as fourth stage to take R-7 launched payloads into deep space. Adapted from the Luna / Vostok third stage, but with restart capability. The 700 kg BOZ ullage motors and stabilization platform jettisoned prior to main stage burn. Original version. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 5,100 kg (11,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb). Thrust: 65.41 kN (14,705 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Molniya 8K78L - Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Molniya 8K78L was designed by Korolev's design bureau for launching a manned spacecraft on a flyby of the Moon and return to earth. To achieve this it would have used LOx/LH2 engines in the third and fourth stages. Preliminary design was completed on 8 July 1962, but such technology was years away in the Soviet Union and the project was not pursued further. Status: Study 1962. Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Molniya 8K78M - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload. Status: Active. First Launch: 1965-10-04. Last Launch: 2010-09-30. Number: 270 . Gross mass: 305,460 kg (673,420 lb). Payload: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 4,016.00 kN (902,832 lbf).
Molniya 8K78M 2BL - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok-2BL upper stage for placement of Oko early-warning satellites into Molniya-class orbits with apogees of 38,000 km. First Launch: 1972-09-19. Last Launch: 2010-09-30. Number: 93 . Gross mass: 305,000 kg (672,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 4,054.00 kN (911,375 lbf).
Molniya 8K78M ML - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok-ML upper stage for placement of communications satellites into Molniya-class orbits with apogees of 38,500 km. First Launch: 1970-08-17. Last Launch: 1972-03-31. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 305,000 kg (672,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 4,054.00 kN (911,375 lbf).
Molniya 8K78M SOL - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok SO-L upper stage for placement of Prognoz-class satellites in orbits with apogees of 200,000 km. First Launch: 1972-04-14. Last Launch: 1985-04-26. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 305,000 kg (672,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 4,054.00 kN (911,375 lbf).
Molniya 8K78M-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 43,400 kg (95,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,770 kg (8,310 lb). Thrust: 995.30 kN (223,752 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Molniya 8K78M-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 100,600 kg (221,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,798 kg (14,987 lb). Thrust: 976.70 kN (219,571 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Molniya 8K78M-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 24,800 kg (54,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,976 kg (4,356 lb). Thrust: 298.10 kN (67,016 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Molniya 8K78M-3 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Standardized improved version for Molniya-type communications satellite payloads. Status: Active. Gross mass: 6,660 kg (14,680 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,160 kg (2,550 lb). Thrust: 66.60 kN (14,972 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Molniya 8K78M-PVB - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Molniya 8K78M with safety modifications to prevent and resist fires in all stages and the upper stage avionics compartment. These were incorporated as a result of the 18 March 1980 disaster at Plesetsk, when the launch vehicle exploded, killing 18 and putting the pad out of commission for three years. Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1990-04-28. Last Launch: 1992-12-02. Number: 10 .
Molniya bureau - Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Molniya Design Bureau, Russia.
Molniya M-3 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb). Thrust: 66.60 kN (14,972 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Molniya orbit - Category of spacecraft.
Molniya-1 - Russian military communications satellite. This was the first Soviet communications satellite. Communication satellite built by OKB-1 (#1L, ..., 7L); NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) (#8L, ..., 35L), Russia. Launched 1967 - 1975. Used KAUR-2 bus. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-06-04. Last Launch: 1975-09-02. Number: 37 . Gross mass: 1,650 kg (3,630 lb). Thrust: 1.96 kN (441 lbf). More at: Nitric acid/UDMH
Molniya-1 (11F67) - Communication satellite built by OKB-1 (#1L, ..., 7L), USSR. Launched 1964-1966. Used KAUR-2 bus. First Launch: 1964-06-04. Last Launch: 1966-10-20. Number: 7 .
Molniya-1K (11F658) - Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1973 - 1984. Used KAUR-2 bus. First Launch: 1973-11-30. Last Launch: 1984-08-24. Number: 31 . Gross mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb).
Molniya-1M - Alternate designation for Molniya-2 communications satellite.
Molniya-1S (11F658) - Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1974. Used KAUR-2 bus. First Launch: 1974-07-29. Last Launch: 1974-07-29. Number: 1 .
Molniya-1T - Russian military communications satellite. This was a modernized Molniya-1 communications satellite with the 'Beta' retransmitter which began flight tests in 1970. Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1983 - 2004. Used KAUR-2 bus. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-01-22. Last Launch: 2004-02-18. Number: 63 . Gross mass: 1,656 kg (3,650 lb).
Molniya-1Yu - Experimental satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1967 - 1968. Used KAUR-2 bus. First Launch: 1967-08-31. Last Launch: 1968-12-16. Number: 2 .
Molniya-2 - Russian communications satellite. Molniya-2 was the elliptical orbit component of the Soviet YeSSS communications satellite system. Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1971 - 1977. Used KAUR-2 bus. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-11-24. Last Launch: 2005-06-21. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb).
Molniya-2M - Alternate designation for Molniya-3 communications satellite.
Molniya-3 - Russian communications satellite. Development of the Molniya-2M communications satellite, later called Molniya-3, began in 1972. Flight trials began in November 1974. Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1974 - 2003. Used KAUR-2 bus. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-11-21. Last Launch: 2003-06-19. Number: 55 . Gross mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb).
Molniya-3K (14F33) - Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 2001 - 2005. Used KAUR-2 bus. First Launch: 2001-07-20. Last Launch: 2005-06-21. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,740 kg (3,830 lb).
Molniya-M - Alternate designation for Molniya 8K78M.
Molniya-M Blok-VL - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 1967-06-12. Last Launch: 1969-01-10. Number: 4 .
Molniya-Yu - Russian tracking network technology satellite. Study 1969. This was a modification of the Molniya-1 satellite to test deep space radio-based tracking methods for the Soviet Lunar program. Status: Study 1969.
Molodets - Alternate designation for RT-23U 15Zh60.
Molodets - Alternate designation for RT-23U 15Zh61.
Molodezhnaya - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1969-05-25. Last Launch: 1990-12-26. Number: 1114 .
MOM - Alternate name of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM, "Mangalyaan").
MOM - Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moscow, Russia), Moscow, Russia.
Momo - Post-launch name for Marine Observation Satellite.
Momo 1a, 1b - Alternate name of MOS 1a, 1b (Momo 1a, 1b).
MOMV - Abbreviation for Manned Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle
MON - Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen - Nitric oxide (NO) is a low-boiling cryogenic gas. Both the liquid and the solid are blue. Solutions of NO in nitrogen tetroxide sharply depress the freezing point of the high-melting oxidizer. The mechanism of depression is believed to involve the formation of N2O3, which is soluble in nitrogen tetroxide. Solutions are called mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON), and have been used as oxidizers for liquid-rocket engines. Various concentrations have been considered. However, the high vapor pressure of MON limits the concentration of NO in N2O4 to about 30 per cent. Aside from the high vapor pressure of MON, the material is quite similar to nitrogen tetroxide.
MON/Hydrazine - MON/Hydrazine propellant. Mixed Oxides of Hydrazine (N2H4) found early use as a fuel, but it was quickly replaced by UDMH.
MON/Hydyne - MON/Hydyne propellant. Hydyne (60% UDMH/40% DETA) was a propellant blend pushed rather vigorously by the Redstone arsenal in the late 1950's, but it found little application. No rocket engines went into production using this propellant.
MON/MMH - MON/MMH propellant. No rocket engines went into production using this propellant combination.
MON/UDMH - MON/UDMH propellant. No rocket engines went into production using this propellant combination.
Money, Kenneth Eric - Canadian physiologist payload specialist astronaut, 1983-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1983-1992. Born: 1935-01-04.
Mongolia - Mongolia
Mongolian AF - Mongolian AF.
MongolSat 1 - Alternate name of ABS 2A (MongolSat 1).
Monica - French low-cost, three-stage, solid-propellant sounding rocket developed in France in the 1950's in support of the International Geophysical Year. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Monica I - French sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1955-02-25. Last Launch: 1957-05-28. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Monica I-2 - Alternate name for Theodore.
Monica I-3 - Alternate name for Oreste.
Monica IV - French sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1959-10-01. Last Launch: 1960-02-01. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Monitor - Russian earth land resources satellite. Earth Observation satellite built by Khrunichev, Russia. Launched 2005. Used Yachta-Bus. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-06-30. Last Launch: 2005-08-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Monitor-Mockup - Technology satellite operated by Eurockot, Russia. Launched 2003. First Launch: 2003-06-30. Last Launch: 2003-06-30. Number: 1 .
Monoblock UR-500 - During UR-500 design studies, two variants of the first stage were considered: polyblock and monoblock. The monoblock approach was that the first stage be assembled from two separate modules with the same diameter: an upper oxidizer module and a lower fuel and engine block. In assembly trials of this design it proved difficult, because of the height of the first stage, to obtain access to the upper stages and payload atop the rocket. Although there was a payload advantage compared to the more compact polyblock design, this was relatively small and outweighed by the operational difficulties. Status: Design 1962. Gross mass: 543,400 kg (1,197,900 lb). Payload: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Thrust: 8,119.80 kN (1,825,404 lbf).
Monoblock UR-500-1M - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Original conventional 'Monoblock' design for Proton first stage. Status: Design 1962. Gross mass: 367,360 kg (809,890 lb). Unfuelled mass: 25,560 kg (56,350 lb). Thrust: 8,989.70 kN (2,020,965 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Monoblock UR-500-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Original Proton second stage design. Status: Design 1962. Gross mass: 137,700 kg (303,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Thrust: 3,183.20 kN (715,612 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Monoblock UR-500-3 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Original Proton third stage design. Status: Design 1962. Gross mass: 23,940 kg (52,770 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,180 kg (4,800 lb). Thrust: 613.11 kN (137,833 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Monopropellant - Category of engines.
Monroe, Jack Pendleton - American career naval officer who became a rear admiral in 1956. He served as commander of the Pacific Missile Range from 1957-1961 before becoming the Director of Astronautics for the Chief of Naval Operations from 1961-1963. Born: 1904-06-19. Died: 2006-02-21.
Montana State - Montana State.
Moon - Category of spacecraft.
Moon Race! - Side-by-side chronology of the major events of the race to the moon.
Moore, John R - American engineer, developed pioneering inertial navigation and automated flight control systems for Navaho, leading to systems for the X-15, B-70, and Apollo, making North American the premier US contractor for advanced inertial navigation. Career at North American, and then Northrop, spanned 1955-1989. Born: 1916-07-05. Died: 2007-07-13.
MOOSE - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. MOOSE was perhaps the most celebrated bail-out from orbit system of the early 1960's. The suited astronaut would strap the MOOSE to his back, and jump out of the spacecraft or station into free space. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 215 kg (473 lb).
MOP - Abbreviation for Meteosat Operational Program satellites.
MOP - Ministry of Defense Production (Russian abbreviation)
MORAD - American manned spacecraft. Study 1961. MORAD (Manned Orbital Rendezvous and Docking) would require the use of the Mercury-Atlas and Scout in the 1961- 1963 period. Status: Study 1961.
Mordovtsev, Aleksei Filippovich - Russian officer. Colonel, Deputy Chief of Second Directorate of GUKOS 1970-1979. After WW2 service, worked with the Soviet Navy in anti-aircraft units. Transferred to GURVO in 1963. Born: 1922.
Morehead-OSCAR 76 - Alternate name of 50SAT (Eagle 2, MO 76, Morehead-OSCAR 76).
Morelos - Communications satellites launched by the Mexican Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes, Morelos, Mexico. Coverage of the national territory with television, radio and telephony signals and data transmission. Later privatized and taken over by Satellites Mexicanos S.A. de C.V.
Morelos 1, 2 - Communication satellite built by Hughes, Mexico. Launched 1985. Used the HS-376 bus. First Launch: 1985-06-17. Last Launch: 1985-11-27. Number: 2 .
Morelos 3 - Alternate name of MEXSAT 1, 2 (Centenario, Morelos 3).
Morgan, Andrew Richard - American pilot astronaut, selected 2013. US Army flight surgeon and emergency physician.
Morgan, Barbara Radding - American teacher mission specialist astronaut 1986, 1998-2008. Teacher. Status: Inactive; active 1986, 1998-2008. Born: 1951-11-28. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.75 days.
Morgenstern, Oskar - German-American economist, came to the United States in 1925, and worked at Princeton after 1938. Founded Mathematica, which provided economic analyses to government, notoriously the study that found the shuttle cheaper than expendable LVs. Born: 1902-01-24. Died: 1977-07-01.
Morin, Lee Miller Emile - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1996-2002. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2002. Born: 1952-09-09. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 10.82 days.
MORL - American manned space station. Study 1962. In June 1964 Boeing and Douglas received Phase I contracts for Manned Orbital Research Laboratory station designs. The recommended concept was a 13. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 13,500 kg (29,700 lb).
MORL Mars Flyby - American manned Mars flyby. Study 1965. Near-term manned Mars flyby spacecraft proposed by Douglas in 1965 for flight as early as 1973. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 360,000 kg (790,000 lb).
Moroccan EO Sat 1 - Reconnaissance, optical satellite built by EADS Astrium → Airbus Defence and Space (prime), Thales Alenia (payload), Morocco. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
Morocco - Morocco
Morosov, Svyatoslav Andreievich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 2010-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 2010-2012. Born: 1985-08-22.
Morozov, Viktor Pavlovich - Russian officer. Chaired the Scientific-Technical Committee of the Strategic Missile Fortes 1962-1967. Born: 1918-11-01. Died: 1981-07-04.
Morphlab - American manned lunar rover. Study 2004. Morphlab (Modular Roving Planetary Habitat, Laboratory, and Base) was a lunar exploration system proposed by the University of Maryland. Status: Study 2004. Gross mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb).
Morris, Brooks - American Engineer. Brooks Morris was an aerospace engineer who worked as a manager of quality assurance and reliability at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1961-1981. Born: 1913. Died: 1961-01-01.
Morton Thiokol (1982) - Second name of Thiokol.
Morukov, Boris Vladimirovich - Russian physician cosmonaut 1989-2007. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems Status: Deceased; Active 1989-2007. Born: 1950-10-01. Died: 2015-01-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 11.80 days.
MOS - Abbreviation for Marine Observation Satellite.
MOS 1a, 1b (Momo 1a, 1b) - Earth Observation satellite operated by NASDA, Japan. Launched 1987 - 1990. First Launch: 1987-02-19. Last Launch: 1990-02-07. Number: 2 .
MOSAP - American manned lunar rover. Study 1989. MOSAP (MObile Surface APplication traverse vehicle) was the pressurized lunar rover that was the key to NASA's 90-Day-Study moon base concept of 1989. It would greatly extend the range of manned lunar expeditions. Status: Study 1989.
Mosch - German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the Doppler tracking group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952.
Moscow Heat Engineering Institute - Second name of Nadiradze Design Bureau.
Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology - First name of Nadiradze Design Bureau.
Moscow Radio Communications Research Institute - Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. Moscow Radio Communications Research Institute, Russia.
MOSES - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1975. The General Electric MOSES space rescue concept of the early 1980's took advantage of large re-entry capsules already developed for classified US military projects. Status: Study 1975. Gross mass: 730 kg (1,600 lb).
Moshchenko, Sergei Ivanovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1996-2009. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2009. Born: 1954-01-12.
Moshkin, Oleg Yuriyevich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-2002. Status: Inactive; Active 1997-2002. Born: 1964-04-23.
Moskalenko, Kirill Semenovich - Russian officer. Commander-In-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces 1960-1962. Succeeded Nedelin. Born: 1902-05-11. Died: 1985-06-17.
Moskalenko, Nikolai Tikhonovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1986. Status: Deceased; Active 1976-1986. Born: 1949. Died: 2004-11-25.
Moskalyov, Oleg Borisovich - Russian scientist cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Scientist. Selected as cosmonaut in early May 1964, but on 28 May 1964 the selection was rejected by the government commission. Status: Inactive.
Moskit - Alternate name of Kh-41.
Moskit-M - Russian anti-ship missile. Status: Operational 1981.
Moskit-M 3M82 - Russian anti-ship missile. Improved Moskit. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Moskit-M 3M88 - Russian anti-ship missile. Supersonic antiship missile. On Nanuchka and Sovremenniy ships. Status: Operational 1981. Gross mass: 3,950 kg (8,700 lb).
Moskit-N - Russian cruise missile.
Mosolov, Vladimir Yemeliyanovich - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1987. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1987. Born: 1944-02-21.
Mosquito - Italian anti-tank missile. Status: Operational 1971. Gross mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Payload: 4.10 kg (9.00 lb).
Most - Canadian visible astronomy satellite. MOST was a suitcase-sized microsatellite designed to probe stars and extrasolar planets by measuring tiny light variations undetectable from Earth. Astronomy satellite built by Dynacon Enterprises Ltd. for CSA, Canada. Launched 2003. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-06-30. Last Launch: 2003-06-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb).
Motorola - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Motorola Satellite, Chandler, Chandler, Arizona, USA.
MoTV - American space tug. Study 2003. SpaceDev design for a low-cost, restartable hybrid propulsion space tug or upper stage. Status: Study 2003.
MO-UK - British agency. Meteorological Office, UK.
Mountain Home AFB - Titan I ICBM base.
Mountain Home AFB Site 2 -
Mountain Home AFB Site 3 -
Moureu, Henri - French scientist and manager. Responsible for acquiring German rocket technology and German rocket experts for France after WW2.
MOVE 1 - Alternate name of First-MOVE (MOVE 1).
MOVE 2 - Technology satellite for TU München, Germany. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Movie Actor astronaut group, 1997 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station. Date: 1998.
Mozhaets - Mozhaets was a Russian experimental, 90-kg minisatellite. It was designed and built by the cadets and teachers of a military space academy to learn about spacecraft operations. Used the Strela-1M bus.
Mozhaiskiy - Russian agency. Mozhaiskiy Military Institute, Russia.
Mozhayets 1, 2, 3, 4 (RS 16, 20, 22, Zeya / RVSN 40 / Sankt Petersburg 300) - Navigational and scientific satellite, Amateur communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, Mozhaisky military academy for Mozhaisky military academy, Russia. Launched 1997 - 2003. Used Strela-1 Bus. First Launch: 1997-03-04. Last Launch: 2003-09-27. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 87 kg (191 lb).
Mozhayets 5 (RS 25) - Laser communication, Amateur communication satellite built by NPO Polyot (bus), Mozhaisky military academy for Mozhaisky military academy, Russia. Launched 2005. First Launch: 2005-10-27. Last Launch: 2005-10-27. Number: 1 .
Mozi - Alternate name of QSS (QUESS, Mozi).
Mozyr - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1996. Base for units deployed with R-12, 27 RT-2PM, and nine Pioner missile launchers.
Mozzhorin, Yuri Aleksandrovich - Russian officer. Director of Nll-88 1961-1990. Oversaw Soviet space policy. Born: 1920-12-28. Died: 1998-05-15.
MP - Maneuvering piloted spacecraft (Russian abbreviation)
MPA - Satellite bus built by OSSS, USA.
MPC - Abbreviation for Minor Planets Circular
MPCV - Alternate name of Orion (MPCV).
MPCV - Alternate name of Orion (CEV( MPCV).
MPD - UM-NASA electric rocket engine. 1.35 kW Hall thruster
MPE - Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany
MPEC - American military technology satellite. USA 70. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-04-28. Last Launch: 1991-04-28. Number: 1 .
MPESS-ASEM - Space shuttle bay Multi Purpose Experiment Support Structure and ASEM Node Carrier, providing stowage for EVA equipment.
MPF Cruise Stage - Module of Mars Pathfinder.
mph - Abbreviation for miles per hour
MPI - Max-Planck-Institut, Germany
MPIM - American anti-tank missile. Multipurpose Individual Munition/Short-Range Assault Weapon. Gross mass: 7.30 kg (16.00 lb).
MPK - Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1956. This first serious examination in the Soviet Union of manned flight to Mars was made by M Tikhonravov. Status: Study 1956. Gross mass: 1,630,000 kg (3,590,000 lb). More at: Lox/Kerosene
MPMS Type 96 - Japanese anti-tank missile. KAM-9 Type 79 replacement. Multipurpose. Gross mass: 59 kg (130 lb).
MPSC - Philippine agency. MPSC, Philippines.
MQ1 - Alternate name of Malafon.
MQ2 - Alternate name of Masurca MD3.
MQM-33 - Radioplane/Northrop post-war USAF target drone; Navy KD2R; Model RP-19.
MQM-33A - American target missile. Target Drone Status: Operational 1948. Thrust: 323 N (72 lbf).
MQM-33B - American target missile. Target Drone
MQR-13 - US DoD designation for BMTS MQR-13.
MQR-16 - US DoD designation for Gunrunner MQR-16.
MR - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Korolev studied this Multimodular Rocket (MR), based on stages already designed for the 8K74 and 8K77 (R-7 and R-9) missiles. As was the case of the 8K74, work on the design was stopped in September 1961. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 101,000 kg (222,000 lb). Thrust: 1,400.00 kN (314,700 lbf).
MR- - Mercury-Redstone. Designation series applied to Mercury spacecraft launched by the Redstone booster.
MR-100 engine series -
MR-103 - Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. Attitude control thruster for Voyager, GPS, Intelsat 5, MMAS 3000, 4000,. 5000, and 7000, Mars Observer, ACTS, and Magellan. In Production. First flight 1974. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.33 kg (0.73 lb). Thrust: 1.12 N (0.25 lbf).
MR-104 - Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. Attitude control and velocity corrections, Voyager, Magellan, DMSP, Tiros N, Landsat. In Production. First flight 1977. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.86 kg (4.10 lb). Thrust: 441 N (99 lbf).
MR-106 - Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. Spacecraft and upper stage attitude control and velocity corrections, PAM A/S,. Radarsat, GPS Block 2R, HAS/Peace Courage, Titan Centaur, Atlas Centaur. In Production. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.48 kg (1.05 lb). Thrust: 27 N (6 lbf).
MR-107 - Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. Spacecraft and upper stage attitude control and dV corrections, Delta 2, Titan 2, PAM D, SICBM, HAS/Peace Courage, Atlas roll control module, STEP, Pegasus. First flight 1990. Number: 61 . Unfuelled mass: 0.89 kg (1.95 lb). Thrust: 257 N (57 lbf).
MR-111 - Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. Attitude control, Intelsat 5, ERBS, ACTS, Radarsat, MMAS 4000, 5000, and. 7000, Wind/Polar Landsat, and Mars Observer. In Production. First flight 1980. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.35 kg (0.76 lb). Thrust: 4.41 N (0.99 lbf).
MR-12 - Russian sounding rocket. The MR-12 sounding rocket was developed by the Soviet Union as a modern replacement for the MR-1 Meteo. It was a single stage solid rocket with a 170 kg payload. Payload section 1.55 m long, 0.445 m in diameter. Status: Retired 1997. First Launch: 1962-05-01. Last Launch: 1997-02-05. Number: 748 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). More at: Solid
MR-120 - Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. Small ICBM. In Production. Developed as an attitude control thruster for the small ICBM. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.41 kg (0.90 lb). Thrust: 90 N (20 lbf).
MR-125 - LLNL solid rocket engine. Astrid first stage. Status: Retired 1994. Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8.00 kg (17.60 lb). Thrust: 400 N (80 lbf). More at: Solid
MR-20 - Russian sounding rocket. Upper atmosphere Soviet sounding rocket, improved version of MR-12, but capable of lofting 135 kg to 250 km altitude. Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1979-01-01. Last Launch: 1991-10-01. Number: 109 . Gross mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Payload: 130 kg (280 lb).
MR-20 engine - Russian solid rocket engine. MR-20 first stage. Status: Retired 1991. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). More at: Solid
MR-20-1 - Alternate name for MR-20 engine.
MR-25 - Russian sounding rocket. Version of the MR-20. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1970-03-01. Last Launch: 1970-03-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb).
MR-25 engine - Russian solid rocket engine. MR-25 first stage. Status: Retired 1970. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). More at: Solid
MR-25-1 - Alternate name for MR-25 engine.
MR-30 - Russian sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-12-19. Last Launch: 2014-03-26. Number: 3 .
MR-50 - Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. Attitude control for SMS, Viking, Meteosat, GOES, Voyager, GPS, Intelsat 5,. Scatha, MMAS 5000, Delta Star, Magellan, Wind/Polar. In Production. First flight 1974. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.68 kg (1.49 lb). Thrust: 22 N (5 lbf).
MR-500 engine series -
MR-501B - Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. BSAT-2 communications satellite. In Production. Electrothermal hydrazine thruster (EHT). 493 W input power at 24 V DC. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.89 kg (1.96 lb). Thrust: 0.37 N (0.08 lbf).
MR-502 - Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. Communications satellite N-S stationkeeping, MMAS 5000. In Production. First flight 1991. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.85 kg (1.87 lb). Thrust: 0.50 N (0.11 lbf).
MR-508 - Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. Communications satellite N-S stationkeeping, MMAS 7000. In Production. First flight 1993. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.34 kg (2.95 lb). Thrust: 0.23 N (0.05 lbf).
MR-509 - Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. In Production. Low-power arcjet system. Input power 1800 W at 65 V DC. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 5.61 kg (12.36 lb). Thrust: 0.25 N (0.06 lbf).
MR-510 - Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. In Production. Arcjet system. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.58 kg (3.48 lb). Thrust: 0.25 N (0.06 lbf).
MR-512 - Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. In Production. Low-voltage bus arcjet system. Input power 1780 W at 35 V DC. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 7.23 kg (15.93 lb). Thrust: 0.25 N (0.06 lbf).
Mrazek, Willi - German-American engineer. Worked at Peenemuende from early days, but sent to Russian Front before being returned. A loads engineer, he went with von Braun to the US and became Director, Structures and Mechanics Division, at Huntsville. Born: 1911-10-20. Died: 1992-02-08.
MRBM-T3 - American target vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SR19 + 1 x SR73AJ1-ATK. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-10-17. Last Launch: 2016-05-18. Number: 2 .
MRC - Manufacturer's designation for Multi-Role Recovery Capsule manned spacecraft.
MRC DM - British manned spacecraft module. Study 1987. Reusable re-entry capsule. Status: Study 1987. Gross mass: 6,204 kg (13,677 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,504 kg (12,134 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 1.61 kN (361 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
MRC SM - British manned spacecraft module. Study 1987. Expendable equipment section. Status: Study 1987. Gross mass: 796 kg (1,754 lb).
MRE engine series -
MRE-15/OMV - TRW hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Mono-propellant Hydrazine Thrusters. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.13 kg (2.49 lb). Thrust: 89 N (20 lbf).
MRE-5/Compton Observatory - TRW N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Mono-propellant Hydrazine Thrusters. First flight 1991. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.13 kg (2.49 lb). Thrust: 25 N (6 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
mRESINS - Technology satellite for ISRO, India. Launched 2012. First Launch: 2012-09-09. Last Launch: 2012-09-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
MRM 1 (DCM, SGM, Rassvet) - ISS module operated by Rosaviakosmos, Russia. Launched 2010. First Launch: 2010-05-14. Last Launch: 2010-05-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb).
MRM-103 - Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. In Production. Steady-state thrust 0.22 N. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.27 kg (2.79 lb). Thrust: 0.22 N (0.04 lbf).
MRM-106 - Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. In Production. Steady-state thrust 9 N. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.94 kg (2.07 lb). Thrust: 27 N (6 lbf).
MRM-122 - Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. In Production. Steady-state thrust 51 N. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.56 kg (3.43 lb). Thrust: 142 N (31 lbf).
MRN - American agency. Meteorological Rocket Network, USA.
MRP - Ministry of Radio Industry (Russian abbreviation)
MRPV (Corona 99) - Scientific satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1965. First Launch: 1965-09-02. Last Launch: 1965-09-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
MR-SAT - Alternate name of M-SAT (MR-SAT, MRS-SAT, Nanosat 8).
MRSR - Abbreviation for Mars Rover and Sample Return
MRSRM - Abbreviation or acronym for Mars Rover and Sample Return Mission
MRS-SAT - Alternate name of M-SAT (MR-SAT, MRS-SAT, Nanosat 8).
MRSV - American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Advanced Research Projects Agency representatives visited Army Ordnance Missile Command to discuss studies of a Maneuverable Recoverable Space Vehicle (MRSV). Status: Study 1959.
MRT - American target vehicle. Orbital Sciences designates its version using the Castor-4B motor as the Medium-Range Target. Status: Active. First Launch: 2005-04-08. Last Launch: 2012-06-27. Number: 13 .
MRTV - Alternate designation for Castor-M57A1.
MRTV - Alternate designation for ait-2.
MR-UR-100 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Yangel MR-UR-100 was designed as a replacement for Chelomei's UR-100 at the end of its 10 year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Chelomei, the UR-100N, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other. Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1971-12-10. Last Launch: 1987-05-23. Number: 78 . Gross mass: 71,100 kg (156,700 lb). Payload: 2,550 kg (5,620 lb). Thrust: 1,147.00 kN (257,855 lbf).
MR-UR-100 BR - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. More at: N2O4/UDMH
MR-UR-100 St 1 - N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 1236.00 kN (277,864 lbf) thrust. Mass 59,000 kg (130,073 lb). Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 59,000 kg (130,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 1,236.00 kN (277,863 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
MR-UR-100-1 stage series -
MR-UR-100-2 - Alternate designation for 15D169.
MR-UR-100-2 - N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 142.00 kN (31,923 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,000 kg (22,046 lb). Status: S. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 142.00 kN (31,922 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
MR-UR-100-3 - N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb). Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
MR-UR-100U 15A16 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the MR-UR-100U loaded into the super-hardened 15P715U universal silo, with a modernized guidance system with better reliability and accuracy. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1977-10-25. Last Launch: 1983-10-04. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 71,100 kg (156,700 lb). Payload: 2,550 kg (5,620 lb).
MR-UR-100UTTKh - Alternate designation for MR-UR-100U 15A16.
MRV - Alternate designation for UR-100U.
Mrykin, Aleksandr Grigoryevich - Russian officer. First Deputy Commander of GURVO 1955-1965. Strategic Missile Forces liaison with space units. Born: 1905-08-15. Died: 1972-10-06.
MS - Series of Japanese satellites, part of the SS series for scientific observations in outer space.
MS - Engineering test for the launching of scientific satellites.
MS 1 - Alternate name of Mercury-Scout 1 (MS 1, MNTV 1).
MS T1 (Tansei 1) - Technology satellite operated by ISAS, Japan. Launched 1971. First Launch: 1971-02-16. Last Launch: 1971-02-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 63 kg (138 lb).
MS T2 (Tansei 2) - Technology satellite operated by ISAS, Japan. Launched 1974. First Launch: 1974-02-16. Last Launch: 1974-02-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 65 kg (143 lb).
MS T3 (Tansei 3) - Technology satellite operated by ISAS, Japan. Launched 1977. First Launch: 1977-02-19. Last Launch: 1977-02-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 134 kg (295 lb).
MS T4 (Tansei 4) - Technology satellite operated by ISAS, Japan. Launched 1980. First Launch: 1980-02-17. Last Launch: 1980-02-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 134 kg (295 lb).
MS T5 (Sakigake) - Comet fly by satellite operated by ISAS, Japan. Launched 1985. First Launch: 1985-01-07. Last Launch: 1985-01-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 138 kg (304 lb).
MS-1 - Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. Ukrainian microsatellite bus that could be equipped with imaging or other scientific or technical equipment. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-12-24. Last Launch: 2007-04-17. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 66 kg (145 lb).
MS-1-TK - Alternate name of Micron 1 (KS5MF2, MS-1-TK).
M-SAT - Canadian communications satellite.
M-SAT (MR-SAT, MRS-SAT, Nanosat 8) - Technology satellite for Missouri University of Science and Technology - Missouri S&T Satellite Team (M-SAT), USA. Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
MSBS - French intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Active. Gross mass: 19,950 kg (43,980 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 444.20 kN (99,860 lbf).
MSBS 501 - Aerospatiale solid rocket engine. MSBS M51 first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 900.00 kN (202,320 lbf). More at: Solid
MSBS 502 - Aerospatiale solid rocket engine. MSBS M51 second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 300.00 kN (67,440 lbf). More at: Solid
MSBS 503 - Aerospatiale solid rocket engine. MSBS M51 third stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 100.00 kN (22,480 lbf). More at: Solid
MSBS M011 - French intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1967-01-01. Last Launch: 1968-01-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
MSBS M012 - French intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1968-01-01. Last Launch: 1968-01-13. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
MSBS M013 - French intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1968-01-01. Last Launch: 1971-01-01. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
MSBS M1 - French intermediate range ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SEP 901 + 1 x Rita I Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1971-01-01. Last Launch: 1972-01-01. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 20,005 kg (44,103 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
MSBS M112 - French intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1966-01-01. Last Launch: 1967-04-19. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb).
MSBS M112-1 - Alternate name for SEP 901.
MSBS M2 - French intermediate range ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SEP 904 + 1 x Rita II Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1973-01-01. Last Launch: 1973-07-20. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 19,500 kg (42,900 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
MSBS M20 - French intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1980. First Launch: 1974-06-12. Last Launch: 1980-01-01. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Thrust: 45,300.00 kN (10,183,800 lbf).
MSBS M21 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2015-09-30. Last Launch: 2015-09-30. Number: 1 .
MSBS M2-1 - Alternate name for SEP 904.
MSBS M2-2 - Alternate name for Rita II.
MSBS M4 - French intermediate range ballistic missile. Submarine launched; MRV. Operational. 3 stage vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1980-11-28. Last Launch: 1999-05-04. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 34,987 kg (77,133 lb). Payload: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Thrust: 900.00 kN (202,320 lbf).
MSBS M4-1 - Alternate name for SEP 401.
MSBS M4-2 - Alternate name for SEP 402.
MSBS M4-3 - Alternate name for SEP 403.
MSBS M45 - French intermediate range ballistic missile. Improved M-4. Status: Active. First Launch: 1995-02-14. Last Launch: 2005-02-01. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb).
MSBS M5 - French intercontinental ballistic missile. Gross mass: 48,000 kg (105,000 lb).
MSBS M51 - French intercontinental ballistic missile. Status: Active. First Launch: 2006-11-09. Last Launch: 2016-07-01. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 56,000 kg (123,000 lb).
MSBS M51-1 - Alternate name for MSBS 501.
MSBS M51-2 - Alternate name for MSBS 502.
MSBS M51-3 - Alternate name for MSBS 503.
MSC - Manned Spacecraft Center (later JSC, Johnson Space Center)
MSE-1 astronaut group, 1979 - Requirement: shuttle manned spaceflight engineers to operate military payloads. Date: 1979.
MSE-2 astronaut group, 1982 - Requirement: shuttle manned spaceflight engineers to operate military payloads. Date: 1982.
MSE-3 astronaut group, 1985 - Requirement: shuttle manned spaceflight engineers to operate military payloads. Date: 1985.
MSF - Abbreviation for Manned space flight
MSFC - George C Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama (NASA)
MSFEB - Abbreviation or acronym for Manned Space Flight Experiments Board
MSFN - Manned Space Flight Network
MSG - European earth weather satellite. MSG (Meteosat Second Generation 1) was a European (EUMETSAT consortium) geostationary weather satellite. Meteorology satellite built by Alcatel Space for ESA, EUMETSAT, Europe. Launched 2002 - 2015. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-08-28. Last Launch: 2015-07-15. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
MSL - American Mars rover. Heavy, radioisotope-powered robotic Mars rover planned for an October 2010 arrival at Mars. It would carry instruments to definitively search for life in the soil. Mars rover satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 2011. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-11-26. Last Launch: 2011-11-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,839 kg (8,463 lb).
MSL-1 - Alternate name for STS-83.
MSL-1 astronaut group, 1996 -
MSL-1R - Alternate name for STS-94.
MSL-2 - The Material Science Laboratory was a carrier system designed to utilize the residual space of the Shuttle cargo bay. Based on the multi-purpose experiment support structure (MPESS) carrier, it offered a full complement of power, data, and thermal control services to payloads mounted on it. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-01-12. Last Launch: 1986-01-12. Number: 1 .
MSLS-A - Target version of Minuetman 3 ICBM.
MSLS-B - Target version of Minuetman 3 ICBM.
MSM - Ministry of Medium Machine Building (Russian abbreviation)
MSOW - American air-to-surface missile. Modular Stand-Off Weapon. Canceled
MSS A - Research, Magnetosphere satellite built by Avco Systems Division for AFCRL, NASA. Gross mass: 36 kg (79 lb).
MSST GQM-173 - Alliant Techsystems ground-launched drone.
MSTI - American military strategic defense satellite. BMDO technology demonstration; Miniature Seeker Technology Demonstration. Research satellite built by Spectrum Astro for SDIO, USA. Launched 1992. Used the SA-200S bus. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-11-21. Last Launch: 1996-05-17. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 170 kg (370 lb).
MSTI 2 - Research satellite built by Spectrum Astro for US Air Force (ex BMDO ex SDIO), USA. Launched 1994. Used the SA-200S bus. First Launch: 1994-05-09. Last Launch: 1994-05-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 163 kg (359 lb).
MSTI 3 - Research satellite built by Spectrum Astro for US Air Force (ex BMDO ex SDIO), USA. Launched 1996. Used the SA-200S bus. First Launch: 1996-05-17. Last Launch: 1996-05-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 211 kg (465 lb).
MSTS - American manned lunar rover. Study 1999. Status: Study 1999.
MSU - Montana State University, Bozeman
M-Suit - American space suit, tested 1998. In the fall of 1998, two soft suit prototypes were delivered to NASA by two companies, ILC Dover and David Clark. ILC Dover's M-Suit operated at a pressure of 0.26 atmospheres and weighed 30 kg. Status: tested 1998. Gross mass: 45 kg (99 lb).
MSV - Satellite bus built by Northrop Grumman Space Technology, USA.
MSV 1, 2, SA - Alternate name of SkyTerra 1, 2 (MSV 1, 2, SA).
MSvyazi - Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation (Russian abbreviation)
MSX - American military strategic defense satellite. SDI / BMD Experiments satellite built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) for BMDO (formerly SDIO), USA. Launched 1996. Used 3-Axis stabilized bus, 2 solar panels. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-04-24. Last Launch: 1996-04-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb).
MT - Japanese manufacturer. Ministry of Telecommunications, Japan.
MT 27 - SNECMA solid rocket engine. Lex first stage. Status: Retired 1967. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf). More at: Solid
MT-135 - Japanese sounding rocket. The MT-135 was a small single-stage sounding rocket designed to collect data on the middle atmosphere, such as ozone layer depletion. Status: Retired 2001. First Launch: 1964-03-29. Last Launch: 2001-03-21. Number: 77 . Gross mass: 68 kg (149 lb). Payload: 10 kg (22 lb). Thrust: 8.13 kN (1,828 lbf). More at: Solid
MT-135JA - Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1985. First Launch: 1985-01-30. Last Launch: 1985-09-25. Number: 11 .
MT-135P - Japanese sounding rocket. In 1969 the MT-135P was developed; featuring a parachute-equipped recoverable motor case for maritime safety. Status: Retired 2000. First Launch: 1969-01-05. Last Launch: 2000-12-20. Number: 817 .
MTC - Abbreviation for Man Tended Capability
MTG-I 1, 2, 3, 4 (Meteosat 12, 14, 15, 17) - Meteorology satellite built by Thales Alenia Space (prime), OHB-System GmbH (bus) for ESA, EUMETSAT. Used the SmallGEO (LUXOR) bus bus.
MTG-S 1, 2 (Meteosat 13, 16 / Sentinel 4A, 4B) - Meteorology satellite built by Thales Alenia Space (prime), OHB-System GmbH (bus) for ESA, EUMETSAT. Used the SmallGEO (LUXOR) bus bus.
MTI - American military surveillance satellite. The Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) was a space-based research and development project sponsored by the U. Experimental satellite built by Ball Aerospace for DoE, USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 2000. Used the BCP-600 bus. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-03-12. Last Launch: 2000-03-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 587 kg (1,294 lb).
MTKVA - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1974, competitor with Buran. Manned lifting body spaceplane, designed by Soviet engineers as a recoverable spacecraft in the early 1970's. Status: Study 1974. Gross mass: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb). Payload: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
MTKVP - Reusable Vertical-Landing Transport Craft (Russian abbreviation)
MTO - Alternate name of Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO).
MTP - Geosynchronous weather satellite. Alternate name for Meteosat.
MTR-15 - Alternate name of BATS MTR-15.
MTS - American earth micrometeoroid satellite. Explorer 46. Micrometeoroid tests. Research satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1972. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-08-13. Last Launch: 1972-08-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 136 kg (299 lb).
MTSAT - Multifunctional Transport Satellite using the DS2000 bus. Provided a communications relay between aircraft and air traffic control; GPS augmentation navigation for aircraft; and transmitted the location of aircraft to air traffic control.
MT-Sat - Series of dual-purpose Japanese Multifunctional Transport Satellites. An aeronautical payload provided communications relay between aircraft and air traffic control; GPS augmentation navigation for aircraft; and transmitted the location of aircraft to air traffic control. A separate payload provided weather data for the Japanese Meteorological Agency.
MTSat 1, 1R (Himawari 6) - Communication, Meteorology, Navigation satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for Japanese Ministry of Transport Civil Aviation Bureau & Meteorological Agency, Japan. Launched 1999 - 2005. Used the SSL-1300 bus. Launched 1999-2005. First Launch: 1999-11-15. Last Launch: 2005-02-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb).
MTSat 2 (Himawari 7) - Communication, Meteorology satellite built by Mitsubishi Electric (prime), Boeing for Japanese Ministry of Transport Civil Aviation Bureau & Meteorological Agency, Japan. Launched 2006. Used the DS-2000 bus. Launched 2006. First Launch: 2006-02-18. Last Launch: 2006-02-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb).
MTV Motor - SpaceDev N2O/Solid hybrid rocket engine. Upper stages. Small hybrid rocket motor designed for use in the Maneuver and Transfer Vehicle, an upper stage orbital transfer motor. Tested 2001. Status: Out of production. Date: 2001-2004. More at: N2O/Solid
Mu - The Japanese Mu launcher series provided a flexible all-solid propellant launch vehicle for access to space. It was the first Japanese launch vehicle designed from the start as an orbital launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1995.
Mu Family - Alternate name of M (Mu) Family.
Mu-1 - Japanese test vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40 Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1966-10-31. Last Launch: 1966-10-31. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Thrust: 1,932.00 kN (434,330 lbf).
Mu-3 - The Japanese Mu launcher series provided a flexible all-solid propellant launch vehicle for access to space. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 62,610 kg (138,030 lb). Payload: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Thrust: 1,740.00 kN (391,160 lbf).
Mu-3C - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1974-02-16. Last Launch: 1979-02-21. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 41,600 kg (91,700 lb). Payload: 195 kg (429 lb). Thrust: 1,932.00 kN (434,330 lbf).
Mu-3C-0 - Alternate name for SB-310.
Mu-3D - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40 Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1969-08-17. Last Launch: 1969-08-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Thrust: 1,932.00 kN (434,330 lbf).
Mu-3D-3 - Alternate name for M-30.
Mu-3H - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-13 + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A + 1 x KM-H Status: Retired 1978. First Launch: 1977-02-19. Last Launch: 1978-09-16. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 44,700 kg (98,500 lb). Payload: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 2,150.00 kN (483,330 lbf).
Mu-3S - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-13TVC + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A Status: Retired 1984. First Launch: 1980-02-17. Last Launch: 1984-02-14. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 49,300 kg (108,600 lb). Payload: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 2,150.00 kN (483,330 lbf).
Mu-3S-0 - Alternate name for SB-735 engine.
Mu-3S-1 - Alternate name for M-13.
Mu-3S-2 - Alternate name for M-23-Mu.
Mu-3S-II - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-735 + 1 x M-13 + 1 x M-23 + 1 x M-3B Status: Retired 1995. First Launch: 1985-01-07. Last Launch: 1995-01-15. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 61,700 kg (136,000 lb). Payload: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 1,930.00 kN (433,880 lbf).
Mu-4S - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40 Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1970-09-25. Last Launch: 1972-08-19. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 43,600 kg (96,100 lb). Payload: 180 kg (390 lb). Thrust: 1,932.00 kN (434,330 lbf).
Mu-4S-1 - Alternate name for M-10.
Mu-4S-4 - Alternate name for M-40.
MUBLCOM - The disk-shaped MUBLCOM satellite used the Microstar bus.
MUBLCOM - Communication satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for DARPA, USA. Launched 1999. Used the MicroStar bus. First Launch: 1999-05-18. Last Launch: 1999-05-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 48 kg (105 lb).
Mud Lake DZ - Sounding rocket launcher site. Air-launched drop zone, with RW08/26 and RW18/36 available for emergency landings.
Mud Lake DZ RW08/26 - Alternate name for Mud Lake DZ.
Muehlner, Joachim Wilhelm - German-American radio engineer, at Peenemuende from 1939 . One of the few of von Braun's team that worked on all major programs, from the Doppler transponder for the V-2 to the electronic landing systems for the Space Shuttle in 1978. Born: 1913-01-10. Died: 2004-04-13.
Muehlstroh, Jupp - German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot.
Mueller, Fritz - German-American guidance system specialist, at Kreiselgeraete from 1933. Worked for von Braun in Germany and America, 1936-1960, involved in guidance platforms for Redstone, Jupiter, Pershing, and Saturn I. Went to private industry in 1960. Born: 1907-10-27. Died: 2001-05-15.
Mueller, George Edwin - American engineer. Headed the NASA Office of Manned Spaceflight during the Apollo program. Born: 1918-07-16.
Mueller, Hans - German rocket technician in WW2, recruited to work with Von Braun in Kummersdorf. Later worked at Peenemuende, and in the Soviet Union after WW2. Born: 1896. Died: 1986-01-01.
Mueller, Hugo - German Engineer. Engineer; worked at Mittelwerk. Born: 1898.
Mueller, Otto - German engineer. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2.
Mueller, Rudolf - German mechanics expert; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. Born: 1898.
Mueller, Werner - German mathematician; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. Born: 1914.
Mugunghwa - Satellite series providing Ku-band service for Korea Telecom and Ka-band and SHF band transponders for the South Korean Agency for Defense Development. Used the Spacebus 4000 bus.
Mugungwha 5 - Alternate name of Koreasat 5 (Mugungwha 5).
Mugungwha 5A - Alternate name of Koreasat 5A (Mugungwha 5A).
Mugungwha 7 - Alternate name of Koreasat 7 (Mugungwha 7).
Mukai, Chiaki - Japanese physician payload specialist astronaut 1985-2015. Surgeon, first Japanese female astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2015. Born: 1952-05-06. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 23.65 days.
Mukhortov, Pavel Petrovich - Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1966-03-11.
Mu-Labsat - Japanese technology satellite. Technology satellite, which released two tiny subsatellites in an experiment to test an onboard tracking imager for inspector satellites. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-12-14. Last Launch: 2002-12-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 65 kg (143 lb).
Mullane, Richard Michael 'Mike' - American test engineer mission specialist astronaut 1978-1990. Author of the frankest astronaut biography ever published. Flew 150 combat missions in Vietnam. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1990. Born: 1945-09-10. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 14.85 days.
Multi-Directional Propulsion Module - Alternate designation for MDPB manned space station module.
Multigroup 1, 2, 3 - ELINT, SIGINT satellite built by Lockheed (prime), Airborne Instruments Laboratory (AIS) (Multigroup payload); E-Systems (Setter payload) for USAF, USA. Launched 1966-1968. First Launch: 1966-12-29. Last Launch: 1968-01-17. Number: 3 .
Multi-Mission Microsatellite Bus - Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite, joint Canadian Space Agency/DRDC mission to survey asteroids and space debris, also with a 0.15m telescope. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-02-25. Last Launch: 2013-02-25. Number: 1 .
Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft - Alternate name of MMS (Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft).
Multi-module orbital base - Alternate designation for MKBS manned space station.
Multiple Access Communications Satellites - Alternate designation for MACSAT military communications satellite.
Multiple Docking Adapter - Alternate designation for Skylab MDA manned space station module.
Multipurpose Satellite Gals - Russian earth resources radar satellite. Study 1983. Heavy radar satellite based on the DOS 17K space station bus and using a KRT-30, a 30 m diameter radio telescope. Status: Study 1983. Gross mass: 22,400 kg (49,300 lb). Payload: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb).
Multi-Role Recovery Capsule - British manned spacecraft. Study 1987. Britain was the only European Space Agency member opposed to ESA's ambitious man-in-space plan, and the British conservative government refused to approve the November 1987 plan. Status: Study 1987. Gross mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 1.61 kN (361 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
multispectral - Utilizing radiation from several discrete bands of the spectrum simultaneously.
Multi-Use Thruster - Alternate designation for MUT MON-UDMH rocket engine.
Munin - Swedish technology satellite. Small 6 kg Munin nanosatellite was built by Swedish students in collaboration with the Swedish Institute for Space Physics (IRF) and carried a particle detector, a spectrometer, and an auroral camera. Scientific satellite for SSC, Sweden. Launched 2000. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-11-21. Last Launch: 2000-11-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
Munz - German rocket engine specialist.
MUOS - US Navy Mobile User Objective System, providing military UHF communications services. Used the AS 2100 bus.
MUOS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - Comsat satellite built by Lockheed Martin (Prime), Boeing, General Dynamics for US Navy, USA. Launched 2012 - 2016. Used the A2100M bus. First Launch: 2012-02-24. Last Launch: 2016-06-24. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 6,740 kg (14,850 lb).
Muroc - Alternate name for Edwards launch site.
MURP - American manned spaceplane. The McDonnell Douglas Space Shuttle Phase A studies were conducted under contract NAS9-9204. Their Class I vehicle was dubbed MURP - Manned Upper Reusable Payload. Status: Design 1972.
Murray, Arthur 'Kit' - American test pilot. Flew the X-1A, X-1B and X-5 # 1. Status: Inactive.
Musabayev, Talgat Amangeldyyevich - Kazakh pilot cosmonaut 1990-2003. Transferred in 1991 Air Force Special Group. Russian Air Force Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2003. Born: 1951-01-07. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 341.41 days.
MuSat - Argentinian earth magnetosphere satellite. Microsat. MuSat-1 Victor was the first Argentine-built satellite. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-08-29. Last Launch: 1996-08-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 32 kg (70 lb).
MuSat 1 (Victor) - Technology satellite for Instituto universitario aeronautico, Argentina. Launched 1996. First Launch: 1996-08-29. Last Launch: 1996-08-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 32 kg (70 lb).
Musca - WRE solid rocket engine. Kookaburra second stage. Status: Retired 1976. Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf). More at: Solid
Muses - Alternate designation Hagoromo.
Muses - Mu Space Engineering Satellites (launched on Japanese Mu series launch vehicles) pioneered new satellite technologies, including lunar flyby interplanetary injection, aerobraking, and large structure deployment.
Muses A (Hiten) - Technology, lunar lander operated by ISAS, Japan. Launched 1990. First Launch: 1990-01-24. Last Launch: 1990-01-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 197 kg (434 lb).
Muses A Lunar Orbiter (Hagoromo) - Lunar lander operated by ISAS, Japan. Launched 1990. First Launch: 1990-01-24. Last Launch: 1990-01-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
Muses B (HALCA, VSOP, Haruka) - Radio Astronomy satellite operated by ISAS, Japan. Launched 1997. First Launch: 1997-02-12. Last Launch: 1997-02-12. Number: 1 .
Muses C (Hayabusa) - Asteroid lander and sample return satellite operated by ISAS → JAXA, Japan. Launched 2003. First Launch: 2003-05-09. Last Launch: 2003-05-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 510 kg (1,120 lb).
Muses-B - Manufacturer's designation for Haruka radio astronomy satellite.
Muses-C - Alternate designation for Hayabusa asteroid probe.
Musgrave, Franklin Story - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1967-1997. Flew in space six times. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1997. Born: 1935-08-19. Spaceflights: 6 . Total time in space: 53.41 days.
Musketball - Alternate name of RTDS (OAR 907, Musketball).
Musketball - American technology satellite. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-08-07. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 1 .
Musson - Code name for Geo-IK earth geodetic satellite.
Musson-2 - Alternate name of Geo-IK-2 (Musson-2, 14F31).
Mustard - The British Aircraft Corporation "Multi-Unit Space Transport And Recovery Device" design of 1964-1965 was a winged two-stage-to-orbit reusable space shuttle using the 'triamese' concept. The three components of the design were lifting bodies with a configuration similar to the American HL-10 vehicle. BAC sought to reduce development cost by use of two boosters nearly identical to the orbiter vehicle. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 424,270 kg (935,350 lb). Thrust: 4,794.40 kN (1,077,824 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Mustard 1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 141,043 kg (310,946 lb). Unfuelled mass: 24,036 kg (52,990 lb). Thrust: 2,150.00 kN (483,330 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Mustard 2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 142,184 kg (313,462 lb). Unfuelled mass: 24,943 kg (54,989 lb). Thrust: 2,150.00 kN (483,330 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Musudan - Alternate name of Hwasong 10.
Musudan - Austere coastal missile test site used for launch of long-range missile tests over the Pacific, and North Korea's space launch vehicle. First Launch: 1984-04-01. Last Launch: 2009-04-05. Number: 13 .
Muszaphar Shukor, Sheikh - Malaysian physician cosmonaut 2006-2007. First Malaysian in space. Status: Inactive; Active 2006-2007. Born: 1972-07-26. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 10.88 days.
MUT - Rocketdyne MON/UDMH rocket engine. Satellite maneuvering motor. Developed 2005. New technology motor with improved thrust/weight ratio and use of mixed oxides of nitrogen oxidizer with a much lower freezing point than N2O4. Status: Developed 2005. Date: 2005. Unfuelled mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Thrust: 5.64 kN (1,267 lbf). More at: MON/UDMH
MV - Alternate designation for M-V.
M-V - All-solid Japanese satellite launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-02-12. Last Launch: 2006-09-22. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 137,500 kg (303,100 lb). Payload: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 4,200.00 kN (944,100 lbf).
M-V KM - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version consisting of 1 x M-14 + 1 x M-24 + 1 x M-34 + 1 x KM-V1 First Launch: 2003-05-09. Last Launch: 2006-09-22. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 139,000 kg (306,000 lb). Payload: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 3,786.00 kN (851,126 lbf).
M-V-1 - Alternate name for M14.
MV-1 - Alternate name of KSR-2 KRM.
M-V-2 - Alternate name for M24.
M-V-3 - Alternate name for M34.
M-V-4 - Nissan solid rocket engine. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997. Status: Active. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 1,430 kg (3,150 lb). Unfuelled mass: 118 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 52.00 kN (11,690 lbf). More at: Solid
MVKS - Alternate designation for VKS series.
MVKS - RKK Energia's proposed solution to the Soviet government's MVKS requirement for a single-stage-to-orbit reusable aerospaceplane system was this 700-metric-ton, turboramjet/rocket propulsion design. Work began in 1986 but abandoned when the Soviet Union collapsed. Status: Design 1986. Gross mass: 700,000 kg (1,540,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb). Payload: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb).
MVKS - Alternate designation for VKS.
MVKS (Russian abbreviation) - Reusable aerospacecraft (Russian abbreviation)
MVL-300 (Lomonosov) - Cosmic Radiation satellite built by M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, NPO VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 2016. Used Kanopus bus. First Launch: 2016-04-28. Last Launch: 2016-04-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 645 kg (1,421 lb).
MVS - Russian agency. Ministry of Defense, Russia.
MVTU - Moscow Higher Technical School (Russian abbreviation)
MW - megawatt(s)
MX - Alternate designation for Peacekeeper.
MX-1593 - American orbital launch vehicle. The September 1951 design for the Atlas used seven main engines to hurl the 3600 kg nuclear warhead over a 9300 km range. CEP was 1850 m. Status: Design 1951. Payload: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Thrust: 1,695.00 kN (381,051 lbf).
MX-1868 - Swiss guided short-range surface-to-air missile.
MX-1E 1, 2, 3 - Lunar lander for Moon Express, USA. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
MX-2145 - American manned combat spacecraft. In May 1953 the Air Force funded Boeing to study their MX-2145 boost-glide vehicle as a successor to the B-58 supersonic medium-range bomber. This was a competitor to Bell's BOMI. Status: Study 1953.
MX-222 SM-74 - Convair USAF long-range strategic missile.
MX-2227 - Prototype for HTV test vehicle. Status: Retired 1955. First Launch: 1954-11-18. Last Launch: 1955-04-15. Number: 6 .
MX-324 - Northrop manned rocketplane. Flown 1944. First U.S. military rocket-powered plane. Status: Operational 1944.
MX-770 - Alternate designation for Navaho SSM-A-2.
MX-771 - Alternate designation for Matador.
MX-774 - Alternate designation for RTV-A-2.
MX-774 - LOx/Alcohol rocket stage. 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb). Status: Retired 1948. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf). More at: Lox/Alcohol
MX-775 - American intercontinental cruise missile. Status: Retired 1953. First Launch: 1950-12-21. Last Launch: 1953-03-10. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 12,700 kg (27,900 lb).
MX-775-1 - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Retired 1953. More at: Air/Kerosene
MX-776 - Alternate designation for Rascal.
Myasishchev bureau - Russian manufacturer of aircraft, rockets and spacecraft. Myasishchev Design Bureau, Russia.
Myasishchev, Vladimir Mikhailovich - Soviet Chief Designer 1951-1960 of OKB-23. Developed innovative M-4, M-50 bombers, Buran cruise missiles, and VKA spaceplane. Bureau merged with Chelomei, 1960. Later Director of TsAGI. Regained his own design bureau just before his death. Born: 1902-09-28. Died: 1978-10-14.
Myers, Dale Dehaven - American aerodynamicist, charismatic manager that went many times through the revolving door between industry and government. Key roles in Hound Dog, Apollo, Shuttle, and B-1 programs. Born: 1922-01-08. Died: 2015-05-19.
Mylar - American technology satellite. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-08-07. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Mylar Balloon (Gridsphere B, AVL-802) - Experimental satellite operated by USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1968 - 1971. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 2 .
Myojo - Alternate name for VEP.
Myriade - Micro-satellite product line developed jointly by EADS Astrium and the French Space Agency CNES beginning in 1998. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-12-18. Last Launch: 2013-05-07. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 125 kg (275 lb).
MY-Sat - Astronautic Technology built Malaysia's first microsatellite through a technology transfer program with Surrey Satellite Technology. Carried multi-spectral Earth imaging CCD cameras. Used the SSTL-70 bus.
MySat 1 - Alternate name of TiungSat 1 (MySat 1, Malaysian-OSCAR 46, MO 46).
MZ - Machine Building Plant (Russian abbreviation)

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