Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched single stage to orbit vehicle with air-breathing propulsion to Mach 5 (subsonic combustion). The sled would accelerate the launch vehicle to Mach 0.8. Propellants were slush hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The vehicle would have a 3000 km cross-range on re-entry.
Status: Study 1993. Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Gross mass: 300,000 kg (660,000 lb). Height: 54.10 m (177.40 ft). Diameter: 19.70 m (64.60 ft). Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
LEO Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 51.00 degrees.