Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: K

K - Kelvin (measurement of temperature - metric system)
K - Alternate designation for Kosmoplan mars orbiter.
K-1 - Alternate designation for R-21.
K10S - ISAS solid rocket engine. Kappa 10S third stage. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Propellants: Solid.
K-15 - K-15 Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-02-26. Last Launch: 2013-01-27. Number: 2 .
K150 - Japanese ISAS sounding rocket. 1/1.6 subscale test rocket used in development of the Kappa 9L sounding rockets. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1958-04-08. Last Launch: 1962-12-20. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Thrust: 19.00 kN (4,271 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K160 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Kappa 8L second stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Propellants: Solid.
K220 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Kappa 2 first stage. Status: Retired 1957. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Propellants: Solid.
K245 - Japanese sounding rocket. Subscale test rocket used in development of the Kappa series of sounding rockets. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1958-06-14. Last Launch: 1958-06-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
K245-1 - Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb). Status: Retired 1958. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Thrust: 34.00 kN (7,643 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K250 - ISAS solid rocket engine family.
K250-100 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Thrust: 34.00 kN (7,643 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K250-200 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Thrust: 34.00 kN (7,643 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K250-300 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Thrust: 43.00 kN (9,666 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K250-8 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Kappa 8 second stage. Status: Retired 1970. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Thrust: 34.00 kN (7,643 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K250H - ISAS solid rocket engine. Kappa 8L first stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Propellants: Solid.
K420 - ISAS solid rocket engine family.
K420(1/3) - ISAS solid rocket engine. Kappa 10S second stage. Status: Retired 1980. Thrust: 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K420-1200 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 110.00 kN (24,720 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K420-1400 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 110.00 kN (24,720 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K420-1800 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 110.00 kN (24,720 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K420-500 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 110.00 kN (24,720 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K420H - ISAS solid rocket engine. Kappa 10S first stage. Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 110.00 kN (24,720 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
K63 - Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1975-01-01. Last Launch: 1987-01-01. Number: 8 .
K63D - Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1969-07-15. Last Launch: 1974-07-11. Number: 7 .
K65M-R - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle for suborbital tests consisting of 1 x R-14 + 1 x S3M. Status: Active. First Launch: 1973-01-01. Last Launch: 2006-04-22. Number: 326 . Gross mass: 109,000 kg (240,000 lb). Thrust: 1,485.00 kN (333,841 lbf).
K65M-RB - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle for suborbital tests consisting of 1 x R-14 + 1 x S3M. Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1980-12-05. Last Launch: 1988-06-21. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 109,000 kg (240,000 lb). Thrust: 1,485.00 kN (333,841 lbf).
K65UP - Alternate designation for Vertikal' K65UP.
K65UP - Alternate designation for Vertikal-4.
KA - Spacecraft (Russian abbreviation)
Kabardin-Balak - Kabardin-Balak.
Kabushiikgaisha hosoeisei shisutemu - Alternate name for BSAT.
Kachigan - American Chief Engineer and Director, Atlas Launch Vehicle, at General Dynamics in the 1970's and 1980's
Kachur - Russian phantom cosmonaut. Said to have died in October 1960 in first attempted Soviet manned flight. Linked to model Khrushchev was to have revealed at UN. In fact, model was of Mars probe that failed. Died: 1960-09-27.
KACST - Saudi manufacturer of spacecraft. King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Tech, Riyadh, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Kadena AB - CGM-13B Mace operating base.
Kadenyuk - Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut 1976-1998. Longest wait for a spaceflight after becoming an astronaut - 21 years. Soyuz cosmonaut 1976-1983; Spiral pilot 1983-1987; Buran pilot, 1987-1989, NASA Payload Specialist, 1996. Status: Inactive; Active 1976-1998. Born: 1951-01-28. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.69 days.
Kagayaki - Japanese technology satellite. Technology satellite built by Sorun Corporation, Tokyo, with several technology payloads. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-01-23. Last Launch: 2009-01-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 28 kg (61 lb).
Kagoshima - Japanese launch center for solid fueled sounding rockets and satellite launchers. Limited to two months a year due to disturbance of local fisheries. First Launch: 1962-08-01. Last Launch: 2014-08-20. Number: 384 .
Kagoshima K - Kappa Pad. First Launch: 1980-01-18. Last Launch: 2014-08-20. Number: 54 .
Kagoshima L - SB-735, S, Lambda launch complex. Lambda Pad First Launch: 1963-08-24. Last Launch: 1979-09-20. Number: 25 .
Kagoshima M - Mu launch complex. First Launch: 1966-10-31. Last Launch: 1995-01-15. Number: 25 .
Kagoshima M-V - M-V launch complex. First Launch: 1997-02-12. Last Launch: 2006-09-22. Number: 7 .
Kagoshima TMP - Kappa launch complex. Temporary pad First Launch: 1962-08-01. Last Launch: 1962-08-23. Number: 2 .
Kaguya - Japanese lunar orbiter. Launched 2007.09.14. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-09-14. Last Launch: 2007-09-14. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb).
Kaijyo Jieitai - Alternate name for JMSDF.
Kaiser Marquardt - First name of Marquardt.
Kaiser Wilhelm Geschuetz - Alternate designation for Paris Gun.
KAIST - South Korean manufacturer of spacecraft. Korea Advanced Institute for Space Technology, Korea South.
Kaitsat - Manufacturer's designation for Kitsat technology satellite.
KAITUO - 2U Cubesat with an amateur radio payload.
Kaituo - Satellite from Shenzen DFH Company, also called XY 2 (Xinyan-2 or NewTech-2), which tested electric propulsion Hall thrusters. Deployed the DCBB subsatellite. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-09-19. Last Launch: 2015-09-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb).
Kaituozhe-1 - Alternate designation for KT-1.
Kaituozhe-2 - Alternate designation for KT-2.
Kaituozhe-2A - Alternate designation for KT-2A.
Kakehashi - Japanese communications satellite. Name means 'Bridge', was called Communications and Broadcasting Experimental Test Satellite (COMETS) before launch. It contained Ka-band communications and inter-satellite data relay payloads. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-02-21. Last Launch: 1998-02-21. Number: 1 .
Kalashnikov - Russian officer; after service in WW2, assigned to GAU section monitoring missile work of OKB-1. Worked in ascending positions at Kapustin Yar 1951-1960, then at GURVO staff 1961-1981. From 1981 deputy chief of NPO Geofizika. Born: 1921.
Kaleri - Latvian-Russian engineer cosmonaut 1984-on. 769 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Status: Active 1984-on. Born: 1956-05-13. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 769.28 days.
Kalmykov - Russian bureaucrat. Minister of Radio-Technical Industry 1954-1974. Born: 1908-08-28. Died: 1974-03-22.
Kamanin - Russian VVS Officer, first commander of Soviet cosmonaut detachment 1960-1971. Advocate of piloted spaceflight, fought constantly for VVS role in space, blamed loss of space race on Korolev's insistence on using automated systems. Born: 1908-10-18. Died: 1982-03-13.
Kamanin Diaries - Summary of a principal source in Soviet space history
Kamm - American aerodynamicist, at NASA 1939-1946, 1959-1968. Served in NASA California management positions. Born: 1917-07-10. Died: 2001-06-13.
Kamyshin - Base for units deployed with two R-1/R-2 launchers, followed by six R-5.
Kanai - Japanese physician mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1976 December.
KANARSPI - Quality, Reliability, Resources in First Article quality assurance system (Russian abbreviation)
Kangaroo - American sounding rocket. Status: Cancelled 1969.
Kankoh Maru - Japanese SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Kawasaki design for single stage to orbit reusable booster. Would carry 50 passengers to orbiting hotels or fast intercontinental flights. Status: Design 1995. Gross mass: 550,000 kg (1,210,000 lb). Payload: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb).
Kanopus - Remote sensing satellite. Imager provided a resolution of 2.5 m in a 20 km swath and 12.5 m in four spectral channels along the same swath. A separate imager provided optical resolution of 25 m in a 250 km swath. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-07-22. Last Launch: 2012-07-22. Number: 2 .
Kanopus-V - Remote sensing satellite. Imager provided a resolution of 2.5 m in a 20 km swath and 12.5 m in four spectral channels along the same swath. A separate imager provided optical resolution of 25 m in a 250 km swath. Used Kanopus bus.
Kansk - Base for units deployed with 27 RT-2PM missiles. First Launch: 1988-08-26. Last Launch: 1988-12-29. Number: 2 .
Kantrowitz - American physicist, founded Avco-Everett in 1955. Vice president and director of Avco Corporation, 1856-1978. Born: 1913. Died: 2008-11-29.
KAO - Abbreviation for Kuiper Airborne Observatory
Kapani Tonneo - In December 1975 Otrag signed an agreement with the Congolese government to established a rocket range to test its low-cost rockets deep in the interior at Shaba (Katanga) province. The austere site included logistic support via antique British Argosy transports landing at a dirt strip on a plateau overlooking the jungle. Here a pad and gantry were erected and flight tests began in 1977. However Otrag's activities made the great powers nervous. The USSR was not interested in Germany achieving an indigenous long-range rocket activity. The government of the Congo was pressured by the USSR to withdraw permission to use the site. Otrag was thrown out of the country in April 1979. First Launch: 1977-05-18. Last Launch: 1978-06-05. Number: 3 .
Kaplan - Hungarian-American geophysicist, heavily involved in efforts in the 1950s to launch the first satellite, served as the chair of the US National Committee for the International Geophysical Year, 1953-1963. Born: 1902-09-08. Died: 1991-10-03.
Kappa - Japanese sounding rocket. The Kappa series represented Japan's first large post-war indigenously-developed sounding rockets. They led eventually to the Lambda and Mu solid rocket satellite launchers. Status: Retired 1988.
Kappa 1 - Alternate designation for Kappa 1 engine.
Kappa 1 - Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1956-09-24. Last Launch: 1956-12-13. Number: 7 . Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf).
Kappa 1 engine - ISAS solid rocket engine. Kappa 3 second stage. Status: Retired 1957. Number: 1 . Unfuelled mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kappa 10 - Japanese sounding rocket. 2-3 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420H + 1 x K420(1/3) Status: Retired 1980. First Launch: 1965-11-08. Last Launch: 1980-08-26. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
Kappa 10C - Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420H + 1 x K420(1/3) Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1969-01-12. Last Launch: 1975-08-01. Number: 5 .
Kappa 10S - Japanese sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420H + 1 x K420(1/3) + 1 x K10S Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1965-08-28. Last Launch: 1965-08-28. Number: 1 .
Kappa 10S-1 - Alternate name for K420H.
Kappa 10S-2 - Alternate name for K420(1/3).
Kappa 10S-3 - Alternate name for K10S.
Kappa 2 - Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 3 Booster + 1 x Kappa 1 Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1957-04-30. Last Launch: 1957-04-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
Kappa 2-1 - Alternate name for K220.
Kappa 3 - Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 3 Booster + 1 x Kappa 1 Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1957-05-02. Last Launch: 1957-07-26. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
Kappa 3-2 - Alternate name for Kappa 1 engine.
Kappa 4 - Alternate designation for Kappa 4 engine.
Kappa 4 - Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 4 Booster + 1 x Kappa 4 Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1957-09-20. Last Launch: 1961-06-18. Number: 3 . Thrust: 105.00 kN (23,604 lbf).
Kappa 4 Booster - ISAS solid rocket engine. Kappa 4 first stage. Status: Retired 1961. Thrust: 105.00 kN (23,604 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kappa 4 engine - ISAS solid rocket engine. Kappa 4 second stage. Status: Retired 1961. Number: 1 . Unfuelled mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kappa 4-1 - Alternate name for Kappa 4 Booster.
Kappa 4-2 - Alternate name for Kappa 4 engine.
Kappa 5 - Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 4 Booster + 1 x Kappa 4 Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1958-04-20. Last Launch: 1958-05-26. Number: 2 .
Kappa 5-1 - Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb). Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Thrust: 34.00 kN (7,643 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kappa 6 - Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 6 + 1 x Kappa 6 St2 Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1958-06-16. Last Launch: 1960-09-17. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 270 kg (590 lb). Payload: 20 kg (44 lb).
Kappa 6H - Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 6H + 1 x Kappa 6 St2 Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1960-09-29. Last Launch: 1960-09-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 330 kg (720 lb). Payload: 20 kg (44 lb).
Kappa 7 - Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1959-11-18. Last Launch: 1959-11-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Kappa 8 - Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420 + 1 x Kappa 8 Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1960-03-28. Last Launch: 1970-09-02. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Payload: 50 kg (110 lb).
Kappa 8-2 - Alternate name for K250-8.
Kappa 8L - Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 6H + 1 x Kappa 8L Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1962-08-23. Last Launch: 1966-12-10. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Payload: 25 kg (55 lb).
Kappa 8L-1 - Alternate name for K250H.
Kappa 8L-2 - Alternate name for K160.
Kappa 9 - Japanese sounding rocket. 2-3 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420H + 1 x K250 + optional upper stage.
Kappa 9L - Japanese sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420 + 1 x Kappa 6 + 1 x Kappa 6 St2 Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1961-04-01. Last Launch: 1961-12-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,550 kg (3,410 lb). Payload: 15 kg (33 lb).
Kappa 9L-1 - Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,200 kg (2,646 lb). Status: Retired 1970. Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 110.00 kN (24,720 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kappa 9M - Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420H + 1 x K250 Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1962-11-25. Last Launch: 1988-01-25. Number: 81 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Payload: 50 kg (110 lb).
Kappa 9M-2 - Solid rocket stage. 43.00 kN (9,667 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb). Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Thrust: 43.00 kN (9,666 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kapustin Yar - Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. First Launch: 1946-03-19. Last Launch: 2014-05-20. Number: 4077 .
Kapustin Yar LC107/1 - Kosmos 3 launch complex. First Launch: 1973-01-26. Last Launch: 1987-01-22. Number: 16 .
Kapustin Yar LC107/1a - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC107/1b - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC107/2 - Kosmos 3 launch complex. First Launch: 1975-04-19. Last Launch: 1981-11-20. Number: 4 .
Kapustin Yar LC107/2a - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC107/2b - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC107/2c - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC107/2d - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC107/2e - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC107/2f - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC107/2g - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC107/2h - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC84 - RT-15, R-5, Kosmos 3 launch complex. First Launch: 1964-09-26. Last Launch: 1965-09-01. Number: 2 .
Kapustin Yar LC86 - PU 1 or 4 First Launch: 1974-12-01. Last Launch: 1974-12-01. Number: 1 .
Kapustin Yar LC86/1 - Kosmos 2, R-31 launch complex. First Launch: 1964-12-01. Last Launch: 1967-12-19. Number: 26 .
Kapustin Yar LC86/4 - Kosmos 2 launch complex. First Launch: 1967-12-26. Last Launch: 1973-04-19. Number: 24 .
Kapustin Yar LC86/4a - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC86/4b - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar LC86/4c - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Kapustin Yar Mayak-1 - Kosmos 2 launch silo. First Launch: 1959-09-02. Last Launch: 1959-09-02. Number: 1 .
Kapustin Yar Mayak-2 - Kosmos 2 launch silo. First Launch: 1959-12-21. Last Launch: 1964-10-24. Number: 26 .
Kapustin Yar MR-100 - MR-100 launch area
Kapustin Yar OKB1 - Korolev launch area
Kapustin Yar PL1 - Kosmos 2 launch complex. PL 1, Vladimirovka Air Force test area First Launch: 1961-12-27. Last Launch: 1963-03-21. Number: 2 .
Kapustin Yar PL87 - RT-2 launch complex. First Launch: 1966-01-01. Last Launch: 1966-07-01. Number: 7 .
Kapustin Yar S - Launch area south
Kapustin Yar SAM - SAM Test area
Kapustin Yar silo - Kosmos 3 launch silo. Unknown location. First Launch: 1962-02-11. Last Launch: 1962-02-11. Number: 1 .
Kapustin Yar SM-49 - R-11 launch complex. SM-49 submarine simulator First Launch: 1954-09-26. Last Launch: 1954-09-26. Number: 1 .
Kapustin Yar SP-2 - R-2 launch complex. Unknown site for R-2A launches First Launch: 1957-06-07. Last Launch: 1962-05-21. Number: 24 .
Kapustin Yar START Pioner - START SS-20 Site
Kapustin Yar START R-12 - START R-12 Site
Kapustin Yar V-2 - V-2, RT-15, R-5, R-2, R-17, R-11, R-1, Pioner, MR-12, M-100, Kosmos 3, Kosmos 2, RT-1, R-13, MMR-06, MERA launch complex. V-2 Launch Area
Kapustin Yar VLAD - Burya launch complex. Vladimirovka Air Force test area
Karas - Russian officer, Commander, TsUKOS / GUKOS 1965-1979. Ended WW2 as commander of an artillery corps. After study at Dzerzhinsky, assigned to Kapustin Yar from 1951, followed by assignments at 4 NIIP MO and Baikonur. Chief of TsKIK 1959-1965. Born: 1918-09-27. Died: 1979-01-02.
Karashtin - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1989-2002. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-2002. Born: 1962-11-18.
KARI - South Korean agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Korea South.
Karmelava - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1990. Base for units deployed with 12 R-14, and probably R-12 missiles.
Karpov - Russian officer. First Director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre 1960-1963. Born: 1921. Died: 1990-05-01.
Karrask - Russian chief designer. From 1964-1986 Deputy Chief Designer, and from 1986-1989 Chief Designer of KB Salyut. Born: 1928. Died: 2004-03-13.
Kartaly - Kartaly-6. Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-present. Base for 46 heavy ICBM (R-36/R-36M) silos. First Launch: 1981-01-01. Last Launch: 1987-01-01. Number: 7 .
Kartashov - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1961. Born: 1932-08-25. Died: 2005-12-11.
Kartukov - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer of KB-2 of Factory 81. Specialized in solid-propellant engines for spacecraft.
Kartukov LL - Kartukov solid rocket engine. LL-1, LL-2, LL-3. Developed 1946-48. Status: Developed 1946-48. Date: 1946-48. Thrust: 14.70 kN (3,305 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kartukov P-15M - Kartukov solid rocket engine. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 284.00 kN (63,845 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kartukov P-35 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. P-35. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1956-62. Thrust: 294.00 kN (66,093 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kartukov P-5 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. P-5. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1954-59. Thrust: 179.00 kN (40,240 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kartukov P-6 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. P-6. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1956-64. Propellants: Solid.
Kartukov SAS stage series -
Kartukov Soyuz SAS - Kartukov solid rocket engine. Soyuz 7K-OK, Soyuz 7KT-OK, Soyuz 7K-T. Out of Production. Thrust 76 metric tons at cutout - 80.1tf at ignition. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962-66. Thrust: 785.00 kN (176,475 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kartukov Soyuz T - TM SAS 17k - Kartukov solid rocket engine. Soyuz T, Soyuz TM. In Production. Thrust 10 metric tons at cutout - 17.5 at ignition. Status: In Production. Date: -1979. Thrust: 171.00 kN (38,442 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kartukov Soyuz T - TM SAS 73k - Kartukov solid rocket engine. Soyuz T, Soyuz TM. In Production. Thrust 45 metric tons at cutout - 73 metric tons at ignition. Status: In Production. Date: -1979. Thrust: 715.00 kN (160,738 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Karystos - Alternate name for Nissaki-Karystos.
KA-SAT - Communications satellite providing Ka band communications with 80 spot beams. Used the Eurostar 3000 bus.
KASC - Alternate name for Kagoshima.
Kaschig - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1906-02-11. Died: 1988-09-09.
Katerinich - Russian officer. Major-General, veteran of early rocketry activities at Kapustin Yar from 1949. Born: 1918.
Katorgin - Russian chief designer. From 1991 General Director and Chief Designer NPO Energomash. Designer of liquid propellant rocket engines and chemical lasers.
Katys - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1964-1972. Status: Inactive; Active 1964-1972. Born: 1926-08-31.
Katyusha - Russian surface-to-surface missile. Unguided rocket built in a variety of calibers and used by the Red Army from 1941 onward. Status: Active.
Katz - American physicist. At Rand, 1954-1969; specialist in aerospace reconnaissance. Born: 1915-08-15. Died: 1997-02-10.
Kauai Test Facility - Alternate name for Barking Sands.
Kauba - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on amplifiers in the automated control loop department 1947-1952.
Kaufmann - German expert in aerodynamics research during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
KAUR - Common satellite bus (Russian abbreviation)
KAUR-1 - Light spacecraft bus designed to support both the Strela military store-dump communications satellites and the Tsiklon navigation satellites. Later provided the basis for numerous additional missions.
KAUR-2 - Satellite bus developed from 1960 by Korolev's bureau for the Soviet Union's first experimental communications satellite, using the twelve-hour elliptical orbit later dubbed a 'Molniya orbit'. The design was so successful that it was placed in production by Reshetnev and continued to support Russian communications into the 21st Century.
KAUR-3 - Satellite bus developed from the late 1960's for the first Russian geosynchronous communications satellites. They provided the platforms for repeater communications and direct television broadcast for two generations of Raduga, Ekran, and Gorizont satellite series.
KAUR-4 - Modern satellite bus for Russian geosynchronous satellites. Developed in the 1980's, and only reached flight status in the 1990's after the fall of the Soviet Union. The bus provided the basis for the Gals, Ekspress, and Yamal communications and direct broadcast satellites.
Kavandi - American chemist mission specialist astronaut 1994-2005. Chemist. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2005. Born: 1959-07-17. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 33.84 days.
Kavkas (Caucasus ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 30.
Kavkas (Caucasus ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 13.
Kavkas (Caucasus ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 18.
Kavkas (Caucasus) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 13.
Kavkas (Caucasus) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 30.
Kavkas (Caucasus) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 18.
Kavoshgar - Designation applied by Iran to suborbital rockets based on a variety of military rockets.
Kavoshgar - Alternate designation for Safir.
Kavoshgar K110 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-03-15. Last Launch: 2013-01-28. Number: 4 .
Kavoshgar M5 - Iranian solid-propellant sounding rocket based on Status: Retired 2006. First Launch: 2006-10-31. Last Launch: 2006-10-31. Number: 1 .
Kawasaki - Japanese manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Kawasaki, Japan.
Kayser - German engineer and low-cost rocket pioneer. 1975-1987 developed Otrag concept - clustered large numbers of low-cost storable liquid rocket modules to reduce costs by 10x. Tested in Congo and Libya, but project killed by vested interests. Born: 1939-03-31.
Kayser-Threde - German manufacturer of spacecraft. Kayser-Threde, Munich, Germany.
Kazakh AF - Kazakh Air Force.
Kazakhstan - Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan Group - 1991 - Requirement: pilots from Kazakhstan to visit Mir space station. Date: 1991.
Kazakhstan Group - 2002 - Requirement: pilots from Kazakhstan to visit ISS space station. Date: 2002.
Kazeosat - Kazakh medium resolution imaging satellite; had an imager with 6.5 meter resolution and a 77 km swath width. Used SSTL-150 bus.
KazSat - Russian agency. KazSat, Russia.
KB - Design Bureau (Russian abbreviation)
KB Iskra - Alternate designation for Iskra bureau.
KB Khimavtomatiki - Third name of Kosberg bureau.
KB KhimMash - Second name of Melnikov.
KB KhimMash imeni A. M. Isayeva - Third name of Isayev bureau.
KB Melnikov - Fourth name of Melnikov.
KB Yuzhnoye (1965) - Second name of Yuzhnoye Design Bureau.
KB-1 - First name of Vympel.
KB-1 - Second name of Almaz bureau.
KB-2 of OKB-81 - First name of Kartukov.
KB-82 Factory 134 GKAT - Alternate designation for GosMKB Vympel.
KB-82 Factory 134 GKAT - First name of Lyapin Design Bureau.
KBEM - Fourth name of Bondaryuk bureau.
KBM (1965) - Second name of Makeyev bureau.
KBMash - Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. KBMash, Russia.
KBOM - Design Bureau of General Machine Building (Russian abbreviation)
KBOM (1965) - Third name of Barmin bureau.
KBP - Russian manufacturer of rockets. Instrument Production Design Bureau, Tula, Russia.
KBP - Alternate name for Instrument Production Design Bureau.
KBPM - Common satellite bus (Russian abbreviation)
KBPM (1965) - Second name of Reshetnev bureau.
KD2U-1 - Alternate designation for Regulus 2.
KDU-1 - Alternate designation for BQM-6C.
KDU-414 - Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Molniya 1, Mars 1, Venera 1, Zond 2-3 maneuvering engine. Out of Production. Spacecraft maneuvering engine. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1960-65. Unfuelled mass: 61 kg (134 lb). Thrust: 1.96 kN (441 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
KDU-426 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Soyuz-T orbital correction engine. In Production. Pressure-fed engine. Used as long duration engine for correction orbits of satellites. Status: In Production. Date: 1968-74. Unfuelled mass: 270 kg (590 lb). Thrust: 3.09 kN (694 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
KE ASAT - American military anti-satellite system. Study 1989. In 1989 the US Army began a demonstration/validation program to develop a direct ascent kinetic energy ASAT for US forces. Status: Study 1989.
Keathley - American engineer, at NASA from 1966. Project manager for the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount Optical Telescope Assembly; manager of Hubble Space Telescope from 1977.
Kedr (Cedar ) - Alternate name for Vostok 1.
Kedr (Cedar) - Alternate designation for Vostok 1.
Kehlet - American engineer. Inventor of lenticular manned spacecraft; managerial engineering positions on Apollo program (1962-1969); Vice President for Delta booster 1988-1993. Born: January 1929.
Kehlet Lenticular Vehicle - American manned spaceplane. Study 1961. Alan B. Kehlet of NASA's Space Task Group New Projects Panel, worked at NASA Langley and first conceived of his lenticular manned spacecraft design in 1959. Status: Study 1961.
Keiner - German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France, first at LRBA as part of the structures group, then at SEP. Died in 1986.
Keldysh - Chief Theoretician of the Soviet missile and space programs, 1946-1978. Played a key role in virtually every space project decision until his death. He was President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR from 1961 to 1975. Born: 1911-02-10. Died: 1978-06-24.
Keldysh Bomber - Alternate designation for Keldysh Bomber stage.
Keldysh Bomber - Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Soviet version of the Saenger antipodal bomber intensely studied on Stalin's direct orders in 1946-1947. The final study concluded that, given the fuel consumption of foreseeable rocket engines, the design would only be feasible using ramjet engines and greatly advanced materials. This meant that development could only begin in the late 1950's, when such technologies were available. By that time the design had been superseded by more advanced concepts. Status: Design 1946. Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Payload: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Thrust: 900.00 kN (202,320 lbf).
Keldysh Bomber stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Boosted to launch speed of 500 m/s by rocket sled. Boost phase assisted with two ramjets which increases effective specific impulse to over 500 seconds. Status: Design 1946. Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 29,500 kg (65,000 lb). Thrust: 980.00 kN (220,310 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Keldysh Research Center - Third name of Polyarniy Design Bureau.
Keldysh Sled - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Boosts Keldysh bomber to launch speed of 500 m/s. Mass estimated based on fuel consumed in 11 second boost phase. Status: Design 1946. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Thrust: 5,880.00 kN (1,321,870 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Kellogg - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Kellogg, USA.
Kellogg, William - American Meteorologist. William W. Kellogg was a meteorologist with the Rand Corp. between 1947 and 1959. Senior positions with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 1964-1987. Proposed value of satellite imaging of the earth's weather in 1951; established specifications for Tiros, the first weather satellite; began arguing amount human impact on the earth's climate from 1971. Born: 1917-02-14. Died: 2007-12-12.
Kelly - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Kelly Space and Technology, USA. Number: 2 . Duration: 26.72 days.
Kelly, James - American test pilot astronaut 1996-2010. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2010. Born: 1964-05-14. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 26.72 days.
Kelly, Mark - American test pilot astronaut 1996-2011. Twin brother of astronaut Scott Kelly. Grew up in West Orange, New Jersey. Flew 39 combat missions over Iraq. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2011. Born: 1964-02-21. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 54.09 days.
Kelly, Mervin - American physicist, at Bell Laboratories from 1934, President 1951-1959. Science advisor to NASA, 1961. Born: 1895-02-14. Died: 1971-03-18.
Kelly, Scott - American test pilot astronaut 1996-on. Twin brother of astronaut Mark Kelly. Status: Active 1996-on. Born: 1964-02-21. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 180.08 days.
Kelly, Thomas - American Chief Designer, at Grumman 1951-1992. Led development, test and flight of the Apollo Lunar Module1960-1972. Born: 1927. Died: 2002-03-24.
Kemper - German Physician. Captain, Military, German expert in biological warfare during World War II.
Kemurdzhian - Russian engineer. Chief Designer of VNII-100. Specialized in robotic lunar rovers.
Kennan - Alternate designation for KH-11 military surveillance satellite.
Kennedy - American politician, President of the United States, 1961-1963. Declared the goal of landing an American on the moon by 1970 in 1961 as a means of beating the Soviet Union in the space race. Born: 1916. Died: 1963-11-22.
Kennedy Space Center - Alternate name for Cape Canaveral launch site.
Kensche - German Luftwaffe test pilot.
Kent - American manufacturer. Kent, USA.
Kentron - South African manufacturer. Kentron, South Africa.
Kenya - Kenya
Kepler - NEED WRITEUP Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-03-07. Last Launch: 2009-03-07. Number: 1 .
Kepler, Johnnes - German scientist. Astronomer who derived the laws of planetary motion. Born: 1571-12-27. Died: 1630-11-15.
Kerguelen - Kerguelen Range. Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1963-04-01. Last Launch: 1981-07-29. Number: 186 .
Kerimov - Russian officer. First Commander of TsUKOS 1964-1965. Directorate Chief of Ministry of General Machine Building 1965-1974. Born: 1919-11-14.
Kermanshah - Kermanshah Air Base First Launch: 1985-03-01. Last Launch: 2001-04-18. Number: 20 .
Kern County - Kern County.
Kerosene - In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene.
Kerosene/LH2 - Tripropellant motors use high-density kerosene for the boost phase, then low-density, high-performance liquid hydrogen for the later stages of ascent. However the propellants are stored in separate tanks. The fuel density indicated is the average for the MAKS design, which burned 17,850 kg LH2 and 18,698 Kerosene to reach orbit using 175,758 kg of liquid oxygen oxidizer.
Kershner - American Chief Designer. Developer of the Transit navigation satellite system. Born: 1913-10-11. Died: 1982-02-01.
Kerwin - American physician astronaut 1965-1987. Member of first successful space station mission. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1987. Born: 1932-02-19. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 28.03 days.
Kestrel - SpaceX LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Upper stages. Hardware. Pintle architecture, designed to be a high efficiency, low pressure vacuum engine. Fed only by tank pressure, ablative cooled First flight 2006. Status: Hardware. Date: 2000-2004. Unfuelled mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Thrust: 30.70 kN (6,902 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Kettler - German Manager. Operations director of the Mittelwerk.
Kety - American physician, chair of NASA's bioscience advisory committee in 1959. Born: 1915-08-25. Died: 2000-05-25.
KEW-1 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (7 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense. Date: 1988. Thrust: 29 N (7 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
KEW-2 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (50 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense. Date: 1992. Thrust: 215 N (48 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
KEW-3 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (100 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense. Date: 1991. Thrust: 441 N (99 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
KEW-4 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (500 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense. Date: 1993. Thrust: 2.22 kN (498 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Keweenaw - Keweenaw Rocket Launch Site. In 1962 the University of Michigan proposed a launch site near the center of the North American continent. This would fill in a gap in the US Army's Meteorological Rocket Network. Following a survey of available sites a location on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Lake Superior was selected. The site was in use from 1964-1971. First Launch: 1964-08-01. Last Launch: 1971-01-31. Number: 7 .
Keyworth - American physicist, science advisor to President Reagan 1981-1986, former head of Los Alamos laboratory. Played key role in 'star wars' development controversy. Born: 1939.
KF - Mass model of DFH-3 satellite.
kg - kilograms (SI abbreviation)
KGB - Committee for State Security (Russian abbreviation)
KGB Dwarf - Russian phantom cosmonaut. Moscow urban legend of 1970: diminutive robot Lunokhod crawler was actually driven by a midget KGB agent on a one-way suicide mission to the lunar surface. Died: 1971-10-04.
KH- - Abbreviation for Key Hole
KH-1 - American military surveillance satellite. First US film reconnaissance satellite, and first polar orbiting satellite. Status: Operational 1959. First Launch: 1959-01-21. Last Launch: 1960-09-13. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 779 kg (1,717 lb).
KH-10 - Alternate name for MOL.
Kh-101 - Russian air-to-surface missile. Chelomei mobile-launched version of V-1 Status: Cancelled 1950.
Kh-102 - Russian air-to-surface missile. Chelomei mobile-launched version of V-1 Status: Cancelled 1950.
KH-11 - American military surveillance satellite. Also known as Kennan, Program 1010. Used systems developed for KH-10 Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-12-19. Last Launch: 1988-11-06. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 13,500 kg (29,700 lb).
KH-11B - Manufacturer's designation for Improved Crystal military surveillance satellite.
KH-12 - Alternate name for Misty.
KH-12 - Alternate designation for Improved Crystal military surveillance satellite.
KH-2 - American military surveillance satellite. Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried one 'C-Prime' panoramic camera, with a focal length of 61 cm and a ground resolution of 9 m. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-10-26. Last Launch: 1961-08-04. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 1,146 kg (2,526 lb).
KH-3 - American military surveillance satellite. Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried one 'C-Double Prime' panoramic camera, with a focal length of 61 cm and a ground resolution of 7.6 m. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-08-30. Last Launch: 1962-01-13. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb).
KH-4 - American military surveillance satellite. Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'Mural' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 7.6 m. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-02-27. Last Launch: 1963-12-21. Number: 31 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
KH-4A - American military surveillance satellite. Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'J-1' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 2.7 m. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-08-25. Last Launch: 1969-09-22. Number: 70 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
KH-4B - American military surveillance satellite. Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'J-3' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 1.8 m. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-09-15. Last Launch: 1972-05-25. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
KH-5 - American military surveillance satellite. US mapping satellite. Carried one frame camera, with a focal length of 76 mm, and a ground resolution of 140 m. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-02-17. Last Launch: 1964-08-21. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 1,274 kg (2,808 lb).
KH-6 - American military surveillance satellite. US reconnaissance satellite, lashed together to meet an emergency requirement for close-up imaging of a suspected Soviet ICBM site near Tallinn. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-03-18. Last Launch: 1963-07-31. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
KH-7 - American military surveillance satellite. US reconnaissance satellite. Still classified. Camera believed to have ground resolution of 0.46 m. Film returned in two capsules. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-07-12. Last Launch: 1967-06-04. Number: 43 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
KH-8 - American military surveillance satellite. Longest-lived and last US film-return reconnaissance satellite. Ground resolution 0.5 m. Film returned in two capsules. Typical life 50 days. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-07-29. Last Launch: 1984-04-17. Number: 61 . Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
KH-9 - American military surveillance satellite. Popularly known as 'Big Bird'. Titan 3C-class film-return reconnaissance satellite. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-06-15. Last Launch: 1986-04-18. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 11,400 kg (25,100 lb).
Khaleed - Malaysian physician cosmonaut, 2006-2007. Backup to first Malaysian in space. Status: Inactive; Active 2006-2007. Born: 1980-09-15.
Khatami - Khatami Air Base, located northeast of Isfahan, is a dual military/civilian facility, also known as Isfahan Shahid International Airport. Two tactical fighter squadrons are based there. Aerospace manufacturing and test facilities were being built there prior to the 1979 Iranian revolution by by Bell, Northrop, and Grumman. In the decades thereafter these were developed into aircraft overhaul and repair facilities. Manufacturing and research were accomplished by the Iranian military at Khatami in collaboration with the University of Isfahan, which designed most of Iran's remote piloted vehicles. It was believed the Iran-140 tactical rocket was manufacturered here.
Khatulev - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1980. Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1980. Born: 1947-02-26.
Kheysa - Soviet arctic sounding rocket launch site. First Launch: 1957-11-04. Last Launch: 2008-09-11. Number: 1967 .
Kheysa KRE - Krenkel Polar Station, Kheysa Island
Khludeyev - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1965-1988. Graduated from Kiev AF Academy of Engineering, 1962. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Worked as research scientist at the Gagarin Center. Involved in the Buran program from 1986-1988. Died of a heart attack. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1988. Born: 1940-09-10. Died: 1995-09-15.
Khmelnitskiy - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1993, equipped with 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100/UR-100N) and possibly operating some R-12 launchers. In the 1950's this was the base for units deployed with two R-1 launchers.
Khokhlov - Russian bureaucrat. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1983. Responsible for quality control.
Kholod - Turbo-ramjet powered rocket launch aircraft. Mikoyan supersonic cargo aircraft, designed from Spiral 50-50 design. Combined-cycle turbo-ramjet engine. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, Mach 5 at 25 to 30 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 1130 m/s. Status: Study. Gross mass: 550,000 kg (1,210,000 lb). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Khomenchuk - Russian engineer cosmonaut 2010-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 2010-2012. Born: 1975-07-01.
Khomyakov - Russian engineer. Deputy General Designer of NPO Energia. At Korolev design bureau, he was lead designer for Sputnik.
Khristianovich - Russian specialist in fluid mechanics. His work at TsAGI was important in the early design of ballistic missiles up to 1953. From 1953 he worked at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics in Novosibirsk. Born: 1908-10-27.
KHRU - GKNPTs im. M.V. Khrunichev, Zavod Khrunichev
Khrunichev - Russian bureaucrat. Minister of Aviation Industries 1946-1953. Later in Gosplan. Born: 1901-04-04. Died: 1961-06-02.
Khrunichev Engineer Group - 1997 - Requirement: engineer for flights to Mir. Date: 1997.
Khrunov - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1980. Member of first crew to transfer between spacecraft. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1980. Born: 1933-09-10. Died: 2000-05-19. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 1.99 days.
Khrushchev - Russian politician. Leader of the USSR from 1956 to 1964. Born: 1894-04-05. Died: 1971-09-11.
Khrushchev, Sergei - Russian engineer. Deputy Department Chief 1958-1968 at the Chelomei design bureau. Son of Nikita Khrushchev. Born: 1935-07-02.
KHUSAT - 3U Cubesat from Kyung Hee University, Seoul, to join the CINEMA constellation.
KIar - German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France as part of the structures group at LRBA from 1946 to 1955.
Kicksat - Cubesat for Cornell University's Space Systems Design Studio. The satellite had a mass of 2.68 kg, of which 0.52 kg was to have been ejected on May 4 in the form of 104 tiny 5-gram Sprites, circuit boards which acted as independent satellites with small t
Kieffer - German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France as head of the ballistics group at LRBA from 1947 to 1949. Then returned to Germany.
Kiev - Base for units deployed with six R-5 launchers.
KIK - Command-Tracking Complex (Russian abbreviation)
Kikina - Russia engineer cosmonaut 2012- . Status: Active 2012-on. Born: 1984-08-27.
Kiku - Post-launch name for ETS.
Kikuchi - Japanese journalist cosmonaut, 1989-1990. Graduated from the University of Tokyo in Chinese language Journalist, Tokyo Broadcasting Corporation. Reporter for world news with TBS, reporting from Moscow and then again from Tokyo. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1990. Born: 1964-09-15.
Killian - American scientist, president of MIT 1949-1965, served as Eisenhower's science advisor 1957-1959 in order to establish a national response to the Sputnik launch by the Soviet Union. Born: 1904. Died: 1988-01-01.
Kilrain - American test pilot astronaut 1994-2002. US Navy test pilot. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2002. Born: 1961-10-24. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 19.67 days.
Kimball - American businessman, Vice President of Sales at General Tire, before becoming Head of Aerojet, 1944-1969, transforming it from an undisciplined group of rocket enthusiasts to the second largest US rocket engine manufacturer. Born: 1896-03-01. Died: 1970-07-30.
Kimbrough - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 2004-on. US Army Status: Active 2004-on. Born: 1967-06-04. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.85 days.
Kimiya - Japanese pilot mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1970.
Kimotsuki - Alternate name for Kagoshima launch site.
Kincheloe - American test pilot, 1956-1958. Grew up Cassopolis, Michigan, son of an automotive engineer. Flew the X-2; killed in an F-104 crash, when it flamed out after take-off. Status: Deceased. Born: 1928-07-02. Died: 1958-07-26.
Kindelberger - President, North American Aviation, 1934-1948; Chairman, CEO 1948-1960. Under his leadership NAA became the leading US supplier of fighters (P-51, F-86, F-100), high speed craft (Navaho, X-15, B-70), inertial navigation, and rocket engines. Born: 1895-05-08. Died: 1962-01-01.
Kindley - Kindley AFB. Weather rocket launch site. First Launch: 1962-01-21. Last Launch: 1971-06-21. Number: 21 .
Kindley COOP - Deacon, Arcas launch complex. Kindley AFB, Coopers Island
King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology - Alternate name for KACST.
Kinshachi - Alternate designation for ChubuSat.
KIP - Abbreviation for Command and Tracking System
Kirari - Japanese communications satellite. Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite. Its laser communications experiment was be used in with ESA's Artemis geostationary satellite. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-08-23. Last Launch: 2005-08-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 570 kg (1,250 lb).
Kirgiz AF - Kirgiz Air Force.
Kirgiz Group - 1996 - Requirement: pilots from Kyrgyzstan to visit Mir space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission. Date: 1996.
Kirillin - Russian physicist, Deputy Chairmen of the Council of Ministers and Chairman of the State Committee for Science and Technology 1965-1980. Born: 1913. Died: 1999-01-01.
Kirillov - Russian officer. Chief of the First Directorate of Baikonur 1960-1967. Born: 1924-12-31. Died: 1987-03-30.
Kiritimati - Kiritimati (Christmas Island) in the Pacific Ocean was originally selected by Von Braun in his Collier magazine series of the early 1950's as an ideal equatorial launch site. A half century later, Boeing Sea Launch used an offshore location for orbital launches. The launch platform was a seagoing converted Norwegian offshore oil rig. Between missions it was berthed in Long Beach, California. It was towed to a location off Kiritimati for launches of the Ukrainian Zenit-3 launch vehicle. First Launch: 1999-03-28. Last Launch: 2014-05-26. Number: 36 .
Kirkuk - First Launch: 2003-03-27. Last Launch: 2003-03-27. Number: 1 .
Kiruna - The sounding rocket launch site at Kiruna was officially opened in September 1966 under the auspices of ESRO (European Space Research Organisation). When ESA was created in 1972 and replaced ESRO, Kiruna came under the management of the Swedish Space Corporation, a state-owned limited liability company under the Swedish Ministry of Industry. The 'Esrange' is located 45 km from the town of Kiruna and has seven permanent pads able to launch the largest sounding rockets, including the Black Brant 9, Skylark 12, and Castor 4B-boosted vehicles. First Launch: 1966-11-19. Last Launch: 2014-05-29. Number: 535 .
Kiruna A - Aries launch complex. Aries/Maxus tower. First Launch: 1976-03-30. Last Launch: 2010-03-26. Number: 13 .
Kiruna C - Belier launch complex. Centaure launcher First Launch: 1966-11-19. Last Launch: 1982-08-03. Number: 57 .
Kiruna L - Super Loki/Viper Launchers. First Launch: 1980-11-07. Last Launch: 2005-01-10. Number: 101 .
Kiruna MRL - Black Brant launch complex. MRL Launcher. First Launch: 1977-10-21. Last Launch: 2011-07-21. Number: 25 .
Kiruna N - Nike launchers (West and East) First Launch: 1967-04-07. Last Launch: 1981-12-16. Number: 63 .
Kiruna S - Skylark launch complex. Skylark Tower. First Launch: 1968-03-26. Last Launch: 2013-07-15. Number: 99 .
KIS - Abbreviation for Command-Tracking System
Kiselyov - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1966. Born: 1934-01-13.
Kisha I 4.4KS4800 - PRI solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 21.00 kN (4,720 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kisha Judi - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kisha + 1 x Judi III Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1961-01-01. Last Launch: 1961-01-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 21.00 kN (4,720 lbf).
Kisha Judi-1 - Alternate name for Kisha I 4.4KS4800.
Kisha Judi-2 - Alternate name for Judi-III 1.9KS2100.
Kisouchou (Japan Meteorological Agency) - Alternate name for JMA.
Kissinger - American academic, US National Security Assistant, 1969-1973; Secretary of State, 1973-1977. Pursued détente with Soviet Union, leading to missile reductions, ABM/ASAT agreements, and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Born: 1923-05-27.
Kistiakowsky - American chemist, associated with the development of the atomic bomb, and later an advocate of banning nuclear weapons. Born: 1900-11-18. Died: 1982-12-01.
Kistler - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Kistler, USA.
Kistler 1 - Alternate designation for Kistler Stage 1.
Kistler 2 - Alternate designation for Kistler Stage 2.
Kistler K-1 - American low-cost orbital launch vehicle. The Kistler K-1 was a reusable two-stage launch vehicle developed by a prestigious team of ex-Apollo managers, designed originally for launch of Iridium-class communications satellites to medium altitude earth orbit. Kistler began development but had to file for Chapter 11 protection before detailed hardware fabrication was completed. It emerged from bankruptcy in 2005, and merged with suborbital startup Rocketplane to form Rocketplane Kistler. On 8 November 2006, it was announced that Alliant Techsystems, as lead contractor, would complete the K-1 launch vehicle, with Rocketplane Kistler as a subcontractor, under NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program. Status: Development. Gross mass: 382,300 kg (842,800 lb). Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 4,540.00 kN (1,020,630 lbf).
Kistler OV - American space tug. Study 2012. The Kistler reusable launch vehicle concept included a reusable, recoverable second stage, dubbed the 'Orbital Vehicle', with an integral cargo module. Status: Study 2012. Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Payload: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb).
Kistler Stage 1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Stage burns for 35 seconds to place itself on return-to-launch-site trajectory for recovery. Therefore to calculate performance 12,400 kg propellants for flight back to launch site should be added to empty mass. Empty mass also includes six parachutes, landing bags, and is calculated, based by apportioning total vehicle empty mass. Status: In development. Gross mass: 250,000 kg (550,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20,500 kg (45,100 lb). Thrust: 5,049.40 kN (1,135,150 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Kistler Stage 2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Empty mass includes payload bay, heat shield, parachutes, and landing bag for recovery at base. Empty mass calculated based by apportioning total vehicle empty mass. Status: In development. Gross mass: 131,000 kg (288,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,100 kg (28,800 lb). Thrust: 1,769.10 kN (397,710 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Kisunko - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1953-1975 of KB-1 and later of OKB-30. Led work on early anti-ballistic missiles and ASATs. Born: 1918-07-20. Died: 1998-01-01.
Kitsat - South Korean technology satellite. South Korean indigenous 50-kg-class small satellite series, developed originally with technology transfer from Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-09-26. Last Launch: 1999-05-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Kitsat - Korean's first satellite achieved via a technology transfer program with Surrey Satellite Technology. Carried store and forward communications, DSP and Earth observation payloads. Still operational in 2000. Used the SSTL-70 bus.
Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cherry St Building - Alternate name for KPNO.
Kittaeryong - Alternate name for Gitdaeryung launch site.
Kitten - American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital rocketplane concept of Kittyhawk of Oroville, Washington. Status: Study 2004.
Kitty - American sounding rocket developed to measure winds aloft in support of nuclear tests.
Kitty Hawk/Antares - Alternate name for Apollo 14.
Kittyhawk - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Kittyhawk, USA.
Kiva 5.5KS6100 - RPI solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 24 kg (52 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Kiva stage series -
Kiva/Hopi - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kiva + 1 x Hopi. Launched by the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory on aeronomy missions 1960-1963. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1960-06-21. Last Launch: 1963-05-11. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf).
Kiva/Hopi-1 - Alternate name for Kiva 5.5KS6100.
Kiva/Hopi-2 - Alternate name for Hopi 3.0KS4000.
Kiwi - Ground-test reactor for nuclear propulsion research .
Kizim - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1965-1987. Member of first crew to fly between two space stations during a single mission. 374 cumulative days in space. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1987. Born: 1941-08-05. Died: 2010-06-14. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 374.75 days.
Kizlitsyn - Russian military officer.
Kizuna - Japanese communications satellite. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-02-23. Last Launch: 2008-02-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb).
KK - Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1966. Work on the TMK project continued, including trajectory trade-off studies and refinement of the design. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). Thrust: 61 N (14 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
KKO-15 - Russian pressure suit, operational 1989. Protective partial pressure suit was used by pilots of Russian high-performance combat aircraft. It featured better performance and G-protection than earlier models . Status: operational 1989.
KKO-3 - Russian pressure suit, operational 1955. The KKO-3 was the first mass-produced Soviet partial pressure suit. It was very similar to the US MC-3 of the same period. Status: operational 1955.
KKO-5 - Russian pressure suit, operational 1961. The KKO-5 partial pressure suit was introduced for pilots of Mach 2 aircraft such as the MiG-21 and Su-9 at the beginning of the 1960's. It represented the largest production run of any pressure suit model. Status: operational 1961.
KKS - Japanese picosatellite built by Kouku-kosen, the Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering, carrying an Earth imager. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-01-23. Last Launch: 2009-01-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb).
KL - Lunar Spacecraft (Russian abbreviation)
Klaus - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1914-05-09. Died: 1986-01-01.
KLC - Alternate name for Kodiak.
KLE Complex Lunar Expedition - Russian manned lunar base. Chelomei's design for a lunar base, studied 1964 to 1974 as a UR-700-launched predecessor or alternative to Barmin's DLB. Status: Study 1964. Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb).
Klein - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1915-03-10. Died: 1998-12-28.
Kleinwaechter - German engineer in WW2; later worked in Egypt 1960-1963.
Kliewe - German expert in biological warfare during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Klimov - Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Klimov, Russia.
Klimuk - Belarusian pilot cosmonaut 1965-1982. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1982. Born: 1942-07-10. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 78.76 days.
Klinger - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Kliper - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 2004. The Kliper manned spacecraft replacement for Soyuz was first announced at a Moscow news conference on 17 February 2004. Status: Study 2004. Gross mass: 12,500 kg (27,500 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Klippel - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Electrical Circuits; Shop 55. Born: 1917-08-26.
Klyushnikova - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1979-1986. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training from October 1979 - July 1980. Did not complete training, when the government commission did not confirm his selection. Status: Inactive. Born: 1953-10-14.
km - kilometer(s)
KM-D - Alternate designation for HIMES Rockoon.
KM-D - Nissan solid rocket engine. HIMES Rockoon first stage. Status: Retired 1992. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Propellants: Solid.
KM-H - Nissan solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1978. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13 kg (28 lb). Propellants: Solid.
KMV - Mars Venus Spacecraft (Russian abbreviation)
Knack - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. Born: 1903-07-13.
Knauer - German expert in rocket designer during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Knight - American test pilot astronaut 1962-1963. Status: Deceased; Active 1962-1963. Born: 1929-11-18. Died: 2004-05-07. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.0070 days.
KNITs - Russian agency. KNITs, Russia.
Knittel - German precision mechanic, in the rocket team in Russia. Worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's bureau 1947-1952 in the Test Bench and Laboratory Departments. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. Born: 1919-10-22.
Knopow - American engineer, at Lockheed in the 1950s developed the infrared radiometer, used to track and target aircraft and missiles.
Ko San - Korean scientist cosmonaut, 2006-2008. Status: Inactive; Active 2006-2008. Born: 1976-10-19.
Kobalt - Code name for Yantar-4K1.
Kobalt - Code name for Yantar-4K2 military surveillance satellite.
Kobalt-M - Alternate name for Yantar-4K1.
Kodak - American manufacturer. Kodak, USA.
Kodama - Alternate designation for DRTS communications satellite.
Kodiak - In January 1998, the Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation began building a commercial spaceport at Narrow Cape on Kodiak Island, about 400 km south of Anchorage and 40 km southwest of the City of Kodiak. Kodiak Island was advertised as one of the best locations in the world for polar launch operations, providing a wide launch azimuth and unobstructed downrange flight path.
Koelle - Visionary German-American engineer, worked at Huntsville as Director of Future Projects for von Braun 1955-1965. Headed Lunex moon base project; key role in engine selection for Saturn. Taught in Germany at TUB after 1965. Advocate of SSTO. Born: 1925-07-22. Died: 2011-02-20.
Koellner - German pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1978. Status: Inactive; Active 1976-1978. Born: 1939-09-29.
Koenig - German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 in the test stand group. Died in 1969. Died: 1969-01-01.
Koenig, Rudi - German V-2 test engineer during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Koestner - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Kohl - German rocket technician; later worked in France as part of armature group at LRBA from 1947.
Koku Ucyu Gijyutsu Kenkyujyo (National Aerospace Lab) - Alternate name for NAL.
Kokuritsu kyokuchi kenkyuusho - Alternate name for NIPR.
Kola Peninsula Launch Area - Submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area known to have been used for 3 launches in 1961, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude.
Kolesnikov - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1967. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1967. Born: 1936-10-07.
Kolibor - Russian earth seismology satellite. Study 1998. The Kolibor microsatellite platform of KB Arsenal was a universal development of that designed for the Predvestnik earthquake monitoring system. Status: Study 1998. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
Kolibri - Russian technology satellite. Kolibri was a joint Russian-Australian educational project to allow school children to monitor low frequency waves and particle fluxes in low orbit. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-03-19. Last Launch: 2002-03-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 21 kg (46 lb).
Kollert - German expert in rockets during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Kolodin - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1983. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1983. Born: 1930-09-23.
Kolomiya - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1990. In the 1950's it was a base for units deployed with two R-2 launchers. Probably during the period as an RVSN division it operated R-12 missiles.
Kolomiytsev - Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1968. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1968. Born: 1933-01-29. Died: 2012-07-16.
Koltso - Alternate designation for Koltso ICBM.
Koltso - Russian military target satellite. Cosmos 1786. Calibration mission. Tentatively identified as third generation replacement for Taifun-2, perhaps to have been launched by the Tsyklon 3 launch vehicle. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-10-22. Last Launch: 1986-10-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
Koltso ICBM - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Koltso was a Yuzhnoye advanced ICBM, subject of decrees of 29 September 1976 and 31 May 1984. Development was authorized by the project was cancelled after the collapse of the ICBM. Status: Cancelled 1991.
Komarov - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1967. First person to die during spaceflight when the parachute lines of Soyuz 1 tangled and it crashed to earth. Cosmonaut training March 1960 - 3 April 1961. Call sign: Rubin (Ruby). Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1967. Born: 1927-03-16. Died: 1967-04-24. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 2.13 days.
Kometa - TsNPO Kometa, Moscow, Russia
Kometa - Manufacturer's designation for Yantar-1KFT military surveillance satellite.
Kompas - Russian earth seismology satellite. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-12-10. Last Launch: 2006-05-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb).
KOMPSAT - South Korean communications technology satellite. KOMPSAT was the first joint spacecraft development project for the South Korean aerospace agency KARI (Korea Aerospace Research Institute). Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-12-21. Last Launch: 2015-03-25. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 470 kg (1,030 lb).
KOMPSAT-2 - South Korean civilian surveillance satellite. Kompsat 2. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-07-28. Last Launch: 2006-07-28. Number: 1 .
Komsomolskaya Pravda - Komsomolskaya Pravda, Russian newspaper.
Kondakova - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1989-1999. Engineer, first Russian woman to fly in space for other than propaganda reasons. Was married to astronaut Valeriy Ryumin. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1999. Born: 1957-03-30. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 178.45 days.
Kondor - Russian communications satellite. Study 1997. The Khrunichev State Space Research and Production Center (including the Salyut Design Bureau), proposed the Kondor communications system for mobile users. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-06-27. Last Launch: 2014-12-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Kondratiyev - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1997-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 1997-2012. Born: 1969-05-25. Spaceflights: 1 .
Kongjian Shiyan - 173 gram picosat, also called Ziging-2, deployed from Naxing-2. Built by the Xi'an University of Electronic Science and Technology (Xidian) in Jiangxi.
Kongsberg - Norwegian manufacturer. Kongsberg Gruppen ASA, Norway.
Kongsberg Vaapenfabrik - First name of Kongsberg.
Koninklijke Luchtmacht (KLu), Groep Geleide Wapens, LMB De Peel - Alternate name for RNAF.
Kononenko - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1996-on. 391 cumulative days in space. Status: Active 1996-on. Born: 1964-06-21. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 391.47 days.
Kononenko, Oleg G - Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1977-1980. Graduated from Zhukovsky Air Force Institute, 1975. Cosmonaut training December 1978 - July 1980. Status: Deceased; Active 1977-1980. Born: 1938-08-16. Died: 1980-09-08.
Konopalev - Russian engineer. Specialized in guidance at Nll-885, Nll-695, and OKB-692. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe. Born: 1912. Died: 1960-10-24.
Konopatov - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1965-1993 of the Kosberg design bureau. Led work on rocket engines. Born: 1922-03-10.
Konrad - American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1988. Systems engineer and fluid mechanics specialist at Hughes Aircraft. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1988. Born: 1949-03-12.
Konsberg Vaapenfabrik - Alternate name for Kongsberg.
Kontogiannis - American engineer, lead for the Titan 4/Centaur and Atlas V. Born: 1965-10-15.
Konus-A - Russian gamma ray astronomy satellite. Study 1995. The Konus-A scientific satellite was developed in 1995-1997 for the Russian Academy of Science and flown as Cosmos 2326. Status: Flown 1995. Gross mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb).
Konvert - Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. The Elas Scientific Production Association was a principal participant in the proposed Kuryer communications system of Konvert spacecraft. Status: Study 1995. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Konyukhov - Ukrainian chief designer. General Designer and Chief of KB Yuzhnoye 1991-2010, developed satellites and launch vehicles, kept the Ukrainian space launch industry alive through commercial sales of the Zenit / Sea Launch commercial booster. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Born: 1937-06-12. Died: 2011-04-03.
Kookaburra - Australian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Lupus + 1 x Musca Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1972-12-13. Number: 40 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Kookaburra 2 - Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1973-09-19. Last Launch: 1976-02-25. Number: 4 .
Kookaburra 3 - Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1976-06-30. Last Launch: 1976-06-30. Number: 1 .
Kookaburra-1 - Alternate name for Lupus.
Kookaburra-2 - Alternate name for Musca.
Kopernikus - Multipurpose communications satellite series for the German Bundespost.
Kopra - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 2000-on. Status: Active 2000-on. Born: 1963-04-09. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 58.12 days.
Koptev - Russian engineer, headed spacecraft design at Lavochkin 1965-1992, including ambitious generation of lunar and planetary probes. General Director of the Russian Space Agency 1992-2004. Born: 1940-03-13.
Kopye-R - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Kopye-R was a Yuzhnoye advanced ICBM, subject of a draft project completed in February 1986. Development was authorized by the project was cancelled after the collapse of the ICBM. Status: Cancelled 1991.
Korabl-Sputnik - Soviet cover name for tests of the Vostok spacecraft prior to the first manned spaceflight.
KORD - Engine Operation Control (system) (Russian abbreviation). Normally refers to the elaborate automatic system on the N1 booster that would monitor engine health, shut down any failing engine and its opposite number, allowing continued operation of the cluster until the required stage performance was reached.
Korea - Korea
Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite - Alternate designation for KOMPSAT communications technology satellite.
Korea North - Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Chongon)
Korea Sounding Rocket-I - Alternate designation for KSR-I.
Korea Sounding Rocket-II - Alternate designation for KSR-II.
Korea Sounding Rocket-III - Alternate designation for KSR-III.
Korea South - South Korea became familiar with large-scale rocketry through maintenance and modification activities on American-supplied Honest John and Nike Hercules tactical missiles. By the 1990's Korea had developed an independent capability to manufacture solid propellant rocket motors of up to one metric ton mass. In 1990 KARI was funded to build the first indigenous sounding rockets, flown as the KSR-I and KSR-II. In December 1997 KARI was allowed to proceed with development of liquid oxygen/kerosene rocket motor for an orbital launcher, but this was abandoned when the South Korean government decided it wanted to be among the top ten spacefaring nations by 2015. The existing program was too limited in growth potential to allow that. Therefore it was decided to leapfrog the technology by contracting with Russian companies. First launch of the KSLV-I launch vehicle from the new space center took place in 2010.
Korea Space Launch Vehicle-I - Alternate designation for Naro-1.
Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II - Alternate designation for KSLV-II.
Korea Space Launch Vehicle-III - Alternate designation for KSLV-III.
Korean Peoples Army - Korean Peoples Army.
Koreasat - Korean communications satellite network.
Koreasat - Korean communications satellite with 15 Ku-band transponders; boosted into geosynchronous orbit by satellite thrusters following Delta failure that left satellite in LEO; unplanned use of satellite propellant cut usable satellite lifetime by approximately 50 percent. Stationed at 116.0 deg E. Used the AS 3000 bus.
KoreaTel - Korea Telecom, Seoul, Korea South
Korla Missile Test Center - Alternate name for Urumqi.
Korneyev - Russian officer. Major General, Chief of 4 NII MO and 50 TsNII KS from 1970-1975. Born: 1916.
Korniyenko - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1998-on. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute, 1987 Worked as an engineer at KBOM, then transferred to RKKE. Cosmonaut training completed November 19, 1999. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1960-04-15. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 176.05 days.
Korolev - Alternate designation for Korolev bureau.
Korolev - Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for creating the first long range ballistic missiles, the first space launchers, the first artificial satellite, and putting the first man in space. After his premature death the Soviets lagged in space. Born: 1907-01-12. Died: 1966-01-14.
Korolev bureau - Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines, Kaliningrad, Russia.
Korolev Rocket Plane - Russian manned rocketplane. Study 1938. Korolev was already sketching rocketplanes similar to the Me-163 before World War II. This was one concept from his sketchbook. Status: Study 1938.
Koronas - Launch delayed from July 25. Koronas-F was a Russian solar observatory that pointed toward Sun within 10 arc-minutes to conduct a variety of observations. It carried X-ray monitors to locate sources within 1 arc-sec. Used the AUOS bus.
Koroni - Sounding rocket launch location. Beach launch area.
Koroni LP1 - Arcas offshore launch point. First Launch: 1966-05-15. Last Launch: 1966-05-21. Number: 7 .
Koroni LP2 - Arcas beach launch area
Korsakov - Russian pilot astronaut 2012- . Status: Active 2012-on. Born: 1984-09-01.
Korund - Code name for Molniya-1T military communications satellite.
Korzun - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1987-2003. 381 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Fregat (Frigate). Status: Inactive; Active 1987-2003. Born: 1953-03-05. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 381.65 days.
KOS - Quantum-optical system (Russian abbreviation)
Kosberg - Alternate designation for Kosberg bureau.
Kosberg - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1941-1965 of OKB-154. Led work on engines for ICBMs and launchers. Born: 1903-12-14. Died: 1965-01-03.
Kosberg bureau - Russian manufacturer of rocket engines.
Kosmichesikiye voyska Rossii - Alternate name for KVR.
Kosmoplan - Russian Mars orbiter. Cancelled 1965. Beginning in the late 1950's, Chelomei began studying use of his encapsulated cruise missile technology for spacecraft. A whole family of unmanned spacecraft, dubbed Kosmoplans, would be built using modular elements. Status: Cancelled 1965. Gross mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb).
Kosmoreporter - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-11 Kosmoreporter.
Kosmos 1 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 65S3.
Kosmos 11K63 - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Series production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-12 IRBM. Succeeded 63S1M prototype from 1965, using same 'Dvina' launch complex. From March 16, 1967 orbital launches from Plesetsk were from the purpose-built 'Raduga' launch complex LC133. Total of 123 launches, of which 8 were failures. Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1965-10-19. Last Launch: 1977-06-18. Number: 126 . Gross mass: 48,110 kg (106,060 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 636.50 kN (143,091 lbf).
Kosmos 11K65 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Initial serial production version was the Kosmos-3, built at the Krasnoyarsk Machine Factory. Flew only four times, with two failures, before being succeeded by the modernized production version under the responsibility of NPO Polyot. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1966-11-16. Last Launch: 1968-08-27. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 107,500 kg (236,900 lb). Payload: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 1,477.82 kN (332,227 lbf).
Kosmos 11K65M - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage Status: Active. First Launch: 1967-05-15. Last Launch: 2010-04-27. Number: 446 . Gross mass: 109,000 kg (240,000 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 1,486.00 kN (334,066 lbf).
Kosmos 2 - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. In 1960 the Soviet government decreed development of a lightweight launch vehicle for launch of payloads not requiring R-7 family of boosters. A modification of the R-12 IRBM was selected as the first stage; a new high-performance second stage was developed using a unique LOx/UDMH propellant combination. After two failures, the first successful flight was on March 16, 1962. Status: Retired 1977.
Kosmos 2I - Alternate designation for Kosmos 63S1.
Kosmos 2I - Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K63.
Kosmos 2M - Alternate designation for Kosmos 63S1M.
Kosmos 3 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. Status: Active.
Kosmos 3 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K65.
Kosmos 3M - Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K65M.
Kosmos 3MP - Alternate designation for Kosmos 65MP.
Kosmos 63S1 - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The 63S1 initial production version was used through May 1966 for a total of 40 launches, of which 12 were failures. It was succeeded by the 63S1M prototype for the 11K63 production space launcher. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1961-10-27. Last Launch: 1967-12-19. Number: 38 . Gross mass: 48,110 kg (106,060 lb). Payload: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 636.50 kN (143,091 lbf).
Kosmos 63S1M - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Modernized version of 63S1 initial configuration of the first Kosmos launcher and the prototype for the production 11K63 launch vehicle. Suborbital launches from Plesetsk from 1965 at from the modified R-12 silo 'Dvina'. Flown only a few times in 1965-1967. Succeeded by the 11K63 production model launched from the 'Raduga' complex. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 48,110 kg (106,060 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 636.50 kN (143,091 lbf).
Kosmos 65MP - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Adaptation of 11K65M launcher for suborbital and single orbit test of subscale prototypes of Spiral and Buran manned spaceplanes (BOR-4 and BOR-5). Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 107,500 kg (236,900 lb). Payload: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 1,477.82 kN (332,227 lbf).
Kosmos 65S3 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Prototype of light satellite launcher using as a first stage the Yangel R-14 (8K65) IRBM. The prototype system was launched eight times before production was handed over to the Krasnoyarsk Machine Factory. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-08-18. Last Launch: 1965-12-28. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 107,500 kg (236,900 lb). Payload: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 1,477.82 kN (332,227 lbf).
Kosmos A-1 - Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 39,515 kg (87,115 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Thrust: 730.50 kN (164,223 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
Kosmos-1 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Launch count 411 orbital and ca. 300 suborbital to end 1994. Failures based on proration of failures to orbit. Status: Active. Gross mass: 87,200 kg (192,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,300 kg (11,600 lb). Thrust: 1,740.02 kN (391,173 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Kostenko - Russian businessman, cosmonaut training 2005, backup to Gregory Olsen for the space tourist seat on Soyuz TMA-7. Status: Inactive; Active 2005-2005. Born: 1963-04-20.
Kosters - German Manager. Director of the Special Work Unit for A4 Transport.
Kostin - Alternate designation for Kostin bureau.
Kostin - Soviet Engineer. Soviet rocket engineer
Kostin bureau - Russian manufacturer of missiles based on WWII German designs.
Kostroma - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Operated 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100). 60 of these were later converted to MR-UR-100. After these were retired 12 RT-23 mobile launchers were headquartered here. First Launch: 1969-07-24. Last Launch: 1987-05-23. Number: 25 .
Koszelak - American biologist payload specialist astronaut, 1989-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1992. Born: 1953-10-20.
Kotelnikov - Russian engineer. At OKB MEI 1947-1954 and then at the Institute of Radio Technology and Electronics. Born: 1908-09-06. Died: 2005-09-11.
Kotov - Russian physician cosmonaut 1996-on. Russian Air Force; MD from Moscow Sergei M. Kirov Military Medicine Academy, 1980 . Worked in the TsPK, medical department. Status: Active 1996-on. Born: 1965-10-27. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 526.21 days.
Kounotori - Alternate name for HTV.
Kourou - After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. First Launch: 1968-04-09. Last Launch: 2014-08-22. Number: 449 .
Kourou ALFS - Veronique, Stromboli, Skua, Cajun, Belier, Arcas launch complex. Aire de Lancement Fusee-Sondes First Launch: 1968-09-26. Last Launch: 1979-11-14. Number: 64 .
Kourou ALFS V - Ensemble Veronique, Aire de Lancement Fusee-Sondes First Launch: 1968-04-09. Last Launch: 1975-05-31. Number: 11 .
Kourou CECLES - Aire de Lancement CECLES First Launch: 1971-03-05. Last Launch: 1971-11-05. Number: 2 .
Kourou Diamant - Diamant launch complex. Aire de Lancement Diamant First Launch: 1970-03-10. Last Launch: 1975-09-27. Number: 8 .
Kourou ELA1 - Europa, Cajun, Ariane launch complex. Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 1 First Launch: 1979-12-24. Last Launch: 1989-07-12. Number: 25 .
Kourou ELA2 - Ariane launch complex. Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 2 First Launch: 1986-03-28. Last Launch: 2003-02-15. Number: 119 .
Kourou ELA3 - Ariane 5 launch complex. Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 3 First Launch: 1996-06-04. Last Launch: 2014-07-29. Number: 75 .
Kourou ELS - Ensemble de Lancement Soyuz First Launch: 2011-10-21. Last Launch: 2014-08-22. Number: 9 .
Kourou ELV - Vega launch complex. Zone de Lancement Zone de Lancement Vega. First Launch: 2012-02-13. Last Launch: 2014-04-30. Number: 3 .
Kourou ZLS -
Kourou ZLV -
Kovalyonok - Belarusian pilot cosmonaut 1967-1984. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1984. Born: 1942-03-03. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 216.38 days.
Kovtunenko - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer of NPO Lavochkin 1977-1995. Kovtunenko started his career at the Yangel design bureau, where was responsible for satellite design. Born: 1921-08-31. Died: 1995-07-10.
Kozelsk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Originally R-9 ICBM launchers were controlled from here. Later 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100) were built. By the time of installation of the updated UR-100N only 70 silos remained operational.
Kozelsky - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Kachinsk, 1963; Monino, 1981. Later Deputy Mir Flight Director. Retired in 1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1983. Born: 1942-01-12.
Kozeyev - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1996-2007. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2007. Born: 1967-12-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.83 days.
Kozlov - Alternate designation for Kozlov bureau.
Kozlov - Russian Chief Designer. Lead Designer for the R-7 ICBM, then headed Samara bureau for production engineering for the Soyuz rocket, Zenit and Yantar reconnaissance satellites. Born: 1919-10-01.
Kozlov bureau - Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Samara, Russia.
Kozlov Central Specialized Design Bureau - Alternate name for Kozlov bureau.
Kozlov, Frol - Russian politician. Secretary of Central Committee for defense and space 1960-1963. Born: 1908-08-18. Died: 1965-01-30.
Kozlov, Vladimir - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1970-1973. Graduated from Higher Air Force School of Pilots, 1968 Soviet Air Force parachutist. Left cosmonaut group due to medical problems. Served on Russian Air Force Staff. Retired as a Colonel on 6 March 1996. Status: Deceased; Active 1970-1973. Born: 1945-10-20. Died: 2012-03-02.
KP - Choson Minjujuui Inmin Konghwaguk
KP (abbreviation) - Potassium perchlorate
KPNO - American agency. Kitt Peak National Observatory, USA.
KPSS - Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian abbreviation)
KR - Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. The KR (winged rocket) was a three-stage unmanned boost-glide missile developed at the Tupolev's OKB-156. Work began in 1957. Two alternates were considered for the first stage: a conventional liquid rocket or a special manned aircraft launcher. The second stage was a conventional rocket. The final winged stage included a propulsion section and nuclear warhead. The glider would cut-off at an altitude of 50 km and a velocity of 20,000 km/hr. Planned-over target speed was 7,000 km/hr at 30 km altitude. Work on the project continued only about a year before it was abandoned in favor of the more conventional Tu-123 supersonic cruise missile. The KR would have had a gross weight of 240 metric tons, and delivered a payload of 3 to 5 metric tons over a range of 9,000 to 12,000 km. Status: Study 1957. Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
KR-500 - Alternate designation for R-500.
Kraehe - German rocket technician during World War II; later worked in France as part of the armature group at LRBA 1947-1959; then worked with Saenger in Stuttgart, followed by a return to France and employment with ELDO, and then ESA, in Paris.
Kraft - American engineer at NASA 1945-1982, headed manned spaceflight mission control during Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo projects. Born: 1924-02-28.
Kramarenko - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1969. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1969. Born: 1942-11-08. Died: 2002-04-13.
Kramer - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA in the radio beam guidance group in the automated control loop department 1947-1952.
Kramer, Max - German Engineer. Technical designer of the guided rocket bomb X4 during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
Kranz - American Engineer. Flight controller during Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo.
Krasnoyarsk - Alternate name for Gladkaya/Krasnoyarsk.
Krasnyy Oktyabr Joint Stock Company - Fourth name of Izotov bureau.
Kravtsov - Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Chief of the Main Directorate for Space Units of the Ministry of Defense 1979-1980. Born: 1924. Died: 1994-01-01.
KRD-417 - Alternate designation for KTDU-417 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
KRD-442 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Orbital propulsion for FGB-derived modules for Mir and ISS. In Production. Main and low-thrust mode. Operation of turbopump without chamber used to pump propellants into tanks from Progress tankers. Status: In Production. Date: 1972-77. Unfuelled mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Thrust: 4.38 kN (985 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
KRD-604 - Dushkin Nitric acid/Solid hybrid rocket engine. Out of Production. The KRD-604 engine was developed in the late 1930s by OKB Dushkin. It was a combined (powder+liquid) engine, characterized by a new technical approach. Status: Out of Production. Date: -1941. Propellants: Nitric acid/Solid.
KRD-61 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Luna Ye-8. Out of Production. Spacecraft maneuvering engine for ascent stage of Luna moon sample return missions. First flight 1969. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1968-70. Unfuelled mass: 42 kg (92 lb). Thrust: 18.80 kN (4,226 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
KRD-79 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Salyut 6, 7and Mir orbital propulsion maneuvering engine. In Production. Probably derived from engine of propulsion system KDU-426. Pressure fed engine. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 39 kg (85 lb). Thrust: 3.09 kN (695 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Krechet - Russian space suit, tested 1969. The Krechet spacesuit was designed by the Zvezda OKB for use on the lunar surface. It consisted of flexible limbs attached to a one-piece rigid body / helmet unit. Status: tested 1969.
Kregel - American test pilot astronaut 1992-2002. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2002. Born: 1956-09-16. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 52.76 days.
Kretschmer - German expert in aerodynamics during World War II, working at the Walter Werke, Kiel. Moved by the British to Saenger's facility in Trauen in early 1946 to conduct rocket engine tests, which were completed on 16 June 1946.
Krichevsky - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1998. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1998. Born: 1955-07-09.
Krieger - American engineer, at NASA 1936-1981. Headed Wallops Island facility, 1948-1981. During his career there, Wallops launched thousands of test vehicles, including 19 satellites. Born: 1916. Died: 1990-01-01.
Kriegsmarine - Kriegsmarine.
Krikalyov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1985-2009. World record for total duration spent in space (803 days). Flew in space six times. First Russian to fly aboard an American spacecraft. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2009. Born: 1958-08-27. Spaceflights: 6 . Total time in space: 803.40 days.
Krikun - Ukrainian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. In 1997 unsuccessfully applied for the Ukrainian cosmonaut team. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1963-06-03.
Kristall - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-27.
Kristall - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-32 ISS EP-1.
Kristall - Russian manned space station. Kristall was a dedicated zero-gravity materials and biological science research module for the Mir space station, launched in January 1990 Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-05-31. Last Launch: 1990-05-31. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 19,500 kg (42,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Payload: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb).
Krivoshein - Russian Chief Designer of TsKB Heavy Machine Industry, 1954-1976; designed much of the detailed pneumatic and hydraulic equipment for launch complexes and silos. From 1969 they were the lead design bureau for silo-mounted command points.
KRK - Abbreviation for Space Rocket Complex
KRLS - Alternate name for Keweenaw.
Kroeger - German-American aviation engineer during WW2. Recruited by von Braun and moved to the US, becoming Deputy Director, Guidance and Control Division, Huntsville.
Kroll - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1914-05-25. Died: 2005-03-01.
Kronogard - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1961-08-14. Last Launch: 1964-08-17. Number: 18 .
Kronogard J - Arcas launch complex. Jokkmokk (Vidsel) First Launch: 1961-08-14. Last Launch: 1961-08-14. Number: 1 .
KRR-300 - Dushkin rocket engine. G-300. Developed 1955-62. Thrust variable 0.1 / 3.0 / 10 metric tons thrust. Status: Developed 1955-62. Date: 1955-62. Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf).
KRT-10 - Russian space radio telescope. 10 m diameter radio telescope. Attached to Salyut 6 docking hatch and deployed after separation of Progress from Mir. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-06-28. Last Launch: 1979-06-28. Number: 1 .
KRT-25 Radio Telescope - Russian radio astronomy satellite. Study 1990. In collaboration with the European Space Agency, a 25 m diameter space radio telescope was studied for launch by Energia in 2001. Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 27,800 kg (61,200 lb).
Krug - Russian surface-to-air missile. Ramjet-powered long-range surface-to-air missile, deployed by the Soviet Union and its allies. Status: Active. Gross mass: 2,450 kg (5,400 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb).
Krutsch - German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot.
Krylov - Russian officer. Commander-in-Chief Strategic Missile Forces, 1963-1972. Opponent of piloted space programs. Born: 1903-04-29. Died: 1972-02-09.
Krylov, Boris - Russian officer. Chief of Central Communications and Navigation Systems at GNITs KS Space Tracking Centre 1982-1992. Born: 1934.
Krylov, Yuri - Russian officer. Major General, Deputy for General Questions to the Chief, 50 TsNII KS military space research institute 1972-1973. Born: 1925.
Krysaor - Cubesat from Ecuadorian Space Agency.
Kryukov - Russian chief designer. Deputy Chief Designer 1961-1965 of Korolev design bureau. Chief Designer 1971-1977 of Lavochkin design bureau. Born: 1918.
KS - Alternate designation for KS (Russian abbreviation).
KS (Russian abbreviation) - GN Kosmicheskaya Svyaz, Moscow, Russia
KS space station - Russian military orbital bombing system. Study 1988. To co-ordinate the actions of multiple space combat units, NPO Energia proposed in the 1980's a KS space station. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 450,000 kg (990,000 lb).
KS-50 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Experimental. Development 1948. Subscale versions of a radical new engine design. This featured a flat-plate injector, cylindrical combustion chamber, and a 60 atmosphere chamber pressure. Status: Development 1948. Date: 1948. Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
K-SAT - 1U Cubesat for Kagoshima University, released in parking orbit. Failed.
KSC - Alternate designation for Cape Canaveral.
KSC - NASA John F Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA
KSI - Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 1977. Capsule designed to return film and data materials from the Almaz military space station. Status: Study 1977.
KSLV - South Korean launch vehicle family. Originally they were to be of completely indigenous design; but in 2005 it was announced that they would use the (in-development, unflown) Russian Angara booster module as the basis. The program, like that of the Angara, was subject to continuous funding shortages and schedule delays. In 2008 the Angara alternate was cancelled after Russia refused to transfer essential technologies and the total cost had increased from US$ 240 million to US$ 350 million. The Korean government went 'back to the drawing board' for a follow-on, but went ahead with the KSLV as a first step. First launch 2009.08.25. Status: Development.
KSLV-I - Alternate designation for Naro-1.
KSLV-I 2002 - South Korean orbital launch vehicle. In 2002 South Korea announced it was planning to develop a small satellite launch vehicle by 2005, based on technology flown on the KSR-III test vehicle. By 2005 this was replaced by a completely different design, based on the Russian Angara space booster. Status: In development. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 244.00 kN (54,853 lbf).
KSLV-II - South Korean launch vehicle, originally scheduled for first flight by 2010. Evidently it would have consisted of a Russian Angara first stage and a South Korean liquid-propellant second stage. In August 2006 it was reported in the Korean press that this launcher configuration was cancelled. Status: In development. Gross mass: 144,000 kg (317,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 1,910.00 kN (429,380 lbf).
KSLV-III - South Korean launch vehicle, consisting of a downgraded Russian Angara first stage, a South Korean liquid propellant second stage, and a South Korean solid propellant apogee kick motor. Scheduled for first flight by 2015. In August 2006 the Korean press reported that the first and second stages would both be Angara-UM modules… how this configuration would work (stacked versus parallel) was unclear. Status: In development. Gross mass: 145,000 kg (319,000 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 1,910.00 kN (429,380 lbf).
KSR - South Korean indigenous sounding and test rocket family, using solid rocket motors and a test vehicle with a liquid oxygen/kerosene motor. Further development of the latter into the KSLV satellite launch vehicle was abandoned in 2005 in favor of licensed Russian technology. Status: Active.
KSR-1 - Solid propellant rocket stage. All values except thrust estimated. Status: Retired 1998. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 86.20 kN (19,379 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
KSR-3 - Korean LOx/Kerosene rocket stage using a pressure-fed engine of indigenous design. First flight 2002. Status: In development. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Thrust: 122.50 kN (27,539 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
KSR-I - First South Korean sounding rocket, an unguided single solid propellant stage vehicle. Development began in 1990 and the rocket was flown two times in 1993. Status: Retired 1993. First Launch: 1993-06-04. Last Launch: 1993-09-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 86.00 kN (19,333 lbf).
KSR-II - Two-stage South Korean sounding rocket, using two of the solid rocket motors developed for the KSR-I in tandem. Flown twice in 1997-1998. Status: Retired 1998. First Launch: 1997-07-09. Last Launch: 1998-06-11. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 86.00 kN (19,333 lbf).
KSR-III - South Korean sounding rocket. Test bed for development of an orbital launch vehicle, powered by the liquid oxygen/kerosene engine planned for the KSLV-I. However flown only once in 2002. Status: Active. First Launch: 2002-11-28. Last Launch: 2002-11-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 122.00 kN (27,426 lbf).
KSU - Command and signal instrument (Russian abbreviation)
KSvyaz - AO Kosmicheskaya Svyaz, Moscow, Russia
KSYKP - Quality Controls for Complex Problems (Russian abbreviation)
KT - South Korean agency. Korea Technology, Korea South.
KT- -
KT-1 - Chinese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. China's first solid propellant orbital launch vehicle was derived from the first and second stages of the DF-31 ICBM with a new solid third stage. The vehicle was named Kaituozhe-1 (Explorer-1) and was capable of putting 100 kg into polar orbits. Status: Active. First Launch: 2002-09-15. Last Launch: 2005-06-09. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). Propellants: Solid.
KT-2 - Intermediate all-solid propellant Chinese launch vehicle. Model first displayed at Wuzhai in the fall of 2002. Evidently consists of new large diameter first stage motor, topped by the first two stages of the basic KT-1 vehicle. All figures are rough estimates. Status: Development ended 2002. Gross mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Payload: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
KT-2A - Heavy all-solid propellant Chinese launch vehicle. Model first displayed at Wuzhai in the fall of 2002. Consists of two parallel first-stage booster motors derived new the first stage motor of the KT-1, a larger-diameter core second stage motor like that of the KT-2, a new larger-diameter third stage motor, and an enormous new fairing. All figures are rough estimates. Status: Development ended 2002. Gross mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
KTB - Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary (from German)
KTDU-35 - Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Out of Production. Soyuz, Salyut 4 maneuvering engine. KTDU-53 version in L-1 circumlunar spacecraft; KTDU-66 in Salyut 1 space station. Thrusts 4.09 kN main + 4.03 kN secondary. First flight 1966. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962-67. Unfuelled mass: 305 kg (672 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
KTDU-414 - Manufacturer's designation of KDU-414 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
KTDU-417 - Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Luna 15-24 descent stage. Out of Production. Comprised turbopump-fed high-thrust engine with plus KTDU-417-B low-thrust engine. Eleven ignitions for lunar orbit insertion and orbit corrections. Status: Out of Production. Unfuelled mass: 81 kg (178 lb). Thrust: 18.92 kN (4,253 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
KTDU-417-B - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Luna 15-24 used this low thrust engine in system KTDU-417 for soft-landing on the moon. Out of Production. Pressure-fed engine; could be throttled to 2.06 kN. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 3.43 kN (771 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
KTDU-425 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Mars 2 and 3 maneuver engine. Out of Production. Pump-fed engine. Could be throttled to 7.05 kN / 9.5 MPa / 2850 m/s. . Chamber pressure 133,2 - 95 bar. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1970-73. Thrust: 18.85 kN (4,238 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
KTDU-425A - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Mars 4-7, Venera 9-16, Vega 1-2, and Fobos 1-2 maneuvering engine. Out of Production. Could be throttled to 9.86/9.5/2870. Chamber pressure 149 - 95 bar. First flight 1973. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1972-75. Unfuelled mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Thrust: 18.89 kN (4,247 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
KTDU-5 - Alternate designation for KTDU-5A.
KTDU-53 - Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Zond 4-7 maneuvering engine. Out of Production. Spacecraft maneuvering engine, derivative of KTDU-35 without back-up engine. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962-67. Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
KTDU-5A - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Used on Luna E-6 probes. Out of Production. First turbopump engine with surface tension propellant management devices in tanks, allowing re-ignition in zero-G. Status: Out of Production. Unfuelled mass: 48 kg (105 lb). Thrust: 45.50 kN (10,229 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
KTDU-66 - Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Out of Production. Maneuvering engine for Salyut 1, derivative of KTDU-35. Longer burn time of 1000 s. Comprised single-chamber main engine plus dual-chamber back-up engine. Thrusts 4.09 + 4.03 kN Status: Out of Production. Date: 1970-71. Unfuelled mass: 305 kg (672 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
KTDU-80 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Soyuz TM, Progress M. In Production. Propulsion system included 4 spherical tanks for a total of 880 kg propellant. Developed from NII Mash experimental thruster. 3 thrust levels by 4 valves. Status: In Production. Date: -1977. Unfuelled mass: 310 kg (680 lb). Thrust: 6.19 kN (1,392 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
KTel - Korea Telecom, Korea South
KTF - Alternate name for Barking Sands.
Kua Fu - Mass model of DFH-3 satellite.
Kuaizhou - China's small quick-response launch vehicle. "Kuaizhou" means "Swift Boat". The solid propellant vehicle is thought to be built by CASIC in collaboration with the Harbin Institute of Technology and may be a derivative of the DF-21 family. Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-03-17. Last Launch: 2014-11-21. Number: 3 .
Kuaizhou satellite - Chinese technology satellite. Small satellite launched by the Kuaizhou quick-response launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-09-25. Last Launch: 2014-11-21. Number: 2 .
Kuang Dingbo - Chinese Engineer. Specialist in design of military and space infrared sensors.
Kub - Mid-range integral rocket-ramjet Russian surface-to-air missile, widely deployed with Soviet forces and exported to 22 countries. The missile provided one of the great technological surprises in warfare in the October 1973 Arab-Israeli War. Status: Active. Gross mass: 580 kg (1,270 lb). Payload: 59 kg (130 lb).
Kubasov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1966-1993. Flew in first docking mission between American and Soviet spacecraft. Missed two chances to be first engineer on a Soviet space station (Cosmos 557 and Soyuz 11). Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1993. Born: 1935-01-07. Died: 2014-02-19. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 18.75 days.
Kud-Sverchkov - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2010-on. Status: Active 2010-on. Born: 1983-08-23.
Kuenzel - German expert in rocket fighter planes during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Kuers - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1907-04-18. Died: 1983-05-14.
Kugno - Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1964. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1964. Born: 1935-06-27. Died: 1994-02-24.
Kuipers - Dutch engineer cosmonaut 1998-on. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1958-10-05. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 203.66 days.
Kukai - Japanese tether technology satellite. Also named STARS, a Kagawa University picosatellite demonstrating a tethered space robot. It consisted of two tethered box-shaped packages, dubbed Ku and Kai. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-01-23. Last Launch: 2009-01-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
Kuklin - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1963-1975. Left cosmonaut corps for medical reasons (heart problems) in July 1975 . Worked on the General Staff of the Soviet Air Force until retirement in 1987. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1975. Born: 1932-01-03. Died: 2006-01-16.
Kuleshova - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1980-1992. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute named after Grigoriy (Sergo) K. Ordzhonikidze, 1978. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. From 1992 she worked as an engineer at NPO Energia, Department 292. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1992. Born: 1956-03-14.
Kummersdorf - German Army firing range, on the rail line 46 km south of Berlin. The German Army conducted rocket firing tests here from 1930 to 1945, and von Braun's rocket team worked here at first while developing the V-2. Actual launches of the rockets, after the earliest tests, moved to Greifswald Oie and then Peenemuende on the Baltic. First Launch: 1932-08-01. Last Launch: 1932-08-01. Number: 1 .
Kumulus - Kumulus was a single-stage sounding rocket developed by the German Rocket Society in the late 1950's. It could carry meteorological, postal, or biological payloads up to a speed of 750 m/s and an altitude of 20 km. All launches were made from Cuxhaven, and discontinued when the German government prohibited civilian rocket launches in June 1964. The propellant was developed by the DRG and fabricated at Liebenau Company for Production of Chemical Materials (GmbH zur Verwertung chemischer Erzeugnisse Liebenau). Status: Retired 1959. Gross mass: 30 kg (67 lb). Payload: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Thrust: 4.98 kN (1,120 lbf).
Kunze - German Manager. Director of the A4 Special Unit.
Kupon - Russian military communications satellite. Kupon was originally developed by Lavochkin for the third generation GKKRS (Global Space Command and Communications System). Other satellites in the network included Potok and Geizer. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-11-12. Last Launch: 1997-11-12. Number: 1 .
Kurchatov - Alternate designation for Kurchatov bureau.
Kurchatov - Russian scientist. Father of Soviet atomic bomb at KB-11. Managed development of first hydrogen bomb. Design coordinated with Korolev's design bureau for use on R-7 ICBM. Born: 1903-01-12. Died: 1960-02-07.
Kurchatov bureau - Russian manufacturer of spacecraft.
Kurilo - Soviet Engineer. Soviet leader of German rocket technology transfer at Kleinbodungen.
Kursnniy - Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Head of the Political Directorate of GUKOS Space Forces, 1986-1991. Born: 1938.
Kurushin - Russian officer. Commander of Baikonur 1965-1973. Born: 1922-03-14.
Kuryer - Alternate designation for Konvert communications satellite.
Kuryer - NEW Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1989-03-16. Last Launch: 1991-05-30. Number: 4 .
Kurzweg - German-American aerodynamicist, at Peenemuende, then US Naval Ordnance 1946-1960, NASA 1960-1974. Born: 1908-01-01. Died: 2000-06-29.
Kutakhov - Russian officer. Commander-in-Chief of Air Force 1969-1984. Succeeded Vershinin. Born: 1914-08-06.
Kutzscher - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Kuzhelnaya - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1994-2004. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2004. Born: 1962-11-06.
Kuznetsov - Alternate designation for Kuznetsov bureau.
Kuznetsov - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1949-1994 of OKB-276. Born: 1911-06-23. Died: 1995-07-30.
Kuznetsov bureau - Russian manufacturer of turbojet, turboprop, and rocket engines.
Kuznetsov, M F - Russian officer, Chief of third directorate of GUKOS 1970-1977. Forward air controller on Western Front in WW2. Entered Third Directorate GURVO in October 1960. Made great improvements in KIK space tracking system during his tenure. Born: 1920. Died: 1979-01-01.
Kuznetsov, Nikolai F - Russian officer. Commander of the Cosmonaut Training Centre 1963-1972. Born: 1916-12-26. Died: 2000-03-05.
Kuznetsov, Nikolai N - Russian officer. First Chief of the Interdepartmental Technical Commission in Germany 1945. Born: 1903. Died: 1983-01-01.
Kuznetsov, Viktor - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1946-1989 of Nll-10 and NII-44. Specialized in missile and spaceship gyroscopes. Born: 1913-04-27. Died: 1991-03-22.
Kuznetsova - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969. Status: Inactive; Active 1962-1969. Born: 1941-07-14.
Kvant - Alternate designation for Kvant launch vehicle.
Kvant - Alternate designation for Kvant-1 stage.
Kvant - Russian manned space station. Kvant 1). The Kvant spacecraft represented the first use of a new kind of Soviet space station module, designated 37K. Status: Operational 1987. First Launch: 1987-03-31. Last Launch: 1987-03-31. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,500 kg (29,700 lb). Payload: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb).
Kvant AM - Russian manned space station module. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). Space station module astrophysics. Status: Operational 1987. Gross mass: 10,600 kg (23,300 lb). Payload: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb).
Kvant FGB - Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). Used only once, tug docked Kvant module to station, then separated and was commanded to destructive reentry over Pacific Ocean. Space station module tug. Status: Operational 1987. Gross mass: 7,900 kg (17,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb).
Kvant launch vehicle - Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Kvant was the Soviet third generation light launch vehicle planned to replace the Kosmos and Tsyklon series. Unlike the vehicles it was to replace, the booster used non-toxic 'environmentally friendly' liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. Although such a light launch vehicle was on Space Forces wish lists since 1972, full scale development was again deferred due to the crash effort on Soviet 'star wars' in the second half of the 1980's. RKK Energia marketed the vehicle design from 1994 to 2001, but could find no source for development funds. Status: Design 1985. Gross mass: 235,000 kg (518,000 lb). Payload: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb). Thrust: 2,850.00 kN (640,700 lbf).
Kvant-1 - Alternate designation for Kvant-1-1.
Kvant-1 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. From 1996-2001 RSC Energia carried out design studies on the Kvant-1 light launch vehicle with a low earth orbit payload capability of 1.8 to 3.0 metric tons. Market surveys seemed to indicate a need for a new launch vehicle of this class but development funding was not forthcoming. Status: Design 1994. Gross mass: 83,000 kg (182,000 lb). Payload: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 1,000.00 kN (224,800 lbf).
Kvant-1 stage - Kvant first stage. LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. 4 11D121 verniers. Empty mass estimated. Status: Design 1985. Gross mass: 210,000 kg (460,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Thrust: 3,216.00 kN (722,985 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Kvant-1-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. 4 RD-0124-14D23 verniers. Empty mass estimated. Status: Design 1994. Gross mass: 74,000 kg (163,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Thrust: 1,102.20 kN (247,784 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Kvant-2 - Russian manned space station. Kvant 2. Kvant-2 was a utility module launched to the Mir station. It provided an airlock, additional electric power, and additional gyrodynes for orienting the station. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-11-26. Last Launch: 1989-11-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 19,565 kg (43,133 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18,465 kg (40,708 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Kvasova - Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Selected as cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but in March 1962 the selection was rejected by the government commission. Status: Inactive.
KVD-1 - Alternate name for RD-56.
KVD-1, D-56 - Alternate designation for RD-56 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
KVD-1M - Alternate designation for RD-56M LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
KVD-1M LNG - Alternate designation for RD-56M LNG LOx-LNG rocket engine.
KVR - Russian agency. KVR, Russia.
KVRB - Russian space tug. Study 1992. Upper stage / space tug - design 1992. High energy upper stage for Proton, never put into production. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 19,500 kg (42,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 73.58 kN (16,541 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
KVTs - Coordination-Computation Centre (Russian abbreviation)
kW - kilowatts (SI abbreviation)
Kwajalein - The US military base located on this Pacific island group has major tracking facilities and is near the impact area for dummy warheads fired by ICBM's from Vandenberg AFB. It is a key test location for anti-ballistic missile systems. First Launch: 1961-11-15. Last Launch: 2014-06-22. Number: 2101 .
Kwajalein DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 2000, reaching up to 641.4927 kilometers altitude.
Kwajalein IL - Sprint launch complex. Illegini Island First Launch: 1972-03-16. Last Launch: 1973-11-29. Number: 7 .
Kwajalein KW - Kwajalein Atoll
Kwajalein LC38 - Nike Zeus launch complex.
Kwajalein Meck - Minuteman, Sprint, Spartan, OBV, ERIS launch complex. Meck Island First Launch: 1968-03-30. Last Launch: 2014-06-22. Number: 90 .
Kwajalein Meck 1 - Silo 1, Meck Island First Launch: 2004-01-27. Last Launch: 2004-01-27. Number: 1 .
Kwajalein OM - Falcon launch complex. Omelek Island First Launch: 2006-03-24. Last Launch: 2009-07-14. Number: 5 .
Kwajalein RN - Tomahawk Sandia, Terrier, Super Chief, Sergeant, Nike, Honest John, Cajun, Black Brant, Asp, DOT launch complex. Roi-Namur Island First Launch: 1961-11-15. Last Launch: 2013-05-09. Number: 56 .
Kwajalein RW06/24 - Air-launched rocket drop zone off Kwajalein Island. Aircraft start from Bucholz Army Airfield RW06/24. First Launch: 2000-10-09. Last Launch: 2012-06-13. Number: 4 .
Kwangmyongsong - North Korean communications technology satellite. Payload of the first attempted North Korean satellite launch. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-08-31. Last Launch: 2012-12-12. Number: 3 .
Kyrgyzstan - Kyrgyzstan
KySat - Cubesat from Kentucky Space, Lexington, Kentucky.
KYSP - Kentucky Space, Kentucky Science and Technology Corp.
KZ - Alternate designation for Kuaizhou.

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