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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: 8

81R - Russian anti-submarine missile. 1969 sub-launched anti-sub missile with nuclear warhead. Status: Operational 1969. Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
82R - Russian anti-submarine rocket.
85R - Russian anti-submarine missile. Ship-launched, antisub cruise missile with AT-2UM torpedo. Status: Operational 1974. Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
85R Metel - Russian anti-submarine missile. Status: Operational 1968.
85R Rastrub - Russian anti-submarine missile. With improved UMGT-1 torpedo. Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
85RU - Alternate name of 85R Rastrub.
86R - Russian anti-submarine missile. Vyuga with UMGT-1 torpedo. Gross mass: 2,440 kg (5,370 lb).
87.2-KS-17,335 - Alternate designation for Star 48A s.
87.2-KS-17,335 - Alternate designation for Star 48B s and [Star 48B s] solid rocket engines.
87.2-KS-17,735 - Alternate designation for Star 48B Solid rocket engine.
88R - Russian anti-submarine rocket.
8A11 - Article number for R-1 stage.
8A11 - Article number for R-1.
8A61 - Article number for R-11 stage.
8A61 - Article number for R-11.
8A62 - Article number for R-5 rocket stage.
8A62M - Article number for R-5M.
8A63 - Article number for R-3A.
8A67 - Article number for R-3.
8A91 - Article number for Sputnik 8A91.
8A92 - Article number for Vostok 8A92.
8A92M - Article number for Vostok 8A92M.
8D21 - Article Number of RD-301 LF2-Ammonia rocket engine.
8D411K - Article Number of RD-0210 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8D412K - Article Number of RD-0211 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8D415K - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Designed for use in N-1. Development canceled in 1960 when Korolev turned to Kuznetsov for R-9 and N-1 engines after continuous rows with Glushko over performance and propellant types. First flight was planned for 1966. Status: Developed 1960-. Date: 1960-. Thrust: 1,471.00 kN (330,693 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
8D419 - Manufacturer's designation of 8D423 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8D420 - Article Number of RD-270 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8D420M - Article Number of RD-270M N2O4-Pentaborane rocket engine.
8D423 - Izotov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Production from 1964. Single chamber engine for UR-100 stage 2. Gas generator cycle with two large turbine exhaust pipes. First flight 1965. Later modified for the LK-700 manned lunar landeer. Status: Design 1964. Number: 282 . Thrust: 131.00 kN (29,449 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
8D43 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-500 stage 1 original concept. Hardware. In early Proton design would be clustered with 4 x Glushko 11D43. Abandoned in favor of 6 x Glushko 11D48, but later developed into the RD-0208 and RD-0210. Status: Hardware. Thrust: 559.00 kN (125,668 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
8D43 + 11D43 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Design 1962. Originally the first stage of the Proton was designed for 4 x fixed 11D43 and 4 x gimbaled Kosberg 8D43; replaced by 6 x 11D48 from Glushko in final Proton design. Status: Design 1962. Thrust: 2,247.45 kN (505,247 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
8D44 - Article Number of RD-0203 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8D45 - Article Number of RD-0202 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8D46 - Article Number of RD-0205 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8D47 - Article Number of RD-0206 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8D48 - Article Number of RD-0213 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8D49 - Article number for RD-0210.
8D49 - Article Number of RD-0212 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8D515 - Article Number of RD-217 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
8D52 - Article Number of RD-103 LOx-Alcohol rocket engine.
8D52M - Article Number of RD-103M LOx-Alcohol rocket engine.
8D63 - Article Number of RD-851 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
8D66 - Alternate name of S5.4.
8D67 - Article Number of RD-0207 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8D71 - Article number for RD-105.
8D71 - Article Number of RD-103 LOx-Alcohol rocket engine and [RD-103] LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D710 - Article Number of RD-119 LOx-UDMH rocket engine.
8D711 - Article Number of RD-109 LOx-UDMH rocket engine.
8D712 - Article Number of RD-218 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
8D713 - Article Number of RD-219 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
8D714 - Article Number of RD-0105 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D715 - Article Number of RD-0106 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D715K - Article number for RD-0108.
8D715K - Article Number of RD-0107 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D715P - Article Number of RD-0108 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D716 - Article Number of RD-111 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D719 - Article Number of RD-0109 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D72? - Article Number of RD-106 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D721 - Article Number of RD-224 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
8D723 - Article number for RD-250.
8D723 - Article Number of RD-251 and [RD-251] N2O4-UDMH rocket engines.
8D725 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Developed 1963-1970. 10 to 12 metric ton thrust engine developed for an unstated military requirement. Status: Developed 1963-1970. Date: 1963-1970. Thrust: 117.00 kN (26,302 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
8D726 - Korolev LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. GR-1 Stage 3, N-11GR - V. Development based on S1.5400. Thrust: 66.70 kN (14,995 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
8D727 - Article Number of RD-108-8D727 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D727K - Article number for RD-108-8D727.
8D727K - Article Number of RD-108-8D727K LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D727K, 8D727P - Article Number for RD-108-8D727 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D727P - Alternate name for RD-108-8D727.
8D728 - Article Number of RD-107-8D728 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D74 - Article Number of RD-107-8D74 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D74-1958 - Article Number of RD-107-8D74-1958 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D74-1959 - Article Number of RD-107-8D74-1959 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D74K - Article Number of RD-107-8D74K LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D74PS - Article Number of RD-107-8D74PS LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D75 - Article Number of RD-108-8D75 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D75-1958 - Article Number of RD-108-8D75-1958 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D75-1959 - Article Number of RD-108-8D75-1959 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D75K - Article Number of RD-108-8D75K LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D75PS - Article Number of RD-108-8D75PS LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D76 - Article Number of RD-107-8D76 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D77 - Article Number of RD-108-8D77 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
8D811 - Article Number of RD-0214 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
8EK - Article Number of Luna Ye-8 lunar rover.
8F021 - Article Number of OGCh military orbital bombing system.
8F17 - Article number for R-16.
8K - Manufacturer's designation for Zenit-8 military surveillance satellite.
8K11 - Article number for R-1.
8K14 - Article number for R-11.
8K14 - Article number for R-17 stage.
8K14 - Article number for R-11A.
8K14 - Article number for R-11M.
8K14, SS-1C Scud B, 9K72 Elbrus - Article number for R-17 stage rocket stage.
8K51 - Article number for R-5M.
8K513 - Russian anti-satellite missile. ASAT version. Little has emerged about Korolev's ASAT project, designed in competition with Chelomei's in 1961-1964. Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
8K513 Blok A - Article number for GR-1 Stage 1 rocket stage.
8K513 Blok B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 metric tons. Developed into Molniya/Soyuz second stage. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Thrust: 441.00 kN (99,140 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
8K513 Blok V - Article number for GR-1 Stage 3 rocket stage.
8K61 - Article number for R-11FM.
8K62 - Article number for R-5.
8K63 - Article number for R-12.
8K63U - Article number for R-12U.
8K64 - Article number for R-16.
8K64U - Article number for R-16U.
8K65 - Article numbe for R-14.
8K65U - Article number for R-14U.
8K66 - Article number for R-26-1.
8K66 - Article number for R-26-2.
8K66 - Article number for R-26.
8K67 - Article number for Tsiklon.
8K67P - Article number for R-36 8K67P.
8K68 - Article number for R-56 Polyblock ICBM.
8K68 - Article number for R-56.
8K68 - Article number for R-56 Polyblock.
8K69 - Article number for R-36O 8K69.
8K69 - Article number for R-36-O.
8K71 - Article number for R-7.
8K711 - Russian ballistic missile. Korolev project. No other information available. Status: Study 1961.
8K713 - Article number for GR-1.
8K713 - Article Number of intercontinental ballistic missile version of the GR-1 global rocket. Article number sometimes erroneously given as 8K73.
8K71PS - Article number for Sputnik 8K71PS.
8K72 - Article number for Vostok 8K72.
8K72 - Article number for Vostok-L 8K72.
8K72 - Article number for Luna 8K72.
8K72K - Article number for Vostok 8K72K.
8K72K - Article number for Vostok 8A92.
8K73 - Article number for 8K713.
8K73 - Russian ballistic missile. Korolev project. Probably designation for intercontinental ballistic missile variant of his GR-1 global rocket. Status: Study.
8K74 - Article number for Molniya 8K78.
8K74 - Article number for R-7A.
8K75 - Article number for Romashka.
8K75 - Article number for R-9A.
8K75 - Article number for Desna.
8K75 - Article number for Dolina.
8K75M - Article number for R-9M.
8K76 - Article number for R-9M.
8K76 - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Version using storable propellants and Isayev engines. Studied but rejected prior to start of development.
8K77 - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Version with vacuum-isolated liquid oxygen tanks to provide capability to hold ready for instant launch. Studied but never developed.
8K77 Blok A - Article number for R-9A Stage 1 rocket stage.
8K77 Blok B - Article number for R-9A Stage 2 rocket stage.
8K78 - Article number for Molniya 8K78.
8K78L - Article number for Molniya 8K78L.
8K78M - Article number for Molniya 8K78M.
8K79 - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Korolev 1961 design for a single stage military rocket. A competing missile was selected for the requirement. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Payload: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
8K81 - Article number for UR-200.
8K81 Stage 1 - Article number for UR-200-1 rocket stage.
8K81 Stage 2 - Article number for UR-200-2 rocket stage.
8K82 - Article number for UR-500.
8K82K - Article number for Proton-K.
8K82K / 11S824 - Article number for Proton-K/D.
8K82K / 11S824F - Article number for Proton-K/D-2.
8K82K / 11S824M - Article number for Proton-K/D-1.
8K82K / 11S86 - Article number for Proton-K/DM.
8K82K / 11S861 - Article number for Proton-K/DM-2.
8K82K / 11S861-01 - Article number for Proton-K/DM-2M.
8K82K / 17S40 - Article number for Proton-K/17S40.
8K82KM - Article number for Proton/Briz K/M.
8K82KM - Article number for Proton KM-4 Briz M.
8K82M - Article number for Proton-M/Briz-M.
8K82M / 11S861 - Article number for Proton-M/DM-2.
8K83 - Article number for UR-200B.
8K84 - Article number for Taran.
8K84 - Article number for UR-100.
8K84 Stage 1 - Article number for 8S816 rocket stage.
8K84 Stage 2 - Article number for 8S817 rocket stage.
8K84K - Article number for UR-100K.
8K84M - Article number for UR-100M.
8K84UTTKh - Article number for UR-100M.
8K94 - Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. Unusual designation for the upper stages of another Yangel project - possibly reflecting design originally was stand-alone IRBM? Status: Design 1962.
8K94 stage - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Unusual designation for the upper stage of another Yangel project - possibly reflecting that the design originally was a stand-alone IRBM? Empty mass estimated. Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 9,800 kg (21,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 147.00 kN (33,046 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
8K95 - Article number for RT-1.
8K96 - Article number for RT-15.
8K97 - Article number for RT-25.
8K98 - Article number for RT-2.
8K98M - Article number for RT-2M.
8K98P - Article number for RT-2P.
8K99 - Article number for RT-20P.
8K99 - Article number for RT-20.
8S810K - Article number for Proton K-1 rocket stage.
8S811K - Article number for Proton K-2 rocket stage.
8S816 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Total mass, sea level thrust accurate; Isp, empty mass and burn time estimated. Source: Placard, Orevo. Status: Retired 1984. Gross mass: 32,799 kg (72,309 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 868.80 kN (195,314 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
8S817 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Total mass, thrust accurate; Isp, empty mass and burn time estimated. Source: Placard, Orevo. Status: Retired 1984. Gross mass: 8,611 kg (18,984 lb). Unfuelled mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 131.45 kN (29,551 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
8th Academy - First name of SAST.
8Zh38 - Article number for R-2 stage.
8Zh38 - Article number for R-2.

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