AKA: 2K22;9M311;Grison;SA-19;SA-N-11;Treugolnik (export version). Status: Operational 1982. Payload: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Gross mass: 42 kg (92 lb). Height: 2.50 m (8.20 ft). Diameter: 0.17 m (0.56 ft). Span: 0.52 m (1.70 ft).
The KB Equipment Industry in Tula began developing missile-artillery systems in 1973, when they were designated by a government decree to develop the ZSU self-propelled surface-to-air missile vehicle using the Tunguska missile. Chief designer for the system was the head of the KB, A G Shinupov. The launcher was designed by V P Gryazev and the missile by V M Kuznetsov. Subcontractors included:
The system combined in one military vehicle all the systems of a two-tier air defence system, including surveillance radar, tracking radar, guidance beam generator, IFF, an optical sight, digital computer control system, and missile guidance. The vehicle was armed with the 30mm 2A38 automatic antiaircraft gun, and eight 9M311 surface-to-air missiles in sealed container-launchers, each missile guided by its own encrypted data link. The gun was water cooled in temperatures over freezing, anti-freeze cooled below freezing, with 1936 shells, capable of firing at rates of 1810 to 4060 rounds/minute, and a muzzle velocity of 980 m/s. The 9M311 surface-to-air missile consisted of a solid propellant boost stage, and an unpowered, guided, 'dart' second stage half the diameter of the booster. The booster stage operated for 2.6 seconds and accelerated the dart to 900 m/s, then dropped off. The dart was obtained in the optical sight by the system operator, and guided on its ballistic course as the speed dropped to 600 m/s. The dart was capable of 18 G manoeuvres and could destroy aerial targets travelling at speeds of up to 500 m/s and capable of 5 to 7 G manoeuvres.
Radars: 1RL144M Hot Shot target acquisition radar, E band, range 18 km. 1RL144M Hot Shot target tracking radar, J band, range 13 km.
A system on the march consisted of the following vehicles:
|Tunguska-M Russian surface-to-air missile. In 1990 the modernised Tunguska-M with the 2K22M missile entered test. Updates included new radio units, a new gas turbine engine for electrical power generation, with a 600 hour life in place of the 300 hour life of the old generator. Trials were conducted in August-October 1990, and the system accepted for production shortly thereafter.|