Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: J

J - Alternate designation for J (SI abbreviation).
J - Alternate designation for Energia.
J (SI abbreviation) - joule (SI abbreviation)
J-1 - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Original version. Because of the high cost, the original J-1 design was superseded by an alternate J-1 F2 with a different booster stage. Status: Retired 1996. First Launch: 1996-02-11. Last Launch: 1996-02-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 88,580 kg (195,280 lb). Payload: 850 kg (1,870 lb). Thrust: 1,550.00 kN (348,450 lbf).
J-1 - Alternate designation for Zenit-2.
J-1 F2 - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Lower cost alternate to the original J-1 design. Uses the SRB-A of the H-2A vehicle as the first stage, the second and third stages of the J-1, with updated avionics. Status: In development. Gross mass: 91,500 kg (201,700 lb). Payload: 850 kg (1,870 lb). Thrust: 1,800.00 kN (404,600 lbf).
J-1-1 - Alternate name for H-2-0.
J-1-2 - Alternate name for M-23-J.
J-1e - Alternate designation for Zenit-3SLB.
J-1e - Alternate designation for Zenit-3SL.
J-2 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Used in the Saturn IVB stage in Saturn IB and Saturn V, and the Saturn II stage in the Saturn V. First flight 1966. Sea level versions with reduced expansion ratio were proposed for Saturn II first stage use. Upgraded toroidal aerospike versions (J-2T-200K and J-2T-250K) were developed for upgrades to Saturn upper stages. The modestly improved J-2S was tested and provided basis for X-33 linear aerospike engine thirty years later. After 30 years the J-2 was resurrected again for use in boosting NASA's new Orion manned capsule to orbit. In the event, NASA was unable to resist 'improving' the J-2S, and by early 2007 the engine for the second stage of the Ares 1 Crew Launch Vehicle was the redesignated and substantially different J-2X. Status: First flight 1966. Date: 1960. Number: 87 . Unfuelled mass: 1,438 kg (3,170 lb). Thrust: 1,033.10 kN (232,250 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
J-2S - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Developed 1965-1969. J-2 version proposed for Saturn follow-on vehicles, using results of the J-2X technology program. The engine was simplified while offering improved performance. Status: Developed 1965-1969. Date: 1967. Unfuelled mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 1,138.50 kN (255,945 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
J-2S Linear Aerospike - Alternate designation for XRS-2200 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
J-2-SL - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1966. Sea level version of J-2 with reduced expansion ratio proposed for Saturn II first stage use. Status: Study 1966. Unfuelled mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 996.70 kN (224,067 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
J-2T-200K - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1965. Proposed for later versions of Saturn V. Toroidal aerospike plug nozzle version of J-2. Status: Study 1965. Thrust: 889.30 kN (199,923 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
J-2T-250K - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1967. Proposed for later versions of Saturn V. Toroidal aerospike plug nozzle version of J-2. Status: Study 1967. Thrust: 1,111.60 kN (249,898 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
J-2X - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Ares I launch vehicle second stage. In development 2006-2016. Began as an update to the J-2 engine of the 1960s, but final design was all-new, 20% more thrust, but double the weight. Status: In development 2006-2012. Date: 2012. Thrust: 1,310.00 kN (294,490 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
J40 - Alternate designation for XJ40-WE-1.
J57 - Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine family. Used on B-52 launch aircraft for X-15A and other US rocketplanes.
J57-19 - Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. Out of production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Used on B-52 launch aircraft for X-15A. First flight 1959. Status: Out of production. Number: 2712 . Thrust: 53.80 kN (12,095 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
J57-8 - Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. Out of production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960. Status: Out of production. Number: 7 . Thrust: 45.40 kN (10,206 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
J58 - Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Status: Out of Production. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
J75 - Alternate designation for J75-17.
J75-17 - Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 71.60 kN (16,096 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
J79 - GE turbojet engine family, used on the F-104, F-4, and B-58 aircraft.
J79- 5 - GE turbojet engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 45.80 kN (10,296 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
J79-17 - GE turbojet engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 52.80 kN (11,870 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
J85 - Alternate designation for J85-GE-5.
J85-GE-5 - GE turbojet engine. Carries SpaceShipOne to release point 65 km from Mohave Airport base, then releases it at 15 km altitude at 215 kph. Wing area 43.5 sq m. Thrust: 34.30 kN (7,711 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
J93 - Alternate designation for J93-3.
J93-3 - GE turbojet engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 86.70 kN (19,491 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Jabal Hamzah - Missile launch site. First Launch: 1962-07-21. Last Launch: 1973-10-06. Number: 6 .
Jabiru 2 - The Rook motor was 0.43 m in diameter and 5.28 m long. It contained a case-bonded charge of 846 kg of non-aluminized plastic propellant giving a total impulse of 1760 kN-seconds in 5.6 seconds; with a maximum thrust of 323 kN and a specific impulse of 213 seconds. The motor was capable of withstanding the 40g acceleration it provided during firing. It was employed as the first propulsion stage of the Leopard and Jaguar (Jabiru) supersonic test vehicles, and by itself in single-stage test applications. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1964-10-02. Last Launch: 1971-12-04. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Jabiru 3 - Two stage version consisting of 1 x Rook IIIA + 1 x Rook IIIB Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1973-11-14. Last Launch: 1974-11-20. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Jabiru-3 - Alternate name for Gosling.
Jackson - American politician. Powerful Congressman, serving from 1940-1986. In the 1950's a leading advocate of greater attention to the development of the U.S. missile program. Born: 1912. Died: 1983-01-01.
Jacobi - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1918-01-13.
Jaehn - German pilot cosmonaut 1976-1978. First German astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1976-1978. Born: 1937-02-13. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.87 days.
Jaffke - German architect. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Building engineer; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. Born: 1907.
JAG Mars Flyby 1966 - American manned Mars flyby. Study 1966. Final NASA attempt to mount a manned Mars flyby mission by 1975 using Apollo hardware. It took the best elements of the NASA Huntsville and Douglas concepts of 1965, requiring only four Saturn V launches. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 400,000 kg (880,000 lb).
Jaguar - Alternate designation for RAF Jaguar.
Jaguar 1 - Three stage version consisting of 1 x Rook II + 1 x Gosling IIN + 1 x Lobster I Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1960-08-17. Last Launch: 1964-02-12. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 1,680 kg (3,700 lb).
Jaguar 1-2 - Alternate name for Gosling.
Jaguar 1-3 - Alternate name for Lobster.
Jaguar 2 - Three stage version consisting of 1 x Rook IIIA + 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Gosling IV Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1966-08-10. Last Launch: 1966-08-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,040 kg (4,490 lb).
Jaguar B-57 - American air-launched test vehicle. Three stage vehicle air launched from a B-57A Canberra. The rocket consisted of consisting of 3 x Recruit + 1 x Recruit + 1 x Baby Sergeant Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1960-01-01. Last Launch: 1961-01-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf).
Jaguar-3 - Alternate name for RM-3141.
Jahnke - German expert in rocket motors during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Jahns - German expert in high frequency long range rocket during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
JAK - American technology satellite, launched, 2000.01.27. Three picosatellites (JAK, Thelma, and Louise), developed by the Artemis team of women undergraduates at Santa Clara University, were deployed from the OPAL satellite. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2000-01-27. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
James - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1987. Born: 1956-08-08.
James, Lee - American Army officer, assigned to ABMA Huntsville 1956-1960. Seconded to NASA 1962-1971, where he oversaw NASA Huntsville, except for a stint 1962-1968 as Deputy Director for the Apollo program. Born: 1920-04-16. Died: 2006-02-12.
Jankowski - Polish pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1978. Graduated from General Staff Academy "Karol Swierczewski", 1969 Fighter pilot, Polish Air Force. Commander, Deblin Air Force School. Later retired from all duties. Status: Inactive; Active 1976-1978. Born: 1937-11-22.
Janus - American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. This TRW design of 1965 used a unique concept - a lifting body main stage, that provided both ascent propulsion and re-entry protection. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb).
Japan - Japan
Japan Satellite Systems Inc - Alternate name for JSAT.
Japanese Commercial Group - 1989 - Requirement: Japanese astronauts for commercial mission to Mir. Date: 1989.
Japanese Earth Resources Satellite - Alternate designation for JERS earth land resources satellite.
Japanese Ionosphere Sounding Satellite - Alternate designation for JISS earth ionosphere satellite.
Japanese Space Plane - Japanese winged orbital launch vehicle. NAL / Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. 1995 design for a single stage to orbit spaceplane. Crew of ten, empty mass 110 metric tons. LACE / Scramjet engines, 29 m wingspan. Status: Design 1995. Gross mass: 350,000 kg (770,000 lb). Payload: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
JARL - Japanese agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Japanese Amateur Radio League, Japan.
Jarvis - Alternate designation for Jarvis launch vehicle.
Jarvis - American engineer payload specialist astronaut 1984-1986. Died in Challenger accident. Status: Deceased; Active 1984-1986. Born: 1944-08-24. Died: 1986-01-28. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.0008 days.
Jarvis launch vehicle - American orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle planned for Pacific launch based on Saturn V engines, tooling. Masses, payload estimated. Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 1,154,000 kg (2,544,000 lb). Payload: 38,000 kg (83,000 lb). Thrust: 13,495.20 kN (3,033,842 lbf).
Jarvis-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 950,000 kg (2,090,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb). Thrust: 15,481.26 kN (3,480,326 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Jarvis-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 145,000 kg (319,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Thrust: 1,031.98 kN (231,999 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Jarvis-3 - N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 13,400 kg (29,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
JAS - Japanese Amateur Satellite. Renamed Fuji after launch. Amateur satellite communications in the Oscar series.
Jasman - German expert in rocket engines during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Jason - Alternate designation for Jason sounding rocket.
Jason - French earth sea satellite. Jason was a joint mission between CNES (the French space agency) and NASA/JPL, carrying the same type of sea surface altimeter used on NASA's Topex satellite. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-12-07. Last Launch: 2001-12-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 485 kg (1,069 lb).
Jason sounding rocket - American sounding rocket. The five-stage Jason rocket was developed by the US Air Force for monitoring of radiation in near-earth space (700-800 km) after high altitude nuclear explosions. Originally known as the Argo E-5, it consisted of an Honest John plus Nike plus Nike plus Recruit plus T-55. First used in 1958. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1958-07-11. Last Launch: 1958-09-02. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 3,330 kg (7,340 lb). Payload: 57 kg (125 lb). Thrust: 365.00 kN (82,055 lbf).
Jasper - German rocket technician in WW2; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. Born: 1912.
Jastrow - American physicist, headed NASA space studies 1961-1981. Born: 1925-09-07. Died: 2008-02-08.
JATO - American sounding rocket. JATO (Jet Assisted Take-Off) rockets came in many types and were used to shorten the takeoff of aircraft in short field or overload conditions. They were among the first practical applications of rocketry, and much early development of rocket technology by JPL, Aerojet, Goddard, and others was devoted to JATO applications. Status: Active.
Jauernick - German engineer. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2.
Javelin - American sounding rocket. The four-stage Javelin rocket was originally known as the Argo D-4 and was developed by the Air Force to replace its Jason rocket with the mission of measuring radiation in space after high-altitude nuclear explosions. It was subsequently used by NASA for a variety of high-altitude near-space scientific experiments. Status: Retired 1978. First Launch: 1959-07-07. Last Launch: 1976-07-18. Number: 85 . Gross mass: 3,385 kg (7,462 lb). Payload: 57 kg (125 lb). Thrust: 365.00 kN (82,055 lbf).
Javelin 3 - Alternate designation for Javelin 3 engine.
Javelin 3 - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1965-01-01. Last Launch: 1968-03-11. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
Javelin 3 engine - Aerojet solid rocket engine. HJ Javelin second stage. Status: Retired 1978. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
JAWSAT - American technology satellite. The JAWSAT/FalconSat payloads are being developed as a joint effort between the Air Force Academy and Weber State University. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2000-01-27. Number: 1 .
JAXA - Japanese agency overseeing development of spacecraft. JAXA, Japan.
JAXA SDS - Japanese technology satellite. SDS-1. JAXA Small Demonstration Satellite, a microsatellite with a camera, GPS receiver and sun sensor. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-01-23. Last Launch: 2012-05-17. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
JB-10 - Chinese military surveillance satellite constellation. Launched from Taiyuan by the CZ-4B launch vehicle into 490 km, 97 deg inclination sun synchronous orbits beginning in 2008. Built by CAST. Reported to carry the XIOPM (Xian Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics) optical imaging system. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-12-15. Last Launch: 2014-09-08. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
JB-11 - Chinese military surveillance satellite constellation using a BISME (Beijing Institute of Space Mechanics and Electronics) imaging sensor with an 0.8 m resolution. Built by CAST. Launched from Taiyuan by the CZ-4B launch vehicle into 470 km, 97 deg inclination sun synchronous orbits beginning in 2012. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-05-10. Last Launch: 2015-11-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
JB-12 - Chinese military surveillance satellite constellation using a BISME (Beijing Institute of Space Mechanics and Electronics) imaging sensor with an 0.8 m resolution. Built by CAST. Launched from Taiyuan by the CZ-4B launch vehicle into 470 km, 97 deg inclination sun synchronous orbits beginning in 2012. Status: Operational 2012.
JB-13 - Chinese military surveillance satellite constellation using the 1.3-m aperture CIOMP (Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics) XX-13 optical imaging system. Built by CAST.
JB-3 - Chinese sun synchronous orbit military reconnaisance satellite. Built by CAST, it used a BISME (Beijing Institute of Space Mechanics and Electronics) optical sensor. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-09-01. Last Launch: 2004-11-06. Number: 3 .
JB-5 - Chinese military surveillance satellite constellation. Launched from ?Jiuquan by the CZ-4C launch vehicle into 630, 98 deg inclination sun synchronous orbits beginning in 2006. Built by SAST. Reported to carry an IE (Institute of Electronics, CAS) side-looking radar system. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-04-26. Last Launch: 2010-08-09. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb).
JB-6 - Chinese military surveillance satellite constellation. Launched from ?Jiuquan by the CZ-2D launch vehicle into 650 km, 98 deg inclination sun synchronous orbits beginning in 2007. Built by CAST; reported to carry a BISME (Beijing Institute of Space Mechanics and Electronics) optical imaging system. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-05-25. Last Launch: 2014-11-20. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).
JB-7 - Chinese military surveillance satellite constellation. Launched from Taiyuan by the CZ-2C launch vehicle into 510 km, 97.5 deg inclination sun synchronous orbits beginning in 2009. Built by SAST. Reported to carry an IE (Institute of Electronics, CAS) side-looking radar system. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-04-22. Last Launch: 2014-11-14. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
JB-8 - Chinese military surveillance satellite. Each launch consisted of a primary satellite and two sub-satellites. Three sets of these triplets were launched from ?Jiuquan by the CZ-4C launch vehicle into 1090 km, 63.4 deg inclination orbits beginning in 2010. Reported to have a naval surveillance / sigint mission similar to those of the US PARCAE/NOSS system. This utilized a group of satellites flying in loose formation to locate radio emitters using the difference in time of arrival of the radio signals at the different satellites. Built by DFH. Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-03-05. Last Launch: 2014-12-27. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
JB-9 - Chinese military surveillance satellite constellation.Launched from Taiyuan by the CZ-4C launch vehicle into 1200 km, 100.4 deg inclination sun synchronous orbits. The first was launched in 2009, followed by annual launches beginning in 2012. Built by SAST. Reported to carry a CIOMP (Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics) optical imaging system, believed to be a low resolution mapping and area surveillance mission. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-12-15. Last Launch: 2015-08-27. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
JCR - Alternate designation for JCR engine.
JCR - Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1969-09-15. Last Launch: 1974-02-01. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb).
JCR engine - Nissan solid rocket engine. JCR first stage. Status: Retired 1974. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Propellants: Solid.
JCR-1 - Alternate name for JCR engine.
JCSAT - Japanese domestic communications satellite network.
JCSat 2 - British military communications satellite series using the ECS/OTS bus.
JD - Alternate name for NOSS-Subsat.
JDA - Japan Defense Agency
Jebel Himreen - Missile launch site.
Jebel Himreen G350 - 0.35m gun. First Launch: 1990-06-22. Last Launch: 1990-09-24. Number: 3 .
JEM - Japanese Experiment Module (for SSF)
Jemison - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1987-1993. Physician. First African-American woman to fly in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1993. Born: 1956-10-17. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.94 days.
Jena - German manufacturer of spacecraft. Karl Zeiss Jena, Jena, Germany.
Jens-Goercke - German engineer in WW2. Member of the German rocket team in Egypt 1960-1963.
Jericho - Alternate designation for MD-620.
Jericho - First Israeli ballistic missile. Developed by Dassault in France as the MD-620. Test series included both one and two stage prototypes. Follow-on versions used all-solid propellant configurations.
Jericho 1 - Alternate designation for Jericho-1.
Jericho 2 - Alternate designation for Jericho II.
Jericho II - Alternate designation for Jericho II engine.
Jericho II - Israeli intermediate range ballistic missile. Tactical ballistic missile. Probably corresponds to first two stages of Shavit launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1987-05-01. Last Launch: 2001-06-27. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 22,000 kg (48,000 lb). Thrust: 610.00 kN (137,130 lbf).
Jericho II engine - Sud solid rocket engine. Jericho II first stage. Status: Active. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Jericho II-1 - Alternate name for Jericho II engine.
Jericho III - Modernized version of Jericho IRBM. Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-01-17. Last Launch: 2013-07-12. Number: 3 .
Jericho-1 - Israeli short range ballistic missile. Follow-on version differed from original French-derived Jericho. Probably used a single 4500 kg solid-propellant motor. Status: Active. First Launch: 1990-12-21. Last Launch: 2000-04-06. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Jericho-1-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Jernigan - American astronomer mission specialist astronaut 1985-2001. Astronomer. Was married to astronaut Jeff Wisoff. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2001. Born: 1959-05-07. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 63.06 days.
JERS - Japanese earth land resources satellite. JERS-1 (Japanese Research Satellite-1; FUYO-1) was Japan's second Earth observation satellite. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-02-11. Last Launch: 1992-02-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,340 kg (2,950 lb).
Jett - American test pilot astronaut 1992-2007. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2007. Born: 1958-10-05. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 41.75 days.
JGR - Abbreviation for Journal of Geophysical Research
JHU-Applied Physics Lab - Alternate name for APL.
Jian Bing - Alternate name for Jianbing
Jianbing - Series of Chinese military surveillance satellites, abbreviated as 'JB'. These were:
JB-1: FSW-0,1,2 film recoverable optical satellites
JB-2: FSW-3 film recoverable optical satellites
JB-3; Clark Designation: Optical-1; Manufacturer: CAST; Sensor: BISME; Launches: Ziyuan-2 1, 2, 3
JB-3: FSW-4 film recoverable optical satellites
JB-5; Clark Designation: Radar-1; Manufacturer: SAST; Sensor: IE; Launches: Yaogan 1, 3, 10
JB-6; Clark Designation: Optical-2; Manufacturer: CAST; Sensor: BISME; Launches: Yaogan 2, 4, 7, 11, 24
JB-7; Clark Designation: Radar-2; Manufacturer: SAST; Sensor: IE; Launches: Yaogan 6, 13, 18, 23
JB-8 ELINT; Manufacturer: DFH Launches: Yaogan 9, 16, 17, 20, 25 (triplets)
JB-9; Clark Designation: Optical-4; Manufacturer: SAST; Sensor: CIOMP; Launches: Yaogan 8, 15, 19, 22, 27
JB-10; Clark Designation: Optical-3; Manufacturer: CAST; Sensor: XIOPM; Launches: Yaogan 5, 12, 21
JB-11; Clark Designation: Optical-5; Manufacturer: CAST; Sensor: BISME; Launches: Yaogan 14
JB-12; Clark Designation: Optical-6 Launches: Yaogan 26
JB-13; Clark Designation: Optical-7; Manufacturer: CAST; Sensor: CIOMP; XX-13 camera.

Jianbing 10 - Alternate name for JB-10.
Jianbing 11 - Alternate name for JB-11.
Jianbing 12 - Alternate name for JB-12.
Jianbing 13 - Alternate name for JB-13.
Jianbing 3 - Alternate name for JB-3.
Jianbing 5 - Alternate name for JB-5.
Jianbing 6 - Alternate name for JB-6.
Jianbing 7 - Alternate name for JB-7.
Jianbing 8 - Alternate name for JB-8.
Jianbing 9 - Alternate name for JB-9.
Jianshui - First Launch: 1970-11-23. Last Launch: 1971-11-15. Number: 2 .
JIC - Aerojet rocket engine. JIC. Classified application Date: 1972. Thrust: 10.68 kN (2,401 lbf).
JIDF - Japanese agency. JIDF, Japan.
JILA - Abbreviation for Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics
Jilin - One of two 'smart video imaging' satellites in the Jilin cluster. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-10-07. Last Launch: 2015-10-07. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 95 kg (209 lb).
Jindai - Alternate name for MABES.
Jing Haipen - Chinese pilot taikonaut 1998-on. First taikonaut to fly more than once in space. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1966-10-24. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 15.50 days.
Jingyu - Chinese ICBM missile test site. Not used for satellite launches to date.
JISS - Japanese earth ionosphere satellite. JISS - national name "Ume". Spin-stabilized; Ionospheric Sounder, Radio Noise Receiver, Plasma Measuring Equipment, Ion Mass Spectrometer, and other instruments. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-02-29. Last Launch: 1978-02-16. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 141 kg (310 lb).
Jissho eisei - Alternate name for IGS.
Jiu Peng - Jiu Peng air base, Pingtung, Formosa
Jiu Peng AB - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1998-12-15. Last Launch: 2010-05-05. Number: 7 .
Jiuquan - China's first launch center, also known as Shuang Cheng Tzu. Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre, situated at 100 degrees East, 41 degrees North, is located in the Jiuquan Region, Gansu province, north-western China. It was China's first ballistic missile and satellite launch center. First Launch: 1960-09-01. Last Launch: 2014-08-09. Number: 128 .
Jiuquan LA2A - Launch Area 2 Pad 5020, North Launch Site. DF-3, CZ-1, DF-4 launch complex. First Launch: 1966-12-26. Last Launch: 1971-03-03. Number: 8 .
Jiuquan LA2B - Launch Area 2 Pad 138, North Launch Site. CZ launch complex. First Launch: 1971-09-10. Last Launch: 1996-10-20. Number: 37 .
Jiuquan LA3 - Launch Area 3. R-2, DF-2, DF-1 launch complex. First Launch: 1960-09-01. Last Launch: 1974-01-01. Number: 13 .
Jiuquan LA3B - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Jiuquan SLS - South Launch Site. CZ launch complex. New launch complex for the CZ-2F manned spacecraft launcher. Vehicle processed at nearby Vertical Assembly Facility. First Launch: 1999-11-19. Last Launch: 2013-06-11. Number: 11 .
Jiuquan SLS-2 - Pad 603, South Launch Site-2,. CZ launch complex. A second pad was built at the new launch complex for the CZ-2F manned spacecraft launcher, but used for smaller CZ-2D launch vehicles. Vehicles were processed at nearby Vertical Assembly Facility. First Launch: 2003-11-02. Last Launch: 2014-08-09. Number: 31 .
JL-1 - Chinese submarine-launched ballistic missile based on DF-21 IRBM. Status: Active. First Launch: 1982-04-30. Last Launch: 1988-09-27. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 14,664 kg (32,328 lb). Payload: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
JL-1-1 - Alternate name for DF-21-1.
JL-2 - Chinese submarine-launched intercontinental ballistic missile. DF-23, DF-31 were land based versions. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-07-01. Last Launch: 2012-08-16. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Payload: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
JMA - Japanese agency. Japan Meteorological Agency, Japan.
JMSDF - Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force
Joachim - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Johnson - American test pilot. Flew the XS-1 # 1 and X-4 # 2. Status: Inactive.
Johnson Space Center - Second name of NASA Houston.
Johnson, Caldwell - American designer, at NASA 1937-1972, second part of the creative pairing with American "chief designer" Max Faget. He laid out the basic design for the Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. Born: 1919-10-16.
Johnson, Gregory C - American test pilot astronaut 1998-2001. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2001. Born: 1954-07-30. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.90 days.
Johnson, Gregory H - British-American test pilot astronaut 1998-2013. Flew 34 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2013. Born: 1962-05-12. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 31.49 days.
Johnson, John - American lawyer serving with the State Department, USAF, and NASA 1946-1963; followed by senior management positions and then CEO at Comsat, 1963-1980. Born: 1915-08-30. Died: 2005-08-21.
Johnson, Kelly - American engineer, at Lockheed 1933-1975, headed 'Skunk Works' design shop, responsible for F-80, F-104, Suntan, U-2,, and SR-71 designs among many others. Born: 1910-02-27. Died: 1990-12-21.
Johnson, Lyndon - American politician, Senator 1949-1961, Vice President 1960-1963, President 1963-1969; huge supporter of civilian space flight, instrumental in creating NASA, and providing the political and budgetary support for the Apollo moon landing program. Born: 1908-08-27. Died: 1973-01-22.
Johnson, Nicholas - American NASA Historian. Nicholas L. Johnson is NASA's chief scientist for orbital debris at the Johnson Space Center. Previously, he worked in private industry and was considered an expert on the Soviet space program.
Johnson, Roy - American manager at GE, first director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency, 1958-1959, headed DoD's initial space efforts. Born: 1906. Died: 1965-01-01.
Johnson, Vincent - American engineer, at USN 1947-1960, NASA 1960-1974. Program manager for Scout, Delta, and Centaur. Born: 1918-10-26. Died: 2005-05-11.
Johnston - American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1983-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1983-1985. Born: 1945-09-17.
Johnston Island - US military base on this island in the Pacific Ocean. Used for rocket-launched nuclear tests in the 1950's. In the 1960's it was the site for the operational AFP-437 anti-satellite system. The system was retired in 1975. Several sounding rockets were also launched over the years, either in support of nuclear tests or in experiments related to anti-satellite technology. First Launch: 1958-08-01. Last Launch: 1975-11-06. Number: 148 .
Johnston Island HAD23 - Tomahawk Sandia launch complex. HAD Launcher 23 First Launch: 1967-09-29. Last Launch: 1967-09-29. Number: 1 .
Johnston Island LC1 - Redstone launch complex. Pad 1. Johnston Island east end. First Launch: 1958-08-01. Last Launch: 1958-08-01. Number: 1 .
Johnston Island LC2 - Redstone launch complex. Pad 2. Johnston Island east end. First Launch: 1958-08-12. Last Launch: 1958-08-12. Number: 1 .
Johnston Island LE1 - Delta launch complex. Launch Emplacement 1. Johnston Island northwest end (possibly former Vandenberg AFB LE-7). First Launch: 1962-05-02. Last Launch: 1970-03-27. Number: 13 .
Johnston Island LE2 - Delta launch complex. Launch Emplacement 2. Johnston Island northwest end (possibly former Vandenberg AFB LE-8). First Launch: 1962-10-16. Last Launch: 1975-11-06. Number: 13 .
Johnston Island S - Johnston Island DOMINIC south launchers.
Johnston Island UL6 - Sandhawk launch complex. Universal Launcher 6. First Launch: 1968-10-29. Last Launch: 1968-11-07. Number: 2 .
Johnston, Alvin - American test pilot. Flew the XS-1 # 2. Status: Inactive.
Johnston, Curt - American engineer. Test conductor of earliest Atlas launches; Convair base manager at Vandenberg. Born: 1927.
Johnston, Paul - American Engineer. S. Paul Johnston was director of the Institute for Aeronautical Sciences. He was also a member of the Purcell Panel that assessed space flight capabilities for the U.S. government in 1957-1958.
Jones - American astronomer mission specialist astronaut 1990-2001. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2001. Born: 1955-01-22. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 53.03 days.
Jones, Charles - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. Killed in 9-11 hijacking. Status: Deceased; Active 1982-1987. Born: 1952-11-08. Died: 2001-09-11.
Jones, Robert - American engineer, credited by NASA as inventor of the swept-back and oblique wing concepts. Born: 1910-05-28. Died: 1999-08-11.
Jones, Walter - American test pilot, flew the D-558-1, D-558-2, X-4, and X-5. Died in crash of the YF-89D prototype interceptor. Status: Deceased. Born: 1924-08-24. Died: 1953-10-20.
Joos - German chief physicist at Zeiss during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Joseph - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1985. Born: 1949-12-17.
Journalist Group - 1965 - Requirement: journalist for planned Voskhod flight. Date: 1965.
Journalist Group - 1990 - Requirement: journalists to visit Mir space station. Date: 1990.
Journeyman - American sounding rocket. Five stage vehicle of the Argo series consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Lance + 1 x Lance + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1960-09-19. Last Launch: 1965-06-30. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Journeyman-0 - Alternate name for 1.5KS35000.
Joy of Flying - Poem: Turbines roar, their rush surges through us...
JP-5/H2O2 - Notional H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Study 1993. Engine for Black Horse winged, single stage to orbit launch vehicle using aerial refueling. Status: Study 1993. Thrust: 63.00 kN (14,162 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
JPL - American agency; manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, USA.
JP-X - The addition of approximately 40 per cent of UDMH to JP-4 resulted in a formulation (JP-X) which solved both the combustion and the ignition difficulties experienced with WFNA/ JP-4 and IRFNA/JP-4.
JSAT - Japanese agency. Japan Satellite Systems, Japan.
JSC - Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (NASA)
JSC Moon Base 1984 - American manned lunar base. Study 1984. In 1984 a Johnson Space Center team lad by Barney Roberts took NASA's first look at a return to the moon after the shuttle was in service. Status: Study 1984.
JSCC - Japanese Communications Corporation, Japan.
JSE - Alternate name for IGS.
JSSW - Chinese military surveillance satellite. Mysterious early Chinese satellite, orbited by the cancelled FB-1 launch vehicle. Status: Operational 1973. First Launch: 1973-09-18. Last Launch: 1976-11-10. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
JT9D - Alternate designation for JT9D-3A.
JT9D-3A - Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Status: Out of Production. Unfuelled mass: 4,013 kg (8,847 lb). Thrust: 208.80 kN (46,940 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Judi-Dart - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1964-03-18. Last Launch: 1972-06-01. Number: 720 . Thrust: 9.00 kN (2,023 lbf).
Judi-Dart-1 - Alternate designation for Judi-I 1.9KS2150.
Judi-I 1.9KS2150 - RPI solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Thrust: 9.00 kN (2,023 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Judi-III 1.9KS2100 - RPI solid rocket engine. Kisha Judi second stage. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Thrust: 9.03 kN (2,030 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
JUGNU - 3U Cubesat for the Indian Institute of Technology in Kanpur. Micro-imaging system, near infrared camera to observe vegetation, and GPS Receiver to aid tracking. Successful.
Julang-1 - Alternate designation for JL-1.
Julang-2 - Alternate designation for JL-2.
Jules Verne - Alternate designation for ATV space station logistics spacecraft.
Jules Verne Launcher - American gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. Following the failure of the US government to fund further development of the SHARP light gas gun, John Hunter founded the Jules Verne Launcher Company in 1996 in an attempt to fund commercial development of the concept. Status: Design 1996. Payload: 3,300 kg (7,200 lb).
Jules Verne Moon Gun - French gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. Jules Verne's moon gun, as described in his 1865 novel From the Earth to the Moon, was located in Florida. Although some errors were made, Verne used real engineering analysis to arrive at the design of his cannon and manned moon projectile. As a result, at the time of Apollo 8 and 11 missions it was noted that Verne had made an astonishing number of correct predictions about the actual missions.... Status: Design 1856.
Jumpseat - American military signals intelligence satellite. Jumpseat signals intelligence satellites were launched by Titan 3B or 34B into highly elliptic Molniya-type orbits. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-03-21. Last Launch: 1983-07-31. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Jumpseat-2 - American military signals intelligence satellite. 2 launches, 2006.06.25 (USA 200) to 2008.03.13 (USA 200). Status: Operational 2006. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Jung - German expert in chemical warfare during World War II.
Jungert - German engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group.
Junkers 'Junior' - German manned rocketplane. Flown 1936. Early German rocketplane. Status: Operational 1936.
Juno - Alternate designation for Juno test vehicle.
Juno - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-12 Juno.
Juno - NASA Jupiter polar orbiter with the mission of studying the planet's composition, gravity field, magnetic field, and polar magnetosphere. Launched 2011.08.05, the planned 33-orbit mission at Jupiter was to last from arrival on 2016.07.04 to termination with braking of the spacecraft to burn up in the Jovian atmosphere in October 2017. First NASA outer planet mission to use solar panels (3 x 2.7 m x 8.9 m). Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-08-05. Last Launch: 2011-08-05. Number: 1 .
Juno 1 (retrospectively) - Alternate designation for Jupiter C stage rocket stage.
Juno I - Alternate designation for Jupiter A.
Juno I - Alternate designation for Jupiter C.
Juno II - American orbital launch vehicle. Satellite launcher derived from Jupiter IRBM. Basic 4 stage vehicle consisted of 1 x Jupiter + 1 x Cluster stage 2 + 1 x Cluster stage 3 + 1 x RTV Motor Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1958-12-06. Last Launch: 1961-05-24. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 55,110 kg (121,490 lb). Payload: 41 kg (90 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Juno II (3) - American intermediate range ballistic missile. Three stage version consisting of 1 x Jupiter + 1 x Cluster stage 2 + 1 x Cluster stage 3 Gross mass: 55,300 kg (121,900 lb). Payload: 50 kg (110 lb). Thrust: 667.00 kN (149,947 lbf).
Juno II-3 - Aerojet solid rocket stage. 22.00 kN (4,946 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). Status: S. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 63 kg (138 lb). Thrust: 22.00 kN (4,945 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Juno test vehicle - Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-11-06. Last Launch: 2012-09-13. Number: 4 .
Juno V - Alternate designation for Saturn I.
Juno V-A - American orbital launch vehicle. By 1958 the Super-Jupiter was called Juno V and the 4 E-1 engines were abandoned in favor of clustering 8 Jupiter IRBM engines below existing Redstone/Jupiter tankage. The A version had a Titan I ICBM as the upper stages. Masses, payload estimated. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 549,820 kg (1,212,140 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 6,690.00 kN (1,503,970 lbf).
Juno V-B - American orbital launch vehicle. A proposed version of the Juno V for lunar and planetary missions used a Titan I ICBM first stage and a Centaur high-energy third stage atop the basic Juno V cluster. Masses, payload estimated. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 539,480 kg (1,189,340 lb). Payload: 12,500 kg (27,500 lb). Thrust: 6,690.00 kN (1,503,970 lbf).
Jupiter - Alternate designation for Jupiter IRBM.
Jupiter - Alternate designation for Jupiter (stage).
Jupiter - The Jupiter IRBM was developed for the US Army. By the time development was complete, the mission and the missile was assigned to the US Air Force, which had its own nearly identical missile, the Thor. Jupiters were stationed in Turkey and Italy in the early 1960's, but withdrawn in secret exchange for the withdrawal of Soviet R-5 missiles from Cuba. The Jupiter was used as the first stage of the relatively unsuccessful Juno II launch vehicle, and proposed for the Juno III and Juno IV. Jupiter tooling and engines were used to build the much larger Juno V / Saturn I launch vehicle.
Jupiter (stage) - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 54,431 kg (119,999 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,443 kg (11,999 lb). Thrust: 758.71 kN (170,565 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Jupiter A - American orbital launch vehicle. The Jupiter A was a modified Redstone missile fitted with Jupiter inertial navigation and control system elements. It also tested Hydyne fuel and other engine modifications for the Jupiter C re-entry vehicle test booster. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1955-09-22. Last Launch: 1958-06-12. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 29,060 kg (64,060 lb). Payload: 11 kg (24 lb). Thrust: 369.00 kN (82,954 lbf).
Jupiter A stage - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 28,440 kg (62,690 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,125 kg (6,889 lb). Thrust: 414.34 kN (93,147 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
Jupiter C - Alternate designation for Jupiter C stage.
Jupiter C - American orbital launch vehicle. Re-entry vehicle test booster and satellite launcher derived from Redstone missile. The Jupiter A version of the Redstone missile was modified with upper stages to test Jupiter re-entry vehicle configurations. Von Braun's team was ordered to ballast the upper stage with sand to prevent any 'inadvertent' artificial satellites from stealing thunder from the official Vanguard program. Korolev's R-7 orbited the first earth satellite instead. The Jupiter C was retroactively named the 'Juno I' by Von Braun's team. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1956-09-20. Last Launch: 1958-10-23. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 29,060 kg (64,060 lb). Payload: 11 kg (24 lb). Thrust: 369.00 kN (82,954 lbf).
Jupiter C Juno I - American short range ballistic missile. Four stage orbital launch version consisting of 1 x Redstone + 1 x Cluster stage 2 + 1 x Cluster stage 3 + 1 x RTV Motor. The fourth stage allowed the Explorer payload to be placed into orbit. Gross mass: 28,500 kg (62,800 lb). Payload: 11 kg (24 lb). Thrust: 357.00 kN (80,256 lbf).
Jupiter C stage - LOx/Hydyne propellant rocket stage. Redstone missile, stretched, modified with different propellants to serve as first stage of IRBM nose cone/orbital test vehicle. Status: Retired 1967. Gross mass: 28,430 kg (62,670 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,890 kg (8,570 lb). Thrust: 416.18 kN (93,562 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Hydyne.
Jupiter C-2 - Aerojet solid rocket stage. 80.00 kN (17,985 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb). Status: S. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 223 kg (491 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Jupiter Cluster - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Masses estimated (cluster of four Jupiter IRBM stages). Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 226,716 kg (499,823 lb). Unfuelled mass: 27,205 kg (59,976 lb). Thrust: 3,034.29 kN (682,134 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Jupiter IRBM - American intermediate range ballistic missile. The Jupiter IRBM was developed for the US Army. By the time development was complete, the mission and the missile was assigned to the US Air Force, which had its own nearly identical missile, the Thor. Jupiters were stationed in Turkey and Italy in the early 1960's, but withdrawn in secret exchange for the withdrawal of Soviet R-5 missiles from Cuba. The Jupiter was used as the first stage of the relatively unsuccessful Juno II launch vehicle, and proposed for the Juno III and Juno IV. Jupiter tooling and engines were used to build the much larger Juno V / Saturn I launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1957-03-01. Last Launch: 1963-01-23. Number: 36 . Gross mass: 54,400 kg (119,900 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 734.00 kN (165,009 lbf).
Jupiter Mercury - American intermediate range ballistic missile. Version of Jupiter IRBM designed for launch of Mercury manned capsules on long suborbital flights. Cancelled early in the program, with the decision being to proceed from Mercury Redstone suborbital flights directly to Mercury Atlas orbital missions.
Jupiter nose cone - American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. Saturn 5. Launch vehicle test. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-01-29. Last Launch: 1964-01-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 17,100 kg (37,600 lb).
Just - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on radio beam guidance in the automated control loop department 1947-1952.

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