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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: G

g - Abbreviation for gram
G&N - Abbreviation for Guidance and navigation
G-1 - Alternate designation for N1 1969.
G-1 - Alternate designation for N1.
G-1 - Alternate designation for N1 1964.
G-1 - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The G-1, an improved 600 km range version of the V-2 missile, was the first design produced by Groettrup's German engineering team after they had been moved to Russia. A Soviet state commission found in 1948 that it was superior to Korolev's R-2 concept. Nevertheless the R-2 was put in production instead. Status: Study 1947. Gross mass: 18,400 kg (40,500 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 313.00 kN (70,365 lbf).
G-1 engine - Rocketdyne exotic LF2/Hydrazine rocket engine. Atlas upper stage. Developed 1960's. Engine developed for replacement of Agena upper stage in late 1950's. Not flown due to toxicity of propellants. NOMAD Upper Stage System. Pressure-fed. Status: Developed 1960's. Date: 1958. Thrust: 53.50 kN (12,027 lbf). More at: LF2/Hydrazine
G1C - American space suit, tested 1962. NASA Gemini prototype full pressure suit, closed loop. The G-1C lead to the G-2C, G-3C (IVA suits), G-4C (both IVA and EVA suit), and G-5C with a soft head enclosure for the 14 day Gemini 7 mission. Status: tested 1962.
G-2 - The G-2 design objective was to create the first IRBM - to deliver a 1000 kg payload over a 2500 km range. The missile would use three V-2 derived engines with a total thrust of 100 metric tons. A variety of alternate configurations (R-12A through R-12K) were considered by the German team in Russia. These included parallel and consecutive staging, gimbaled motors, and other innovations. The R-12K was particularly interesting because it represented a concept later used on the US Atlas missile - jettisoning of the two outboard engines at altitude to significantly improve range. The G-2 was given the secret designation R-6 and overt designation R-12 by the Russians. Status: Study 1948. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 1,000.00 kN (224,800 lbf).
G-26 - Manufacturer's designation of XLR83-NA-1 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
G-26 Booster - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Burns out at altitude 13,000 m, Mach 3. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 42,403 kg (93,482 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11,337 kg (24,993 lb). Thrust: 1,204.12 kN (270,697 lbf). More at: Lox/Alcohol
G2C - American space suit, tested 1963. The Dave Clark G2C was the prototype IVA space suit for project Gemini. None were flown. The flight versions were G4C and G5C. Status: tested 1963.
G2G - American space suit, tested 1962. The BF Goodrich space suit was developed in competition with the Dave Clark G2C suit for Project Gemini. It was not flown. Status: tested 1962.
G-3 - German aerodynamicist Albring designed the G-3 missile for the Russians in October 1949. This would use a rocket-powered Groettrup-designed G-1 as the first stage. The cruise stage would have an aerodynamic layout like that of the Saenger-Bredt rocket-powered antipodal bomber of World War II. Cruising at 13 km altitude, the supersonic missile would carry a 3000 kg warhead to a range of 2900 km. Status: Study 1949. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 324.00 kN (72,838 lbf).
G-38 - Manufacturer's designation of LR83-NA-1 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
G3C - American space suit, operational 1964. Dave Clark G3C initial Gemini production flight suits were worn aboard Gemini 3, and by the spacecraft commanders of Gemini 6 and 8. Status: operational 1964.
G-4 - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The G-4 was designed by the Groettrup German team in the Soviet Union in competition with Korolev's R-3. Rocket chief Ustinov informed Groettrup of the requirement on 9 April 1949: to deliver a 3000 kg atomic bomb to a 3000 km. This requirement meant a massive improvement over existing V-2 technology. The G-4 was evaluated against Korolev's R-3 on 7 December 1949 - and the G-4 was found to be superior. Neither ended up in production, but the design concepts of the G-4 led directly to Korolev's R-7 ICBM (essentially a cluster of G-4's or R-3A's) and the N1 superbooster. Work on the G-4 continued through 1952. Status: Study 1949. Gross mass: 66,600 kg (146,800 lb). Payload: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Thrust: 990.00 kN (222,560 lbf).
G-4 stage - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Residuals 940 kg. Burnout mass with 3400 kg warhead 7100 kg. Cutoff velocity 4500 m/s, maximum altitude 120 km over 3000 km range. With 10 G limiter thrust would be throttled back and burn time would be 156 seconds. Status: Study 1949. Gross mass: 66,600 kg (146,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,760 kg (6,080 lb). Thrust: 1,059.00 kN (238,072 lbf). More at: Lox/Alcohol
G4C - American space suit, operational 1964. Dave Clark G4C flight suits were designed for wear by Gemini astronauts. Status: operational 1964.
G4C AMU - American space suit, operational 1966. This space suit was designed to provide thermal protection to astronauts using the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). Status: operational 1966.
G-5 - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Some sources indicate the G-5 / R-15 designation was assigned to an ICBM designed by the Groettrup team. If so, it may have been the 'packet of G-4's' that was the direct ancestor of the Korolev R-7. The designation G-5 / R-15 has also been reported as that of the ramjet missile more often referred to as G-3 or R-13. Status: Study 1950.
G5C - American space suit, operational 1965. This David Clark lightweight suit was developed for long duration project Gemini missions. It was designed to be easily removed during flight and to provide greater comfort than the standard Gemini space suit. Status: operational 1965.
Gabriel - Israeli anti-ship missile. Status: Operational 1975. Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Payload: 80 kg (176 lb). Thrust: 35.30 kN (7,936 lbf).
Gabriel 3AS - Israeli anti-ship missile. Anti-ship Gross mass: 559 kg (1,232 lb).
Gabriel 4LR - Israeli anti-ship missile. Long-range, turbojet, anti-ship Gross mass: 958 kg (2,112 lb).
Gabriel Mk 2 - Israeli anti-ship missile. Antiship sea skimmer. In production. Gross mass: 520 kg (1,140 lb).
Gabriel Mk 3 - Israeli anti-ship missile. Antiship sea skimmer. Gross mass: 560 kg (1,230 lb).
Gabriel Mk 3 A/S - Israeli anti-ship missile. Air launch version of Gabriel Mk 3. Gross mass: 590 kg (1,300 lb).
Gadfly - Alternate name of Uragan.
Gadfly - Alternate name of Buk.
Gadfly - Alternate name of Buk 9K37M1.
Gadfly - Alternate name of Buk 9K37M.
Gaffers - Alternate name for NASA Group 12 - 1987.
Gaffers - Alternate name of NASA-12 astronaut group, 1987.
Gaffney, Francis Andrew 'Drew' - American physician payload specialist astronaut 1984-1991. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1991. Born: 1946-06-09. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.09 days.
Gagarin, Yuri Alekseyevich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1968. First person in space. Due to his fame, the Soviet leadership did not want to risk him on another flight, but later relented. Died in a 1968 MiG trainer crash while requalifying for flight status. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1968. Born: 1934-03-09. Died: 1968-03-27. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.0750 days.
Gaia - Astrometry satellite operated by ESA, Europe. Launched 2013. First Launch: 2013-12-19. Last Launch: 2013-12-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb).
Gaidukov, Lev Mikhailovich - Russian officer. Soviet Lieutenant General, headed group that acquired German rocket technology and engineers, 1945-1946. In 1949 made Chief of State Commissions for rocket testing; in 1960 named head of the Second Directorate of the RVSN. Born: 1911-01-14. Died: 1999-01-01.
Gaidukov, Sergei Nikolayevich - Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1978. Retired due to medical reasons (injured during parachute training). Worked as an engineer until 1988, when he retired from all work for medical reasons. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1978. Born: 1936-10-31. Died: 2008-12-05.
Gainful - Alternate name of Kub 9M20.
Gainful - Alternate name of Kub-M1.
Gainful - Alternate name of Kub-M3.
Gainful - Alternate designation for Kub.
gal - Abbreviation for gallon
Galactic X-Ray Mapping - Alternate name of S150 (Galactic X-Ray Mapping).
Galassia - Technology satellite for National University of Singapore, Singapore. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2015-12-16. Last Launch: 2015-12-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb).
Galaxy - Designation of series of direct broadcast communications satellites launched by HCI.
Galaxy 1, 1R, 1R2, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9 - Communication satellite built by Hughes for Hughes Communications, Inc. => PanAmSat, USA. Launched 1983 - 1996. Used the HS-376 bus. First Launch: 1983-06-28. Last Launch: 1996-05-24. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Galaxy 10 - Communication satellite built by Hughes for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 1998. Used the HS-601HP bus. First Launch: 1998-08-27. Last Launch: 1998-08-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,876 kg (8,545 lb).
Galaxy 11 - Communication satellite built by Boeing for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 1999. Used the BSS-702 bus. First Launch: 1999-12-22. Last Launch: 1999-12-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,477 kg (9,870 lb).
Galaxy 12, 14, 15 - Communication satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 2003 - 2005. Used the Star-2 Bus bus. First Launch: 2003-04-09. Last Launch: 2005-08-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,760 kg (3,880 lb).
Galaxy 13 / Horizons 1 - Communication satellite built by Boeing for PanAmSat & JSat, USA. Launched 2003. Used the BSS-601HP bus. First Launch: 2003-10-01. Last Launch: 2003-10-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,060 kg (8,950 lb).
Galaxy 15 - Communication satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 2005. Used the Star-2 Bus bus. First Launch: 2005-10-13. Last Launch: 2005-10-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,033 kg (4,481 lb).
Galaxy 16, 18 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 2006 - 2008. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 2006-06-18. Last Launch: 2008-05-21. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 4,640 kg (10,220 lb).
Galaxy 17 - Communication satellite built by Alcatel Alenia Space (formerly Alcatel Space) for Intelsat (formerly PanAmSat), USA. Launched 2007. Used the Spacebus-3000B3 bus. First Launch: 2007-05-04. Last Launch: 2007-05-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb).
Galaxy 19 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for Intelsat, USA. Launched 2008. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 2008-09-24. Last Launch: 2008-09-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,692 kg (10,344 lb).
Galaxy 23 - Alternate name of EchoStar 9 (Telstar 13, Intelsat Americas 13, Galaxy 23).
Galaxy 3C - Communication satellite built by Boeing for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 2002. Used the BSS-702 bus. First Launch: 2002-06-15. Last Launch: 2002-06-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,810 kg (10,600 lb).
Galaxy 3R / Anik E2R - Communication satellite built by Hughes for PanAmSat => Telesat, Canada. Launched 1995. Used the HS-601 bus. First Launch: 1995-12-15. Last Launch: 1995-12-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,069 kg (6,765 lb).
Galaxy 4, 7 / HGS 4 - Communication satellite built by Hughes for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 1992 - 1993. Used the HS-601 bus. First Launch: 1992-10-28. Last Launch: 1993-06-25. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,989 kg (6,589 lb).
Galaxy 4R, 10R - Communication satellite built by Hughes for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 2000. Used the HS-601HP bus. First Launch: 2000-01-25. Last Launch: 2000-04-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,668 kg (8,086 lb).
Galaxy 8i, 8iR - Communication satellite built by Hughes / Boeing for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 1997. Used the HS-601HP / BSS-601HP bus. First Launch: 1997-12-08. Last Launch: 1997-12-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,537 kg (7,797 lb).
Galaxy space station module - The Galaxy subscale space station module was scheduled to fly in 2008. It would be twice as large as its Genesis predecessors and represent a 50% scale model of the Sundancer manned inflatable space station. Status: Cancelled 2008. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
GALCIT - Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Galex - American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) was an orbiting space telescope that was to observe galaxies in ultraviolet wavelengths. Astronomy, UV satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for NASA, USA. Launched 2003. Used the LEOStar-2 bus. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-04-28. Last Launch: 2003-04-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 280 kg (610 lb).
Galeyev, Albert Abubakirovich - Russian officer. Director from 1988 of the Institute for Space Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences Soviet physicist. Worked at the Institute for Space Research of the Russian Academy of Science from 1973. Born: 1940-10-19.
Galileo - American outer planets probe. One launch, 1989.10.18. The Galileo Jupiter orbiter was designed to perform in-depth studies of the giant planet's atmosphere, satellites, and surrounding magnetosphere. Jupiter orbiter and probe satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1989. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-10-18. Last Launch: 1989-10-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,881 kg (8,556 lb).
Galileo Galilei - Italian scientist. Used the telescope for astronomy, proving Copernicus heliocentric system. Discovered cratered surface of moon, moons of Jupiter, and that Milky Way was made of stars. By experiment disproved Aristotelian physics concepts. Born: 1564. Died: 1642-01-01.
Galileo Navsat - European navigation satellite. GIOVE B. Galileo was Europe's own global navigation satellite system, providing a highly accurate, guaranteed global positioning service under civilian control. Navigation satellite built by OHB-System GmbH (Bus, prime), SSTL (payload) for ESA, Europe. Launched 2014 - 2016. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-10-21. Last Launch: 2015-09-11. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 733 kg (1,615 lb).
Galileo probe - American Jupiter atmospheric probe. Launched 1989.10.18 aboard the Galileo orbiter. Deployed from Galileo 13 July 1995; entered Jupiter atmosphere 7 December 1995. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-10-18. Last Launch: 1989-10-18. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 339 kg (747 lb).
Galileo-IOV PFM, FM2, FM3, FM4 - Navigation satellite built by EADS Astrium for ESA, Europe. Launched 2011 - 2012. First Launch: 2011-10-21. Last Launch: 2012-10-12. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 640 kg (1,410 lb).
GalileoSat - Alternate name for Galileo Navsat.
Gallay, Mark Lazarevich - Russian test pilot. Led training at the Cosmonaut Training Centre, Test pilot of Gromov Lll. Born: 1914. Died: 1998-01-01.
Galosh Mod.1 - Alternate designation for A-350Zh.
Galosh Mod.2 - Alternate designation for A-350R.
Gals - Russian communications satellite. Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation. Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1994 - 1995. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-01-20. Last Launch: 2009-02-11. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
GAM - American GPS-Aided Munition.
GAM-63 - Alternate designation for Rascal.
GAM-67 - Alternate designation for Crossbow.
GAM-77 - Alternate designation for AGM-28A.
GAM-77A - Alternate designation for AGM-28B.
GAM-87 - Alternate designation for Skybolt ALBM.
GAMASAT 1 (QB50 PT01) - Technology, atmosphere satellite for University of Porto, TEKEVER, Portugal. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Gambit - Alternate designation for KH-8.
Gambit - Code name for KH-7 nd [KH-7] military surveillance satellites.
Gamma - Russian gamma ray astronomy satellite. The Gamma USSR/France gamma/x-ray astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation. Astronomy, Gamma satellite, Russia. Launched 1990. Used Soyuz-Bus. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-07-11. Last Launch: 1990-07-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 7,350 kg (16,200 lb).
Gamma 2 - Bristol Siddeley H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Black Arrow launch vehicle. First flight 1969. Status: Out of production. Number: 4 . Unfuelled mass: 173 kg (381 lb). Thrust: 68.20 kN (15,332 lbf). More at: H2O2/Kerosene
Gamma 201 - Saunders-Roe H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Thrust: 75.00 kN (16,860 lbf). More at: H2O2/Kerosene
Gamma 301 - Saunders-Roe H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Thrust: 75.00 kN (16,860 lbf). More at: H2O2/Kerosene
Gamma 8 - Bristol Siddeley H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Black Arrow launch vehicle. First flight 1969. Status: Out of production. Number: 4 . Unfuelled mass: 342 kg (753 lb). Thrust: 234.80 kN (52,785 lbf). More at: H2O2/Kerosene
Gamma Centauro - Argentinian sounding rocket. Argentine two-stage solid-propellant fin-stabilized rocket flown in the early 1960's for technology development and scientific research. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1962-11-10. Last Launch: 1965-02-08. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 27 kg (60 lb). Payload: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
Gamma Centauro-1 - Solid rocket stage. Mass 16 kg (35 lb). Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 16 kg (35 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). More at: Solid
Gamma Centauro-2 - Solid rocket stage. Mass 6 kg (13 lb). Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). More at: Solid
Gamma ray astronomy satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Gamma Ray Observatory - Alternate name for GRO.
GammaCenS - Alternate designation for Gamma Centauro.
Gammon - Alternate designation for V-860PV.
Gammon - Alternate designation for V-870.
Gammon - Alternate designation for V-880E.
Gammon - Alternate designation for V-860P.
Gammon - Alternate designation for V-880.
Gammon - Alternate designation for V-880M.
Gammon - Alternate designation for S-200.
Gammon - Alternate designation for V-880N.
Gan Island - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1969-04-16. Last Launch: 1972-07-01. Number: 34 .
Gander - American drone missile. Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 8.92 kN (2,005 lbf).
Gando - Launch site on Canary Islands, near NASA tracking station, considered for several planned Spanish and Italian orbital launch vehicles. L-1011 carrier aircraft staging from Gran Canaria runways RW03/21L and RW03/21R air-launch Pegasus launch vehicles into orbit near here (drop point 27.00 N 15.30 W).
Ganef - Alternate designation for Krug.
Ganzorig Maidarzhavyn - Mongolian pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1981. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1981. Born: 1949-02-05.
GAO - Abbreviation for General Accounting Office
Gaofen - High resolution imaging satellite with a 2 m resolution pan-chromatic camera, an 8 m resolution multi-spectral camera and a 16 m resolution wide-angle multi-spectral camera. Used the CAST2000 bus.
Gaofen 1, 6 (GF 1, 6) - Earth observation satellite built by SAST, China. Launched 2013. Used CAST2000 bus. First Launch: 2013-04-26. Last Launch: 2013-04-26. Number: 1 .
Gaofen 10 (GF 10) - Earth observation satellite, China. Launched 2016. First Launch: 2016-08-31. Last Launch: 2016-08-31. Number: 1 .
Gaofen 2 (GF 2) - Earth observation satellite, China. Launched 2014. First Launch: 2014-08-19. Last Launch: 2014-08-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb).
Gaofen 3 (GF 3) - Earth observation satellite, China. Launched 2016. First Launch: 2016-08-09. Last Launch: 2016-08-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,950 kg (6,500 lb).
Gaofen 4 (GF 4) - Chinese geostationary earth observation satellite. First Launch: 2015-12-28. Last Launch: 2015-12-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,600 kg (10,100 lb).
Gaofen 5 (GF 5) - Earth observation satellite built by SAST, China.
Gaofen 8 (GF 8) - Earth observation satellite, China. Launched 2015. First Launch: 2015-06-26. Last Launch: 2015-06-26. Number: 1 .
Gaofen 9 (GF 9) - Earth observation satellite built by CAST, China. Launched 2015. Used CAST2000 bus. First Launch: 2015-09-14. Last Launch: 2015-09-14. Number: 1 .
GaoJing-1 01, 02, 03, 04 (SuperView 1) - Earth observation satellite built by CAST for Beijing Space View Tech Co Ltd, China. Launched 2016. Used CAST3000B bus. First Launch: 2016-12-28. Last Launch: 2016-12-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 560 kg (1,230 lb).
GAP - Abbreviation for Glycigyl azide polymer
GAPA SAM-A-1 - Boeing 1950's USAF surface-to-air missile; MX-606.
GAR-1 - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4.
GAR-11 - US DoD designation for Nuclear Falcon AIM-26.
GAR-11 - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-26A.
GAR-11A - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-26B.
GAR-1D - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4A.
GAR-2 - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4.
GAR-2 - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4B.
GAR-2 - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4D.
GAR-2A - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4C.
GAR-3 - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4.
GAR-3 - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4E.
GAR-3A - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4F.
GAR-4 - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4.
GAR-4A - US DoD designation for Falcon XAIM-4H.
GAR-4A - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4G.
GAR-5 - US DoD designation for Nuclear Falcon AIM-26.
GAR-6 - US DoD designation for Nuclear Falcon AIM-26.
GAR-8 - US DoD designation for Sidewinder AIM-9.
GAR-8 - US DoD designation for Sidewinder AIM-9A.
GAR-8 - US DoD designation for Sidewinder AIM-9B.
GAR-9 - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-47.
GAR-98A - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4A.
GAR-98A - US DoD designation for Falcon AIM-4B.
Garan, Ronald John Jr - American pilot astronaut 2000-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 2000-2012. Born: 1961-10-30. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 178.00 days.
Gardian - German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 in the test stand group.
Gardner, Dale Allan - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1978-1986. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1986. Born: 1948-11-08. Died: 2014-02-19. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 14.04 days.
Gardner, Guy Spence - American test pilot astronaut 1980-1991. Grew up in Alexandria, Virginia. Flew 177 combat missions over Vietnam. Status: Deceased; Active 1980-1991. Born: 1948-01-06. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 13.34 days.
Gardner, Philip T - American engineer. Manager of test laboratories for the Atlas program. Born: 1918-07-15. Died: 2013-09-21.
Gargoyle RTV-N-2 - McDonnell 1950's US Navy research test vehicle.
Garn, Edwin Jacob 'Jake' - American senator payload specialist astronaut 1984-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1985. Born: 1932-10-12. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.00 days.
Garneau, Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc - Canadian engineer mission specialist astronaut 1983-2001. First Canadian astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1983-2001. Born: 1949-02-23. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 29.08 days.
Garpun - Military communications and data relay satellite. Replacement for the Potok series for relay of data from military surveillance satellites. Originally planned for deployment from 2001, the delayed until 2011.09.20. Military relay satellite built by ISS Reshetnev, Russia. Launched 2011 - 2015. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-09-20. Last Launch: 2011-09-20. Number: 1 .
Garrett - First name of Airesearch.
Garriott de Cayeux, Richard Allen - American space tourist, 2007-2008. Son of astronaut Owen Garriott, raised in Nassau Bay, Texas. Sold first computer game at 16; made millions in computer games. Paid $30 million for a flight to the International Space Station. Status: Inactive; Active 2007-2008. Born: 1961-07-04. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 11.86 days.
Garriott, Owen Kay - American scientist mission specialist astronaut 1965-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1986. Born: 1930-11-22. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 69.79 days.
Garsaux Suit - French pressure suit, tested 1935. The first French full pressure suit was designed by Dr Paul Garsaux with the backing of the Potez Airplane Company in 1935. Status: tested 1935. Gross mass: 14 kg (30 lb).
Gartmann, Heinz - German expert in rocket propulsion during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
Garuda - Geosynchronous communications satellite for the ACES consortium (PSN Indonesia, PLDT Philippines, Lockheed Martin, and Jasmine Thailand). The satellite had two large 12-m diameter L-band antennae for cellular telephone relay. Used the AS 2100 bus.
Garuda 1, 2 (ACeS 1, 2) - Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin for Asia Cellular Satellite (ACeS), Indonesia. Launched 2000. Used the A2100AXX bus. First Launch: 2000-02-12. Last Launch: 2000-02-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Garvey - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Garvey Spacecraft, USA.
Garvey Aerospike - Garvey LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Single-chamber, liquid-propellant, annular aerospike engine. Status: Development ended 2005. Date: 2001-. Thrust: 44 N (9 lbf). More at: Lox/Alcohol
GAS - NASA's GetAway Special program, officially known as the Small, Self-Contained Payloads program, offered interested individuals or groups opportunities to fly small experiments aboard the space shuttle. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-01-11. Last Launch: 1996-01-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 90 kg (198 lb).
GAS Bridge - Structural element mounted in the space shuttle cargo bay for mounting of multiple GAS payload cannisters.
Gas Dynamic Laser - Laser propulsion involves using the power of a laser to heat or augment combustion of a mixture of gases.
Gas Dynamic Laser/CO+Air+N2+C2H5OH - Gas Dynamic Laser/CO+Air+N2+C2H5OH propellant. Laser propulsion involves using the power of a laser to heat or augment combustion of a mixture of gases. The indicated mix of propellants were heated by a gas dynamic laser in one Russian prototype. Performance was not reported.
Gaskin - Alternate name of Strela-1 9M31M.
Gasoline - Gasoline of various grades were used as fuel in the earliest rocket engines of Goddard and others. Once appropriate blends of kerosene were developed in the United States and Soviet Union, that became the hydrocarbon fuel of choice.
GASPACS - technology satellite for Utah State University, USA. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Gasparini, Jean-Marc Michel Daniel - French engineer astronaut, 1990-1998. Graduated from Polytechnic School, 1985 Combat and test pilot, French Air Force. Chief test pilot at Bretigny Flight Test Center . Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1998. Born: 1963-01-22.
Gates, Thomas S - American manager. Navy Undersecretary 1953-1957; Secretary of the Navy 1957-1959, Secretary of Defense from 1959-1961. Under his watch Polaris was developed by the Navy and innumerable DOD space programs were begun. Born: 1906. Died: 1983-01-01.
GATV - Abbreviation for Gemini Agena Target Vehicle
GATV 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 - Docking Target satellite for NASA, USA. Launched 1965 - 1966. First Launch: 1965-10-25. Last Launch: 1966-11-11. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 3,260 kg (7,180 lb).
GAU - Chief Artillery Directorate
Gauchito - Argentinian manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Pablo De Leon of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. Status: Study 2004.
Gauntlet - Alternate name of Kinzhal.
Gauntlet - Alternate name of Tor.
GAUSS - Italian manufacturer of spacecraft. GAUSS, Italy.
Gavin, Joseph - American Manager. Grumman Vice President for Space Programs during development of the Apollo Lunar Module.
Gazelle - Alternate designation for 53T6.
Gazenko, Oleg Georgyevich - Russian physician. Director of IMBP 1969-1988. Performed early work on space medicine. Born: 1918-12-12.
Gazkom - AO Gazcom, Moscow, Russia
Gazprom - Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Gazprom, Russia.
GB - Alternate name for NOSS-Subsat.
GB-1 - Aeronca US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; preset glide path, no inflight guidance.
GB-10 - Aeronca US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; GB-1 with TV control.
GB-11 - Aeronca US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; GB-1 modified for chemical agent dispersal.
GB-12 - Aeronca US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; was GB-5C; GB-1 with light contrast seeker.
GB-13 - Aeronca WWII unpowered guided bomb; was GB-5D; GB-1 with flare seeker.
GB-14 - Aeronca US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; was GB-7B; GB-1 with active radar homing.
GB-15 - ATSC US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb.
GB-2 - Bellanca US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; preset glide path, no inflight guidance.
GB-3 - Timm US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; preset glide path, no inflight guidance.
GB-4 - ATSC US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; TV controlled guidance.
GB-5 - Aeronca US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; GB-1 with light contrast seeker.
GB-6 - Aeronca US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; GB-1 with IR seeker.
GB-7 - Aeronca US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; GB-1 with passive or semi-active radar homing.
GB-8 - Aeronca US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; GB-1 with radio control.
GB-9 - ATSC US Army Air Force WWII unpowered guided bomb; GB-4 modified for ground-skimming mode.
GBA - GAS bridge, structure mounted in the shuttle pay to carry Getaway Special payload cannisters. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-01-12. Last Launch: 1996-05-19. Number: 9 .
GBI - American anti-ballistic missile. Suborbital booster for the US Missile Defense Agency's Ground-based Midcourse Defense system's EKV ballistic missile kill vehicle. The basic OBV consisted of the upper three stages and guidance system from the Taurus orbital launch vehicle (essentially a wingless Pegasus-XL). The OBV was launched from an open pad; the operational version was to be silo-launched. Status: Active. First Launch: 2003-02-06. Last Launch: 2016-01-28. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 22,700 kg (50,000 lb). Thrust: 441.00 kN (99,140 lbf).
GBI BV - American anti-ballistic missile; initial Orbital Sciences version. Status: Retired 2001. First Launch: 2001-08-31. Last Launch: 2001-12-13. Number: 2 .
GbI BV-Plus - American anti-ballistic missile; alternate design using a Lockheed booster instead of the Orbital Sciences version. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x GEM-40 + 1 x Orbus 1 + 1 x Orbus 1 Status: Active. First Launch: 2001-08-31. Last Launch: 2004-01-09. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Thrust: 500.00 kN (112,400 lbf).
GBT - Abbreviation for Green Bank Telescope
GBU-15 - American air-to-surface missile. Unpowered, extended-range modular guided glide weapon. Gross mass: 1,134 kg (2,500 lb).
GCOM-C - Earth Observing satellite operated by JAXA, Japan. Gross mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb).
GCOM-W (Shizuku) - Earth Observing satellite operated by JAXA, Japan. Launched 2012. First Launch: 2012-05-17. Last Launch: 2012-05-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,991 kg (4,389 lb).
GCR - Grand Central Rocket, Redlands
GCRC - GCR solid rocket engine. Used on Vanguard launch vehicle. First flight 1957. Status: Retired 1959. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 210 kg (460 lb). Unfuelled mass: 31 kg (68 lb). Thrust: 11.60 kN (2,608 lbf). More at: Solid
GCVS - Abbreviation for General Catalog of Variable Stars
GD - American manufacturer. General Dynamics, USA.
GDC - General Dynamics Convair (usually GD/C)
GDCLS - General Dynamics Commercial Launch Services, USA
GDL - Gas Dynamics Laboratory (Russian abbreviation)
GDS - Abbreviation for Great Dark Spot
GDU-10 - Alternate designation for RD-109 LOx-UDMH rocket engine.
GE - General Electric Corporation, USA. American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines, and operator of communications satellite constellations. Also, designation of series of satellites launched as part of the GE Americom broadcast satellite constellation. Later acquired by SES Americom.
GE - Third name of Valley Forge.
GE - Third name of SES Americom.
GE 1 - Alternate name of Golden Eagle 1 (GE 1).
GE 1, 2, 3 / AMC 1, 2, 3 / Eagle 1 - Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin for GE Americom => SES Americom, USA. Launched 1996 - 1997. Used the A2100A bus. First Launch: 1996-09-08. Last Launch: 1997-09-04. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 2,783 kg (6,135 lb).
GE 1A / AAP 1 / Worldsat 1 / NSS 11 - Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin for GE Americom Asia-Pacific (AAP) => SES Americom => Worldsat => SES Americom => SES New Skies, USA. Launched 2000. Used the A2100AX bus. Launched 2000. First Launch: 2000-10-01. Last Launch: 2000-10-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,552 kg (7,830 lb).
GE 1E / Astra 5A - Alternate name of Sirius 2 (GE 1E) / Astra 5A.
GE 4, 6 / AMC 4, 6 / Rainbow 2 - Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin for GE Americom => SES Americom, USA. Launched 1999 - 2000. Used the A2100AX bus. First Launch: 1999-11-13. Last Launch: 2000-10-21. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,895 kg (8,587 lb).
GE 5 / AMC 5 - Communication satellite built by Dornier Satellitensysteme (prime), Aerospatiale (bus) for GE Americom => SES Americom, USA. Launched 1998. Used the Spacebus-2000 bus. First Launch: 1998-10-28. Last Launch: 1998-10-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,721 kg (3,794 lb).
GE 7, 8 / AMC 7, 8, 10, 11, 18 (Aurora 3) - Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin for GE Americom => SES Americom, USA. Launched 2000 - 2006. Used the A2100A bus. First Launch: 2000-09-14. Last Launch: 2006-12-08. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,983 kg (4,371 lb).
GE Americom - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Americom, USA.
GE Astro Space (1986-1993) - Second name of East Windsor.
GE Life Raft - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. The GE Life raft was a rigid unpressurized aeroshell. Three crew in space suits with parachutes would strap themselves into the seats. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 420 kg (920 lb). More at: Solid
GE Lunar NEP Tug - American lunar logistics spacecraft. Nuclear electric tug proposed by General Electric in a 1965 study to support an Apollo Applications Lunar Base. A Snap-50 space reactor generating 1.9 MW would power the tug. Status: Study 1965.
GEARRS - Second 3U Globalstar Risk Reduction satellite from startup Near Space Launch (a Taylor University spinoff), with AFRL, to demo Cubesat data relay via the Globalstar system.
GEARRS 1, 2 (GEARRSAT 1, 2) - Technology satellite for NearSpace Launch, Air Force Research laboratory (AFRL), USA. Launched 2014-2015. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2014-07-13. Last Launch: 2015-05-20. Number: 2 .
GEARRSAT 1, 2 - Alternate name of GEARRS 1, 2 (GEARRSAT 1, 2).
Gecko - Alternate name of Osa-AK.
Gecko - Alternate name of Osa-M.
Gecko - Alternate name of Osa-AKM.
Gecko - Alternate name of Osa.
gegenschein - A faint light observed from the dark side of the Earth in a direction opposite to the Sun. It results from sunlight reflected by dust particles which orbit the Sun at planetary distances.
Geineder, Florian - German expert in operation of the Kochel wind tunnel during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Geissler, Ernst - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1915-08-03. Died: 1989-06-03.
Geizer - Code name for Potok military communications satellite.
Gektor - Alternate name for Zenit-2M satellite.
Gektor, Gektor-Priroda - Code name for Zenit-2M satellite military surveillance satellite.
Gektor-Priroda - Alternate name for Zenit-2M satellite.
Gektor-Priroda - Alternate name of Zenit-2M/NKh (Gektor-Priroda, 11F690).
Gelikon - Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. An early Applied Mechanics NPO plan to replace Gorizont and Ekran spacecraft revolved around the Gelikon project. Status: Study 1995. Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
Gelios - Alternate name of Luch-2 (Gelios, 14F30).
GEM - Family of stages.
GEM (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Giotto Extended Mission
GEM 40 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Air-ignited versions have nozzle ratio of 16:1, specific impulse of 283.4 sec. Used on Delta 7925 launch vehicle. First flight 1990. Status: Active. Number: 936 . Gross mass: 13,064 kg (28,801 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,361 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 499.20 kN (112,225 lbf). More at: Solid
GEM 46 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Air-ignited versions have nozzle ratio of 24.8:1, specific impulse of 284 sec. First flight 1998. Solid propellant rocket stage. Nine 1168-mm (46 in.) diameter Alliant graphite epoxy motors (GEM LDXLs) (strap-on solid rocket motors - SSRMs) augment the first-stage performance of the Delta III and were a direct evolution from the GEMs used on Delta II. Status: Active. Number: 54 . Gross mass: 19,290 kg (42,520 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,280 kg (5,020 lb). Thrust: 608.10 kN (136,706 lbf). More at: Solid
GEM 60 - Hercules solid rocket engine. In production. Used as strap-on boosters for Delta 3 , Delta IV Medium. First flight 2002. Solid propellant rocket stage. 90.5 bar chamber pressure, 11.0 nozzle expansion ratio. Figures for TVC version. Fixed nozzle version is 599 kg lighter. Status: In production. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 33,199 kg (73,191 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,250 kg (7,160 lb). Thrust: 851.50 kN (191,425 lbf). More at: Solid
Gemar, Charles Donald 'Sam' - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1985-1996. US Army Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1996. Born: 1955-08-04. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 24.23 days.
Gemini - American manned spacecraft. Gemini was conceived as an 'upgraded Mercury' to test essential orbital maneuvering, rendezvous, docking, lifting re-entry, and space walking techniques in the four years between the last Mercury flight and the first scheduled Apollo flight. If fulfilled this mission, and numerous variants that never reached production would have serviced manned space stations and taken Americans around and to the moon - at lower cost and earlier than Apollo. Built by McDonnell-Douglas for NASA, USA. Launched 1965 - 1966. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-04-08. Last Launch: 1966-11-11. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 3,851 kg (8,490 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,396 kg (7,486 lb). Thrust: 706 N (158 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Gemini - Double Transtage - American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. In June 1965 astronaut Pete Conrad conspired with the Martin and McDonnell corporations to advocate an early circumlunar flight using Gemini. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 15,200 kg (33,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,600 kg (10,100 lb). Thrust: 71.17 kN (15,999 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Gemini - Saturn I - American manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1964. In the spring of 1964, with manned Apollo flights using the Saturn I having been cancelled, use of a Saturn I to launch a Gemini around the moon was studied. Status: Study 1964.
Gemini - Saturn IB - American manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1964. Status: Study 1964. Gross mass: 3,955 kg (8,719 lb).
Gemini - Saturn V - American manned lunar orbiter. In late 1964 McDonnell, in addition to a Saturn 1B-boosted circumlunar Gemini, McDonnell proposed a lunar-orbit version of Gemini to comprehensively scout the Apollo landing zones prior to the first Apollo missions. Status: Design 1964. Gross mass: 11,182 kg (24,652 lb).
Gemini 1 - Manned spacecraft prototype satellite built by McDonnell-Douglas for NASA, USA. Launched 1964. First Launch: 1964-04-08. Last Launch: 1964-04-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,851 kg (8,490 lb).
Gemini 10 - First free space walk from one spacecraft to another. First rendezvous with two different spacecraft in one flight. Altitude (763 km) record. Exciting mission with successful docking with Agena, flight up to parking orbit where Gemini 8 Agena was stored. Launched: 1966-07-18. Returned: 1966-07-21. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 2.95 days.
Gemini 11 - First docking with another spacecraft on first orbit after launch. First test of tethered spacecraft. Speed (8,003 m/s) and altitude (1,372 km) records. Launched: 1966-09-12. Returned: 1966-09-15. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 2.97 days.
Gemini 12 - First completely successful space walk. Final Gemini flight. Docked and redocked with Agena, demonstrating various Apollo scenarios including manual rendezvous and docking. Successful EVA without overloading suit by use of suitable restraints. Launched: 1966-11-11. Returned: 1966-11-15. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 3.94 days.
Gemini 3 - First spacecraft to maneuver in orbit. First manned flight of Gemini spacecraft. First American to fly twice into space. Manual reentry, splashed down 97 km from carrier. Launched: 1965-03-23. Returned: 1965-03-23. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 0.20 days.
Gemini 4 - First American space walk. First American long-duration spaceflight. Astronaut could barely get back into capsule after spacewalk. Failure of spacecraft computer resulted in high-G ballistic re-entry. Launched: 1965-06-03. Returned: 1965-06-07. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 4.08 days.
Gemini 5 - First American flight to seize duration record from Soviet Union. Mission plan curtailed due to fuel cell problems; mission incredibly boring, spacecraft just drifting to conserve fuel most of the time. Splashed down 145 km from aim point. Launched: 1965-08-21. Returned: 1965-08-29. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 7.96 days.
Gemini 6 - First rendezvous of two spacecraft. Originally was to dock with an Agena target, but this blew up on way to orbit. Decision to rendezvous with upcoming Gemini 7 instead. Mission almost lost when booster ignited, then shut down on pad. Launched: 1965-12-15. Returned: 1965-12-16. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 1.08 days.
Gemini 7 - Record flight duration (14 days) to that date. Incredibly boring mission, made more uncomfortable by the extensive biosensors. Monotony was broken just near the end by the rendezvous with Gemini 6. Launched: 1965-12-04. Returned: 1965-12-18. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 13.77 days.
Gemini 8 - First docking of two spacecraft. After docking with Agena target, a stuck thruster aboard Gemini resulted in the crew nearly blacking out before the resulting spin could be stopped. An emergency landing in the mid-Pacific Ocean followed. Launched: 1966-03-16. Returned: 1966-03-17. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 0.45 days.
Gemini 9 - Third rendezvous mission of Gemini program. Agena target blew up on way to orbit; substitute target's shroud hung up, docking impossible. EVA almost ended in disaster when astronaut's face plate fogged over; barely able to return to spacecraft. Launched: 1966-06-03. Returned: 1966-06-06. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 3.01 days.
Gemini 9A - Planned mission, cancelled when prime crew killed in T-38 trainer crash. All subsequent crew assignments were reshuffled. This ended up determining who would be the first man on the moon. Launched: 1966 June. Number crew: 2 .
Gemini Agena Target Vehicle - American modification of the Agena-D upper stage for use as a docking target and space tug for Gemini. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-10-25. Last Launch: 1966-11-11. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 3,260 kg (7,180 lb).
Gemini AM - American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). Status: Operational 1964. Gross mass: 591 kg (1,302 lb). Unfuelled mass: 491 kg (1,082 lb). More at: Solid
Gemini B - American manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1969. Gemini was extensively redesigned for the MOL Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. The resulting Gemini B, although externally similar, was essentially a completely new spacecraft. Gross mass: 1,983 kg (4,371 lb).
Gemini B AM - American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1969. Adapter module for Gemini B, the engines serving as both abort motors during ascent to orbit and for retrofire on return to earth. Abort/deorbit propulsion. Status: Cancelled 1969. Gross mass: 1,868 kg (4,118 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,718 kg (3,787 lb). More at: Solid
Gemini B RM - American manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1969. Gemini was extensively redesigned for the MOL Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. The resulting Gemini B, although externally similar, was essentially a completely new spacecraft. Reentry capsule. Status: Cancelled 1969. Gross mass: 1,983 kg (4,371 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). More at: N2O4/MMH
Gemini Bus - ?In-Space Servicing satellite bus for use in ?GEO orbit and launch by ?Minotaur IV or Antares. Lifetime ?6 months-1 year and delivery possible ?21-36 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 3.0kW Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
Gemini ECS - Gemini ECS Development Diary
Gemini Ejection - Gemini Ejection Development Diary
Gemini EM - American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). Status: Operational 1964. Gross mass: 1,277 kg (2,815 lb). Unfuelled mass: 955 kg (2,105 lb). More at: N2O4/MMH
Gemini EMU - American space mobility device, tested 1966. Vought developed the EMU, which was to have been flown in the Gemini program. This design approach led to the Space Shuttle's MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) was put into operation. Status: tested 1966.
Gemini Ferry - American manned spacecraft. Study 1963. The Gemini Ferry vehicle would have been launched by Titan 3M for space station replenishment. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 15,590 kg (34,370 lb). Payload: 9,090 kg (20,040 lb).
Gemini Ferry AM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1963. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). More at: Solid
Gemini Ferry CM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1963. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 12,050 kg (26,560 lb). Payload: 9,090 kg (20,040 lb).
Gemini Ferry RM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1963. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,910 kg (4,210 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,877 kg (4,138 lb). More at: N2O4/MMH
Gemini Fuel Cell - Gemini Fuel Cell Development Diary
Gemini G2C Space Suit - Alternate designation for G2C space suit.
Gemini G2G Space Suit - Alternate designation for G2G space suit.
Gemini G3C Space Suit - Alternate designation for G3C space suit.
Gemini G4C Space Suit - Alternate designation for G4C space suit.
Gemini G5C Space Suit - Alternate designation for G5C space suit.
Gemini Inertial Guidance System - Gemini Inertial Guidance System Development Diary
Gemini Lightweight Suit - Manufacturer's designation for G5C space suit.
Gemini LOR - American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. Original Mercury Mark II proposal foresaw a Gemini capsule and a single-crew open cockpit lunar lander undertaking a lunar orbit rendezvous mission, launched by a Titan C-3. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb).
Gemini LORV - American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1967. This version of Gemini was studied as a means of rescuing an Apollo CSM crew stranded in lunar orbit. The Gemini would be launched unmanned on a translunar trajectory by a Saturn V. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 15,500 kg (34,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Thrust: 62.27 kN (13,999 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Gemini LORV RM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Gemini LORV SM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 12,500 kg (27,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 44.03 kN (9,898 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Gemini LSRS AM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 44.03 kN (9,898 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Gemini LSRS LM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,300 kg (7,200 lb). Thrust: 88.06 kN (19,797 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Gemini LSRS LOIM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 62.27 kN (13,999 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Gemini LSRS RM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Gemini LSSS LM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 36,000 kg (79,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 88.06 kN (19,797 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Gemini LSSS SM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Gemini Lunar Lander - American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. A direct lunar lander design of 1961, capable of being launched to the moon in a single Saturn V launch through use of a 2-man Gemini re-entry vehicle instead of the 3-man Apollo capsule. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb).
Gemini Lunar Orbit Rescue Vehicle - Alternate designation for Gemini LORV manned lunar orbiter.
Gemini Lunar RM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 2,386 kg (5,260 lb).
Gemini Lunar Surface Rescue Spacecraft - American manned lunar lander. Study 1966. This version of Gemini would allow a direct manned lunar landing mission to be undertaken in a single Saturn V flight, although it was only proposed as an Apollo rescue vehicle. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 46,000 kg (101,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,600 kg (21,100 lb). Thrust: 88.06 kN (19,797 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Gemini Lunar Surface Survival Shelter - American manned lunar habitat. Study 1967. Prior to an Apollo moon landing attempt, the shelter would be landed, unmanned, near the landing site of a stranded Apollo Lunar Module. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 45,000 kg (99,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Thrust: 88.06 kN (19,797 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Gemini OAMS/RCS - Gemini OAMS/RCS Development Diary
Gemini Observatory - American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Proposed version of Gemini for low-earth orbit solar or stellar astronomy. This would be launched by a Saturn S-IB. It has an enlarged reentry module which seems to be an ancestor of the 'Big Gemini' of 1967. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb).
Gemini Parachute - Gemini Parachute Development Diary
Gemini Paraglide - Gemini Paraglide Development Diary
Gemini Paraglider - American manned spacecraft. The paraglider was supposed to be used in the original Gemini program but delays in getting the wing to deploy reliably resulted in it not being flown. Status: Flown 1963. Gross mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,345 kg (7,374 lb). Thrust: 706 N (158 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Gemini Pecan - American manned space station. Study 1964. Status: Study 1964.
Gemini Radar - Gemini Radar Development Diary
Gemini REP - Gemini REP Development Diary
Gemini RM - American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). Status: Operational 1964. Gross mass: 1,983 kg (4,371 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). More at: N2O4/MMH
Gemini Satellite Inspector - American manned spacecraft. Study 1965. A modification of Gemini to demonstrate rendezvous and inspection of noncooperative satellites was proposed. The Gemini would rendezvous with the enormous Pegasus satellite in its 500 x 700 km orbit. Status: Study 1965.
Gemini space suits - The space suits developed for the Gemini were the first developed for long-duration manned spaceflight and extravehicular activity.
Gemini Technical Description - Gemini System Details
Gemini Transport - American logistics spacecraft. Study 1963. This Gemini Transport version was proposed as a Gemini program follow-on in 1963. With the extended reentry module, this was the ancestor of the Big Gemini spacecraft of the late 1960's. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb).
Gemini: Lunar Gemini - The Gusmobile might have gotten on the moon faster, quicker, cheaper (but not better...)
Gemini-B - Experimental manned spacecraft built by McDonnell-Douglas for USAF, USA. Launched 1966. First Launch: 1966-11-03. Last Launch: 1966-11-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,851 kg (8,490 lb).
Gemini-Centaur - American manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1962. In the first Gemini project plans, it was planned that after a series of test dockings between Gemini and Agena rocket stages, Geminis would dock with Centaur stages for circumlunar flights. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 3,170 kg (6,980 lb).
GEMS (SMEX 13) - Particle imaging satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Used the LEOStar-2 bus. Gross mass: 288 kg (634 lb).
GEMSIP - Acronym for Gemini Stability Improvement Program
GemStar - American communications satellite. Global Electronic Messaging Satellite. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-08-15. Last Launch: 1995-08-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 113 kg (249 lb).
GemStar 1 (VITASat 1) - Communication satellite built by CTA for CTA, VITA, USA. Launched 1995. Used the GemStar Bus bus. First Launch: 1995-08-15. Last Launch: 1995-08-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 136 kg (299 lb).
General Atomic - American manufacturer of rockets. General Atomic, USA.
General Dynamics - First name of C4.
General Dynamics - Second name of Redmond.
General Dynamics Convair Division (1953-1994) - Second name of Convair.
General Electric - First name of GE Americom.
General Electric 1963 Mars Expedition - Alternate name of By Gemini to Mars!.
General Electric Life Raft - Alternate designation for GE Life Raft manned rescue spacecraft.
General Technology - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. General Technology . Pressure-fed. Date: 1966. Thrust: 17.78 kN (3,997 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Genesat - American biology satellite. One launch, 2006.12.16. Genesat was a NASA Ames nanosatellite launched as a secondary payload. Status: Operational 2006.
GeneSat 1, 2 - Life sciences satellite built by Stanford University for NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Launched 2006. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2006-12-16. Last Launch: 2006-12-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Genesis - American solar satellite. Genesis was part of NASA's Discovery program. Its objective was to fly to the Earth-Sun L1 point and spend two years collecting samples of the solar wind. Solar wind sample return satellite built by Lockheed Martin Astronautics for NASA, USA. Launched 2001. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-08-08. Last Launch: 2001-08-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 636 kg (1,402 lb).
Genesis Pathfinder - American technology satellite. One third scale version of the Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module. Technology, inflateable structures satellite for Bigelow Aerospace, USA. Launched 2006-2007. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-07-12. Last Launch: 2007-06-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Gengelbach, Werner Kurt - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1912-09-29. Died: 2001-09-18.
Genie - The solid propellant air-launched unguided rocket developed for the Genie nuclear air-to-air weapon was later adapted for use as the lower stage for air- or land-launched sounding rockets and test vehicles. Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1988-09-28. Last Launch: 1988-09-28. Number: 1 .
Genie AIR-2A - American air-to-air missile. Production from 1956 to 1962. Status: Operational 1958. Gross mass: 379 kg (835 lb). Payload: 110 kg (240 lb). Thrust: 160.80 kN (36,149 lbf).
Genie ATR-2L - American air-to-air missile. Conventional training version.
Genie ATR-2N - American air-to-air missile. Training rocket version.
Genin, Abram Moiseyevich - Russian officer. Directorate Chief of Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine 1964-1975. Born: 1922-05-12.
Gennai - Alternate name of STARS 1, 2 (Kukai, Gennai).
Genser, Philip - American engineer. Chief marketer of the Atlas commercial space launch vehicle. Born: 1929-03-19. Died: 2008-03-02.
Gentex - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Gentex, USA.
Gentry - American test pilot. Flew the M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A and M2-F3. Status: Deceased. Died: 2003-03-03.
GEO - Abbreviation for Geosynchronous Earth Orbit
Geo Forschungs Zentrum - Alternate designation for GFZ-1 earth geodetic satellite.
geocorona - That region around the Earth which extends from a height of about 600 km (330 naut. mi.) to about 3000 km (1700 naut. mi.). It consists mainly of helium in the lower regions, and of hydrogen in the upper regions.
Geodetic Satellite - Alternate designation for Geosat earth resources radar satellite.
GeoEye - Commercial optical surveillance satellite with an 0.4-meter resolution. Primary customer was the US National Geospatial Intelligence Agency. Used SA-200 bus.
GeoEye 1 - Earth observing satellite built by General Dynamics Advanced Information systems (GD-AIS, ex Spectrum Astro) for GeoEye (ex OrbImage), USA. Launched 2008. Used the SA-200HP bus. First Launch: 2008-09-06. Last Launch: 2008-09-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,955 kg (4,310 lb).
GeoEye 2 - Alternate name of WorldView 4 (WV 4, GeoEye 2).
GeoFIAN - Geophysical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Russian abbreviation)
Geoforschungszentrum Potzdam - Alternate name for GFZ.
Geo-IK - Russian earth geodetic satellite. Development of a second generation geodetic satellite system began in 1977. Geodesy satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1981 - 1994. Used KAUR-1 bus. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-01-23. Last Launch: 1994-11-29. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb).
Geo-IK-2 (Musson-2, 14F31) - Geodesy satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (ex NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM) (prime), Thales Alenia (altimeter), Russia. Launched 2011 - 2016. Used 3-Axis stabilized Uragan-M bus. First Launch: 2011-02-01. Last Launch: 2016-06-04. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
GEO-Kompsat 1 - Alternate name of COMS 1 (GEO-Kompsat 1, Cheollian 1).
GEO-KOMPSAT 2A (GK 2A, Cheollian 2A) - Meteorology satellite for KARI, South Korea. Gross mass: 3,420 kg (7,530 lb).
GEO-KOMPSAT 2B (GK 2B, Cheollian 2B) - Meteorology, Ocean monitoring satellite for KARI, South Korea. Gross mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb).
GeoLITE - American military communications satellite. USA 158. GeoLITE was a TRW T-310 class satellite with a mass of about 1800 kg, including a solid apogee motor. Communication (Experimental) satellite built by TRW for NRO, USA. Launched 2001. Used the T310 bus. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-05-18. Last Launch: 2001-05-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
Geophysical Research Satellite - Alternate designation for GRS earth magnetosphere satellite.
George Washington University - American manufacturer of rockets. George Washington University, USA.
Georgia - Georgia
GEOS - American solar satellite. The GEOS spacecraft were gravity-gradient-stabilized, solar-cell powered satellites designed exclusively for geodetic studies. Research satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1965 - 1968. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-11-06. Last Launch: 1975-04-09. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 341 kg (751 lb).
GEOS 3 - Altimetry satellite built by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA, USA. Launched 1975. First Launch: 1975-04-09. Last Launch: 1975-04-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 340 kg (740 lb).
Geosat - American earth resources radar satellite. Geosat was a US Navy satellite designed to measure sea surface heights to within 5 cm. Altimetry satellite built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for US Navy, USA. Launched 1985. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-03-13. Last Launch: 1985-03-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 635 kg (1,399 lb).
GEOSAT Follow On - Alternate designation for GFO earth resources radar satellite.
GeoStar - Communications satellite series for SES World Skies.
GEOStar-1 - ?National Security satellite bus for use in ?GEO orbit and launch by ?Minotaur V, or Antares. Lifetime ?5-7 years and delivery possible ?27-30 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 1.5kW Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
GEOStar-2 - ?Communications satellite bus for use in ?GEO orbit. Lifetime ?15-18 years and delivery possible ?24-27 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 5.5kW Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
GEOStar-3 - ?Communications satellite bus for use in ?GEO orbit. Lifetime ?15-18 years and delivery possible ?27-30 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 8.0kW Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
GeoStare - Technology satellite for Tyvak, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Geostar-MSS - Russian communications satellite. Study 1994. The Lavochkin Geostar-MSS communications system was designed in association with Moscow NII Radio-communications. Status: Study 1994.
Geostationary Meteorological Satellite - Alternate designation for Himawari.
Geostationary Meteorological Satellite - Alternate designation for GMS earth weather satellite.
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. - Alternate designation for GOES earth weather satellite.
Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite - Code name for GOES earth weather satellite.
Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for GSLV-0.
Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for GSLV-3 stage.
Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for GSLV-2.
Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for GSLV.
Geosynchronous orbit - Category of spacecraft.
Geotail - Japanese earth magnetosphere satellite. Measured magnetosphere and Earth's geomagnetic tail; Diffuse Ultraviolet Explorer package bolted to Delta 2 second stage. Magnetosphere satellite ISAS, NASA, Japan. Launched 1992. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-07-24. Last Launch: 1992-07-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,008 kg (2,222 lb).
Gerakl - Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. NPO Molniya-1000 cargo aircraft, catamaran layout, twin-fuselage triplane. Release conditions: Suspended load, 450,000 kg, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Status: Study. Gross mass: 900,000 kg (1,980,000 lb). More at: Air/Kerosene
Gerchik, Konstantin Vasilyevich - Russian officer. Colonel-General, Commander of the RVSN Strategic Rocket Forces from August 1972 to 1979. Born: 1918-09-27.
Gerhardt, Bernhard - German engineer, member of Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Kept there until 1957, the longest of any of the team members. Born: 1893-12-17. Died: 1963-01-01.
Gerkules - Alternate designation for UR-500.
Gerkules - Alternate designation for Interorbital Tug stage rocket stage.
Gerkules - Alternate designation for Interorbital Tug space tug.
German Army - German Army.
German Rocket Society - German manufacturer of rockets. German Rocket Society, Germany.
German Rocketplanes - German manned rocketplane family.
Germantown - American manufacturer. Germantown, Germantown, USA.
Germany - German enthusiasts laid the technical groundwork for the exploration of space in the 1920's and early 1930's. These enthusiasts, funded by Hitler's Nazi government, developed rocket technology far beyond that of other countries during World War II. After the war, that technology was transferred by German engineers taken, willingly or not, to the United States, France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. Attempts to revive civilian rocketry in Germany after World War II were stopped on political grounds. But Germany was able to be involved in space exploration through European institutions, building satellites or rocket stages for European projects. Maverick attempts at developing German innovative launch technologies by Eugen Saenger and Lutz Kayser were suppressed by other countries.
Germes - Germes Oil Co., Russia
Gernhardt, Michael Landon - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1992-2001. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2001. Born: 1956-05-04. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 43.29 days.
Gerrity, Thomas Patrick - American officer. Head of Air Force ballistic missile programs 1960-1961. Born: 1913-12-08. Died: 1968-02-24.
Gerst, Alexander - German physicist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1976-05-03. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 165.33 days.
GET - Abbreviation for Ground elapsed time
GetAway Special - Alternate designation for GAS technology satellite.
Gevorkyan, Vladimir Mkrtychovich - Armenian-Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Graduated from Bauman Technical Higher School, Moscow, 1975 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. From 1991 General Director of Science Corporation "Terra". Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1987. Born: 1952-05-28. Died: 2008-04-13.
Geyzer - Alternate name for Potok.
Gezgaly - Base for units deployed with twelve R-12, and later six Pioner, launchers.
GF 1, 6 - Alternate name of Gaofen 1, 6 (GF 1, 6).
GF 10 - Alternate name of Gaofen 10 (GF 10).
GF 2 - Alternate name of Gaofen 2 (GF 2).
GF 3 - Alternate name of Gaofen 3 (GF 3).
GF 4 - Alternate name of Gaofen 4 (GF 4).
GF 5 - Alternate name of Gaofen 5 (GF 5).
GF 8 - Alternate name of Gaofen 8 (GF 8).
GF 9 - Alternate name of Gaofen 9 (GF 9).
GF-01A - Alternate name for CZ-1D-3.
GF-02 - Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. CZ-1 launch vehicle. Out of production. First upper stage, zero-G, vacuum-start solid rocket motor developed in China. Inserted China's first satellite into orbit on 24 April 1970. Status: Out of production. Date: 1966-1971. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,050 kg (4,510 lb). Unfuelled mass: 246 kg (542 lb). Thrust: 181.00 kN (40,690 lbf). More at: Solid
GFO - American earth resources radar satellite. GFO was a follow-on to the successful GEOSAT program which flew between 1985 and 1990. GFO was to provide real-time ocean topography data to 65 Navy users at sea and on shore. Altimetry satellite built by Ball Aerospace for US Navy, USA. Launched 1998. Used the BCP-600 (formerly called Techstar) bus. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-02-10. Last Launch: 1998-02-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 410 kg (900 lb). Payload: 47 kg (103 lb).
GFO 2 - Altimetry satellite built by Ball Aerospace for US Navy. Used the BCP-2000 bus.
GFZ - German manufacturer of spacecraft. Geoforschungszentrum, Potsdam, Germany.
GFZ-1 - German earth geodetic satellite. GFZ-1 was a geodetic satellite designed to improve the current knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. Geodesy satellite built by Kayser-Threde, Institute of Space Device Engineering - Moscow for GFZ, Germany. Launched 1995. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-04-19. Last Launch: 1998-07-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
GGM - Goskogidromet (Russian Weather Service), Russia
GGSE - American gravity gradient technology satellite. 5 launches, 1964.01.11 (GGSE 1) to 1967.05.31 (GGSE 5). Developed designs and deployment techniques later applied to the NOSS / Whitecloud naval reconnaissance satellites. Status: Operational 1964.
GGTS - American gravity gradient technology satellite. Gravity gradient stabilization tests. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-06-16. Last Launch: 1966-06-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 47 kg (103 lb).
GGTS 1, 2 - Technology, gravity gradient stabilization satellite operated by USAF, USA. Launched 1966. First Launch: 1966-06-16. Last Launch: 1966-08-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 47 kg (103 lb).
Ghadr 1 - Iranian intermediate range ballistic missile, adding a solid propellant second stage to a Shahab 3 liquid propellant first stage. Improved version with range of up to 2,000 km tested in 2015. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-08-11. Last Launch: 2016-03-09. Number: 10 .
Ghauri - Pakistani intermediate range ballistic missile. Derivative of North Korean Nodong. First fired April, 1998. Payload is about 700 kg. Managed by A Q Khan Research Laboratories. Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-04-06. Last Launch: 2015-04-15. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 14,500 kg (31,900 lb). Payload: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Thrust: 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf).
Ghauri stage - Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf) thrust. Mass 16,000 kg (35,274 lb). Status: Active. Gross mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf). More at: Nitric acid/UDMH
Ghaznavi - Alternate designation for DF-11.
Ghaznavi - Pakistani single-stage solid-propellant tactical ballistic missile, a license-built version of the Chinese DF-11. Flown in October 2003, believed to have entered service in 2004. Status: Active. First Launch: 2002-05-26. Last Launch: 2010-05-08. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
GHGSat D (Claire), C1, C2 - Earth observation satellite built by UTIAS Space Flight Laboratory (SFL) for GHGSat Inc., Canada. Launched 2016. Used Nemo-V1 bus. First Launch: 2016-06-22. Last Launch: 2016-06-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 15 kg (33 lb).
GHRS - Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (on HST)
Giant - Alternate designation for 9M82.
Giant - Alternate designation for 9M82M.
Giant UFO Over Two Continents - James Oberg's classic piece, reissued on the 20th anniversary of the Soviet rocket launch that sparked UFO panics in Russia and South America
Gibson, Edward George - American scientist astronaut 1965-1982. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1982. Born: 1936-11-08. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 84.05 days.
Gibson, Robert Lee 'Hoot' - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1996. Flew combat missions over Vietnam. Was married to astronaut Rhea Seddon. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1996. Born: 1946-10-30. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 36.18 days.
Gidrometeorlogichesky Sluzhba (Meteorological Service), Rossiya - Alternate name for GMS bureau.
Gidzenko, Yuri Pavlovich - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1987-2001. Call sign: Uran (Uranus). Status: Inactive; Active 1987-2001. Born: 1962-03-26. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 329.95 days.
GIE - Abbreviation for Ground interface equipment
GIE Milas (Matra BAe Dynamics and Alenia) - Sixth name of Alenia.
GIF - Abbreviation for Graphics Interchange Format
GIFTS-IOMI (EO 3) - Meteorology satellite built by Northrop Grumman Space Technology (ex TRW) for NASA / US Navy / USAF STP (Space Test Program). Used the T310 bus. Gross mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb).
GIK-1 - Alternate name for Plesetsk.
GIK-1 / GNIIP - Alternate name for Plesetsk launch site.
GIK-2 - Alternate name for Svobodniy launch site.
GIK-5 - Alternate name for Baikonur.
GIK-5 / NIIP-5 - Alternate name for Baikonur launch site.
Gilbert - American manufacturer. Gilbert, Gilbert, Arizona, USA.
Gillam - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1972-01-15. Last Launch: 1973-02-02. Number: 2 .
Gilruth, Robert R - American engineer, at NASA 1937-1952. Head of Mercury, 1959-1962, Director, Houston, 1962-1972. Under his leadership Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were designed and flown, America won the moon race, and the shuttle was designed. Born: 1913-10-08. Died: 2000-08-17.
Gilson Butte - Military testing range. In use from 1964 to 1970. First Launch: 1965-05-26. Last Launch: 1968-11-13. Number: 31 .
Gimbal - A device with two mutually perpendicular and intersecting axes of rotation. It provides free angular movement in two directions and serves as an engine mount.
Gimlet - Alternate name of Igla 9K39.
Gimlet - Alternate name of Igla SA-N-10.
Gimlet - Alternate name of Igla 9K310.
Ginga - Studied galactic gamma ray, X-ray sources. Pre-launch designation ASTRO-C. Observation of variability of X-rays from active galactic nuclei and galactic compact sources. . One of the Astro series of Japanese astronomy satellites.
Ginga - Alternate name of Astro C (Ginga).
Ginrei - Microsatellite from Shinshu University to study use of LED's for long-distance communication. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-02-27. Last Launch: 2014-02-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 33 kg (72 lb).
Ginrei - Alternate name of ShindaiSat (Ginrei).
Gioia - Gioia del Colle. Base for 30 Jupiter IRBM's, 1961-1963.
Giotto - European comet probe. The Giotto mission was designed to study Comet P/Halley, and also studied Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup during its extended mission. Comet flyby satellite built by British Aerospace BAe (prime) for ESA, International. Launched 1985. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-07-02. Last Launch: 1985-07-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 583 kg (1,285 lb).
Giove - European Galileo Navsat navigation system test satellite series. Used the SSTL-900 satellite bus, unlike the production satellites.
GIOVE A, A2 (GSTB v2A) - Navigation satellite built by SSTL for ESA, Europe. Launched 2005. Used the SSTL-900 bus. First Launch: 2005-12-28. Last Launch: 2005-12-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 602 kg (1,327 lb).
GIOVE B (GSTB v2B) - Navigation satellite built by Galileo Industries (Astrium: prime, Alcatel Space: bus) for ESA, Europe. Launched 2008. Used the Proteus Bus bus. First Launch: 2008-04-26. Last Launch: 2008-04-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 525 kg (1,157 lb).
GIPKh - State Institute of Applied Chemistry (Russian abbreviation)
GIRD - Family of pioneering rockets developed by the Gruppa Isutcheniya Reaktivniya Dvisheniya, Group for Investigation of Reactive Motion (Russian abbreviation)
GIRD-09 - Russian sounding rocket. The first rocket successfully launched by the Soviet GIRD organization was a hybrid, using a liquid oxygen to burn gelled petroleum in large casing. Development of the rocket was begun by GIRD's second brigade under M K Tikhonravov. Status: Cancelled 1939. Gross mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Thrust: 294 N (66 lbf).
GIRD-10 - Russian sounding rocket. The first liquid propellant rocket launched in the Soviet Union, the GIRD-10 used liquid oxygen and alcohol propellants, pressure-fed to the combustion chamber by nitrogen gas. Status: Cancelled 1939. Gross mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Thrust: 686 N (154 lbf).
GiSAT 1 - Communication satellite built by Boeing Satellite Systems for Global IP, Cayman Islands. Used the BSS-702MP bus. Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
GISAT 1, 2 - Earth observation satellite for ISRO, India. Used the I-1K (I-1000) Bus bus. Gross mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb).
Gisel, William G - American Manager. President of Bell aircraft. Died: 1989-01-01.
Gitdaeryung - North Korean intermediate missile base, south east of Wonson, said to be capable of launching Scud-C's, SCUD-X's and Nodong-A ballistic missiles. First Launch: 2006-07-04. Last Launch: 2014-06-29. Number: 16 .
Givens, Edward Galen Jr - American test pilot astronaut, 1966-1967. Died in an automobile accident. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1967. Born: 1930-01-05. Died: 1967-06-06.
GK 2A - Alternate name of GEO-KOMPSAT 2A (GK 2A, Cheollian 2A).
GK 2B - Alternate name of GEO-KOMPSAT 2B (GK 2B, Cheollian 2B).
GKAT - State Committee for Aviation Technology (Russian abbreviation)
GKB - Lead Design Bureau (Russian abbreviation)
GKKRS - Global Command and Control Space Relay System (Russian abbreviation)
GKNII - State Space Scientific Test Center (launch range) (Russian abbreviation)
GKNII-1 - Alternate name for Buran Group 1 - 1978.
GKNII-1 astronaut group, 1979 - Requirement: test pilots for the Buran program. Date: 1978.
GKNII-2 - Alternate name for Buran Group 2 - 1985.
GKNII-2 - Alternate name of TsPK-9 astronaut group, 1988.
GKNII-3 - Alternate name for Buran Group 3 - 1989.
GKNII-3 astronaut group, 1989 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1989.
GKNII-4 astronaut group, 1990 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1990.
GKNPTs - State Space Scientific-Production Centre (Russian abbreviation)
GKNPTs Khrunichev - Fourth name of Chelomei bureau.
GKO - State Committee for Defense (Russian abbreviation)
GKOT - State Committee for Defense Technology (Russian abbreviation)
GKRE - State Committee for Radio Electronics (NII TP Minobshchemash) NII-648 (Russian abbreviation)
GKRSS - Relay satellite system (Russian abbreviation)
GL - US Air Force Geophysics Laboratory
Gladenbeck - German expert in guided missile infra-red guidance during World War II. Worked at AEG after the war.
Gladiator - Alternate designation for 9M83.
Gladiator - Alternate designation for 9M83M.
Gladkaya/Krasnoyarsk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units operating 90 light ICBM (UR-100/UR-100N) silos. By 1993 number of active silos was down to 40. First Launch: 1964-05-30. Last Launch: 1986-04-11. Number: 15 .
GLADOS - Technology satellite for State University of New York at Buffalo, USA. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. Gross mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb).
GLASS - Technology, geodesy satellite for NII Pretsizionnogo Priborostroeniya (NIIPP), Russia. Gross mass: 18 kg (39 lb).
GLAST - American gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2008.06.11, Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope; renamed Fermi GST after launch. Astronomy, Gamma rays satellite built by Spectrum Astro for NASA, USA. Launched 2008. Used the SA-200HP bus. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-06-11. Last Launch: 2008-06-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,450 kg (9,810 lb).
Glavnoe artilleristkoe upravlenie - Alternate name for GAU.
Glavnoye Razvedyvatelnoe Upravleniye - Alternate name for GRU.
Glazkov, Yuri Nikolayevich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1965-1982. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1982. Born: 1939-10-02. Died: 2008-12-09. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 17.73 days.
GLBM - Abbreviation for Ground-launched ballistic missile
GLCM - Abbreviation for Ground-launched cruise missile
Glenn L Martin (1912-1961) - First name of Martin.
Glenn, John Herschel Jr - American test pilot astronaut 1959-1963 and 1997-1998, later a politician and US Senator. First American in orbit on his first flight, Mercury MA-6, in 1962, and oldest person in space on his second flight, STS-95, in 1998. Status: Deceased; Active 1959-1998. Born: 1921-07-18. Died: 2016-12-08. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 9.11 days.
Glennan, T Keith - American engineer, NASA administrator 1958-1961. Under his tenure NASA was created from NACA, JPL, and ABMA. He acquired von Braun's rocket team and Saturn booster from the Army, and the Air Force manned space project - renamed Mercury. Born: 1905-09-08. Died: 1995-04-11.
Glimm, Heinz-Otto - German rocket engineer; developed with Thiel in Berlin in the 1930's the theoretical basis of rocket combustion and developed rocket engine test and measurement systems. Born: 1911. Died: 1945-05-01.
GLO-1B - Canadian gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. When compared to the early Martlet 4 designs the GLO-1B was a considerably more sophisticated vehicle with many of the shortcomings of it's predecessor having been addressed. Not long after the original HARP project ended the major assets of the project were acquired by the projects management, Dr. Gerald Bull in particular. The HARP Program became the Space Research Corporation (SRC) with the intention of resurrecting the HARP orbital program. Over the years a much improved and considerably more sophisticated Martlet 4 was developed and given the name of GLO-1B. Status: Development ended 1966. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Payload: 23 kg (50 lb). Thrust: 32.00 kN (7,193 lbf).
Global Communications Satellite Using Nuclear Power - Russian military communications satellite. Study 1963. In 1963 Korolev's OKB proposed development of a massive nuclear-powered geosynchronous satellite, which would be launched by the N1 superbooster. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb).
Global Hawk RQ-4 - USAF's first operational High Altitude Endurance UAV, operational from 1994.
Global Positioning System - Alternate designation for GPS Block 3.
Global Positioning System - Alternate designation for GPS Block 2R.
Global Positioning System - Alternate designation for GPS Block 2F.
Global Positioning System - Alternate designation for GPS Block 2 and 2A.
Global Positioning System - Alternate designation for GPS Block 1 navigation satellite.
Globalsat - American agency. Globalsat, USA.
Globalstar - The Globalstar constellation was a Medium Earth Orbit system for mobile voice and data communications developed and operated by Globalstar Communications Corporation, San Jose, California, USA. Communication satellite built by Alenia Spazio, Space Systems/Loral (Bus) for Globalstar, USA. Launched 1998 - 2007. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-02-14. Last Launch: 2007-10-20. Number: 72 . Gross mass: 222 kg (489 lb).
Globalstar 73 - 120 (Globalstar-2) - Communication satellite built by Alcatel Alenia Space for Globalstar, USA. Launched 2010 - 2013. Used the ELiTeBus-1000 bus. First Launch: 2010-10-19. Last Launch: 2013-02-06. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Globalstar-2 - Alternate name of Globalstar 73 - 120 (Globalstar-2).
Globe - American manufacturer. Globe, USA.
Globis - Russian communications satellite. Studied 1984-1994. LOx/LH2 upper stages launched by Energia would put 21 metric ton communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb).
Globsat - Russian communications satellite. Study 1993. The Salyut Design Bureau proposed the least ambitious of all Russian low earth orbit communications systems. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 150 kg (330 lb).
Globus - Code name for Raduga-1 communications satellite.
Globus-M - Alternate name of Raduga-1M (Globus-M).
Glomb LBT - Taylorcraft WWII US Navy bomb-carrying glider; LBE built by Taylorcraft.
GLOMR - American military store-dump communications satellite. Experimental communication satellite built by DSI, Rockwell for DARPA, USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1985. Used GLOMR Bus (62-sided polyhedron, unstabilized, body mounted solar cells). Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-04-29. Last Launch: 1990-04-05. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 52 kg (114 lb).
Glonass - Russian high orbit navigation satellite system supported by three generations of satellites: the original Ekspress-1000 1983-2001; the uprated Glonass-M 2001-on; and the Glonass-K using the [Ekspress-1000] bus (2011-on).
GLONASS - Alternate name of Uragan (GLONASS, 11F654).
Glonass - Russian navigation satellite. Glonass was a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-10-12. Last Launch: 2014-06-14. Number: 141 . Gross mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb).
GLONASS-K1 - Alternate name of Uragan-K1 (GLONASS-K1).
GLONASS-K2 - Alternate name of Uragan-K2 (GLONASS-K2).
GLONASS-M - Alternate name of Uragan-M (GLONASS-M, 14F113).
Glory - NASA low-earth orbit climate monitoring satellite designed to monitor aerosols in the atmosphere and solar irradiance. Failed to reach orbit. Earth Science satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for NASA, USA. Launched 2011. Used the LEOStar bus. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-03-04. Last Launch: 2011-03-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 545 kg (1,201 lb).
Glover, Victor Jerome - American pilot astronaut 2013- . Status: Active 2013-on. Born: 1976-04-30.
Glukhov - Base for units deployed with R-12 and R-14 missiles.
Glushko bureau - Russian manufacturer of rocket engines.
Glushko C - Glushko storable liquid rocket engine. Study 1970. Glushko studied liquid propellant engines of 'several thousand metric tons thrust' in the period 1963-1970. Largest thrust chamber ever tested in Russia was Glushko's RD-270 of 680 metric tons thrust. Status: Study 1970. Thrust: 29,400.00 kN (6,609,300 lbf).
Glushko, Valentin Petrovich - Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for all large liquid propellant engines for missiles and LVs. Led Glushko bureau, 1946-1974; Headed NPO Energia 1974-1989, directing development of Energia launch vehicle and Buran spaceplane. Born: 1908-09-02. Died: 1989-01-10.
GLV - Abbreviation for Gemini launch vehicle
GM A-1 - American surface-to-surface cruise missile of 1938.
GMC - Abbreviation for Giant Molecular Cloud
GMD boost vehicle - Alternate designation for GBI.
GMD/BV-Plus - American anti-ballistic missile. Three-stage booster for use with the Missile Defense Agency's Ground-based Midcourse Defense System. Built by Lockheed Martin Corp., the booster was one of two slated for use with the GMD system. The system was designed to intercept and destroy long-range ballistic missiles. Status: Development.
GMKS - Global Hydrological and Meteorological Space Monitoring System (Russian abbreviation)
GMRT - Abbreviation for Giant Meter-wave Radio Telescope
GMS - Alternate designation for Himawari.
GMS - Russian Hydrometeorological Agency; sponsor of sounding rocket and satellite launches to monitor the earth's environment.
GMS 1 (Himawari 1) - Meteorology satellite built by Hughes for NASDA, Japan. Launched 1977. Used the HS-335 bus. First Launch: 1977-07-14. Last Launch: 1977-07-14. Number: 1 .
GMS 2, 3, 4, 5 (Himawari 2, 3, 4, 5) - Meteorology satellite built by Hughes for NASDA, Japan. Launched 1981 - 1995. Used the HS-378 bus. First Launch: 1981-08-10. Last Launch: 1995-03-18. Number: 4 .
GMT - Greenwich Mean Time (essentially equivalent to UT)
Gnat - American UAV.
GNB - Nanosatellite built by the University of Toronto's UTIAS group, part of the exactEarth AIS constellation to monitor ship movements. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-09-28. Last Launch: 2015-09-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
GNII AiKM - State Scientific-Research Institute for Aviation and Space Medicine (Russian abbreviation)
GNIIP - Alternate name for Plesetsk.
GNIIP-10 - Alternate name for Sary Shagan.
Gnom - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Gnom was a unique design which represented the most advanced work ever undertaken on an air-augmented missile capable of intercontinental ranges or orbital flight. Although cancelled in 1965 before flight tests could begin, Gnom was the closest the world aerospace engineering community ever came to fielding an orbital-capable launcher of less than half of the mass of conventional designs. Status: Cancelled 1965. Gross mass: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb). Payload: 535 kg (1,179 lb).
GNS - Technology satellite built by NASA Ames Research Center (prime); Swarm Technologies LLC (BEEs) for NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus.
GO 32 - Alternate name of Techsat 1, 1B (Gurwin 1, 1B / GO 32 / Gurwin-OSCAR 32).
Goa - Alternate name of S-125.
Goa - Alternate name of S-125M.
Goa - Alternate name of S-125M1.
Goa - Alternate name of Volna V-601.
Goa - Alternate name of Volna V-601M.
Goblet - Alternate name of Shkval.
Goblet - Alternate name of Shkval 4K60.
Goblet - Alternate name of Shkval 4K65.
GOCE - The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer was an ion-engine-powered European satellite equipped with a highly sensitive gravity gradiometer to detect fine density differences in the crust and oceans of the Earth. Earth Science satellite built by Alenia Spazio (Prime), Astrium (platform), Alcatel Space (Gradiometer instrument) for ESA, Europe. Launched 2009. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-03-17. Last Launch: 2009-03-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
Goddard - Alternate name of OAO B (Goddard).
Goddard 1 - American test vehicle. Rocket used by Goddard to achieve the first flight of a liquid-propellant rocket. Status: Retired 1926. First Launch: 1926-03-16. Last Launch: 1926-04-03. Number: 2 .
Goddard 2 - American test vehicle. After several tests indicating the model was too small to permit refinements, Goddard decided to build a rocket twenty-fold larger. During 1926 a new tower was built, and flow regulators, multiple liquid injection into large combustion chambers, means for measurement of pressure and lifting force, electrically fired igniter, and turntable for rotation were developed. Status: Out of production.
Goddard 3 - American test vehicle. First instrumented liquid fuel rocket. Length 11 ft 6 in.; maximum diameter 26 in.; weight 32 lb; gasoline 14 lb; liquid oxygen 11 lb; total loaded weight 57 lb. Status: Retired 1929. First Launch: 1928-12-26. Last Launch: 1929-07-17. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 26 kg (57 lb). Payload: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Goddard 4 - American test vehicle. Goddard rocket using pressure-fed LOx/Gasoline propellants, streamline casing, and remote control guidance. Masses varied; typical values indicated. Status: Retired 1931. First Launch: 1930-12-30. Last Launch: 1931-10-27. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Payload: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Goddard A - American test vehicle. The A series rockets used simple pressure feed, gyroscopic control by means of vanes, and parachute. The rockets in this series averaged in length from 4.11 m to 4.65 m.; their weight empty varied from 26 kg to 39 kg. Status: Retired 1935. First Launch: 1935-02-16. Last Launch: 1935-10-29. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 39 kg (85 lb).
Goddard K - American test vehicle. This consisted of ten proving-stand tests for the development of a more powerful motor, 10 in. in diameter. Weight of rocket, about 225 lb; weight of fuels, 50-70 lb for the series. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 102 kg (224 lb).
Goddard L-A - American test vehicle. Tests of the Goddard L Section A covered development of a nitrogen-pressured flight rocket using 10 in, motors based on the K series and ran from May 11 to November 7, 1936 (L1-L7). Length of the L Series Section A rockets varied from 10 ft 11 in, to 13 ft 6 1/2 in.; diameter 18 in.; empty weight 120 to 202 lb; loaded weight 295 to 360 lb; weight oxygen about 78 lb; weight gasoline 84 lb; weight nitrogen, 4 lb. Status: Retired 1936. First Launch: 1936-07-31. Last Launch: 1936-11-07. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 163 kg (359 lb). Thrust: 2.75 kN (618 lbf).
Goddard L-B - American test vehicle. The L-B series were check tests of 5.75-in.-diameter chambers with fuels of various volatilities; development of tilting cap parachute release; tests of various forms of exposed movable air vanes; test of retractable air vanes and parachute with heavy shroud lines. The series ran from November 24, 1930-May 19, 1937 (L8-L15). Final results of Section B of L Series showed two proving-stand tests, and six flight test attempts, all of which resulted in flights. Average interval between tests 22 days. Status: Retired 1937. First Launch: 1936-12-18. Last Launch: 1937-05-19. Number: 6 .
Goddard L-C - American test vehicle. Series L Section C rockets included light tank construction, movable-tailpiece (i.e. gimbal) steering, catapult launching, and further development of liquid nitrogen tank pressure method. Lengths varied from 17 ft 4.25 in. to 18 ft 5.75 in.; diameter 9 in., weight empty varied from 80 to 109 lb; loaded weight about 170 lb or more; lift of static tests varied from 228 lb to 477 lb; jet velocities from 3960 to 5340 ft/sec. Status: Retired 1938. First Launch: 1937-07-28. Last Launch: 1938-08-09. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 78 kg (171 lb). Thrust: 2.12 kN (477 lbf).
Goddard P-C - American test vehicle. Section C tests would run through October 10, 1941 and represent the final Goddard rocket flight tests. The series of twenty-four static and flight tests (P13-P36) was made with rockets of large fuel capacity, with the rocket motor, pumps, and turbines previously developed. These rockets averaged nearly 22 ft in length, and were 18 in, in diameter. They weighed empty from 190 to 240 lb. The liquid-oxygen load averaged about 140 lb, the gasoline 112 lb, making "quarter-ton" loaded rockets. Status: Retired 1941. First Launch: 1940-08-09. Last Launch: 1941-05-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 220 kg (480 lb). Thrust: 3.04 kN (683 lbf).
Goddard Space Flight Center - Third name of NASA Greenbelt.
Goddard, Frank Eber Jr - American aerodynamicist. At Consolidated Aircraft, 1937-1940; Martin 1940-1947; and at JPL 1949-1977. Became Chief of Aerodynamics at JPL. His work extended from WWII bombers, through the Corporal and Sergeant rockets, to the entry probes for the Mariner, Viking, and Voyager planetary spacecraft. Born: 1915-04-18. Died: 2007-01-06.
Goddard, Robert H - Father of American spaceflight; launched first liquid-fuel rocket, 1926. By 1936, he had solved all of the fundamental problems of guided liquid propellant rockets and was testing essentially modern vehicles. But he was reclusive, took patents but did not share lessons learned with others. Aerojet and von Braun did not benefit from his experience.
Godwin, Linda Maxine - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1985-2010. Physicist. Was married to astronaut Steven Nagel. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2010. Born: 1952-07-02. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 38.26 days.
Goebbels, Joseph - German Politician. National Socialist politician and propaganda Minister. The dubbed the F-103 cruise missile and the A4 ballistic missile 'Vengeance weapons' and designated them V-1 and V-2 respectively. Born: 1897-10-29. Died: 1945-05-01.
Goering, Hermann - German officer. Fighter ace in the WW1; Hitler's Luftwaffe commander. Supported quantum advances in aerospace, and fielded V-1 cruise missile, Me-262 jet, Me-163 rocket fighters. Funded Saenger rocket and ramjet work at Trauen. Born: 1893-01-12. Died: 1946-10-15.
Goertz - German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France as part of the ballistics group at LRBA from 1947-1950. Then returned to Germany.
GOES - American earth weather satellite. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. Meteorology satellite built by Philco-Ford for NASA (SMS) / NOAA (GOES), USA. Launched 1974 - 1978. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-10-16. Last Launch: 1987-02-26. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 836 kg (1,843 lb).
GOES 4, 5, 6, G, 7 - Meteorology satellite built by Hughes for NOAA, USA. Launched 1980 - 1987. Used the HS-371 bus. First Launch: 1980-09-09. Last Launch: 1987-02-26. Number: 5 .
GOES N, O, P, Q - Meteorology satellite built by Boeing for NOAA, USA. Launched 2006 - 2010. Used the BSS-601 bus. First Launch: 2006-05-24. Last Launch: 2010-03-04. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 3,133 kg (6,907 lb).
GOES R, S, T, U - Meteorology satellite built by Lockheed Martin for NOAA, USA. Launched 2016. Used the A2100A bus. First Launch: 2016-11-19. Last Launch: 2016-11-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,192 kg (11,446 lb).
GOES-Next - American earth weather satellite. Geostationary Environmental Satellite. Meteorology satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for NOAA, USA. Launched 1994 - 2001. Used the SSL-1300 bus. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-04-13. Last Launch: 1997-04-25. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 2,105 kg (4,640 lb).
Goett, Harry J - American engineer. At Langley from 1936, headed flight research at Ames 1958-1959, director of Goddard 1959-1965. Headed important 1960 committee that established NASA LV development plans. At Ford Aerospace from 1965. Born: 1910-11-14. Died: 2000-01-06.
GoFast - First American civilian sounding rocket to reach outer space. Status: Active. First Launch: 2000-09-29. Last Launch: 2004-05-17. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Payload: 18 kg (39 lb). More at: Solid
GOGU - Chief Operations and Control Group (Russian abbreviation)
Goheung - South Korean space center, built on Woenaro Island, off the Goheung peninsula, at the southern end of the Korean peninsula. The space center would be built in four phases through 2015 on a 4.95 million square meter landfill on the shore of the island. First Launch: 2009-08-25. Last Launch: 2013-01-30. Number: 3 .
Gokturk - Earth observation satellite for the Turkish Defense Ministry. Provides high-resolution imagery of 2.5 m resolution panchromatic, 10 m multispectral (VNIR) and 20 m SWIR. Used the Proteus bus.
Gokturk 1A, 1B - Reconnaissance, optical satellite built by Telespazio (Finmeccanica/Thales) (prime); Thales Alenia Space (bus) for Turkish Ministry of Defence, Turkey. Launched 2016. Used the Proteus Bus. Launched 2016. First Launch: 2016-12-05. Last Launch: 2016-12-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,060 kg (2,330 lb).
Gokturk 2 - Reconnaissance, optical satellite built by Turkish Aerospace Industries, Inc. (TAI) (prime); Satrec Initiative (SATRECI) (payload) for Turkish Ministry of Defence, Turkey. Launched 2012. First Launch: 2012-12-18. Last Launch: 2012-12-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 450 kg (990 lb).
Gokturk 3 - Reconnaissance, radar satellite built by Turkish Aerospace Industries, Inc, ASELSAN for Turkish Ministry of Defence.
Golden Eagle 1 (GE 1) - Education satellite for Marquette University, USA. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Goldfinch - Royal Ordnance solid rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Skylark launch vehicle. Status: Out of production. Date: 1964. Thrust: 700.00 kN (157,360 lbf). More at: Solid
Goldfinch II - BAJ solid rocket engine. Skylark 6 AC first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Unfuelled mass: 89 kg (196 lb). More at: Solid
Goldfinch IIA - BAJ solid rocket engine. Skylark 4 first stage. Status: Retired 1990. Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Unfuelled mass: 94 kg (207 lb). Thrust: 175.00 kN (39,341 lbf). More at: Solid
Goldin, Daniel S - American engineer, NASA Administrator 1992-2001. Attempted reforms, with economical approach to space probe development and X-33, X-34, and X-38 to lower space launch costs. These seen as failures; while the ISS budget went out of control. Born: 1940-07-23.
Goliat - Student 1U Cubesat from the University of Bucharest. Earth imaging and space environment measuring. First Romanian satellite.
Goliat - Technology satellite built by University of Bucharest; Pumpkin, Inc. (bus) for University of Bucharest, Romania. Launched 2012. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2012-02-13. Last Launch: 2012-02-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Golovanov, Yaroslav Kirillovich - Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1965-1967. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1967. Born: 1932-06-02. Died: 2003-05-21.
Golovin, Nicholas E - American physicist. NRL, 1946-1948; NBS 1949-1958; NASA 1960. Chaired seminal NASA-DOD large launch vehicle planning group 1961. White House technical advisor for aviation and space 1962-1968. Born: 1912-03-18. Died: 1969-04-01.
Gommersall - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Edward Gomersall of NASA's Ames Research Center produced a conservative design for an SSTO in 1970. His vehicle was based on realistic structural technology and used a derivative of the J-2S engine. Status: Design 1970.
GOMS - Code name for Elektro earth weather satellite.
GOMX - 2U Cubesat test an ADS-B air traffic control receiver, for GOMSpace, Aalborg, Denmark.
GOMX 1 / GATOSS - Technology satellite for GOMSpace, Denmark. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2013-11-21. Last Launch: 2013-11-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
GOMX 2 - Technology satellite for GOMSpace, Denmark. Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2014-10-28. Last Launch: 2014-10-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
GOMX 3 - Technology satellite for GOMSpace, Denmark. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2015-08-19. Last Launch: 2015-08-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
GOMX 4A, 4B (Ulloriaq) - Technology satellite built by GOMSpace for GOMSpace (both), Danish Ministry of Defence (#4A), ESA (#4B), Denmark. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
Gonets - Code name for Strela-3 military store-dump communications satellite.
Gonets - Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. Study 1999. The first generation store-dump communications Gonets-D system was to have been followed by an advanced Gonets-R design equipped with satellite-to-satellite links. Communication, Store-Dump satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) for RKA, Russia. Launched 1992 - 2001. Status: Study 1999. First Launch: 1992-07-13. Last Launch: 2001-12-28. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 233 kg (513 lb).
Gonets-D1 - Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. Commercial version of GRU Strela-3 military store-dump satellite. Communication, Store-Dump satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) for RKA, Russia. Launched 2005 - 2015. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-07-13. Last Launch: 2005-12-21. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 233 kg (513 lb).
Gonets-M1 - Communication, Store-Dump satellite built by ISS Reshetnev for RKA.
Gonets-R - Alternate designation for Gonets satellite.
Gonor, Lev Robertovich - Russian bureaucrat. First Director of Nll-88 1946-1950. Dismissed 1950. Born: 1906. Died: 1969-11-13.
Good, Michael Timothy 'Bueno' - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 2000-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 2000-2012. Born: 1962-10-13. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 24.67 days.
Goodlin, Chalmers - American test pilot. Flew the XS-1 # 1 and XS-1 # 2. A fighter pilot with the RCAF, the US Navy, and the Israeli Air Force; test pilot for the US Navy; test pilot for Bell aircraft and the Israeli Air Force. Later became head of Burnelli Company, championing lifting body aircraft designs. Status: Deceased. Born: 1923-01-02. Died: 2005-10-20.
Goodrich - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Goodrich, USA.
Goodyear - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Goodyear, USA.
Goodyear Project 7969 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Goodyear's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 2.1 m diameter spherical vehicle with a rearward facing tail cone and ablative surface. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb).
Goose - American surface-launched long-ange cruise missile and decoy. Development started in 1955. Program cancelled in 1958. Gross mass: 2,270 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 45,300.00 kN (10,183,800 lbf).
Goose II - RO solid rocket engine. INTA-255 first stage. Status: Retired 1970. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 95 kg (209 lb). Thrust: 22.00 kN (4,945 lbf). More at: Solid
Gorbachev, Mikhail S - Russian politician. Leader and disassembler of the Soviet Union, 1985-1989. He cancelled the Soviet Star Wars program. But as a result of the disintegration of the USSR, all Russian space development had ended by 1992. Born: 1931.
Gorbatko, Viktor Vasiliyevich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1982. Status: Inactive; Active 1960-1982. Born: 1934-12-03. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 30.53 days.
Gordon, Henry Charles - American pilot astronaut, 1962-1963. Status: Deceased; Active 1962-1963. Born: 1925-12-23. Died: 1996-09-24.
Gordon, Richard Francis Jr 'Dick' - American test pilot astronaut 1963-1972. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1972. Born: 1929-10-05. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 13.16 days.
Goreglyad, Leonid Ivanovich - Russian officer. General Staff representative of the Cosmonaut Training Centre Aide to Kamanin. Born: 1915. Died: 1986-01-01.
Gorelick, Sarah Lee nee Ratley - American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astronauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. Status: Inactive. Born: 1931.
Gorgon - Alternate designation for 51T6.
Gorgon KD2N - NAMU late 1940's US Navy anti-aircraft missile.
Gorie, Dominic Lee Pudwill - American test pilot astronaut 1994-2010. Flew 38 combat missions over Iraq. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2010. Born: 1957-05-02. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 48.64 days.
Gorizont - Russian communications satellite. Gorizont-1 was designed specifically to support broadcast of the 1980 Olympic Games from Russia. Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) for RSCC (Kosmicheskiya Svyaz), Russia. Launched 1978 - 2000. Used KAUR-3 bus. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-12-19. Last Launch: 2000-06-06. Number: 35 . Gross mass: 2,110 kg (4,650 lb).
Gorman and Company - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Gorman and Company, USA.
GOSAT - Alternate name for Ibuki.
GOSAT (Ibuki) - Earth Observation satellite built by Mitsubishi Electric (MELCO) for JAXA, Japan. Launched 2009. First Launch: 2009-01-23. Last Launch: 2009-01-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,750 kg (3,850 lb).
GOSAT 2 - Earth Observation satellite built by Mitsubishi Electric (MELCO) for JAXA.
Gosling 4 - RO solid rocket engine. Skylark 10A second stage, INTA-300 first stage. Status: Retired 1974. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 72 kg (158 lb). Thrust: 137.00 kN (30,798 lbf). More at: Solid
Gosling Family - Family of British solid propellant launch vehicles.
Gosling stage - RO solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1964. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 152.00 kN (34,170 lbf). More at: Solid
Gosling-Lobster - Australian test vehicle developed by the Weapons Research Establishment. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1959-07-09. Last Launch: 1960-09-22. Number: 6 .
GosMKB Vympel - Name of Vympel after 1992.
Gosplan - State Planning Ministry (Soviet budget control ministry) (Russian abbreviation)
GOSS - Ground operational support system
Gosslau, Fritz - German pulse jet engine designer, used on the V-1 cruise missile. Born: 1898-03-25. Died: 1965-12-01.
GOSTE 1 - Technology satellite for University of Hawaii, Hawai`i Space Flight Laboratory, Honolulu, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Gostelradio - Gostelradio.
Gough, Melvin N - American test pilot. At Langley from 1926. From 1943 director of flight research. Director of NASA activities at Cape Canaveral 1958-1960. Born: 1906-06-15. Died: 1994-03-06.
GOX - Gaseous oxygen is used as an oxidizer in thrusters for orbital maneuvering and orientation. It can be shared from the environmental control system in manned spacecraft; or as a productive use of the liquid oxygen in a main engine, which may be slowly boiling off over time in an extended mission.
GOX/Alcohol - GOX/Alcohol propellant. Gaseous oxygen used with alcohol as a non-toxic combination for manned spacecraft orientation. Glushko conducted tests of a small GOX/Alcohol thruster in the 1980's, and it was considered again for the CEV/Orion American capsule in the 2000's.
Gox/GCH4 - Gox/GCH4 propellant. Gaseous oxygen has been proposed for use together with gaseous methane in future deep space manned spacecraft powered by liquid methane.
GOX/Kerosene - GOX/Kerosene propellant. Gaseous oxygen was used together with the main engine propellant kerosene in the Buran spaceplane's maneuvering engine and orientation thrusters.
GOX/Sintin - GOX/Sintin propellant. Gaseous oxygen was proposed for use together with the main engine propellant Sintin, synthetic kerosene, in Russian spacecraft maneuvering engine and orientation thrusters. However the collapse of the Soviet Union brought the production of Sintin, and any spacecraft that may have used it, to an end.
GP A (Gravity Probe A) - Fundamental Physics (Principle of relativity) satellite operated by NASA, USA.
GP B (Gravity Probe B) - Fundamental Physics (Principle of relativity) satellite built by Lockheed Martin (Spacecraft), Stanford University (Instruments) for NASA, Stanford University, USA. Launched 2004. First Launch: 2004-04-20. Last Launch: 2004-04-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,334 kg (7,350 lb).
GP Kosmicheskaya Svyas' - Alternate name for GPKS.
GPC - Abbreviation for General Purpose Computer
GPIM - Technology satellite built by Ball Aerospace, Aerojet Corp. for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Ball Aerospace, Aerojet Corp.. Used the BCP-100 bus. Gross mass: 180 kg (390 lb).
GPKS - Russian agency. GPKS, Russia.
GPM - Joint US-Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement satellite; carried the JAXA/NICT/NEC Toshiba Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar and the GSFC/Ball GPM Microwave Imager. The satellite was built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and registered as a US satellite. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-02-27. Last Launch: 2014-02-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,850 kg (8,480 lb).
GPM-Core - Earth Observing satellite built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, JAXA, Japan. Launched 2014. First Launch: 2014-02-27. Last Launch: 2014-02-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,850 kg (8,480 lb).
GPO - Abbreviation for Gemini Project/Program Office
GPPB - Abbreviation for Gemini Program Planning Board
GPS - Abbreviation for Navstar Global Positioning System.
GPS (Navstar) - Navigation satellite built by Rockwell for USAF, USA. Launched 1978 - 1985. First Launch: 1978-02-22. Last Launch: 1985-10-09. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 759 kg (1,673 lb).
GPS Block 1 - American navigation satellite. GPS Block 1 prototype satellites formed the GPS Demonstration system and were followed by the Block 2 operational system. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-02-22. Last Launch: 1985-10-09. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 759 kg (1,673 lb).
GPS Block 2 and 2A - American navigation satellite. The Navstar GPS constellation worked in concert with ground receivers to give precise location information to military and civilian users anywhere in the world. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-02-14. Last Launch: 1997-11-06. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 1,665 kg (3,670 lb).
GPS Block 2F - American navigation satellite. Block IIF satellites were the fourth generation of the Navstar satellite, launched from 2010.05.28. Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-05-28. Last Launch: 2015-10-31. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 1,545 kg (3,406 lb).
GPS Block 2R - American navigation satellite. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-01-17. Last Launch: 2009-08-17. Number: 21 . Gross mass: 2,032 kg (4,479 lb).
GPS Block 3 - American navigation satellite. Study 2010. GPS III, as planned in 2003, would be the fifth generation of Navstar satellites. They would continue to deliver the new civil signals and improved military codes initiated on the GPS IIR-M and IIF programs. Status: Study 2010.
GPS Navigation System - MEO Earth Orbit satellite navigation system used for determining one's precise location and providing a highly accurate time reference almost anywhere on Earth. The satellites in the GPS constellation are called NAVSTAR (Navigation System using Timing And ranging).
GPS-2 (Navstar-2) - Navigation satellite built by Rockwell for USAF, USA. Launched 1989 - 1990. First Launch: 1989-02-14. Last Launch: 1990-10-01. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 1,660 kg (3,650 lb).
GPS-2A (Navstar-2A) - Navigation satellite built by Rockwell for USAF, USA. Launched 1990 - 1997. First Launch: 1990-11-26. Last Launch: 1997-11-06. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb).
GPS-2F (Navstar-2F) - Navigation satellite built by Boeing for USAF, USA. Launched 2010 - 2016. First Launch: 2010-05-28. Last Launch: 2016-02-05. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 1,630 kg (3,590 lb).
GPS-2R (Navstar-2R) - Navigation satellite built by Lockheed Martin for USAF, USA. Launched 1997 - 2004. Used the AS-4000 bus. First Launch: 1997-01-16. Last Launch: 2004-11-06. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 2,032 kg (4,479 lb).
GPS-2RM (Navstar-2RM) - Navigation satellite built by Lockheed Martin for USAF, USA. Launched 2005 - 2009. Used the AS-4000 bus. First Launch: 2005-09-29. Last Launch: 2009-08-17. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 2,032 kg (4,479 lb).
GPS-3 (Navstar-3) - Navigation satellite built by Lockheed Martin for USAF. Used the A2100A bus. Gross mass: 3,680 kg (8,110 lb).
GQM-93 - E-Systems ground-launched drone.
GR- - Global rocket (Russian abbreviation)
GR-1 - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Korolev's entry in the 'Global Rocket' competition, a missile that could place a nuclear warhead in orbit, where it could come in under or behind American anti-ballistic missile defenses, and be deorbited with little warning. Cancelled in 1964 in preference to Yangel's R-36-O. Status: Cancelled 1964. Gross mass: 117,000 kg (257,000 lb). Payload: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 1,441.00 kN (323,949 lbf).
GR-1 Stage 1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Payload 4,000 kg (2.2 MT nuclear warhead). Range 13,000 km or orbital. Accuracy (90%) 5 km in range and 3 km in dispersion. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 metric tons. Gross mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 1,676.00 kN (376,779 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
GR-1 Stage 3 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 metric tons. This stage was a close cousin of that developed for the Molniya launch vehicle. Gross mass: 8,500 kg (18,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 66.60 kN (14,972 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
GR-2 - In the early 1960's the Soviet military-political leadership formulated a requirement for a heavy rocket that could be used to launch large military payloads into space as well as act as a ballistic missile for nuclear warheads up to 100 MT in yield.
GRAB - First American military signals intelligence satellite, launched 1960-1962; not declassified until 1998. ELINT, Research satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) / US Navy, USA. Launched 1960 - 1962. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-04-13. Last Launch: 1962-04-26. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 18 kg (39 lb).
Grabe, Ronald John - American test pilot astronaut 1980-1994. Flew 200 combat missions over Vietnam. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1994. Born: 1945-06-13. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 26.15 days.
GRACE - American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launched, 2002.03.17 (GRACE 1 ) and (GRACE 2 ). The GRACE mission was to accurately map variations in the Earth's gravity field over its 5-year lifetime. Earth Science, Gravity field mapping satellite built by Astrium, Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for NASA, DLR, Germany. Launched 2002. Used the Flexbus bus. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-03-17. Last Launch: 2002-03-17. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 432 kg (952 lb).
GRACE-FO - Earth Science, Gravity field mapping satellite built by EADS Astrium => Airbus Defence and Space for NASA, DLR. Used the Flexbus bus. Gross mass: 580 kg (1,270 lb).
Grachev - Russian phantom cosmonaut, one of two that allegedly disappeared aboard 'Vostok 3' on a circumlunar mission in 1961. In reality multi-manned Vostok would be flown until 1964, and no circumlunar missions until 1968. Died: 1961-09-15.
Graciov, Alexis - Russian phantom cosmonaut, alleged sender of a Morse code radio message from deep space received by the Judica-Cordiglia brothers on 1960.11.28. In fact Russia would not have a large enough booster for such a mission until 1968. Died: 1960-11-28.
Gradicom 1 - Argentine single-stage suborbital solid propellant military test vehicle. Status: Retired 2009. First Launch: 2009-12-17. Last Launch: 2009-12-17. Number: 1 .
Gradicom 2 - Argentine two-stage suborbital solid propellant military test vehicle, 933 kg mass. Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-07-11. Last Launch: 2011-07-11. Number: 1 .
Graham - 1U Cubesat from NASA's Ames Research Center, designed to demonstrate use of a commercial Nexus One Android-based mobile phone as a spacecraft avionics/computer system.
Graham, Dr William R - American engineer, deputy administrator of NASA 1985-1986.
Grail - Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory. Twin lunar orbiters, versions of the earth-orbit Grace spacecraft, launched together. The mission was to use high-quality gravity field mapping of the moon to determine the moon's interior structure. Used the commercial LM-300 bus (see for launch record). Lunar gravity field mapping satellite built by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Prime), Lockheed Martin Space Systems (Spacecraft) for NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA. Launched 2011. First Launch: 2011-09-10. Last Launch: 2011-09-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 202 kg (445 lb).
Grail - Alternate name of Strela-2 4K32.
Grail - Alternate name of Strela-2 9M32M.
GramSat - Rural communications satellite series launched by India.
Gramsat - Alternate designation for GSat communications satellite.
Gran - Code name for Raduga communications satellite.
Gran Canaria - Alternate name for Gando.
Gran Canaria DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 1997, reaching up to 580 kilometers altitude.
Granat - Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. Granat was a Lavochkin design with the mission of making gamma ray observations in energy ranges of 3 to 200 keV. Astronomy, X-Ray, Gamma satellite, Russia. Launched 1989. Used Venera-Bus. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-12-01. Last Launch: 1989-12-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb).
Granat RK-55 - Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Land-based version. Banned under INF. Status: Operational 1987. Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
Grand Forks AFB - Minuteman ICBM base. First Launch: 1978-07-20. Last Launch: 1978-07-20. Number: 1 .
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Grand Turk Island - Grand Turk Auxiliary AFB. First Launch: 1966-02-04. Last Launch: 1966-02-21. Number: 5 .
Grand Turk Island DZ - Rocket air-launch position. First Launch: 1959-04-23. Last Launch: 1959-04-23. Number: 1 .
Granit - Alternate name of P-700.
Granit (Granite ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 8.
Granit (Granite ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 10.
Granit (Granite) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 8.
Granit (Granite) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 10.
Grannos - French test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Emilie + 1 x Melusine Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1969-03-01. Last Launch: 1969-03-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
Grannos-1 - Alternate name for Emilie.
Grannos-2 - Alternate name for Melusine.
Granson - German expert in rocket engines during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
granulation - A net-like pattern of irregular cells on the solar surface, visible in white light. The cells are caused by plasma convection within the photosphere. Cell diameters are 800 km (450 naut. mi.) to 3000 km (1700 naut. mi.); each individual cell has a lifetime of several minutes.
Grasshopper - Test version of recoverable Falcon 9 first stage, used for landing tests. Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-09-21. Last Launch: 2013-10-07. Number: 8 .
Grater - German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the internal instrumentation group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952.
Grau, Dieter - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter, serving in Quality Assurance positions. Born: 1913-04-24. Died: 2014-12-17.
Graveline, Duane Edgar - American physician astronaut, 1965. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1965. Born: 1931-03-02. Died: 2016-09-05.
Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer - Alternate name for GOCE.
Gravity gradient technology satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Gravity Probe A - Alternate name of GP A (Gravity Probe A).
Gravity Probe B - Alternate name of GP B (Gravity Probe B).
Gravity Probe-B - American earth geodetic satellite. Gravity Probe B. Gravity Probe B was an experiment developed by NASA and Stanford University to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-04-20. Last Launch: 2004-04-20. Number: 1 .
Gray, Edward Zigmund - American engineer. At Boeing 1943-1963 working on jets, then DynaSoar and Minuteman. NASA director of advanced manned missions, 1963-1967. At Grumman 1967-1973 to get the Lunar Module program on schedule, then NASA 1973-1979, finally at Bendix 1981-1985. Born: 1915-10-08. Died: 2009-03-02.
Great Mercury Island - Open field site on Great Mercury Island off the Coromandel Coast of New Zealand used for launches of the commercial Atea sounding rocket. First Launch: 2009-11-30. Last Launch: 2009-11-30. Number: 1 .
Greb - Manufacturer's designation for GRAB military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Grebe AUM-N-2 - Alternate name of Grebe SUM-N-2.
Grebe SUM-N-2 - Bureau of Standards/Goodyear 1950's US Navy surface-to-underwater missile; ex Kingfisher E. Gross mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb).
Grechanik, Aleksei Anatoliyevich - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Trained for a flight to the Almaz space station. Engineer at the Kosmos Pavilion in Moscow. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1987. Born: 1939-03-25.
Grechko, Andrei Antonovich - Russian officer. Deputy Minister of Defense 1967-1976. Opponent of piloted space programs. Born: 1903-10-17. Died: 1976-04-26.
Grechko, Georgi Mikhailovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1966-1992. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1992. Born: 1931-05-25. Died: 2017-04-08. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 134.86 days.
Greece - Greece
Green Bee - Alternate designation for Ching Feng.
Green River - Military testing range used to launch several hundred Athena rockets from 1964 to 1973. These sent re-entry test vehicles or anti-ballistic missile targets to impact points in the US Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This was one of the few examples of sustained interstate missile tests within the United States. First Launch: 1964-02-05. Last Launch: 1975-06-25. Number: 243 .
Green River Pad 1 - Athena RTV launch complex. First Launch: 1964-07-08. Last Launch: 1971-08-20. Number: 40 .
Green River Pad 2 - Athena RTV launch complex. First Launch: 1964-02-10. Last Launch: 1969-09-25. Number: 41 .
Green River Pad 3 - Athena RTV launch complex. First Launch: 1964-11-28. Last Launch: 1971-09-17. Number: 49 .
Greenewalt, Crawford H - American businessman. President of DuPont from 1948. Chaired committee in 1959-1960 that established national space objectives for NASA (which did not include any short-term ambitious manned programs). Born: 1902-08-16. Died: 1993-09-27.
Greenham Common - US base in the 1980's for 29 BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.
Greenland - Greenland
Greensat - South African earth land resources satellite. Cancelled 1990. The South African RSA-3 launch vehicle was designed to place a small surveillance satellite of 330 kg mass into a 41 degree, 212 x 460 km orbit around the earth. Experimental satellite built by Houwteq, Denel, South Africa. Status: Cancelled 1990. Gross mass: 330 kg (720 lb).
Greenwich Mean Time - Mean solar time at the Greenwich meridian, used by most navigators, and adopted as the prime basis of standard time throughout the world.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) - The local mean time at the Greenwich, England meridian. Some of the Lunar Orbiter post-launch operations reports used the local time at the Kennedy Space Center, expressed either in Eastern Standard Time (EST, 5 hours behind GMT) or Eastern Daylight Time (EDT, 4 hours behind GMT), depending on the time of year when a launch took place.
Greer, Robert E - American officer. Major General, managed completion of development of the S-II second stage of the Saturn V.
Gregory, Frederick Drew - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1993. Flew 550 combat missions in Vietnam. USAF helicopter pilot who would fly his T-38 trainer at alarmingly low altitude during cross-country trips. Paradoxically later appointed NASA Administrator for Safety. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1993. Born: 1941-01-07. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 18.96 days.
Gregory, William George 'Borneo' - American test pilot astronaut 1990-1999. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1999. Born: 1957-05-14. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 16.63 days.
Grekov, Nikolai Sergeyevich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1986. Born: 1950-02-15.
Gremlin - Alternate name of Strela-3 9K34.
Grevesmuehl, Alfred - German scientist in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Director of Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. Born: 1902-08-10.
Gridsphere - American technology satellite. Experimental satellite operated by USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1968 - 1971. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-08-07. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 2 .
Gridsphere B - Alternate name of Mylar Balloon (Gridsphere B, AVL-802).
Gridsphere R - Alternate name of Rigidsphere (Gridsphere R, AVL-802).
Griegee, Rudolf - German expert in chemical warfare / organic chemistry during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
GRIFEX - Technology satellite for JPL / CalTech, USA. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2015-01-31. Last Launch: 2015-01-31. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
GRIFEX - 3U Cubesat by Michigan/JPL; technology satellite. Sun synchronous orbit; 0600 GMT local time of the descending node.
Griffin - American small tube-launched laser-guided air-to-surface weapon designed as armament for UAVs.
Griffin - Alternate name of Tomahawk MGM-109H.
Griffith, John H - American test pilot. Flew the XS-1 # 2 and X-4 # 2. Status: Inactive.
Griffon - Alternate designation for Dal.
Griggs, Stanley David - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1978-1989. Died in the crash of a World-War-II-era training plane. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1989. Born: 1939-09-07. Died: 1989-06-17. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.00 days.
Grigoryev, Mikhail - Russian officer. First Commander of Plesetsk 1957-1962. Born: 1917-10-23. Died: 1981-11-12.
Grimmel - German engineer and measurement technician.
Grishchenko, Vitali Andreyevich - Ukrainian navigator cosmonaut, 1965-1968. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1968. Born: 1942-04-26. Died: 1992-05-04.
Grishin, Lev Arkhipovich - Russian bureaucrat. Deputy Chairman of GKOT 1958-1960. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe. Born: 1920. Died: 1960-10-24.
Grison - Alternate name of Kortik.
Grison - Alternate name of Tunguska.
Grissom, Virgil Ivan 'Gus' - American test pilot astronaut 1959-1967. Second American in space and first Gemini commander. Flew 100 combat missions in Korea. Died in on-pad fire of Apollo 1. Status: Deceased; Active 1959-1967. Born: 1926-04-03. Died: 1967-01-27. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 0.21 days.
Gritsenko, Ye A - Russian engineer.
Grizzly - Alternate name of Buk-M1-2.
Grizzly - Alternate name of Buk-M1-2 Smerch.
Grizzly - Alternate name of Buk-M1.
GRO - American gamma ray astronomy satellite. Compton Observatory. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was the gamma-ray element of NASA's Great Observatories program . Astronomy, Gamma rays satellite built by TRW (spacecraft) for NASA, USA. Launched 1991. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-04-05. Last Launch: 1991-04-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 15,620 kg (34,430 lb).
Groettrup, Helmut - German engineer. Head of German design group held in Russia German rocket guidance expert, worked at Peenemuende and later headed German rocket team in Russia, 1945-1953. Headed the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. Born: 1916. Died: 1981-01-01.
Grom - Alternate designation for P-750.
Grom - Alternate name of Kh-23.
Grom - Russian orbital launch vehicle derived from R-39 SLBM. Status: Active. First Launch: 1996-01-01. Last Launch: 2003-12-11. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 84,000 kg (185,000 lb). Thrust: 2,060.00 kN (463,100 lbf).
Grom-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Gromova, Mirya - Russian phantom cosmonaut. Soviet test pilot said to have flown a 'space airplane' into oblivion 1959.12. No evidence ever surfaced in post-Glasnost Russia to back up the claim. Died: 1959-06-01.
Gromushkina, Nataliya Valerievna - Russian actor cosmonaut, 1998-2001. Actress, selected to appear in a film to be filmed aboard the Mir space station. Accomplished some training, but the project was cancelled. Status: Inactive. Born: 1975-09-29.
Gross, E - German SS Physician. Major, SS Medical Corps, German expert in biological warfare during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Gross, I - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France as part of the engine group at LRBA from 1947-1958, then returned to Germany.
Gross, Robert Ellsworth - American manager. President of Lockheed, 1932-1961. Took a bankrupt company and made it an aerospace leader, including the Polaris SLBM, KH- series of reconnaissance satellites, Agena upper stage, X-17 rocket, and U-2, SR-71, and Suntan aircraft projects. Born: 1897. Died: 1961-01-01.
ground resolution - The degree to which an optical or photographic system can reproduce fine detail of the surface being imaged, as measured against a photographic scale. It is the product of a combination of capabilities of the film (graininess, sensitivity, etc.) and the lens (type, resolving, power, etc.) and is usually expressed in line pairs per millimeter. Photographic scale is found by dividing the altitude at which the picture is taken by the focal length of the camera. For Lunar Orbiter, the effective film resolution was 76 line pairs per millimeter, which gave 1-meter resolution through the 610 mm lens and 8-meter resolution through the 80 mm lens under predetermined contrast conditions on the lunar surface.
ground truth - Definition of Earth surface conditions through direct measurements or visual inspections for calibration or evaluation of remote sensing observations made from satellites or aircraft.
Group of Astrodynamics for the Use of Space Systems, GAUSS SrI - Alternate name for GAUSS.
GROUP-C - Science, Ionosphere satellite for Naval Research Lab (NRL), USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Grouse - Alternate name of Igla 9K38.
Groza - Variant of the Energia launch vehicle with two strap-on boosters instead of four. This would have fulfilled the 50 metric ton payload requirement had the third generation booster plan been fully implemented. Status: Design 1987. Gross mass: 1,700,000 kg (3,700,000 lb). Payload: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust: 23,500.00 kN (5,283,000 lbf).
GRP - Alternate name of BIC (GRP).
GRS - Alternate name for Aeros.
GRS - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Space gas data. Science, geophysics satellite for US Air Force Cambridge Research Lab (AFCRL), USA. Launched 1963. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-06-28. Last Launch: 1963-06-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 99 kg (218 lb).
GRS (abbreviation) - Gamma Ray Spectrometer (on Mars Observer)
GRTsKB Makeyev - Fourth name of Makeyev bureau.
GRU - Soviet Army Intelligence, Moscow, Russia (Russian abbreviation)
Gruene, Hans - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1910-05-24. Died: 1980-10-23.
Gruenow, Heinrich - German engineer, member of the team that developed the V-2, head of the machine shops at Kummersdorf and Peenemuende before and during World War II. Stayed in East Germany after the war, until taken by the Russians in 1953. Returned in 1955 to West Germany. Born: 1906-02-04. Died: 1975-01-26.
Grumble - Alternate designation for S-300P.
Grumble - Alternate designation for S-300PMU-1 5V55U.
Grumble - Alternate designation for S-300FM.
Grumble - Alternate designation for S-300F.
Grumman - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Grumman, Great River, NY, USA.
Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 1 man - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 single-crew rover of January 1963 had 2 x two-wheeled power modules. Each wheel was 360 cm in diameter, and the rover had a range of 300 km on a 3.3 day traverse. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 2 man - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 two-man rover design of January 1963 consisted of the basic vehicle, a manned module, and a tanker. This provided a range of 370 km on a 7 day traverse. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,040 kg (4,490 lb).
Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 2 man 3 kW - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 alternate three-crew lunar rover design of February 1963 vehicle had three x two wheeled modules. The rover would have a range of 770 km on a 23.5 day traverse. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 3,140 kg (6,920 lb).
Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 3 man - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 three-man lunar rover design of January 1963 used a 3 module vehicle. It had a range of 2340 km on a 28 day traverse. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,430 kg (22,990 lb).
Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - Unmanned - American lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 unmanned rover design of February 1963 had 4 wheels (two equal-weight, 2 wheel modules of 360 cm diameter). The robot had a range of 750 km. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 880 kg (1,940 lb).
Grumman Moon Suit - American space suit, tested 1965. Status: tested 1965.
Grunsfeld, John Mace - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1992-2010. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2010. Born: 1958-10-10. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 58.63 days.
GRUS 1, 2, 3 - Earth observation satellite for AXELSPACE, Japan. Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb).
Grushin - Russian manufacturer of anti-aircraft and anti-ballistic missiles, Khimki, Russia.
Gruzdev - Russian test pilot. Soviet Air Force test pilot, flew the BI-1 rocket plane in 1943. Status: Deceased.
Gruzomaket - Vehicle evaluation payload for NPO Mashinostroyeniya, Russia. Launched 2003. First Launch: 2003-12-05. Last Launch: 2003-12-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 978 kg (2,156 lb).
Gruzovoi otsek - Alternate designation for Progress GO.
Gruzovoi otsek - Russian name (payload module) for Progress M GO manned spacecraft module.
Gruzovoy Maket - Russian dummy payload. First Launch: 2000-02-08. Last Launch: 2000-02-08. Number: 1 .
Gryphon - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Winged, horizontal-takeoff/horizontal concept space booster concept using an Air Collection and Enrichment System to generate liquid oxygen oxidizer from the atmosphere after takeoff. An upper rocket stage would deliver a crewed orbiter or payload to orbit. Status: Study 2005.
GS - Abbreviation for General Staff
GSat - Indian communications satellite bus. First launch 2001.04.18. Status: Operational 2001. Gross mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Unfuelled mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Thrust: 400 N (90 lbf). More at: MON/MMH
GSat 1 - Experimental Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2001. Used the I-2K (I-2000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2001-04-18. Last Launch: 2001-04-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,540 kg (3,390 lb).
GSat 10 - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2012. Used the I-3K (I-3000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2012-09-28. Last Launch: 2012-09-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,435 kg (7,572 lb).
GSat 11 - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat. Used the I-6K (I-6000) Bus bus. Gross mass: 5,725 kg (12,621 lb).
GSat 12 - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2011. Used the I-1K (I-1000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2011-07-15. Last Launch: 2011-07-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,410 kg (3,100 lb).
GSat 14 - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2014. Used the I-2K (I-2000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2014-01-05. Last Launch: 2014-01-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,982 kg (4,369 lb).
GSat 15 - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2015. Used the I-3K (I-3000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2015-11-10. Last Launch: 2015-11-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,164 kg (6,975 lb).
GSat 16 - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2014. Used the I-3K (I-3000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2014-12-06. Last Launch: 2014-12-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,180 kg (7,010 lb).
GSat 17 - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2017. Used the I-3K (I-3000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2017-06-28. Last Launch: 2017-06-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,425 kg (7,550 lb).
GSat 18 - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2016. Used the I-3K (I-3000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2016-10-05. Last Launch: 2016-10-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,404 kg (7,504 lb).
GSat 19E - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2017. Used the I-6K (I-6000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2017-06-05. Last Launch: 2017-06-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb).
GSat 2 - Experimental Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2003. Used the I-2K (I-2000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2003-05-08. Last Launch: 2003-05-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,825 kg (4,023 lb).
GSat 3 (EduSat) - Experimental Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2004. Used the I-2K (I-2000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2004-09-20. Last Launch: 2004-09-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb).
GSat 4 (HealthSat) - Experimental Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2010. Used the I-2K (I-2000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2010-04-15. Last Launch: 2010-04-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,180 kg (4,800 lb).
GSat 5 (Insat 4D) - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat. Used the I-2K (I-2000) Bus bus. Gross mass: 2,250 kg (4,960 lb).
GSat 5P - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2010. Used the I-2K (I-2000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2010-12-25. Last Launch: 2010-12-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,310 kg (5,090 lb).
GSat 6, 6A / Insat 4E - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2015. Used the I-2K (I-2000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2015-08-27. Last Launch: 2015-08-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,117 kg (4,667 lb).
GSat 7, 7A (Insat 4F, Rukmini) - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2013. Used the I-2K (I-2000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2013-08-29. Last Launch: 2013-08-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,650 kg (5,840 lb).
GSat 8 (Insat 4G) - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2011. Used the I-3K (I-3000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2011-05-20. Last Launch: 2011-05-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb).
GSat 9 (South Asian Satellite) - Communication satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2017. Used the I-2K (I-2000) Bus bus. First Launch: 2017-05-05. Last Launch: 2017-05-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,195 kg (4,839 lb).
GSC - Guide Star Catalog (for HST)
GSFC - NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
GSFC - Second name of NASA Greenbelt.
GSKB - GSKB SpetsMash (Barmin State Union Design Bureau) (Russian abbreviation)
GSKB SpetsMash - Second name of Barmin bureau.
GSLV - Indian mixed-propulsion orbital launch vehicle for geosynchronous satellites using a LOx/LH2 upper stage developed from Russian technology. Status: Active. First Launch: 2001-04-18. Last Launch: 2010-12-25. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 402,000 kg (886,000 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 6,810.00 kN (1,530,940 lbf).
GSLV Mk II - Indian GSLV orbital launch vehicle variant. Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-04-15. Last Launch: 2016-09-08. Number: 4 .
GSLV Mk.1 (2) - Indian GSLV orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2003-05-08. Last Launch: 2007-09-02. Number: 4 .
GSLV Mk.1 (3) - Indian GSLV orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2010-12-25. Last Launch: 2010-12-25. Number: 1 .
GSLV Mk.2C - Indian GSLV orbital launch vehicle variant.
GSLV-0 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 45,600 kg (100,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Thrust: 735.00 kN (165,234 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
GSLV-1 - Alternate name for PSLV-1.
GSLV-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 42,900 kg (94,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb). Thrust: 725.02 kN (162,990 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
GSLV-3 - The Indian Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III was developed by ISRO to launch satellites into geostationary orbit and as a launcher for an Indian crew vehicle. The GSLV-3 featured an Indian cryogenic third stage and a higher payload capacity than the earlier GSLV models. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-12-18. Last Launch: 2014-12-18. Number: 1 .
GSLV-3 stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. The stage finally reached hardware status as a joint Russian-Indian development for India's GSLV booster. Status: Active. Gross mass: 14,600 kg (32,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Thrust: 75.05 kN (16,872 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
GSMZ - State Union Machine Building Plant (Russian abbreviation)
GSSAP - Designed to catalog satellites and space debris in geostationary orbit. Built by Orbital for US Air Force Space Command. Orbit and mass classified; figures shown are speculative. Space surveillance satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corp. (OSC) for US Air Force, USA. Launched 2014 - 2016. Used the GeoStar-1 bus. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-07-28. Last Launch: 2014-07-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
GStar - Designation of series of satellites launched by GTE.
GStar 1, 2, 3, 4 - Communication satellite built by RCA Astro => GE Astro for GTE, USA. Launched 1985 - 1990. Used the AS-3000 bus. First Launch: 1985-05-08. Last Launch: 1990-11-20. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,270 kg (2,790 lb).
GSTB - European Galileo navigation system test satellite. Used the SSTL-900 bus.
GSTB v2A - Alternate name of GIOVE A, A2 (GSTB v2A).
GSTB v2B - Alternate name of GIOVE B (GSTB v2B).
GT - Abbreviation for Gemini-Titan
GT-1 - Aeronca US Army Air Force WWII unpowered air-launched guided torpedo; GB-1 modified to deliver a torpedo.
GTA - Abbreviation for Gemini-Titan-Agena
GTD-21B - Alternate designation for D-21.
GTE - Through a series of purchases and mergers, General Telephone and Electronics (GTE) ended up with a consolidated constellation of geosynchronous communications satellites originally launched by itself and two other entities. Gstar was GTE's original planned fleet.
GTO - Abbreviation for Geostationary Transfer Orbit
GTR-18 - Alternate name of Smokey Sam GTR-18.
GTS - Geostationary Technology Satellite .
GTsMP - Alternate name for Nenoksa.
GTsP - State Central Range (Russian abbreviation)
GTsP-4 - Alternate name for Kapustin Yar launch site.
GU - Chief Directorate (Russian abbreviation)
Guam - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1957-02-12. Last Launch: 1958-11-24. Number: 12 .
Guardian - American technology satellite. Cancelled 2006. 45% scale version of the Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module, designed to prove the ECS system. Status: Cancelled 2006. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Gubanov, Boris Ivanovich - Russian engineer. Leading manager at the Yangel and Korolev design bureaus, 1972-1993. Born: 1930-03-14. Died: 1999-03-18.
Gubarev, Aleksei Aleksandrovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1963-1981. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1981. Born: 1931-03-29. Died: 2015-02-21. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 37.48 days.
Gubenko, Yevgeni Stepanovich - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1950-1959 of SKB-567. Specialized in ground communications systems for missiles. Died: 1959-01-01.
Guderlein - German expert in guided missiles during World War II.
Guendel, Herbert Hans - German-American engineer and expert in guided missiles in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Died at Boston, New York. Born: 1914-12-12. Died: 1976-03-23.
GUGK - Central Agency for Geodesy and Cartography, Russia (Russian abbreviation)
Guideline - Alternate designation for V-753.
Guideline Mod 0,1 - Alternate designation for S-75.
Guideline Mod 2, 3,4,5 - Alternate designation for S-75M.
Guidoni, Umberto - Italian physicist mission specialist astronaut 1989-2004. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-2004. Born: 1954-08-18. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 27.63 days.
Guild - Alternate designation for S-25.
GUKOS - Chief Directorate of the Space Forces of the Ministry of Defense (Russian abbreviation)
GULag - Chief Directorate of Camps (Russian abbreviation)
Gulyayev, Rudolf Alekseyevich - Russian scientist cosmonaut 1967-1968. Scientist, Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism and Radio waves of the Academy of Sciences. Cosmonaut training May 1967 - August 1968. Left cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Worked as a research scientist at IZMIRAN. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1968. Born: 1934-11-14.
Gulyayev, Vladislav Ivanovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1963-1968. Graduated from Soviet Navy Engineering School Cosmonaut training January 1963 - 21 January 1965. Resigned for medical reasons after an accident. Worked at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Died of a heart attack. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1968. Born: 1937-05-31. Died: 1990-04-19.
Gumdrop/Spider - Alternate name for Apollo 9.
Gun Projectile 16-inch - Canadian instrumented artillery shell for sounding the atmosphere. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1966-10-27. Last Launch: 1966-10-27. Number: 1 .
Gun05 - Alternate designation for 5 inch HARP Gun.
Gun07 - Alternate designation for 7 inch HARP Gun.
Guncotton - Propellant imagined by Jules Verne for use in his gun-launched lunar mission. In practice it was too unstable for use in large guns.
Gun-launched - Artillery dominated military ballistics from the earliest use of gunpowder. In 1865 Jules Verne could only realistically consider a cannon for a moon launch in his influential novel. Even after the rocket established its primacy as a method of accessing space, Canadian Gerald Bull began a life-long struggle to use guns for cheap access to space. His successes could not generate funding to continue. Others since then have pursued the technology, convinced it was the only way for low-cost delivery of payloads to orbit.
Gun-Launched ASAT - American military anti-satellite system. Study 1990. One of the applications of the superguns Gerald Bull was designing for Iraq would have been firing of an anti-satellite shell that would have blinded Western spy satellites with a sticky material. Status: Study 1990.
GUNPP Zavod Imeni V. Ya. Klimova - Third name of Izotov bureau.
Gunrunner MQR-16 - Atlantic Research mobile surface-launched drone.
Guojia Hangtian Ju - Alternate name for CNSA.
Guojia Taikong Zhongxin - Alternate name for NSPO.
Gurovskiy, Nikolai Nikolayevich - Russian physician. Deputy Director of IMBP. Began as physician at the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine.
Gurragcha Zhugderdemidiyn 'Gurr' - Mongolian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1981. First Mongolian astronaut. Graduated from Zhukovsky Military Engineering Academy, 1977. Aeronautic engineer, Mongolian Air Force. From 2000 Mongolian Secretary of Defense. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1981. Born: 1947-12-05. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.86 days.
GURVO - Chief Directorate of the Rocket Forces (Russian abbreviation)
Gurwin - Israeli technology satellite. Gurwin satellites were built by the Technion Institute of Technology, Israel. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-03-28. Last Launch: 1998-07-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Gurwin 1, 1B - Alternate name of Techsat 1, 1B (Gurwin 1, 1B / GO 32 / Gurwin-OSCAR 32).
Gurwin-OSCAR 32 - Alternate name of Techsat 1, 1B (Gurwin 1, 1B / GO 32 / Gurwin-OSCAR 32).
Gusev, Leonid Ivanovich - Russian engineer. Director of Nll-695. After 1965 Director of NIIP. Led work on guidance systems. Born: 1922.
Gushchin, Nikolai Ivanovich - Russian engineer. From 1989 Head and Chief Designer Kolomna Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau. Missile designer.
Gustav, Johann - German engineer and expert in guided missiles in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter.
Gutierrez, Sidney McNeill 'Sid' - American test pilot astronaut 1984-1994. Some data removed at subject's request. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1994. Born: 1951-06-27. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 20.34 days.
Guy, Will C - American engineer. Deputy to Samuel K Hoffmann at Rocketdyne from 1948-1978.
Gvardeisk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1990. This was one of the oldest rocket units in the Soviet Union, being first formed at Kapustin Yar, 1950-1953, then deploying to Medved, Novgorod 1953-1960. Earlier had fielded R-1, R-2, and R-5 missiles. These were followed by R-12 IRBM's.
GVM - Russian abbreviation for mass model.
GVM DS-U2-IK - Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. Cosmos 893. Designation indicates a mass model of the DS-U2-IK (which studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere). However flown after the functional spacecraft's flights were completed. Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-02-15. Last Launch: 1977-02-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb).
GWS 26 Mod 1 - Alternate name of Seawolf.
GW-Sat - Technology satellite for George Washington University, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).

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