Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: F

F - Abbreviation for degrees Fahrenheit
F-1 - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-2.
F-1 - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-2A.
F-1 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Largest liquid rocket engine ever developed and flown. Severe combustion stability problems were solved during development and it never failed in flight. First flight 1967. Date: 1959. Number: 65 . Unfuelled mass: 8,391 kg (18,498 lb). Thrust: 7,740.50 kN (1,740,134 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
F100 - Alternate designation for F100-100.
F100-100 - Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine. In Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Status: In Production. Thrust: 63.90 kN (14,365 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
F101 - Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine. In Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Status: In Production. Thrust: 75.60 kN (16,996 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
F-104 - Alternate designation for F-104A.
F-104A - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Retired 1960. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
F-106 - Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Convair Interceptor-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Weapons bay mounted, 1,957 kg at 2,141 kph at 16,067 m altitude Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 15,173 kg (33,450 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,901 kg (24,032 lb). Payload: 1,957 kg (4,314 lb). Thrust: 71.60 kN (16,096 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
F-15 - Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. McDonnell Interceptor-cropped delta. Maximum release conditions: 545 kg (2.0 m length x 0.5 m wingspan) at 2,580 kph at 11,582 m altitude (ASAT). Status: In Production. Gross mass: 16,921 kg (37,304 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11,833 kg (26,087 lb). Payload: 545 kg (1,201 lb). Thrust: 127.72 kN (28,713 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
F-1A - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine design of 1968. Improved version of the F-1, which would have been used in any follow-on production of Saturn launch vehicles. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Status: Study 1968. Date: 1967. Unfuelled mass: 8,098 kg (17,853 lb). Thrust: 9,189.60 kN (2,065,904 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
F-1r - Alternate designation for R-36O 8K69.
F-1r - Alternate designation for R-36-O.
F-2 - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-3.
F-22 PPS - American pressure suit, operational 1993. Partial pressure suit development for F-22 Aircraft. Get-me-down partial pressure ensemble combining Mask/Vest/uniform pressure anti-G garment for protection to 18 km. Status: operational 1993.
F2H2 - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Retired 1955. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
F-3 - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-4.
F3H - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Retired 1963. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
F-4 - Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. McDonnell Fighter-cropped delta. Maximum release conditions: 5,442 kg at 2,353 kph at 17,820 m altitude Status: Retired 1970. Gross mass: 22,517 kg (49,641 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,394 kg (29,528 lb). Payload: 5,442 kg (11,997 lb). Thrust: 105.58 kN (23,735 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
F4D-1 - Alternate designation for F-6A rocket stage.
F-6 - Turbojet powered rocket launch aircraft. Douglas (Heinemann) designed fighter-delta wing. Used as zero stage for Caleb miniature satellite launcher. Maximum release conditions: 3,628 kg at 1,166 kph at 16,768 m altitude Status: Retired 1962. Gross mass: 8,163 kg (17,996 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,870 kg (15,140 lb). Payload: 3,628 kg (7,998 lb). Thrust: 45.36 kN (10,196 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
F-6A - Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Navy fighter used to launch Caleb air-launched rocket. Launch conditions 3,000 lbs at 40,000 feet at 480 mph at 56 degree angle. Status: Retired 1959. Gross mass: 10,474 kg (23,091 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,869 kg (15,143 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 71.14 kN (15,992 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
F6F-5K - American intermediate range cruise missile, modification of F6F fighter. Status: Cancelled 1945. Gross mass: 5,901 kg (13,009 lb). Payload: 910 kg (2,000 lb). Thrust: 8.92 kN (2,005 lbf).
F-6h stage series -
F-86 - Alternate designation for F-86D.
F-86D - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Retired 1956. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Fabian - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1978-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1985. Born: 1939-01-28. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 13.17 days.
Fabian, Dr - German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA in the propellants group from 1947 to 1958. Then returned to Germany.
Fabry-Perot interferometer - An instrument utilizing the wave nature of light to cause constructive or destructive interference of light by passing a light beam between two parallel partially reflecting surfaces.
FACh - Chilean agency. Fuerza Aerea de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
FACI - Abbreviation for First article configuration inspection
Factory 918 - Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. Factory 918, Russia.
Fadeyev - Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Commander of the Baikonur Launch Centre, 1973-1979. Born: 1922-02-17. Died: 1990-02-18.
Fagan - American test engineer. Member of the Atlas management team, heading aspects of test and flight operations. Later President of Tracor. Born: 1929.
Faget - American Chief Designer of American manned spacecraft. Designed Mercury, Apollo, and Shuttle spacecraft. Born: 1921-08-26. Died: 2004-10-09.
Faget Mars Expedition - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1963. NASA Houston supported a conference in May 1963 which examined a number of Mars expedition scenarios. Status: Study 1963.
Fahd - Iraqi short range ballistic missile development based on the Russian S-75 surface-to-air missile. Status: Cancelled 2002. Payload: 450 kg (990 lb).
FAI - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Final Analysis Inc. , Greenbelt, Greenbelt, USA
Fairchild - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Fairchild, USA.
Fairchild - First name of Republic.
Fairchild AFB - Atlas E (SMS 567) ICBM base.
Fairchild AFB Site 1 -
Fairchild AFB Site 2 -
Fairchild AFB Site 4 -
Fairchild AFB Site 5 -
Fairchild AFB Site 8 -
Fairchild Space - First name of Germantown.
FAISAT - American military communications satellite. Store/forward communications. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-01-24. Last Launch: 1997-09-23. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 115 kg (253 lb).
Faith 7 - Alternate name for Mercury MA-9A.
Faith 7 - Alternate name for Mercury MA-9.
Fajr - Fourth Iranian satellite, and Iran's first successful orbital launch since February 2012. Fajr (Aurora) had a technology payload with a cold-gas thruster developed by Iran Electronics Industries. There is suggestive evidence (mostly based on satellite imagery of launch pad damage revealed by the magazine Jane's Intelligence Review) that Iran had two launch failures in 2012, as well as more speculative evidence of further launch failures since then. The satellite did not seem to make any orbital maneuvers. The orbit decayed from an initial 223 km x 470 km to 196 km x 293 km by February 22, and then after falling to 134 km x 155 km early on February 26 it reentered. The Safir rocket stage orbit decayed a bit more slowly, and was at 203 km x 325 km on Feb 26. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-02-02. Last Launch: 2015-02-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 52 kg (114 lb).
Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau - Alternate name for Grushin Design Bureau.
Falcon - Alternate designation for Falcon engine.
Falcon - Falcons are a family of two stage, reusable, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicles, designed for cost-efficient and reliable transport of satellites and manned spacecraft to low Earth orbit. The Falcon 1 satellite launcher began launches in 2006, with the Falcon 9 - as large as a Saturn I - flying in 2010. The Falcon series was the only successful project among many attempts to privately develop a low cost launch system since the 1960's.
Falcon - Code name for Hayabusa asteroid probe.
Falcon 1 - American two stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered, low cost launch vehicle. A single engine powered the first stage. It was designed for cost-efficient and reliable transport of satellites to low Earth orbit. First launch of the Falcon I was scheduled for mid-2004 from Vandenberg, carrying a US Defense Department communications satellite. Development delays and problems with USAF clearances for launch from Vandenberg resulted in the first launch attempt being made in 2006 from a private facility at Omelek near Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. Success was achieved on the fourth launch in 2008. The Falcon 1 was to be superseded by the Falcon 1e, with an extended-tank first stage, from 2010. Status: Retired 2009. First Launch: 2006-03-24. Last Launch: 2009-07-14. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 27,670 kg (61,000 lb). Payload: 420 kg (920 lb). Thrust: 347.00 kN (78,008 lbf).
Falcon 1-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired. Gross mass: 22,993 kg (50,690 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,505 kg (3,317 lb). Thrust: 369.00 kN (82,954 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Falcon 1-2 - LOx/Kerosene rocket stage. 33.00 kN (7,419 lbf) thrust. Status: Retired. Thrust: 33.00 kN (7,418 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Falcon 1e - Version of Falcon 1 with stretched first stage and much more powerful Merlin engine. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 46,760 kg (103,080 lb). Payload: 1,010 kg (2,220 lb). Thrust: 556.00 kN (124,993 lbf).
Falcon 1e-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired. Gross mass: 42,168 kg (92,964 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,712 kg (5,978 lb). Thrust: 615.50 kN (138,370 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Falcon 5 - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Falcon V was a two stage, reusable, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle. The maiden flight was targeted for mid-2005 as of early 2004. It used of the same engines, structural materials and concepts, and avionics and launch system as the Falcon I, differing in having five first-stage engines instead of 1 and a larger diameter. This meant that all the critical components would have a flight proven history even before first launch. By 2006 it had been superseded by the slightly larger Falcon 9. Status: Cancelled. Gross mass: 129,700 kg (285,900 lb). Payload: 4,200 kg (9,200 lb). Thrust: 1,590.00 kN (357,440 lbf).
Falcon 9 - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. In September 2006 SpaceX was named as one of two winners of the NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services competition. The SpaceX award was $278 million for three flight demonstrations of the Falcon 9 booster carrying the Dragon space capsule. On 23 December 2008 NASA announced that the Falcon 9 / Dragon had been selected for launch of a guaranteed minimum of 20,000 kg of payload to the International Space Station in 2010-2014. The firm contract was worth $1.6 billion, with another $1.5 billion of options. Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-06-04. Last Launch: 2014-08-05. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 333,400 kg (735,000 lb). Payload: 10,450 kg (23,030 lb). Thrust: 5,560.00 kN (1,249,930 lbf).
Falcon 9 1.1 - Alternate designation for Falcon 9 v1.1.
Falcon 9 Heavy - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. The Falcon 9 Heavy would consist of a standard Falcon 9 v1.1 with two additional Falcon 9 first stages as liquid strap-on boosters. Status: In development. Gross mass: 885,000 kg (1,951,000 lb). Payload: 28,000 kg (61,000 lb). Thrust: 15,000.00 kN (3,372,000 lbf).
Falcon 9 v1.1 - Falcon 9 v1.1 represented a 50% increase in lift-off mass, with correspondingly upgraded engines with a 5% improvement in specific impulse. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-09-07. Last Launch: 2015-06-28. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 505,846 kg (1,115,199 lb). Payload: 13,150 kg (28,990 lb). Thrust: 5,885.00 kN (1,323,000 lbf).
Falcon 9.1-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 409,000 kg (901,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Thrust: 6,672.00 kN (1,499,925 lbf).
Falcon 9.1-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 96,000 kg (211,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 801.00 kN (180,071 lbf).
Falcon 9-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired. Gross mass: 264,000 kg (582,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Thrust: 4,433.00 kN (996,578 lbf).
Falcon 9-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired. Gross mass: 46,500 kg (102,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 413.50 kN (92,958 lbf).
Falcon 9R - Version of Falcon 9 with capability to recover first stage on a floating platform downrange or at the launch site, depending on the payload margins. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-04-17. Last Launch: 2014-08-22. Number: 4 .
Falcon engine - Hughes solid rocket engine. Viper Falcon second stage. Status: Retired 1960. Propellants: Solid.
Falcon Gold - American navigation technology satellite. US Air Force Academy experiment to demonstrate use of GPS navigation in geosynchronous orbit. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-10-25. Last Launch: 1997-10-25. Number: 1 .
Falcon SLV-1 - Michoud LOx/Solid hybrid rocket engine. First stage. Study 2005. Part of the USAF FALCON program to assess hybrid propulsion applications for a responsive small launch vehicle. Status: Study 2005. Thrust: 1,400.00 kN (314,700 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Solid.
Falcon SLV-2 - Michoud hybrid rocket LOx/Solid engine. Upper stages. Study 2005. Part of the USAF FALCON program to assess hybrid propulsion applications for a responsive small launch vehicle. Status: Study 2005. Thrust: 133.00 kN (29,899 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Solid.
FalconLaunch - FalconLaunch Status: Retired 2009. First Launch: 2009-04-17. Last Launch: 2009-04-17. Number: 1 .
FalconSat - American technology satellite. The JAWSAT/FalconSat payloads were developed as a joint effort between the Air Force Academy and Weber State University. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2010-11-20. Number: 4 .
Falstaff - British sounding rocket. Single stage hypersonic test vehicle using the Stonechat II solid rocket motor. Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1975-05-09. Last Launch: 1979-04-04. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 5,100 kg (11,200 lb). Thrust: 240.00 kN (53,950 lbf).
Falstaff-1 - Alternate name for Stonechat II.
Family escort - Each American space mission would have two family escorts appointed. These astronauts would be responsible for making the travel and accommodation arrangements for the spouses, families, and in-laws of the astronauts to witness the launch. They were also responsible of letting the families know what was going on in case of trouble, and informing them of the death of the crew if necessary.
Fang Guojun - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Status: Inactive. Born: 1934.
Fanhui Shei Weixing - Code name for FSW military surveillance satellite.
FAQ - Abbreviation for Frequently Asked Questions
Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer - Alternate designation for FUSE ultraviolet astronomy satellite.
Faris - Arab-Syrian pilot cosmonaut 1985-1987. First Syrian to fly in space. Graduated from Military Pilot School, Aleppo, 1973. Colonel and pilot in the Syrian Air Force. Specialist in navigation. Returned to duty after his mission. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1987. Born: 1951-05-26. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.96 days.
Farkas - Hungarian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1980. First Hungarian to fly in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1980. Born: 1949-08-02. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.86 days.
Farnborough - British manufacturer. Defense Research Agency, Farnborough, UK.
Farrar - American engineer. Member of the Atlas management team; later President of Sanders Associates. Born: 1931-01-31. Died: 2015-07-22.
Farrimond - British engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1986. Born: 1947-09-15.
Farside - American sounding rocket. Project Farside was an attempt to reach extreme altitudes with the Rockoon concept. Using a four-stage solid-propellant rocket hung below a 106 188-m3 (3 750 000-ft3) balloon, altitudes approaching 6437 km (4000 mi) were reached during the fall of 1957. Farside was a four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 1 x Recruit + 4 x Arrow II + 1 x Arrow II. Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1957-09-25. Last Launch: 1957-10-22. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 667.00 kN (149,947 lbf).
Fartushny - Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut, 1968-1971. Status: Inactive; Active 1968-1971. Born: 1938-02-03.
FAS - Abbreviation for Fixed Airlock Shroud
Fasat - Test satellite built by Surrey Satellite for the Chilean Air Force.
FAST - American earth magnetosphere satellite. FAST was designed to observe and measure rapidly varying electric and magnetic fields and the flow of electrons and ions above the aurora. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-08-21. Last Launch: 1996-08-21. Number: 1 .
Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer - Alternate designation for FAST earth magnetosphere satellite.
Fast Solutions Phase I - In 1956 Korolev drafted a plan for 'Fast Solutions for the Conquest of Space'. Phase I of the plan involved ballistic manned sub-orbital flights aboard an R-5A single-stage IRBM. Although R-5A tests with dogs began in 1958, manned flights on the R-5A were not taken to the flight stage (despite rumors in 1959 of cosmonaut deaths in suborbital flights). Korolev decided to move directly to manned orbital flights using the Vostok spacecraft and R-7 booster. Launched: In 1959.
Fast Track Poem - Poem: the visionary with a slide-rule named you: Silbervogel...
Fastovets - Russian test pilot, 1963-2001. From 1963 to 1978 test pilot for the Spiral spaceplane. Status: Deceased. Born: 1937-05-07. Died: 1991-09-05.
Fastrac - Huntsville LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Development ended 1996. Used on X-34A launch vehicle. Intended to demonstrate lower cost in a reusable simple turbopump rocket engine. Status: Development ended 1996. Thrust: 269.00 kN (60,473 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Fastrac satellite - First Launch: 2010-11-20. Last Launch: 2010-11-20. Number: 2 .
Fastsat - Developed by NASA-Marshall and subcontractors in Huntsville; carried ionospheric and atmospheric experiments, a USAF experiment, and the Nanosail-D2 solar sail. Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-11-20. Last Launch: 2010-11-20. Number: 1 .
FastTrack - Notional LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center prototype experimental engine that led to Fastrac low-cost engine for X-34. Status: Design concept. Thrust: 44.10 kN (9,914 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Fatah - Alternate designation for Al Fatah.
Fateh-110 - Single-stage solid-propellant, surface-to-surface missile with a 200 km range, produced domestically within Iran by the Aerospace Industries Organization, including the propellant. Status: Active. First Launch: 2002-06-02. Last Launch: 2013-01-09. Number: 6 .
Father John - Status: Retired 1954. First Launch: 1953-01-01. Last Launch: 1954-11-15. Number: 10 .
Fatkullin - Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1970. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1970. Born: 1939-05-14. Died: 2003-04-16.
Favier - French materials scientist cosmonaut 1985-1996. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1996. Born: 1949-04-13. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 16.91 days.
Favorit - Alternate designation for S-300PMU-2.
FB-1 - Alternate designation for Feng Bao 1.
FB-1-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1981. Gross mass: 150,400 kg (331,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 3,000.00 kN (674,400 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
FB-1-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1981. Gross mass: 38,300 kg (84,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 761.90 kN (171,282 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
FBI - Abbreviation for Federal Bureau of Investigation
FBIS - Foreign Book Information Service; Fellow of the British Interplanetary Society
FC - Fluorocarbon
FDL ILRV - American manned spaceplane. Study 1968. In late 1968 the USAF Flight Dynamics Laboratory proposed its Integrated Launch and Re-entry Vehicle. This was a 1.5 stage-to-orbit concept with an external drop tank. Status: Study 1968.
Fedorov - Russian officer. First Director of NII-l 1944-1945. Oversaw the early search for the A-4. Born: 1898. Died: 1945-02-07.
Fedrov - Russian phantom cosmonaut. 1998 urban legend held that during the fall of Soviet Union, their cosmonauts were stranded on the Mir space station. Embodied on film by character Fedrov in short Norwegian film 'Kosmonaut'. Died: 1991-12-25.
FedSat - Australian communications satellite. FedSat contained high-tech communication, space science, navigation and computing equipment and was intended to help bring broadband Internet services to remote parts of Australia. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-12-14. Last Launch: 2002-12-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 58 kg (127 lb).
Fedyayev - Russian pilot astronaut 2012- . Status: Active 2012-on. Born: 1981-02-26.
Fefelov - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1970-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1970-1995. Born: 1945-05-20.
FEI - Physics-Energy Institute, Obninsk, Russia
Fei Junlong - Chinese pilot taikonaut 1998-on. Commanded Shenzhou 6 mission. PLAAF pilot, flight trainer and flight technology inspector. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1966-05-05. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 4.81 days.
Feitian - Chinese space suit for extravehicular activity, operational 2008. Reverse-engineered copy of Russian Orlan suits purchased in . Many details different, new Chinese avionics and control systems, all-Chinese materials. Status: Operational 2008. Gross mass: 120 kg (260 lb).
Feldman - American businessman. Lawyer, financier, consultant to House Select Committee on Science and Astronautics in 1960, a director of Comsat 1962-1965. Born: 1904. Died: 1994-11-22.
Feltz - Leading American space engineer. At North American 1940-1981. Chief Engineer on X-15, Apollo, and Space Shuttle. 1974-1981 served as Rockwell corporate trouble-shooter. Born: 1916-09-15. Died: 2003-01-03.
Female Group - 1962 - Requirement: female astronauts for Vostok and Voskhod flights, primarily for propaganda purposes. Date: 1962.
Female Group - 1980 - Requirement: female cosmonauts to visit Salyut and Mir space stations, primarily for propaganda purposes, to upstage American female astronaut flights aboard the shuttle. Date: 1980.
Feng Bao 1 - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The FB-1, like the CZ-2 launch vehicle begun the following year, was a two-stage booster developed from the DF-5 intercontinental ballistic missile. Payload for the booster was the JSSW, believed to have been a television-transmission military reconnaissance satellite. The incredible decision to develop two nearly identical rockets concurrently can be blamed on the turbulent factional politics after the Cultural Revolution. Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1972-08-10. Last Launch: 1981-09-19. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 191,700 kg (422,600 lb). Payload: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 2,679.00 kN (602,263 lbf).
Feng Huo - Chinese military communications satellite series for secure digital data and voice tactical military communications. Program designation applied to various models of satellite.
Feng Niao - Demonstration of new CAST mini- and micro-satellite buses. FN-1 (Hummersat) was to release the 30 kg FN-1A for formation flying and interorbital communications experiments. Used the CAST2000 bus.
Feng Yun - Name of series of Chinese weather satellites, abbreviated as 'FY'.
Feng Yun - Alternate designation for FY-1 earth weather satellite.
Feng-Bao-1 - Alternate designation for Feng Bao 1.
Feng-Bao-1 - Alternate designation for FB-1.
Fengyun - Alternate name for Feng Yun.
Feniks - Code name for Yantar-2K military surveillance satellite.
Feoktistov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1964-1987. First spacecraft designer in space. Status: Deceased; Active 1964-1987. Born: 1926-02-07. Died: 2009-11-21. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 1.01 days.
Ferguson - American test pilot astronaut 1998-2011. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2011. Born: 1961-09-01. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 40.42 days.
Fermi - Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope; renamed Fermi GST after launch. Used SA-200 bus.
Ferret - American military signals intelligence satellite. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-02-21. Last Launch: 1971-07-16. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
Fettman - American veterinarian payload specialist astronaut 1991-1993. Status: Inactive; Active 1991-1993. Born: 1956-12-31. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 14.01 days.
FEU-170 - Small film return capsules used on Kozlov's Zenit-2M satellite and Yantar surveillance spacecraft.
Feuerlilie - Alternate designation for SEPR 2020.
Feustel - American scientist mission specialist astronaut 2000-on. Status: Active 2000-on. Born: 1965-08-25. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 28.64 days.
FFAR - American multiple-source air-to-air Folding-Fin Air Rocket, boosted by 1 x Mk7 engine. Unguided fighter weapon, later used as sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 1946-05-01. Last Launch: 1998-10-07. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 8.40 kg (18.50 lb). Payload: 1.60 kg (3.50 lb). Thrust: 4.02 kN (904 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
FFK - ERNO solid rocket engine. Forschungsflugkorper first stage. Status: Retired 1974. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Propellants: Solid.
FFT - Abbreviation for Fast Fourier Transform
FGB - Functional-cargo block (Russian abbreviation)
FGB Functional / Cargo Block - Alternate designation for TKS FGB manned spacecraft module.
FGB TKS / 77KS / 77KM - Manufacturer's designation for Mir Modules-FGB manned space station.
FGS - Fine Guidance Sensors (on HST)
FH-1 - Chinese military communications satellite. 2 launches, 2000.01.25 (Zhongxing-22) to 2006.09.12 (Zhongxing 22A). In May 1999 Aviation Week reported that a new communication satellite, Fenghuo-1 (FH-1), would be launched by a CZ-3A by the end of 1999. Status: Operational 2000. Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb).
FHST - Fixed Head Star Trackers (on HST)
FIAN - Russian agency. Physical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences named for P N Lebedev, Russia.
Fiat-Avio - Italian manufacturer of rocket engines. Fiat-Avio, Italy.
ficas - Alternate name for SAC-B.
Fichs - German expert in supersonics during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Fichtner - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1917-09-08. Died: 2012-10-21.
Fiedler - German test pilot, aircraft research engineer. Fi-103 test pilot for the Fieselerwerke during WW2. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Fieseler - German chief designer. Manufacturer of the V-1 cruise missile. German sport flier and aircraft manufacturer. Born: 1896. Died: 1987-01-01.
Figge - German Wehrmacht officer. Leader of the Supply and Logistics Special Group for the A-4 missile.
filament - In solar physics, filament designates a quiet prominence or plasma cloud high above the chromosphere, visible as a dark narrow patch against the bright solar disc.
Filatyev - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1963. Born: 1930-01-21. Died: 1990-09-15.
Filin - Russian tactical ballistic rocket. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 2,999 kg (6,611 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Filipchenko - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1963-1982. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1982. Born: 1928-02-26. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 10.88 days.
Fincke - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1996-on. 381 cumulative days in space, record for an American, but over 20 Russian cosmonauts had more. Status: Active 1996-on. Born: 1967-03-14. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 381.63 days.
Finger - American physicist. At NASA 1944-1969. Early work involved compressors. Chief of the nuclear engine program 1958-1967. NASA Associate Administrator for Organization and Management 1967-1969. Born: 1924-02-18.
Finley - American test pilot astronaut, 1965-1968. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1968. Born: 1935-12-22. Died: 2006-09-19.
Finmeccanica - Italian manufacturer. Finmeccanica, Italy.
Finzel - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1916-07-25. Died: 1984-12-01.
FIR - Abbreviation for Far InfraRed
FIRE - American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. 2 launches, 1964.04.14 (FIRE 1) and 1965.05.22 (FIRE 2). Suborbital re-entry test program that used a subscale model of the Apollo Command Module to verify the configuration at high reentry speed. Status: Operational 1964.
FIREBIRD - 1.5U Cubesat by NSF/Montana State/U. New Hampshire space science satellite. Sun synchronous orbit; 0600 GMT local time of the descending node.
Firefly - Cubesat; a 3U science sat for the National Science Foundation built by the Hawk Institute for Space Sciences in Maryland in collaboration with Siena College, that studied terrestrial gamma-ray flashes.
Firestone - Firestone.
Firewheel - French technology satellite. Multiple European technology test satellites launched on the first Ariane. Status: Operational 1980. First Launch: 1980-05-23. Last Launch: 1980-05-23. Number: 5 .
First Light - Poem: At the mountain's top, I reach up,...
First Lunar Outpost - American manned lunar base. Study 1992. The First Lunar Outpost was a very comprehensive moon base study carried out by NASA's Office of Exploration in 1992. Status: Study 1992.
FIRST Re-Entry Glider - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1960. FIRST (Fabrication of Inflatable Re-entry Structures for Test) used an inflatable Rogallo wing for emergency return of space crew from orbit. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 407 kg (897 lb).
First-Move - Cubesat from Technical University of Munich.
Fischel - German engineer and expert in guided missiles in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Later returned to Germany and died at Bad Reichenhall, Bavaria. Born: 1902-07-06. Died: 1984-05-13.
Fischer - American test pilot astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1974-01-23.
Fisher - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1980-1991. First mother in space. Was married to astronaut William Fisher. Took extended leave 1989 to 1996 to raise family. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1991. Born: 1949-08-24. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.10 days.
Fisher, William - American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-I. Was married to astronaut Anna Fisher. Status: Inactive. Born: 1946-04-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.10 days.
FITS - Abbreviation for Flexible Image Transport System
Fitzgerald - American test pilot. Second person to break the sound barrier on the XS-1 # 1. Killed in a flight accident not long after his XS-1 flight series. Status: Deceased. Died: 1949-01-01.
Fizicheskiy Institute im. PN Lebedeva Ross. AN - Alternate name for FIAN.
FJ-4F - American manned rocketplane. The FJ-4F was a US Navy Fury fighter fitted with a Rocketdyne AR1 engine for quick intercept of Soviet bombers. Two prototypes were tested which reached Mach 1.41 at 22 km altitude. Status: Operational 1957. Gross mass: 12,800 kg (28,200 lb). Thrust: 22.26 kN (5,004 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
FKA - Federal'noe kosmicheskoe agentstvo Rossii (Roskosmos)
FKG - Flugkorpergeschwader 1 or 2 (unknown)
FKG1 - Flugkorpergeschwader 1
Flade - German engineer cosmonaut 1990-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1952-08-23. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.91 days.
Flamenco - Alternate designation for INTA-300.
Flanigan - American businessman. A member of the White House staff involved in gaining approval for the shuttle program in 1969-1972. Investment banker, member of Council on Foreign Relations. Born: 1923-06-21. Died: 2013-07-29.
flare - A violent eruption on the Sun's surface (chromosphere), accompanied by emissions of protons and other particles and of electromagnetic radiation.
FLASPACE - American agency. Florida Space Authority, USA.
Flax - American engineer. Worked at Curtiss 1940-1944; Piasecki 1944-1946; Cornell 1946-1955. Leading scientific positions at USAF 1955-1969. Born: 1921-01-18. Died: 2014-06-30.
Fleet Satellite Communications - Alternate designation for FLTSATCOM military communications satellite.
Fleetwings - American manufacturer of rockets. Fleetwings, USA.
Fleischer - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Died: 2005-01-01.
FLEM - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1966. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 118,000 kg (260,000 lb). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
Fleming - American test pilot, flew numerous test aircraft at Edwards AFB until killed in first crash of a B-52. Status: Deceased. Died: 1956-07-01.
Fletcher - American engineer, administrator of NASA 1971-1977 (completion of Apollo and beginning of shuttle) and 1986-1989 (NASA restructuring after Challenger disaster). Born: 1919-06-05. Died: 1991-12-01.
FLEXEM - Rocketdyne exotic ClF3/Hydrazine rocket engine. Flexible Energy Management. Pressure-fed. Sustainer 267-4000 lb thrust vacuum, specific impulse 260 seconds. Date: 1968. Thrust: 48.91 kN (10,994 lbf). Propellants: ClF3/Hydrazine.
Flight Exploration - British manufacturer of spacecraft. Flight Exploration, UK.
Flight Investigation of the Reentry Environment - Alternate designation for FIRE re-entry vehicle technology satellite.
Flight Telerobotic Servicer - American logistics spacecraft. Study 1987. NASA decided to develop a $288-million Flight Telerobotic Servicer in 1987 after Congress voiced concern about American competitiveness in the field of robotics. Status: Study 1987.
Flock - Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U Cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth.
Florennes - US base in the 1980's for 12 BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.
Flores - Argentine cosmonaut candidate. Born: 1971.
Flox - Tests in the early 1960's showed mixtures of liquid fluorine and liquid oxygen (dubbed 'FLOx') to have higher performance with kerosene than fluorine alone and improved handling. FLOx 30 (30% LF2, 70% Lox) could be burned in Atlas rocket motors and improved performance by 5% compared to Lox and nearly identical to that of pure fluorine. FLOx 70 (70% LF2, 30% Lox) had the highest performance, with a specific impulse 8% better then LF2 alone and 15% better than Lox alone.
Flox/Kerosene - Flox/Kerosene propellant. FLOx was a mixture of liquid fluorine and liquid oxygen. Formulations of 70% liquid fluorine and 30% liquid fluorine with liquid oxygen were tested in Atlas rocket engines in the 1950's and 1960's. It improved performance while avoiding the extreme handling problems of pure liquid fluorine. Although tested in Atlas booster engines with regular RP-1 kerosene, it did not find operational use.
Flox/UDMH - Flox/UDMH propellant. FLOx was a mixture of liquid fluorine and liquid oxygen, and was test fired with UDMH engines in the 1950's. It improved performance while avoiding the extreme handling problems of pure liquid fluorine.
FLTP - Alternate designation for FLTP/FESTIP.
FLTP/FESTIP - European winged orbital launch vehicle. Europe's Future Launcher Technology Program (FLTP) was an ESA study program that ran from 1999-2002, with the objective of identifying and developing technologies necessary for the successor to the Ariane 5. The planned configuration was a two-stage fully recoverable winged launch vehicle. The winged booster would deliver the orbiter to a given altitude, then booster fly back to its launch base at Kourou. The second stage orbiter continued to orbit, delivered its payload and then returned to Kourou. The program faded out following collapse of the commercial launch market, development problems with the Ariane 5, and cancellation of NASA reusable launch vehicle projects. Under the Future European Space Transportation Investigation Programme (FESTIP) of 1994-1999 French agencies and contractors designed a number of alternative reusable space launchers. Status: Design 1999.
FLTSATCOM - American military communications satellite. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-02-09. Last Launch: 1989-09-25. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 2,032 kg (4,479 lb).
flux - The rate of flow of some quantity, often used in reference to the flow of some form of energy.
Flying Escargot - Alternate name for NASA Group 15 - 1995.
FM - Abbreviation for Frequency Modulation
FM-2 - Russian phantom cosmonaut. Radiation phantom, instrumented anthromorphic dummy (with Gagarin's face!) used to measure radiation dose rates in circumlunar space. Flew to moon and back on Zond 7, 1969 and in earth orbit on Cosmos 368, 1970.
FMMI - FMMI.
FO - Abbreviation for Flight Operations
Foale - British-American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1987-2013. Flew in space six times. Appointed Deputy Associate Administrator for Exploration Operations in 2004. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-2013. Born: 1957-01-06. Spaceflights: 6 . Total time in space: 373.76 days.
Fobos - Code name for Fobos 1F mars orbiter.
Fobos 1F - Russian Mars orbiter. The 1F spacecraft was flown on the Phobos mission to Mars, consisting of 2 nearly identical spacecraft. Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-07-07. Last Launch: 2011-11-08. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb).
FOBS - Alternate designation for R-36O 8K69.
FOBS - Alternate designation for OGCh military orbital bombing system.
FOBS - Fractional Orbital Bombardment System
FOBS; Fractional Orbital Bombing System - Alternate designation for R-36-O.
FOC - Faint Object Camera (on HST)
FOD - Flight Operations Division; Flight Operations Directorate
Foelster - German engineer and rocket technician; worked in France after WW2 as part of the armature group at LRBA from 1947 to 1953, then returned to Germany.
Foerschner - German SS Sturmbannfuehrer and operations director of the Dora concentration camp and V-2 production at Mittelwerk. Executed in 1946. Born: 1902-11-04. Died: 1946-05-28.
FOP - Abbreviation for Financial operating plan
Forbes AFB - Atlas E (SMS 548) ICBM base.
Forbes AFB Site 1 -
Forbes AFB Site 2 -
Forbes AFB Site 3 -
Forbes AFB Site 4 -
Forbes AFB Site 5 -
Forbes AFB Site 6 -
Forbes AFB Site 7 -
Forbes AFB Site 8 -
Forbes AFB Site 9 -
Ford - American manufacturer. Ford, USA. Number: 1 . Duration: 13.87 days.
Ford Aeroneutronic Systems Division (1959) - Alternate name for Palo Alto.
Ford Aeronutronic - First name of Aeronutronics.
Ford Aeronutronic Systems Division (1959) - Third name of Palo Alto.
Ford Aerospace Corp (1976) - Fifth name of Palo Alto.
Ford Mars Lander - American manned Mars lander. Study 1963. The Mars lander assumed in NASA studies from 1964 to 1966 was a lifting body conceived by Ford Aeronutronic in May-December 1963. Given a go-ahead by 1965, it would be available for Mars missions by 1975. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb).
Ford Philco Aeroneutronics (1963) - Alternate name for Palo Alto.
Ford Philco Aeronutronic (1963) - Fourth name of Palo Alto.
Ford Systems Research Group (1956) - Second name of Palo Alto.
Ford, Gerald - American politician. House of Representatives 1948-1973; Vice President 1973-1974; President 1974-1977. No new space initiatives, stewarded Nixon's program of ending Apollo, single Apollo-Soyuz flight, continued Shuttle development. Born: 1913-07-14. Died: 2006-12-26.
Ford, Kevin - American test pilot astronaut 2000-2014. Status: Inactive; Active 2000-2014. Born: 1960-07-07. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 157.55 days.
Foreman - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1998-2010. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2010. Born: 1957-03-29. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 26.56 days.
Forman - Early American rocket pioneer; co-founder of Aerojet Born: 1912-12-03. Died: 1973-02-12.
Formosat - FORMOSAT-3 consisted of six small 62 kg Orbcomm-type satellites with GPS receivers which were to measure atmospheric conditions by studying the effect of the atmosphere on GPS satellite signals passing through it. Used the MicroStar bus.
Forpost - Russian military communications satellite. Study 1992. Communications satellite - Soviet Ministry of Defense. No other details available. Status: Study 1992.
Forrester - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1996-2011. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2011. Born: 1957-03-31. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 39.60 days.
Forschungsflugkorper - German sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1972-10-10. Last Launch: 1974-05-07. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
Forschungsflugkorper-1 - Alternate name for FFK.
Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt (FFI) - Alternate name for NDRE.
Fort - Alternate designation for S-300F.
Fort Bliss - Military testing range. In use from 1945 to present. First Launch: 1945-04-01. Last Launch: 2000-05-04. Number: 191 .
Fort Bliss MCG - Pershing, Excalibur Target System launch complex. McGregor Range First Launch: 1958-04-28. Last Launch: 2000-05-04. Number: 152 .
Fort Churchill - Fort Churchill is an Arctic site on Hudson Bay with a rail link. It is near the point of maximum auroral activity. This combination of circumstances made it ideal for far-north sounding rocket launches. In 1954, the Canadian Army conducted the first series of rocket firings at Fort Churchill. Following a period of inactivity, construction of more elaborate facilities in support of the International Geophysical Year began in 1956. IGY firings began in July 1957. The range was closed again in December 1958 after the IGY program ended. It was reopened again in August 1959 by the US Army as part of its network of sounding rocket stations. This allowed use of the site by other groups over the years. First Launch: 1955-02-09. Last Launch: 1998-04-28. Number: 3321 .
Fort Churchill LC1 - Universal Launcher, Pad 1
Fort Churchill LC3 - Aerobee Launcher, Pad 3
Fort Churchill LC4AE - Arcas East Launcher, Pad 4A
Fort Churchill LC4AW - Arcas West Launcher, Pad 4A
Fort Churchill LC7 - Nike, Black Brant launch complex. Auroral Launcher, Pad 7 First Launch: 1968-08-22. Last Launch: 1968-12-13. Number: 3 .
Fort Greely - In 2004 Fort Greely, Alaska, became the first launch site for the anti-ballistic missile Ground-Based Interceptors of the United States' Ground-based Midcourse Defense system. The 260,000-hectacre site was located 160 km southeast of Fairbanks, 16 km south of the town of Delta Junction. First Launch: 1966-02-02. Last Launch: 1972-05-22. Number: 397 .
Fort Greely 5 inch gun - Fort Greely 5 inch gun First Launch: 1966-02-19. Last Launch: 1966-03-04. Number: 24 .
Fort Sherman - US Army base and sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1966-12-10. Last Launch: 1979-07-30. Number: 1160 .
Fort Wainwright - Alternate designation for Poker Flat.
Fort Wainwright - Fort Wainwright First Launch: 1954-07-22. Last Launch: 1971-01-01. Number: 8 .
Fort Wainwright LCP - Site Peter LS1, Nike Battery B. First Launch: 1959-12-17. Last Launch: 1971-01-01. Number: 5 .
Fort Wingate - Fort Wingate Depot Activity. Military testing range. First Launch: 1960-07-06. Last Launch: 2013-08-15. Number: 58 .
Fort Wingate LC96 - Storm-2, Hera launch complex. First Launch: 1997-11-17. Last Launch: 2013-08-15. Number: 18 .
Fort Yukon - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1984-02-07. Last Launch: 1984-02-07. Number: 1 .
FORTE - American earth magnetosphere satellite. FORTE - 'Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events' - was a US Los Alamos National Laboratory satellite designed to study natural and artificial radio emissions from the ionosphere. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-08-29. Last Launch: 1997-08-29. Number: 1 .
Fort-M - Alternate designation for S-300FM.
FOS - Faint Object Spectrograph (on HST)
Fossum - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1998-on. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1957-12-19. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 193.79 days.
Foster - American physicist. Director of Defense Research and Engineering 1965-1973; served on 1992 review board on post-Cold War space policy.
Fotino - European tether technology satellite. Study 2005. European re-entry capsule experiment planned to be carried on Foton-M2, but not ready in time for launch. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Foton - Russian materials science satellite. Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for zero-gravity materials processing tests. 400 W available to operate experiments. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-04-16. Last Launch: 2007-09-14. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 6,190 kg (13,640 lb). Payload: 404 kg (890 lb).
Foton (Photon ) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-4.
Foton (Photon) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-4.
Foton (Photon) - Alternate name for Soyuz 29.
Foton (Photon) - Alternate name for Soyuz 25.
Fourteen - Alternate name for NASA Group 3 - 1963.
Fourth Academy - Chinese manufacturer of rocket engines. Fourth Academy, China.
FOX-MAIN - Alternate name for Hall Beach.
fps - foot (feet) per second
FR - Alternate name for FRANCE satellite.
Fractional Orbital Bombardment System. - Manufacturer's designation for OGCh military orbital bombing system.
Fractional Orbital Bombing System - Alternate designation for R-36O 8K69.
Fram - Code name for Zenit-4MKT military surveillance satellite.
France - France
FRANCE satellite - French earth ionosphere satellite. Investigated the properties of the ionized layers of the atmosphere by observation of the propagation of very low frequency waves in the ionosphere. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-12-06. Last Launch: 1965-12-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb).
France Telecom - French agency overseeing development of spacecraft. France Telecom, France.
Francis E Warren AFB - Alternate name for Warren AFB.
Frangible Arcas - Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-12-17. Last Launch: 1965-12-21. Number: 4 .
Fraunhofer lines - Dark lines in the spectrum of solar radiation. produced by the absorption of light by gases in the outer portions of the Sun.
FRC - Flight Research Center (old name for DFRC)
Free Radical - Certain molecules,when are torn apart, give up large amounts of energy upon recombining. In the 1950's it was proposed that such 'free radicals' could be used as rocket propellants. However free radicals recombine as soon as they are formed, and despite research over the decades no method has been found to keep them stable long enough to use as a propellant. Atomic hydrogen was the most promising of these free radicals, which might yield a specific impulse of over 1,100 seconds, three times that of conventional chemical propellants.
Freedman - American physician. Human factors physiologist at North American, proved feasibility of Apollo three-crew cabin. Later later served as a team physician for Los Angeles sports teams and Korean Airlines. Born: 1924-07-02. Died: 2011-04-14.
Freedom 7 - Alternate name for Mercury MR-3A.
Freedom 7 - Alternate name for Mercury MR-3.
Freedom 7 II - Alternate name for Mercury MA-10.
Freeman - American test pilot astronaut, 1963-1964. Died in crash of T-38 trainer after bird strike on windshield. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1964. Born: 1930-02-18. Died: 1964-10-31.
Fregat - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Upper stage developed from propulsion bus for Lavochkin lunar and planetary probes (Luna Ye-8, Mars M1, Fobos 1F). 20 restarts. Status: In production. Gross mass: 6,535 kg (14,407 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Fregat (Frigate ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-24.
Fregat (Frigate) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-24.
Freja - Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. Freja was designed to image the aurora and measure particles and fields in the upper ionosphere and lower magnetosphere. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-10-06. Last Launch: 1992-10-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 259 kg (570 lb).
Freja-C - Alternate designation for Astrid earth magnetosphere satellite.
French AF - French Air Force.
French Army - French Army.
French Navy - French Navy.
Frey - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on amplifiers in the automated control loop department 1947-1952.
Frick - American test pilot astronaut 1996-2010. Flew 26 combat missions over Iraq. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2010. Born: 1964-09-30. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 23.59 days.
Fricke - German expert in guided missile design during World War II. Working at LFA Braunschweig after the war.
Friederich - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Friedrich - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1911-09-12. Died: 1958-12-06.
Friedrichshafen - Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany.
Friendship 7 - Alternate name for Mercury MA-6.
Frimout - Belgian engineer payload specialist astronaut 1985-1992. First Belgian astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1992. Born: 1941-03-21. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 8.92 days.
Frisbee - American phantom cosmonaut. Mysterious tenth member of second NASA astronaut group. The fearless Frisbee was in fact a joke on the NASA press corps created by astronauts Lovell and Conrad.
Frog 1 - Alternate designation for Filin.
Frog 2 - Alternate designation for Mars tactical rocket.
Frog 2 - Alternate designation for Mars (rocket).
Frog 3 - Alternate designation for 3R10.
Frog 4 - Alternate designation for Frog 5.
Frog 4 - Alternate designation for 3R9.
Frog 5 - Russian tactical ballistic rocket. Evidently redundant DOD designation. Gross mass: 2,999 kg (6,611 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb).
Frog 6 - Russian tactical ballistic rocket. Designation issued by US DOD, but cannot be linked to any known missile post-cold war.
Frog 7 - Alternate designation for R-65.
Frog 7A - Alternate designation for R-70.
Frog 7B - Alternate designation for R-75.
Frog 8 - Russian tactical ballistic rocket. US designation; does not appear to have existed.
Frog 9 - Russian tactical ballistic rocket. US designation; does not appear to have existed.
Frolov - Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Civilian Engineer, Korolev bureau. On 18 May 1964 selection as cosmonaut not approved. Status: Inactive.
From an Astronaut's Spouse - Poem: I could have sought by wit or wile...
Frosch - American physicist, NASA administrator 1976-1981. During his tenure the shuttle was developed from paper design to flight hardware. Born: 1928.
FRR - Abbreviation for Flight-Readiness Review
FrTel - France Telecom, France
Frutkin - American scientist. Deputy Director, US IGY Committee, 1956-1958. NASA senior negotiator for international space agreements, 1959-1979. Born: 1918-11-30.
FS-1300 - American communications satellite bus. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-06-05. Last Launch: 2015-09-30. Number: 102 . Gross mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb).
FSD - Abbreviation for Flight Systems Division
FSRB - Abbreviation for Flight Safety Review Board
FSS - Flight Support Structure, used in the shuttle bay for berthing the Hubble Space Telescope. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-04-06. Last Launch: 1997-02-11. Number: 3 .
FSSC-12 - Alternate designation for DSL HTHL.
FSSC-3 - Alternate designation for Aerospatiale VTVL.
FSSC-4 - Alternate designation for Astros.
FSW - Chinese military surveillance satellite. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-11-05. Last Launch: 2006-09-09. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 3,100 kg (6,800 lb). Payload: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Propellants: Solid.
FSW Retromotor - Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. In Production. Retrorocket designed for deorbit of FSW recoverable satellite. First flight 1975. Status: In Production. Date: 1966-1975. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 266 kg (586 lb). Unfuelled mass: 53 kg (117 lb). Thrust: 40.66 kN (9,141 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
FTB - FTB (Foguete de Treinamento Básico) - Basic Training Rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 2009-08-10. Last Launch: 2014-03-12. Number: 27 .
FTD - Foreign Technology Division, USAF, Wright-Patterson AFB
FTI - FTI, or Intermediate Training Rocket Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-08-03. Last Launch: 2014-05-09. Number: 11 .
FTP - Abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol
FTS - Abbreviation for Flight Telerobotic Servicer
Fubini - Italian-American physicist. Worked for the US military in a succession of technical and scientific position 1942-1969. Born: 1913-04-19. Died: 1997-08-05.
Fuerza A\'{e}rea de Chile, ECS Fasat, Los Cerrillos AFB - Alternate name for FACh.
Fuglesang - Swedish engineer cosmonaut 1992-on. Status: Active 1992-on. Born: 1957-03-18. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 26.73 days.
Fuhrmann - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1912-04-27. Died: 2005-01-01.
Fuji - Japanese amateur radio communications satellite. JAS-2. Japanese amateur radio satellite. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-08-17. Last Launch: 1996-08-17. Number: 1 .
Fulier - Slovak pilot cosmonaut, 1998-1999. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-1999. Born: 1955-02-20.
Fuller - American US Government Politician. Craig Fuller was President Ronald Reagan's Cabinet Secretary in the early 1980s and arranged for NASA's space station proposal to be discussed at a meeting of the Cabinet Council for Commerce and Trade.
Fullerton - American test pilot astronaut 1966-1986. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1986. Born: 1936-10-11. Died: 2013-08-21. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 15.95 days.
Fulmar - British sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Heron (107 kN) + 1 x Snipe (16.7 kN). Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1976-11-21. Last Launch: 1979-03-19. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 137.00 kN (30,798 lbf).
Fulmar-2 - Alternate name for Snipe.
Fulton - American test pilot, flew the B-52 launch aircraft for the X-15 and the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft for shuttle ALT tests. Status: Deceased. Born: 1925-06-06. Died: 2015-02-04.
FUNcube - Cubesat for AMSAT-UK.
Fundamental Technology Systems - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Fundamental Technology Systems, USA.
Funk - American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astronauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. Status: Inactive. Born: 1939-01-31.
Furrer - Austrian physicist payload specialist astronaut 1982-1985. Died in an airplane crash. Status: Deceased; Active 1982-1985. Born: 1940-11-25. Died: 1995-09-19. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.03 days.
Furukawa - Japanese physician mission specialist astronaut 1999-on. Status: Active 1999-on. Born: 1964-04-04. Spaceflights: 1 .
FUSE - American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. FUSE carried four 0.35m far ultraviolet telescopes each with an ultraviolet high resolution spectrograph. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-06-24. Last Launch: 1999-06-24. Number: 1 .
Future Launcher Technology Program - Alternate designation for FLTP/FESTIP.
FW-4D - Alternate name for Altair 3D.
FW-4S TEM640 - Alternate name for Altair 3.
FWHM - Abbreviation for Full Width at Half Maximum
FY - Abbreviation for Fiscal Year
FY-1 - Chinese earth weather satellite. The Feng Yun 1 meteorological satellites were launched into sun-synchronous 900 km, 99 deg inclination orbits by CZ-4 boosters from Taiyuan. Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-09-06. Last Launch: 2002-05-15. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 880 kg (1,940 lb).
FY-2 - Chinese earth weather satellite. The Feng Yun 2 spin-stabilized geosynchronous meteorological spacecraft was slightly more massive than China's DFH-2 communications satellite. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-06-10. Last Launch: 2014-12-31. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 593 kg (1,307 lb).
FY-25 - Beijing Wan Yuan rocket engine. In Production. Chinese liquid apogee insertion motor. 1800 seconds rated firing time. First flight 1994. Status: In Production.
FY-3 - Chinese new generation polar orbit weather satellite. The FY-3 was equipped with new global, all-weather, multi-spectral, three-dimensional sensors. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-05-27. Last Launch: 2013-09-23. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb).
FYI - Abbreviation for For Your Information
Fyodorov - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1974. Graduated from E.N. Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School, 1963. Cosmonaut training November 1965-December 1967. Flight controller in Kaliningrad until he retired in 1992. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1974. Born: 1941-04-14. Died: 2002-03-21.

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