Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: B

B-1 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K63.
B-1 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 63S1M.
B-1 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 63S1.
B-1A - Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. N. American Bomber-variable geometry. Maximum release conditions: Bomb bay mounted, 16,364 kg (9.4 m length x 2.5 m diameter x 2.5 m span) at 2,096 kph at 11,900 m altitude. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 159,637 kg (351,939 lb). Unfuelled mass: 81,587 kg (179,868 lb). Payload: 16,364 kg (36,076 lb). Thrust: 302.40 kN (67,982 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
B-29 - Alternate designation for Banshee.
B-2C - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Atlas Booster. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1958. Date: 1954. Thrust: 1,374.00 kN (308,887 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
B-47 - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Retired 1959. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
B-52 - Alternate designation for NB-52.
B-57 - Alternate designation for B-57A.
B-57A - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Retired 1961. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
B-58 - Mach 2 rocket carrier. Convair Bomber-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Belly mounted, 21,818 kg (22.5 m length x 1.9 m diameter x 7.1 m wingspan) at 2,130 kph at 12,195 m altitude (Kingfisher). Status: Retired 1959. Gross mass: 72,563 kg (159,974 lb). Unfuelled mass: 25,197 kg (55,549 lb). Payload: 21,818 kg (48,100 lb). Thrust: 183.23 kN (41,191 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
B-611 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-01-11. Last Launch: 2015-10-31. Number: 4 .
B-61A - Alternate designation for Matador.
B-65 - Alternate designation for Atlas A.
B-70 - Alternate designation for XB-70.
B-75 - Alternate designation for Thor.
B-76 - Alternate designation for CGM-13B.
B-78 - Alternate designation for Jupiter IRBM.
B-87 - Alternate designation for Skybolt ALBM.
BA-3200 - Beal H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Development 1990's. Pressure-fed engine with composite ablative chamber and nozzle. Helium pressurant. Thrust declines to 70% of initial value before shutdown. Status: Development 1990's. Thrust: 14,100.00 kN (3,169,800 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
BA-330 - Alternate designation for Nautilus manned space station module.
BA-44 - Beal H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Development 1990's. Pressure-fed restartable engine with composite ablative chamber and nozzle. Helium pressurant. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value before shutdown. Status: Development 1990's. Thrust: 196.00 kN (44,062 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
BA-810 - Beal H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Development 1990's. Pressure-fed engine with composite ablative chamber and nozzle. Helium pressurant. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value before shutdown. Status: Development 1990's. Thrust: 3,600.00 kN (809,300 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
Babakin - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer of Lavochkin design bureau, 1965-1971. Born: 1914-11-14. Died: 1971-08-03.
Baberdin - Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. Status: Deceased; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1948-10-28. Died: 2003-10-02.
Babiak - Slovak pilot cosmonaut, 1998-1999. As of January 2001 Babiak was a Colonel of the Slovak Air Force, studying at the Air War College in Alabama, USA. Status: Inactive. Born: 1959-04-14.
Babiychuk - Russian officer. Chief, Biomedical Service, of Air Force in early 1960's. Oversaw the early Vostok missions.
Babkin - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2010-on. Status: Active 2010-on. Born: 1969-04-21.
Baby Babylon - Alternate designation for Babylon Gun.
Baby Babylon - Alternate designation for Iraqi Gun Projectile.
Babylon Gun - Alternate designation for Gun-Launched ASAT.
Babylon Gun - From March of 1988 until the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Iraq contracted with Gerard Bull to build three superguns: two full sized 'Project Babylon' 1000 mm guns and one 'Baby Babylon' 350 mm prototype. Nine metric tons of special supergun propellant could fire a 600 kg projectile over a range of 1,000 kilometers, or a 2,000 kg rocket-assisted projectile. The 2,000 kg projectile would place a net payload of about 200 kg into orbit at a cost of $ 600 per kg. The 1000 mm guns were never completed. After the war UN teams destroyed the guns and gun components in Iraqi possession. Status: Cancelled 1990. First Launch: 1990-06-22. Last Launch: 1990-09-24. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Payload: 200 kg (440 lb).
Babylon Gun - Alternate designation for Iraqi Gun Projectile.
BAC - British Aircraft Corporation, UK.
Bachem - German sailplane designer, co-designer of the Fieseler Fi-156 Storch, with von Braun of the Fi-166 rocket fighter. Founded own company in 1942 and developed Natter rocket interceptor. Post-war co-designer of the popular Hymer camper. Born: 1906-12-12. Died: 1960-03-25.
Bachmann - German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA as head of the internal instrumentation group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952.
Bachurin - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1992. Status: Deceased; Active 1979-1992. Born: 1942-01-29. Died: 2011-09-20.
Badgley - American scientist. NASA Chief of the Earth Resources Survey Program and Chief of Advanced Missions, Manned Space Science Program, in the 1960's. Born: 1925-05-15. Died: 2005-09-02.
Badr - Pakistani communications technology satellite. Pakistani experimental series with a variety of payloads. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-07-16. Last Launch: 2008-07-07. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 52 kg (114 lb).
Badr-2000 - Egyptian intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired. Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
BAe - Abbreviation for British Aerospace
Bagian - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1980-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1995. Born: 1952-02-22. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 14.08 days.
Bahagian Kajian Sains Angkasa (BAKSA) - Alternate name for BKSA.
Bahamas - Bahamas
BAI Aerosystems - American manufacturer. BAI Aerosystems, USA.
Baikal (Baikal - lake in Siberia) - Alternate name for Soyuz 21.
Baikal (Baikal - lake in Siberia) - Alternate name for Soyuz 5.
Baikonur - Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. First Launch: 1957-05-15. Last Launch: 2014-07-23. Number: 2663 .
Baikonur Jubilee - Jubilee Airfield
Baikonur Krainiy - Krainiy Airfield
Baikonur LC1 - R-7 launch complex. PU 17P32-5. First Launch: 1957-05-15. Last Launch: 2014-07-23. Number: 459 .
Baikonur LC101 - R-36M launch complex. First Launch: 1973-02-21. Last Launch: 1986-03-23. Number: 10 .
Baikonur LC102 - R-36M launch complex. First Launch: 1978-06-29. Last Launch: 1978-06-29. Number: 1 .
Baikonur LC103 - R-36M launch complex. First Launch: 1973-04-29. Last Launch: 1977-02-03. Number: 11 .
Baikonur LC104 - R-36M launch complex. First Launch: 1972-10-19. Last Launch: 1974-12-23. Number: 9 .
Baikonur LC105 - R-36M launch complex. First Launch: 1974-04-27. Last Launch: 1977-05-28. Number: 9 .
Baikonur LC106 - R-36M launch complex. First Launch: 1974-06-24. Last Launch: 1983-03-30. Number: 15 .
Baikonur LC107 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC108 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC109 - R-36M launch complex. First Launch: 1974-07-04. Last Launch: 2010-06-21. Number: 31 .
Baikonur LC110L - N1, Energia launch complex. First Launch: 1971-06-26. Last Launch: 1988-11-15. Number: 3 .
Baikonur LC110R - N1 launch complex. First Launch: 1969-02-21. Last Launch: 1969-07-03. Number: 2 .
Baikonur LC130 - UR-100 launch complex. First Launch: 1965-04-19. Last Launch: 1965-04-19. Number: 1 .
Baikonur LC131 - UR-100N, UR-100 launch complex. First Launch: 1965-07-17. Last Launch: 1990-11-20. Number: 4 .
Baikonur LC132 - UR-100N launch complex. First Launch: 2001-06-27. Last Launch: 2011-12-27. Number: 3 .
Baikonur LC133 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC140/18 - Tsiklon, R-36M launch complex. First Launch: 1965-04-27. Last Launch: 1978-09-12. Number: 13 .
Baikonur LC141 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC142/34 - Tsiklon launch complex. First Launch: 1968-10-28. Last Launch: 1975-06-25. Number: 24 .
Baikonur LC160 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC161/35 - Tsiklon launch complex. First Launch: 1967-03-22. Last Launch: 1973-10-08. Number: 28 .
Baikonur LC162/36 - Tsiklon launch complex. First Launch: 1966-09-17. Last Launch: 1975-01-21. Number: 37 .
Baikonur LC163 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC164 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC165 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC170 - MR-UR-100 launch complex. First Launch: 1976-06-15. Last Launch: 1979-08-30. Number: 9 .
Baikonur LC171 - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Baikonur LC172 - MR-UR-100 launch complex. First Launch: 1978-10-02. Last Launch: 1981-04-18. Number: 5 .
Baikonur LC173 - MR-UR-100 launch complex. First Launch: 1972-09-15. Last Launch: 1978-08-11. Number: 28 .
Baikonur LC174 - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Baikonur LC175/2 - UR-100N launch complex.
Baikonur LC175/59 - UR-100N launch complex. First Launch: 2000-11-01. Last Launch: 2013-06-27. Number: 3 .
Baikonur LC176 - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Baikonur LC177 - MR-UR-100 launch complex. First Launch: 1973-04-06. Last Launch: 1978-09-12. Number: 29 .
Baikonur LC179 - Orbital launch vehicle launcher
Baikonur LC181 - MR-UR-100 launch complex. First Launch: 1978-08-25. Last Launch: 1979-08-03. Number: 4 .
Baikonur LC191/66 - Tsiklon launch complex. First Launch: 1969-09-15. Last Launch: 1971-08-08. Number: 4 .
Baikonur LC192 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC193 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC194 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC195 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC196 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC200/39 - Proton launch complex. 200L. First Launch: 1980-02-20. Last Launch: 2014-05-15. Number: 152 .
Baikonur LC200/40 - Proton launch complex. 200R. First Launch: 1977-07-23. Last Launch: 1991-03-31. Number: 64 .
Baikonur LC241 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC242 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC243 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC244 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC245 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC246 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC250 - Energia launch complex. First Launch: 1987-05-15. Last Launch: 1987-05-15. Number: 1 .
Baikonur LC31 - R-7 launch complex. PU 17P32-6. First Launch: 1961-01-14. Last Launch: 2014-07-18. Number: 353 .
Baikonur LC39/200 - Baikonur LC39/200
Baikonur LC41/15 - R-16, Kosmos 3 launch complex. First Launch: 1963-05-25. Last Launch: 1968-08-27. Number: 22 .
Baikonur LC41/3 - R-16 launch complex. First Launch: 1960-10-24. Last Launch: 1967-12-22. Number: 31 .
Baikonur LC41/4 - R-16 launch complex. First Launch: 1961-05-24. Last Launch: 1967-12-27. Number: 70 .
Baikonur LC45 - Baikonur LC45
Baikonur LC45/1 - Zenit launch complex. 45L. First Launch: 1985-10-22. Last Launch: 2013-08-31. Number: 41 .
Baikonur LC45/2 - Zenit launch complex. 45R. First Launch: 1990-05-22. Last Launch: 1990-10-04. Number: 2 .
Baikonur LC51 - R-9 launch complex. First Launch: 1961-04-09. Last Launch: 1962-10-28. Number: 17 .
Baikonur LC60/6 - R-16 launch complex. First Launch: 1963-05-18. Last Launch: 1966-10-22. Number: 6 .
Baikonur LC60/7 - R-16 launch complex. First Launch: 1963-05-18. Last Launch: 1967-10-03. Number: 8 .
Baikonur LC60/8 - R-16 launch complex. First Launch: 1962-07-13. Last Launch: 1966-10-20. Number: 12 .
Baikonur LC67/21 - Tsiklon, R-36M, MR-UR-100 launch complex. 67L. First Launch: 1963-09-28. Last Launch: 1972-08-18. Number: 26 .
Baikonur LC67/22 - Tsiklon launch complex. 67R. First Launch: 1964-04-26. Last Launch: 1966-05-20. Number: 13 .
Baikonur LC69L - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC69P - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC70 - R-9 launch complex. First Launch: 1963-02-11. Last Launch: 1963-02-11. Number: 1 .
Baikonur LC75 - Missile launcher
Baikonur LC80/17 - Tsiklon launch complex. First Launch: 1965-01-13. Last Launch: 1965-01-13. Number: 1 .
Baikonur LC81/23 - Proton launch complex. 81L. First Launch: 1965-07-16. Last Launch: 2014-02-26. Number: 107 .
Baikonur LC81/24 - Proton launch complex. 81R. First Launch: 1967-11-22. Last Launch: 2014-04-28. Number: 78 .
Baikonur LC90/19 - UR-200, Tsiklon launch complex. 90L. First Launch: 1963-11-05. Last Launch: 1997-12-09. Number: 22 .
Baikonur LC90/20 - UR-200, Tsiklon launch complex. 90R. First Launch: 1964-09-24. Last Launch: 2006-06-24. Number: 27 .
Baikonur PL251 - Buran runway
Baikonur PU31 - Tsiklon launch complex. First Launch: 1965-10-01. Last Launch: 1968-08-14. Number: 17 .
Baikonur PU32 - Tsiklon launch complex. First Launch: 1965-08-03. Last Launch: 1967-09-08. Number: 18 .
Baikonur PU33 - Tsiklon launch complex. First Launch: 1965-07-09. Last Launch: 1975-02-28. Number: 17 .
Bailey - American geologist payload specialist astronaut, 1990-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1947-10-27.
BAJ - Canadian Bristol Aerojet Ltd
Baker - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1984-2012. Physician. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-2012. Born: 1953-04-27. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 28.60 days.
Baker, Mike - American test pilot astronaut 1985-2008. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2008. Born: 1953-10-27. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 40.21 days.
Bakhchivangi - Russian test pilot, 1935-1943. Set 1943 world speed record in BI-1 rocketplane, but killed when it crashed. Status: Deceased. Born: 1908-02-20. Died: 1943-03-27.
Baklan - Russian pressure suit, operational 1970. The Baklan full-pressure suit was developed by Zvezda for the crew of high altitude strategic aviation aircraft. Status: operational 1970.
Baklanov - Russian politician. Minister of General Machine Building 1983-1988. Born: 1932.
BAL - Abbreviation for Bristol Aerospace Limited
Balandin - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1994. Left cosmonaut corps for medical reasons and returned to NPO Energia until departing in 1994. Then President of Lendint-Association until 2000. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1994. Born: 1953-07-30. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 179.05 days.
Balasore - Indian military testing range. First Launch: 1979-01-01. Last Launch: 2014-04-27. Number: 724 .
Balasore IC3 - Prithvi launch complex. First Launch: 2004-10-27. Last Launch: 2014-04-27. Number: 26 .
Balasore IC4 - Prithvi, Agni launch complex. Inner Wheeler Island. First Launch: 1999-04-11. Last Launch: 2014-01-20. Number: 37 .
Balasore IC4/TEL - Tactical launcher, Inner Wheeler Island. First Launch: 2001-01-17. Last Launch: 2001-01-17. Number: 1 .
Balasore ITR - Interim Test Range
Ball - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Ball Aerospace and Technology, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Ball Space Systems - First name of Ball.
Ball, Erich - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1901-09-12. Died: 1990-01-01.
Ballistisches Einstufiges Traeger-Aggregat I - Alternate designation for Beta.
Ballistisches Einstufiges Traeger-Aggregat II - Alternate designation for Beta II.
Ballistisches Einstufiges Traeger-Aggregat III - Alternate designation for Beta III.
Ballistisches Einstufiges Traeger-Aggregat IV - Alternate designation for Beta IV.
Ballistisches Enistufiges Traeger-Aggregat I - Alternate designation for Beta.
Ballistisches Enistufiges Traeger-Aggregat II - Alternate designation for Beta II.
Ballistisches Enistufiges Traeger-Aggregat III - Alternate designation for Beta III.
Ballistisches Enistufiges Traeger-Aggregat IV - Alternate designation for Beta IV.
Balloon - Category of spacecraft.
balloon-launched - Category of launch vehicles.
Ballute - Acronym for Balloon parachute
Balmer series - The visible line spectrum emitted by hydrogen. The wavelengths of the lines form a series, the formula of which was established by Balmer ( 1885 ).
Balmont - Russian politician. First Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1976-1981. Chief of Chief Directorate of Ministry of General Machine Building 1965-1973. Born: 1927-10-06.
Bambi - American military anti-ballistic missile satellite. Cancelled 1963. BAllistic Missile Boost Intercept ABM system, cancelled May 1963. Status: Cancelled 1963.
Ban Xing - Chinese technology satellite. BX-1. Ban Xing (companion satellite) subsatellite released by Shenzhou. If maneuvered away and back to the Shenzhou orbital module after the mission. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-09-25. Last Launch: 2013-07-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 40 kg (88 lb).
bandpass filter - A wave filter that has a single transmission band extending from a lower cutoff frequency greater than zero to a finite upper cutoff frequency.
Banshee - American intercontinental cruise missile. Cruise missile version of B-29 bomber Status: Cancelled 1945. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 43.10 kN (9,689 lbf).
Bantam - Bristol solid rocket engine. Skua first stage. Status: Retired 1973. Gross mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Bantam 2 - Bristol solid rocket engine. Skua 2 first stage. Status: Retired 1981. Gross mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Bantam 3 - Bristol solid rocket engine. Skua 3 first stage. Status: Retired 1981. Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Baranov SAM - Russian surface-to-air missile. First Soviet anti-aircraft barrage rocket, fired in limited numbers during siege of Leningrad, and downing two German aircraft. Status: Retired 1945.
Barbados - Alternate designation for Barbados site.
Barbados - Barbados became involved as a bridgehead to space as the site for Gerald Bull's development of gun-boosted sounding rocket and satellite launchers in the 1960's. The facilities and modified artillery pieces he built still stand today, rusting, their original purpose a mystery to local residents.
Barbados HARP -
Barbados HARP gun 16 inch - Barbados HARP 16 inch gun. Seawell, Barbados. First Launch: 1963-01-01. Last Launch: 1967-06-22. Number: 185 .
Barbados HARP gun 5 inch - Barbados HARP 5 inch gun. Seawell, Barbados. First Launch: 1966-01-17. Last Launch: 1966-03-04. Number: 30 .
Barbados HARP gun 7 inch - Martlet, 7 inch HARP Gun launch complex. HARP 40-cm Gun, Seawell
Barbados site - Sounding rocket launch site located on island in the Caribbean. It was also from here that Gerard Bull tested his Martlet series of gun-launched sounding rockets. First Launch: 1963-01-01. Last Launch: 1968-12-14. Number: 222 .
Barbarian MDD - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Proposed launch vehicle for large SDI 'Star Wars' payloads. Expected to cost $ 400-500 million, the Barbarian could place the Zenith-Star chemical laser into low earth orbit. It would consist of 3 Shuttle SRM's, attached around a ring of six Delta RS-27 first stage boosters, which in turn clustered around a single Delta first stage booster that was the last stage of the launch vehicle. Status: Study 1987. Gross mass: 2,500,000 kg (5,500,000 lb). Payload: 45,400 kg (100,000 lb). Thrust: 35,789.56 kN (8,045,813 lbf).
Barbarian MM - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Zenith Star space-based chemical laser missile defense weapon required a launch vehicle capable of placing a 45,000 kg payload into low earth orbit. Martin and Aerojet turned to their work 20 years earlier on advanced Titans for the MOL program. These earlier studies were combined with new concepts for tank construction and materials. The Martin Barbarian was a 4.57 m diameter Titan vehicle (instead of the customary 3.05 m) with four LR-87 engines on the first stage, and a single LR-87 engine on the second stage. Status: Study 1986. Gross mass: 2,100,000 kg (4,600,000 lb). Payload: 45,400 kg (100,000 lb). Thrust: 32,052.66 kN (7,205,725 lbf).
Barbarian MM-1 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. All values roughly estimated based on number of engines and diameter given. Status: Study 1986. Gross mass: 400,000 kg (880,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Thrust: 6,080.00 kN (1,366,830 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Barbarian MM-2 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. All values roughly estimated based on number of engines and diameter given. Status: Study 1986. Gross mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 1,214.00 kN (272,918 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Barclay - American officer. Commander of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency from 1958 Born: 1909-08-27. Died: 1983-05-01.
Barents Sea Launch Area - Submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. First Launch: 1965-05-19. Last Launch: 2014-05-08. Number: 107 .
Barents Sea LP1 - First Launch: 1998-07-07. Last Launch: 1998-07-07. Number: 1 .
Barking Sands - Military missile test and sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1962 to present. Sandia National Laboratories operates the Kauai Test Facility for the Department of Energy and, through inter-Service Support Agreements provides the Barking Sands Pacific Missile Range Facility with rocket launch services for target systems and upper atmosphere measurements. PMRF/KTF is recognized in the INF Treaty as an authorized site from which launches of the STARS missile can be conducted. The site was recently involved in anti-ballistic missile tests. First Launch: 1960-11-01. Last Launch: 2014-06-28. Number: 2444 .
Barking Sands KP - Terrier launch complex. MRL 7.5K, Kokole Point Launch Site First Launch: 1985-07-14. Last Launch: 1985-12-10. Number: 4 .
Barking Sands LC1 - Strypi, Aries launch complex. Pad 1 First Launch: 1974-02-07. Last Launch: 2003-12-11. Number: 8 .
Barking Sands LC10 - Tomahawk Sandia launch complex. Launcher 10 First Launch: 1971-05-25. Last Launch: 1971-05-25. Number: 1 .
Barking Sands LC12 - Tomahawk Sandia, Sandhawk launch complex. Launcher 12 First Launch: 1972-10-21. Last Launch: 1974-01-26. Number: 3 .
Barking Sands LC14 - Tomahawk Sandia, Sandhawk launch complex. Launcher 14 First Launch: 1968-05-15. Last Launch: 1972-10-20. Number: 3 .
Barking Sands LC19 - Sandhawk launch complex. Launcher 19 First Launch: 1971-10-23. Last Launch: 1971-10-23. Number: 1 .
Barking Sands LC42 - Polaris launch complex. PMR Pad First Launch: 1993-02-26. Last Launch: 2011-11-17. Number: 5 .
Barking Sands LP1 - SR19 launch area. Air Launch Zone First Launch: 1999-03-31. Last Launch: 2007-03-06. Number: 2 .
Barking Sands MLP -
Barking Sands POA - Standard-ER launch complex. Pacific Ocean launch area, off Kauai First Launch: 1999-09-24. Last Launch: 2013-10-04. Number: 36 .
Barkowski - German expert in production of A-4 and V-1 missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Barksdale AFB - First Launch: 1977-12-14. Last Launch: 1977-12-14. Number: 1 .
Barmin - Alternate designation for Barmin bureau.
Barmin - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1941-1993 of GSKB SpetsMash; pre-eminent Soviet designer of rocket launch complexes. Born: 1909-03-17. Died: 1993-07-17.
Barmin bureau - Russian manufacturer of missile launchers, space launch facilities, and the proposed Soviet lunar base.
Barmin, I V - Russian engineer. Head and Chief Designer of the Barmin KBOM after the death of his father in 1993. Designed mobile and fixed launchers for missiles and space boosters.
Barminograd - Alternate designation for DLB Lunar Base manned lunar base.
Barnaul - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1981-1990. Type of missiles deployed unknown.
Barnes - American diplomat. Director of the International Affairs Division of the Office of External Relations at NASA in the 1980s. He had been a long-time NASA official, first coming to the agency in 1961 to work in international programs.
Barnes, Pancho - American pioneering aviatrix, from 1928 a barnstormer, air racer, Hollywood stunt flier; pioneered new air routes into Mexico. Opened a desert flying dude ranch in the 1930's, later a legendary watering hole for Edwards AFB test pilots. Born: 1901-07-29. Died: 1975-03-01.
Barratt - American physician mission specialist astronaut 2000-on. American physician mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on. Flew on Soyuz TMA-14, STS-133 Status: Active 2000-on. Born: 1959-04-16. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 211.49 days.
Barre - French rocket pioneer and space visionary, who developed the EA-1941 rocket in France before work was interrupted by WW2. His work continued after the war, but was eclipsed and finally replaced rockets based on German technology. Born: 1901. Died: 1978-01-01.
Barrett - American space tourist cosmonaut candidate 2009. Status: Inactive; Active 2009-2009. Born: 1950-12-26.
Barry - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1992-2005. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2005. Born: 1953-12-30. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 30.60 days.
Bars - Believed to be a new-generation electro-optical reconnaisance satellite based on a heavily modified Yantar bus. Placed in sun synchronous orbits. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-02-27. Last Launch: 2015-02-27. Number: 1 .
Barter Island - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1970-03-02. Last Launch: 1970-03-05. Number: 3 .
Bartoe - American astrophysicist payload specialist astronaut 1978-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1985. Born: 1944-11-17. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.95 days.
Baryshev - Russian engineer. Designer of automated check-out and launch systems. Deputy General Designer and Chief of Filial 2 of TsKB Mashinostroyeniye. Born: 1913. Died: 1992-01-01.
BAS - British Antarctic Survey, UK.
Basalt - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-6.
Base Aerea de Gando - Alternate name for Gando.
Base Aerea Teniente Benjamin Matienzo - Alternate designation for Base Matienzo.
Base Aerea Teniente Benjamin Matienzo - Alternate name for Matienzo.
Base Matienzo - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1965-02-06. Last Launch: 1965-02-08. Number: 3 .
Base Matienzo - Alternate name for Matienzo.
Bassett - American test pilot astronaut, 1963-1966. Died in crash of T-38 trainer into the McDonnell Aircraft plant. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1966. Born: 1931-12-30. Died: 1966-02-28.
Batalli-Cosmovici - Italian physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1989-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1992. Born: 1943-06-02.
BATSAT - Communications Technology Demonstrator using Teledesic bus.
BATSE - Burst And Transient Source Experiment (on CGRO)
Baturin - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1997-2009. Status: Inactive; Active 1997-2009. Born: 1949-06-12. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 19.74 days.
Baudry - French pilot cosmonaut 1980-1985. Transferred to NASA Payload Specialist. Flight on STS-18, 1985. French Air Force Transferred to NASA as a Payload Specialist. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1985. Born: 1946-03-06. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.07 days.
Baum - German engineer, member of Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952 as Deputy of the Chief and Technical Designer; Dept. 61. Born: 1918-11-04.
Bauschinger - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1911-08-09. Died: 1989-12-27.
Baxter - American manufacturer. Baxter, USA.
Baxter, Woodhouse and Taylor - Alternate name for Woodhouse and Taylor.
Bay of Biscay Launch Area - Submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. First Launch: 1983-01-01. Last Launch: 2005-02-01. Number: 8 .
Bay of Biscay Launch Area CEL - SLBM Launch Zone, Bay of Biscay, off Brittany
Bay of Biscay Launch Area ZLS - SLBM Launch Zone, Bay of Biscay, off Brittany, off Biscarosse
Bayer - German rocket technician; later worked in France as part of the armature group at LRBA from 1947 until retirement in 1985. Remained in Vernon.
BB6 - Alternate designation for Black Brant VI.
BB7 - Alternate designation for Black Brant VII.
BB7 - Bristol Aerospace solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1972. Unfuelled mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Thrust: 1.00 kN (225 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
BBC - British Broadcasting Corporation
BBIVA,BBVC - Black Brant IVA, Black Brant VC sounding rockets
BBXRT - Broad Band X-ray Telescope, a Goddard Space Flight Center experiment carried on STS-35 in the ASTRO package. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-12-02. Last Launch: 1990-12-02. Number: 1 .
BCP-2000 - Satellite bus. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-06-20. Last Launch: 2011-10-28. Number: 7 .
BCP-5000 - Alternate designation for WorldView.
BCP-5000 - Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-08-13. Last Launch: 2014-08-13. Number: 1 .
BD - Abbreviation for Booster development
BDB - Abbreviation for Big Dumb Booster
BE - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Explorer (20). Also known as Explorer S-66. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-03-19. Last Launch: 1964-03-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 54 kg (119 lb).
BE-3 - WRE solid rocket engine. SPARTA third stage. Status: Retired 1974. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Thrust: 34.00 kN (7,643 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
BE-3B1 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1977. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 39 kg (85 lb). Thrust: 34.00 kN (7,643 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Beacon - American earth ionosphere satellite. Early technology satellite. None reached orbit. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-10-10. Last Launch: 1965-04-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 56 kg (123 lb).
Beacon 1 - American technology satellite. Status: Operational 1958. First Launch: 1958-10-23. Last Launch: 1959-08-15. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
Beacon Explorer - Alternate designation for BE earth magnetosphere satellite.
BeakerSat - 2.5P PocketQube Cubesat, AKA Eagle-1, from Morehead State University.
Beal - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Beal, USA.
Beal BA-2 - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. The Beal Aerospace BA-2 was a privately-financed heavy-lift commercial launch vehicle that used innovative technical solutions to achieve low cost to orbit. It harkened back to the low-cost Truax Sea Dragon or TRW 'Big Dumb Booster' concepts of the 1960's but added several new twists. Beal abandoned the project at the end of 2000 after the collapse of the MEO satellite market and active measures by NASA to support other, competing, more high-tech projects by the major aerospace contractors. Status: Cancelled 2000. Gross mass: 970,000 kg (2,130,000 lb). Payload: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 14,100.00 kN (3,169,800 lbf).
Beal BA-2 Stage 1 - H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Thrust declines to 70% of initial value at shut down. Status: Development 2000. Gross mass: 744,000 kg (1,640,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 45,195 kg (99,637 lb). Thrust: 14,120.00 kN (3,174,300 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
Beal BA-2 Stage 2 - H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value at shut down. Status: Development 2000. Gross mass: 189,000 kg (416,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14,560 kg (32,090 lb). Thrust: 3,599.00 kN (809,087 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
Beal BA-2 Stage 3 - H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value at shut down. Status: Development 2000. Gross mass: 36,700 kg (80,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,855 kg (6,294 lb). Thrust: 196.00 kN (44,062 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
Beale AFB - Titan I ICBM base. Beale was originally used as an army base in World War II. In 1959 it was selected as headquarters for the 851st Strategic Missile Squadron with nine Titan 1 missiles. Three complexes of three silos each were located 40 to 100 km west of the base. The missiles were emplaced in the silos between 28 February and 20 April 1962. However due to its poor reaction time the Titan 1's career was brief. Only three years later, by the end of April 1965, the squadron was deactivated, the missiles removed, and the silos abandoned.
Beale AFB 851-1 -
Bean - American test pilot astronaut 1963-1981. Fourth person to walk on the moon. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1981. Born: 1932-03-15. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 69.66 days.
Beanstalk - American technology satellite. One launch, 1962.05.31. Suborbital. Status: Operational 1962.
Bechis - American astrophysicist payload specialist astronaut, 1987-1990. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1990. Born: 1949-07-22.
Beck - German Professor. Dresden rocket engine scientist. Born: 1901. Died: 1943-01-01.
Beckman - American engineer, inventor and manufacturer of various analytical instruments. Born: 1900-04-10. Died: 2004-05-18.
Beduerftig - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1903-05-17. Died: 1973-01-01.
Beechcraft - American manufacturer. Beechcraft, USA.
BEESAT - Cubesat from Technische Universitaet Berlin, Germany.
Beggs - American engineer, served in various government and aerospace industry management positions. NASA Administrator 1981-1985. Born: 1926-01-09.
Beginning of A Beginning - Poem: Syr Dar'ya, ancient river that flows down to the Aral river that flows up to the sky....
Behnke - German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 in the metrology group. Died in 1973. Died: 1973-01-01.
Behnken - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 2000-on. Status: Active 2000-on. Born: 1970-07-07. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 29.51 days.
Behrens - German flyer and engineer.
Bei Shizhang - Chinese scientist. Bei Shizhang, Manager of the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Science, was one of three senior scientists that formulated the plans for China's first manned spacecraft in April 1966.
Beichel - German-American engineer, on von Braun's team, but left to independently advise US Army on liquid propulsion. Joined Aerojet in 1956, worked on LOx/LH2 Titan I engine conversion, Aerojet large engine studies, and USAF ARES single-stage ICBM. Born: 1913-08-19. Died: 1999-10-25.
Beidou - Chinese navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 2000.10.30. Beidou ('Big Dipper') was the satellite component of an independent Chinese satellite navigation and positioning system. Status: Operational 2000. Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
Beidou 3 - Third generation Beidou navigation satellite. Variants for deployment in MEO medium (21,000 km altitude) and IGSO inclined geosynchronous orbits (Beidou 3m and Beidou 3i). Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-03-30. Last Launch: 2015-09-29. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 850 kg (1,870 lb).
Beidou-GEO - The Beidou-2 GEO (geosynchronous orbit) satellites incorporated Beidou-1 location and messaging technology for backward compatibility with existing receivers. Five of these were operational as of the end of 2010. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-04-14. Last Launch: 2012-10-25. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb).
Beidou-IGSO - The Chinese Beidou-2 navigation satellite Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit constellation consisted satellites deployed in three planes, in 24-hour orbits at 38,300 km altitude, but inclined at 55 degrees to the equator. The orbits were such that one satellite would be over Chinese territory at all times, providing an overhead signal allowing navigation even when surrounded by tall buildings or rugged terrain. Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-07-31. Last Launch: 2011-12-01. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb).
Beidou-MEO - Satellites built for the 12-hour, 55 deg inclination MEO portion of the constellation. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-04-12. Last Launch: 2012-09-18. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Beier - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1906-09-09. Died: 1960-09-12.
Beijing - Beijing-1 carried a 31-cm focal-length cartographic telescope with a resolution of 4 meters. It was to be part of the international Disaster Monitoring Constellation. Operated by Tsinghua University. Used the SSTL-150 bus.
Beijing Department 11 - Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. Beijing Department 11, Beijing, China.
Beijing Wan Yuan - Chinese manufacturer of rocket engines. Beijing Wan Yuan, Beijing, China.
Belarus - Belarus
Belenos - French sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Elan + 1 x Aurore Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1967-04-01. Last Launch: 1968-03-01. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Belgian AF - Belgian AF.
Belgium - Belgium
Belia - Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Elan + 1 x Belisama Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Belier - Alternate designation for Belier I.
Belier - Family of sounding rockets, developed by Sud Aviation, with the only or upper stage being variants of the Belier stage powered by a Jericho rocket motor. These were the most significant series of French civilian suborbital rockets. Manufacturing licenses were sold to India and Pakistan, becoming the basis of their rocket industries. Status: Retired 1986. First Launch: 1961-05-24. Last Launch: 1970-11-06. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb).
Belier I - Basic Belier single stage vehicle, powered with a Jericho rocket motor loaded with 208 kg of 'Epictete' solid propellant with a specific impulse of 190 seconds. Gross mass: 313 kg (690 lb). Payload: 30 kg (66 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf).
Belier II - Alternate designation for Belier II engine.
Belier II - Improved Belier single stage vehicle, loaded with 'Plastolite' propellant with a 205 second specific impulse. Gross mass: 352 kg (776 lb). Payload: 30 kg (66 lb). Thrust: 21.50 kN (4,833 lbf).
Belier II engine - Sud solid rocket engine. Used in single-stage Belier II and as Centaure 2B second stage. Status: Retired 1981. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Belier III - Improved Belier single stage vehicle, using a Vega motor loaded with 230.5 kg of 'Isolane' propellant with a specific impulse of 240 seconds. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1968-03-18. Last Launch: 1969-09-25. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb).
Belier III-1 - Alternate name for Vega engine.
Believing in 'Buck Rogers' - Bill Gerken's memoir of a 'space cadet' of an earlier generation...
Belisama - Alternate designation for Belisama engine.
Belisama - Single stage version. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1968-01-01. Last Launch: 1969-01-01. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Belisama engine - CFTH-HB solid rocket engine used in the Belisama and Epona sounding rockets. Status: Retired 1969. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Thrust: 24.00 kN (5,395 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Belisama-1 - Alternate name for Agnes.
Belize - Belize
BelKA - Remote sensing satellite; replaced BelKa 1 satellite lost in an launch failure. Imager provided a resolution of 2.1 m and four spectral channels. Used Kanopus bus.
Belka - Alternate designation for RM-205.
Bell - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. ARC Liquid Propellant Division, Niagara Falls, NY, USA.
Bell 8000 - Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine family. Derived from an engine developed originally for the B-58 Hustler bomber's cancelled rocket pod, it was adapted for use with Lockheed's Agena upper stage for use with the deep black Corona spy satellite.
Bell 8048 - Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Agena A, derived from Rascal engine. Regeneratively cooled; used drilled holes to create the same effect as more costly stacked spaghetti rubes. First flight 1959. Status: Out of production. Number: 20 . Unfuelled mass: 127 kg (279 lb). Thrust: 68.90 kN (15,489 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Bell 8081 - Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Agena B stage atop Thor and Atlas. First flight 1960. Status: Out of production. Number: 156 . Unfuelled mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Thrust: 71.20 kN (16,006 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Bell 8096 - Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Used in Agena stage on top of Thor, Atlas, and Titan launch vehicles. First flight 1963. Status: Out of production. Number: 175 . Unfuelled mass: 132 kg (291 lb). Thrust: 71.20 kN (16,006 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Bell 8247 - Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Out of Production. Version of Agena engine for the Gemini-Agena Target Vehicle. Minimum capability of five restarts and a demonstrated capability of fifteen restarts. First flight 1963. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962-1964. Number: 248 . Unfuelled mass: 132 kg (291 lb). Thrust: 71.20 kN (16,006 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Bell Aircraft - First name of Atlantic Research.
Bell Aircraft - First name of Bell.
Bell Aircraft (Air Force Plant 38) - Alternate name for Bell.
Bell Hypersonic Rocket Transport 1960 - American manned rocketplane. In March 1960 Bell proposed a revised hypersonic transport design based on its work on boost-glide vehicles during the 1950's. There was no government or airline interest in the concept. Status: Design 1960.
Bell Project 7969 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Bell's preferred concept for the Air Force initial manned space project was the boost-glide vehicle they had been developing for the Dynasoar program. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 8,200 kg (18,000 lb).
Bell Rocket Transport 1957 - American manned rocketplane. Proposed 1957 civilian transport version of Bomi rocket bomber. Bell was unable to interest any airlines in putting up the development funds for the project. Status: Design 1957.
Bella - Slovak pilot cosmonaut 1998-1999. First Slovak astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-1999. Born: 1964-05-25. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.91 days.
BellComm - American manufacturer of spacecraft. BellComm, USA.
Beloborodov - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1967-1969. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1969. Born: 1939-10-26. Died: 2004-09-20.
Belokonyov - Russian phantom cosmonaut, reported died in orbit 1962.05.15. Judica-Cordiglia reported radio transmission 1962.11. Named in 1959.10 Ogonyok article on high altitude equipment test. Basis for 1969 novel Autopsy for a Cosmonaut. Died: 1962-05-15.
Belokorovichi - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1991. In the 1950's it was the base for units deployed with four R-1 launchers, followed by two R-2 launchers, then 12 R-5. From 1961 it operated 12 R-14, and possibly additional R-12 missiles.
Belousov - Belarusian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1968. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1968. Born: 1930-07-24. Died: 1998-06-27.
Belt - American photo interpreter payload specialist astronaut, 1988-1991. Status: Inactive; Active 1988-1991. Born: 1957-09-09.
Belyakov - Russian officer. Colonel, served at Kapustin Yar from April 1947, at Baikonur from 1957. Key person in integration of pioneering spacecraft, including the early Luna probes, Vostok, Voskhod, and Salyut. Authored over 170 papers. Born: 1923. Died: 1986-01-01.
Belyayev - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1970. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1970. Born: 1925-06-26. Died: 1970-01-10. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 1.08 days.
BEM - Abbreviation for Bug-Eyed Monster
Bender - German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot and staff engineer.
Benderov - Russian test pilot. Graduated from the Zhukovsky, 1950. Worked as an engineer and senior test pilot for Tupolev. Flew MiG-21 Tu-144 wing testbed. Proposed on 1964-06-29 as cosmonaut for Voskhod flights, but not confirmed. Died in the crash of a Tu-144 supersonic transport during an aviation demonstration at the 1973 Paris Airshow in Le Bourget. Status: Deceased; Active 1964-1964. Born: 1924-08-04. Died: 1973-06-03.
Bendix - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Bendix, USA.
Bendix ALSS Rover - American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix ALSS Payloads lunar rover design of June 1965 had a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. A variety of configurations were studied in detail. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,080 kg (6,790 lb).
Bendix LSSM - American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix LSSM lunar rover design of October 1965 had 4 wheels. and a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
Bendix Lunar Logistic System - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Bendix Lunar Logistic System was a lunar rover design of January 1963. The vehicle had 4 wheels with alternative front or all-wheel steering and a range of 800 km with a crew of 3 on a 14 day traverse. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,720 kg (5,990 lb).
Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle - Alternate designation for Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle 4 Wheel.
Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle 3 Wheel - American lunar rover. Study 1961. The Bendix Lunar Mobile System was an unmanned lunar rover design of September 1961. The vehicle had 3 wheels, powered separately, and a range of 800 km. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb).
Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle 4 Wheel - American manned lunar rover. Study 1961. The Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle was a lunar rover design of November 1961. The vehicle had 4 wheels and a range of 400 km with a crew of 3 on a 14 day traverse. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 2,720 kg (5,990 lb).
Bendix Molab - American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix Molab lunar rover design of June 1965 had 4 wheels and a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 12.8 cubic meters. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 2,950 kg (6,500 lb).
Bendix SLRV - American lunar rover. Study 1964. The Bendix SLRV unmanned lunar rover design of April 1964 had a speed up to 25 kph on 4 tracks with floating pivot articulation. It was designed for a 105 day traverse mission. Status: Study 1964. Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Bennett - American engineer. Chief of Naval Research from 1956 to 1961 Born: 1905-06-16. Died: 1967-12-01.
Bepi-Columbo - European comet probe. need summary - see links
Beppo - Alternate name for SAX.
Beregovoi - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1964-1982. Status: Deceased; Active 1964-1982. Born: 1921-04-15. Died: 1995-06-30. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 3.95 days.
Berenice - Berenice was Onera's successor to the Antares re-entry vehicle test booster. It was nearly double the mass of Antares. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1962-06-27. Last Launch: 1966-01-01. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 3,340 kg (7,360 lb). Payload: 40 kg (88 lb). Thrust: 170.00 kN (38,210 lbf).
Berenice Satmos - French orbital launch vehicle. In April 1963, ONERA proposed using a modified Berenice suborbital test vehicle to place a small 3.5 kg satellite ('Satmos') into a 250 x 1800 km orbit. They claimed this booster could be ready in 1964, one year before Diamant. However the given the marginal growth potential of such a design, the government decided to stick with Diamant. Status: Study 1963.
Berenice-1 - Alternate name for Stromboli.
Berenice-2 - Alternate name for SEPR 740.
Berenice-3 - Alternate name for Tramontane.
Bereznyak - Alternate designation for Bereznyak bureau.
Bereznyak - Russian officer. Lieutenant-General, Chief of the Mozhaiskiy Military Engineering Academy, 1974-1977. Served in the rocket forces from 1961-1973. Retired 1977. Born: 1922. Died: 1991-01-01.
Bereznyak bureau - Russian manufacturer of aircraft, including the Bi-1 rocketplane.
Bereznyak, Aleksandr - Soviet Chief designer. Soviet aircraft designer. Born: 1912. Died: 1974-01-01.
Berezovoi - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1970-1992. Status: Deceased; Active 1970-1992. Born: 1942-04-11. Died: 2014-09-20. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 211.38 days.
Bergeler - German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Peenemuende, Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. Born: 1907-05-16. Died: 1996-10-09.
Bergen - American Chief Designer. Oversaw the development of the Viking and Titan rockets at Martin. After the Apollo fire, hired by North American to get Apollo to the moon. Stayed on during design of the Space Shuttle and B-1 bomber. Born: 1915-03-29. Died: 1987-10-09.
Berger - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Berger, USA.
Beria - Georgian-Russian officer. Soviet security apparatus chief until toppled after death of Stalin 1953. In charge of Soviet development of nuclear weapons and rocketry, 1944-1953. Born: 1899-03-29. Died: 1953-12-23.
Beriev - Russian manufacturer of flying boats and cruise missiles.
Bering Sea - Sea-launched sounding rocket launch area known to have been used for 2 launches in 1950, reaching up to 80 kilometers altitude.
Berkner - American engineer. Leading organizer of the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958 Born: 1905-02-01. Died: 1967-06-04.
Berkut - Alternate designation for 218 missile.
Berkut - Alternate designation for S-25.
Berkut - Russian space suit, operational 1965. Berkut was a modified Vostok Sokol space suit. The needs of the cosmonaut were supplied not through the umbilical cord, but rather through a simple open-cycle environmental control system. Status: operational 1965.
Berkut - Alternate designation for 207A.
Berkut (Golden Eagle ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 14.
Berkut (Golden Eagle ) - Alternate name for Vostok 4.
Berkut (Golden Eagle) - Alternate designation for Vostok 4.
Berkut (Golden Eagle) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 14.
Berlin - First Launch: 1931-02-20. Last Launch: 1931-02-20. Number: 1 .
Bermuda - Bermuda
Bernkopf - German rocket expert; later worked in France in the engine group at LRBA from 1947 until retiring in 1985. He remained in France, living in Vernon.
Bershet - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM initially. Later 60 light ICBM (UR-100) silos operated, later supplemented by 9 RT-23 mobile ICBM launchers. First Launch: 1968-07-10. Last Launch: 1990-07-17. Number: 11 .
Beta - German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. In 1969 rocket pioneer Dietrich Koelle was working at MBB (Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm). There he sketched out a reusable VTOVL design called BETA using Bono's SASSTO as a starting point. The vehicle, taking European technology into account, was a bit heavier than Bono's design. But the thorough analysis showed even this design would be capable of delivering 2 metric tons of payload to orbit. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 127,500 kg (281,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 2,000.00 kN (449,600 lbf).
Beta II - German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Beta II was Dietrich Koelle's nominal 350 metric tons lift-off mass SSTO design for launch of a 10 metric ton European spaceplane. Status: Study 1987. Gross mass: 600,000 kg (1,320,000 lb). Payload: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Thrust: 10,000.00 kN (2,248,000 lbf).
Beta III - German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. In 1969 Dietrich Koelle proposed his BETA III design. This was to deliver 20 metric tons to orbit with a launch mass of 600 metric tons. In 1996 and 1998 he updated the design for use as an ISS resupply vehicle in place of the shuttle, and as a space tourism vehicle for 100 passengers. Status: Study 1987. Gross mass: 780,000 kg (1,710,000 lb). Payload: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 1,070.00 kN (240,540 lbf).
Beta IV - German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Beta II was Dietrich Koelle's largest SSTO concept, with a nominal 2000 metric ton lift-off mass SSTO design and 100 metric ton payload. Status: Study 1987. Gross mass: 2,000,000 kg (4,400,000 lb). Payload: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Thrust: 27,500.00 kN (6,182,200 lbf).
Bethge - German engineer at Peenemuende.
BeV - Abbreviation for Billion electron volts
Beyond the Vapor Trails - Don Estabrook's contemporary account of operating the V-2 from White Sands.
BGM-110 - American intermediate range cruise missile. Losing design in Sea-Launched Cruise Missile competition. Nuclear warhead version with warhead mass of 120 kg. Status: Cancelled 1976. Gross mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 2.64 kN (593 lbf).
BGM-75 - Alternate designation for AICBM.
BGRV - Alternate designation for Boost Glide Re-entry Vehicle re-entry vehicle technology satellite.
BH - Abbreviation for Black Hole
Bharat - Indian manufacturer of rockets. Bharat, India.
Bhaskara - Indian earth land resources satellite. Experimental satellite for conducting earth resources survey over India. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-06-07. Last Launch: 1981-11-20. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 442 kg (974 lb).
Bhat - Indian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1948.
BI-1 - Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1941. The Bereznyak-Isayev BI-1 was the first high speed rocket plane developed by the Soviet Union. Drawings were completed by spring 1941 but Stalin did not give the go-ahead for production until July 9, 1941. Status: Operational 1941. Gross mass: 1,683 kg (3,710 lb). Unfuelled mass: 978 kg (2,156 lb). Thrust: 10.70 kN (2,405 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
Bibikov - Russian officer. Director of NII-1 during German recovery operations 1945-1946.
BIC - Abbreviation for Barium-ion-cloud experiment
Big Dumb Booster - Alternate designation for LCLV.
Big Dumb Booster - Alternate designation for TRW LCLV.
Big Gemini - American manned spacecraft. Reached mockup stage 1967. Status: Mock-up 1967. Gross mass: 15,590 kg (34,370 lb). Payload: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
Big Gemini AM - American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Earth orbit maneuver and retrofire. Status: Mock-up 1967. Gross mass: 4,450 kg (9,810 lb). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Big Gemini CM - American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Space station resupply. Status: Mock-up 1967. Gross mass: 5,910 kg (13,020 lb). Payload: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
Big Gemini RV - American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Crew and cargo return. Status: Mock-up 1967. Gross mass: 5,227 kg (11,523 lb).
Big Soyuz - Russian manned spacecraft. Study 2008. This enlarged version of the Soyuz reentry vehicle shape was one alternative studied for the next-generation Russian launch vehicle. Status: Study 2008. Gross mass: 11,000 kg (24,000 lb). Payload: 3,300 kg (7,200 lb).
Big Stick - Alternate designation for SLAM.
Bigelow - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Bigelow, USA.
Bigen Island - Bigen Island, Aur Atoll, Marshall Islands, was a sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1997-02-07. Last Launch: 1997-03-19. Number: 2 .
Bikini - Nuclear test site. Sounding rockets were launched from here to monitor blast and fallout of nuclear explosions. First Launch: 1956-04-01. Last Launch: 1956-07-21. Number: 13 .
Bikle - American engineer. Worked at Wright Field and Edwards AFB from 1940. Director NASA Edwards 1959-1971. Oversaw projects from the XB-43 through the X-15 to the NASA lifting bodies. Born: 1916-06-05. Died: 1991-01-20.
Bilenko - Russian engineer. General designer of satellite communications systems. Director of the Moscow Institute of Radio Communications 1977-1991. Born: 1924. Died: 1991-01-01.
Billig - German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 until retirement in 1974.
Bilsat - Alternate designation for MicroSat-100.
Bilsat - Three disaster monitoring DMC satellites (BILSAT-1, NigeriaSat-1 and UK-DMC) were lofted in a single Kosmos launch. They joined the first DMC satellite, AlSAT-1. Used the SSTL-100 bus.
BIMA - Abbreviation for Berkeley Illinois Maryland Array
Bimat web - The continuous processing film used in the Lunar Orbiter photographic subsystem to process the camera film.
Binarian - Malaysian agency. Binarian, Malaysia.
Binariang - Binariang Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia, Malaysia
Binnie - American test pilot rocketplane pilot. Flew on SpaceShipOne Flight 17P. Status: Active. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.0167 days.
BIOCORE - Apollo 17 medical experiment (using mice)
Biology - Category of spacecraft.
Bion - Russian biology satellite. Bion was developed for biological studies of the effects of radiation. Status: Operational 1973. First Launch: 1973-10-31. Last Launch: 1996-12-24. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb). Payload: 625 kg (1,377 lb).
Bion-M - Biosat which combined a Vostok spherical pressurized reentry capsule and a Yantar service module. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-04-19. Last Launch: 2013-04-19. Number: 1 .
BIOS - Biological Investigation of Space (suborbital flight experiment); sometimes also used as short name for Biosatellite .
Biosat - Alternate name for Biosatellite.
Biosatellite - American biology satellite. Biosatellite was a NASA spacecraft designed in the early 1960's to study the effects of the space environment on living organisms in missions. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-12-14. Last Launch: 1969-06-29. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 542 kg (1,194 lb).
Bio-Suit - American space suit, study of 2001. Novel approach that used biomedical breakthroughs in skin replacement and materials to replace the bulky conventional balloon spacesuit with a second skin approach. Status: Design 2001.
Bioteknologiya - Russian materials science satellite. Study 1992. In 1991 the Salyut Design Bureau proposed a satellite based on a derivative of the class of spacecraft which serve as the heavy add-on modules for the Mir space station, e.g., Kvant 2 and Kristall. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb).
BIP - Zero Defect Completion System (Russian abbreviation) - First Russian missile quality assurance system, 1953-1955.
BIRD - German earth land resources satellite. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-10-22. Last Launch: 2001-10-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 94 kg (207 lb).
Bird, Cory - American Engineer. White Knight project engineer.
Birdling's Flat - Sounding rocket launch site, co-located with radar site operated by University of Canterbury. First Launch: 1963-05-23. Last Launch: 1964-12-01. Number: 2 .
Birodbidzhan - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1964. Moved to Tatishchevo. Base for units deployed with R-1, R-2, R-12, and R-14 missiles.
Biryukov - Russian engineer. From 1992 General Director and Chef Designer of KB TM Developed launch equipment and complexes for a range of missiles, including the R-36 heavy ICBM.
Biryuzov - Russian officer. Commander-in-Chief of RVSN 1962-1963. Born: 1904-08-21. Died: 1964-10-19.
BIS - British manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. British Interplanetary Society, UK.
BIS 3 Stage - The British Interplanetary Society (BIS) reusable booster concept of 1950 was a 3 stage, rocket, similar to Von Braun concepts of the time. The third stage was a winged vehicle which would use the skip-glide re-entry technique conceived by Saenger. Status: Design 1950.
BIS Lunar Lander - British manned lunar lander. Study 1939. Design of the British Interplanetary Society's BIS Spaceship began in 1937 and was published in January and July 1939. Status: Study 1939. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
BIS Space Suit - British space suit, study of 1949. In 1947 R A Smith presented a series of papers to the British Interplanetary Society. This space suit was the concept for earth orbit work. Status: Study 1949.
BIS Station - British manned space station. Study 1948. H. E. Ross proposed a manned satellite station in Earth orbit that would serve as an astronomical and zero-gravity and vacuum research laboratory. Status: Study 1948.
Biscarosse - In April 1962 France signed the final agreements with Algeria, requiring them to evacuate their rocket test ranged there by July 1967. Three months later a site on French soil on the Bay of Biscay, at Landes, near Biscarosse, was selected. The site would allow the testing of missiles over the Atlantic out to a range of 3000 km. This would put the RV impact area near the Azores, and a tracking station was opened in October 1966 on Flores island. First Launch: 1965-06-15. Last Launch: 2011-11-15. Number: 177 .
Biscarosse BE - Base Espace
Biscarosse BESA - Base Experimentale Sol-Air
Biscarosse BLB - SSBS, MSBS launch complex. Base Lancement Balistique First Launch: 1966-02-15. Last Launch: 2008-11-13. Number: 66 .
Biscarosse BP - Base Pluton
Biscarosse BS - Base Scientifique
Biscarosse CE - Black Brant launch complex. Probable launch from CEL (Site "CE" in Chesser's BAL list) First Launch: 1989-05-31. Last Launch: 1994-03-01. Number: 6 .
Biscarosse SUD - Pas de tir sud
Bisnovat - Russian manufacturer of rockeplanes based on German WWII designs.
Bisonsat - Cubesat from Salish Kootenai College in Montana.
Bissell - American CIA official who headed development of the U-2 and A-12 spy planes, and the first generation of spy satellites. Deputy Director for Plans at the time of the Bay of Pigs debacle, which resulted in his resignation. Born: 1909-09-18. Died: 1994-02-15.
Bitburg AB - CGM-13B Mace operating base.
Bizan - Russian air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Bizan was the 1982 Soviet air-launched spaceplane design iteration between the '49' and 'MAKS' concepts. Like the '49', it was air-launched from atop an An-124 transport. Unlike the '49', it was a single-stage-to-orbit tripropellant concept. Status: Study 1981. Gross mass: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb). Payload: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
Bizan-T - Russian air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from catamaran heavy-life aircraft, predecessor of later Gerakl / Molniya-1000 design. 900 metric tons takeoff mass. Release conditions: Suspended load, Mach 0.7 at 8 to 9 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Status: Study 1981. Gross mass: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb). Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb).
BJMU - German agency. Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet, Wuerzburg, Germany.
BKA - Remote sensing satellite; replaced BelKa 1 satellite lost in an launch failure. Imager provided a resolution of 2.1 m and four spectral channels. Used Kanopus bus.
BKS - Combat Shock Space System (Russian abbreviation)
BKSA - Malaysian agency. Bahagian Kajian Sains Angkasa, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Black Armadillo - American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Armadillo Aerospace, Mesquite, Texas. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. Status: Study 2004. Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb).
Black Arrow - British orbital launch vehicle. Britain's only indigenous launch vehicle. Following cancellation of the project in July 1971, one final launch was permitted, which successfully placed the Prospero satellite in orbit. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1969-06-27. Last Launch: 1971-10-28. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 18,130 kg (39,960 lb). Payload: 73 kg (160 lb). Thrust: 222.40 kN (49,998 lbf).
Black Arrow-1 - H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 14,104 kg (31,093 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,070 kg (2,350 lb). Thrust: 234.82 kN (52,790 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
Black Arrow-2 - H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 3,537 kg (7,797 lb). Unfuelled mass: 535 kg (1,179 lb). Thrust: 68.23 kN (15,340 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
Black Arrow-3 - British solid rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Black Arrow launch vehicle. First flight 1969. Status: Out of production. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 397 kg (875 lb). Unfuelled mass: 87 kg (191 lb). Thrust: 29.40 kN (6,609 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Black Brant - The Black Brant originated in a 1957 Canadian government requirement for a sounding rocket to characterize the ionosphere in order to improve military communications. Bristol Aerospace of Winnipeg, Manitoba was selected to design the rocket, while the Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment (CARDE) was responsible for the propellant and filling. The prototype was called the Propulsion Test Vehicle. It was a relatively heavy rocket, since it was designed to stand up to the use of a wide range of engine burning time, propellant loadings and launch angles associated with fuel development. The lighter production version of the vehicle was renamed Black Brant. Later versions of Black Brant used a variety of booster and upper stages to supplement the original single-stage vehicle. Status: Active.
Black Brant 1 - Alternate designation for Black Brant I.
Black Brant 10 - Alternate designation for Black Brant X.
Black Brant 10B - Alternate designation for Black Brant XB.
Black Brant 10CM1 - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 1990-02-23. Last Launch: 2004-01-22. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb).
Black Brant 11 - Alternate designation for Black Brant XI.
Black Brant 12 - Alternate designation for Black Brant XII.
Black Brant 2 - Alternate designation for Black Brant II.
Black Brant 2B - Alternate designation for Black Brant IIB.
Black Brant 2B - Alternate designation for 23KS20000 rocket stage.
Black Brant 3 - Alternate designation for Black Brant III.
Black Brant 3B - Alternate designation for Black Brant IIIB.
Black Brant 4 - Alternate designation for Black Brant IV.
Black Brant 4A - Alternate designation for Black Brant IVA.
Black Brant 4B - Alternate designation for Black Brant IVB.
Black Brant 5 - Alternate designation for Black Brant V.
Black Brant 5A - Alternate designation for Black Brant VA.
Black Brant 5B - Alternate designation for Black Brant VB.
Black Brant 5C - Alternate designation for 26KS20000 rocket stage.
Black Brant 5C - Alternate designation for Black Brant VC.
Black Brant 6 - Alternate designation for Black Brant VI.
Black Brant 7 - Alternate designation for Black Brant VII.
Black Brant 8 - Canadian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike booster + Black Brant VB or VC upper stage. Payload 136 kg to 430 km or 408 kg to 230 km. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 196.00 kN (44,062 lbf).
Black Brant 8B - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 1975-12-04. Last Launch: 2003-06-30. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Black Brant 8C - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 1976-11-17. Last Launch: 2004-09-17. Number: 91 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Black Brant 9 - Alternate designation for Black Brant IX.
Black Brant 9B - Alternate designation for Black Brant IXB.
Black Brant 9BM1 - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1992-04-09. Last Launch: 1992-04-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb).
Black Brant 9CM1 - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 1989-03-29. Last Launch: 2001-02-09. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb).
Black Brant I - Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle using the Black Brant VA. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1959-09-05. Last Launch: 1963-04-06. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 730 kg (1,600 lb). Payload: 68 kg (149 lb). Thrust: 111.00 kN (24,953 lbf).
Black Brant II - Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1960-10-12. Last Launch: 1974-02-22. Number: 58 . Gross mass: 880 kg (1,940 lb). Payload: 68 kg (149 lb). Thrust: 89.00 kN (20,007 lbf).
Black Brant IIB - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-10-06. Last Launch: 1965-01-25. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Black Brant III - Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Brant IIIA or IIIB. Status: Retired 1984. First Launch: 1962-06-15. Last Launch: 1984-05-11. Number: 55 . Gross mass: 286 kg (630 lb). Payload: 18 kg (39 lb). Thrust: 49.00 kN (11,015 lbf).
Black Brant IIIB - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1985. First Launch: 1969-02-28. Last Launch: 1985-05-06. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
Black Brant IV - Canadian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Brant VA + 1 x Black Brant IIIA or IIIB. Gross mass: 1,356 kg (2,989 lb). Payload: 18 kg (39 lb). Thrust: 111.00 kN (24,953 lbf).
Black Brant IVA - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1964-06-24. Last Launch: 1976-03-10. Number: 35 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
Black Brant IVB - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1971-02-05. Last Launch: 1981-12-13. Number: 30 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
Black Brant IX - Canadian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier Mk 70 + 1 x Black Brant VB. Status: Active. First Launch: 1982-03-16. Last Launch: 2015-10-07. Number: 256 . Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb).
Black Brant IX Mod 2 - Status: Retired 2008. First Launch: 2008-01-11. Last Launch: 2008-01-11. Number: 1 .
Black Brant IXB - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1998. First Launch: 1985-02-15. Last Launch: 1998-04-28. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb).
Black Brant V - Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Brant VA, VB, or VC. Gross mass: 1,197 kg (2,638 lb). Payload: 68 kg (149 lb). Thrust: 111.00 kN (24,953 lbf).
Black Brant VA - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1999. First Launch: 1966-12-13. Last Launch: 1999-07-14. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
Black Brant VB - Canadian sounding rocket. Three-fin version. The Black Brant VB provided slightly improved performance over the VC. The burnout roll rate for the Black Brant V was 4 cycles per second. Maximum longitudinal acceleration varied with payload weight; for a typical payload weight of 270 kg, maximum thrust axis acceleration is approximately 12g's. Status: Active. First Launch: 1965-06-12. Last Launch: 2002-02-21. Number: 66 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Black Brant VC - Canadian sounding rocket. Four-fin version. Status: Active. First Launch: 1970-04-04. Last Launch: 2013-07-04. Number: 107 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).
Black Brant VI - Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1969-10-01. Last Launch: 1979-04-28. Number: 70 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 7.00 kN (1,574 lbf).
Black Brant VII - Alternate designation for BB7.
Black Brant VII - Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1970-12-15. Last Launch: 1972-01-27. Number: 20 . Payload: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb).
Black Brant X - Canadian sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Black Brant VB or VC + 1 x Nihka. Payload 90 kg to 1,200 km or 317 kg to 550 km. Status: Active. First Launch: 1981-08-14. Last Launch: 2010-08-04. Number: 30 . Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Thrust: 257.00 kN (57,775 lbf).
Black Brant X-1 - Alternate name for X-256.
Black Brant XB - Canadian sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1985-02-15. Last Launch: 1989-04-11. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb).
Black Brant XI - Canadian sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle. Payload weights of 320 kg to 500 km or 550 kg to 350 km altitude. Status: Active. First Launch: 1990-02-01. Last Launch: 2012-07-23. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 5,300 kg (11,600 lb).
Black Brant XII - Canadian sounding rocket. The Black Brant XII rocket system was a four stage system used primarily to carry a variety of payloads to high altitudes. Its development is a spin-off of the Black Brant X development. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Taurus + 1 x Black Brant VB + 1 x Nihka. Payload 136 kg to 1,500 km or 522 kg to 500 km. Status: Active. First Launch: 1988-09-30. Last Launch: 2013-06-06. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 5,300 kg (11,600 lb).
Black Colt - Alternate designation for Black Colt AV.
Black Colt - American manned single-crew spaceplane, follow-up to Black Horse concept. In comparison to Black Horse, used existing engines and a much more achievable mass fraction by only flying to half orbital speed. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 43,160 kg (95,150 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 402.05 kN (90,385 lbf).
Black Colt AV - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Winged, first stage of a launch vehicle using aerial refueling and existing engines. Takes off from runway; rendezvous with tanker to load oxidizer; then flies to Mach 12/150 nm to release Star 48V second stage and 450 kg payload. 2 x F125 turbofans for flight to tanker, subsonic ferry, and go-around capability on return. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 40,482 kg (89,247 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,283 kg (18,260 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 402.05 kN (90,385 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Black Horse - Alternate designation for Black Horse AV.
Black Horse - American winged, single-crew, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle using aerial refueling and lower performance, non-cryogenic propellants. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 84,100 kg (185,400 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 443.19 kN (99,633 lbf).
Black Horse AV - H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Winged, single stage to orbit launch vehicle using aerial refueling and lower performance, non-cryogenic propellants. Takes off from runway at 48,452 lbs gross weight; rendezvous with tanker to load 146,870 lbs oxidizer; then flies to orbit. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 83,560 kg (184,210 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,883 kg (15,174 lb). Thrust: 443.19 kN (99,633 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
Black Knight - The Black Knight was a British test vehicle designed to test re-entry vehicles for the Blue Streak MRBM. It was subsequently used for a series of US-sponsored test of RV radar signatures. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1958-09-07. Last Launch: 1965-11-25. Number: 22 .
Black Knight 201 - British test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Gross mass: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb). Thrust: 75.00 kN (16,860 lbf).
Black Knight 201/C - British test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Knight 201 + 1 x Cuckoo IB Gross mass: 6,400 kg (14,100 lb). Thrust: 95.00 kN (21,356 lbf).
Black Knight 201/C2 - British test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Knight 201 + 1 x Cuckoo II
Black Knight 201/C-2 - Alternate name for Cuckoo IB.
Black Knight 201/C2-2 - Alternate name for Cuckoo II.
Black Knight 201-1 - H2O2/Kerosene rocket stage. 75.00 kN (16,861 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,400 kg (11,905 lb). Status: Retired 1964. Gross mass: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 540 kg (1,190 lb). Thrust: 75.00 kN (16,860 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
Black Knight 301/C - British test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Knight 301 + 1 x Cuckoo IB
Black Knight 301/C2 - British test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Knight 301 + 1 x Cuckoo II
Black Knight 301/C2-1 - H2O2/Kerosene rocket stage. 75.00 kN (16,861 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,400 kg (11,905 lb). Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 540 kg (1,190 lb). Thrust: 75.00 kN (16,860 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
Black Mesa - Military testing range. First Launch: 1963-09-24. Last Launch: 1970-11-24. Number: 80 .
Black Rock Desert - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 2000-09-29. Last Launch: 2004-05-17. Number: 3 .
Black Sea Launch Area - Naval military missile launch position. First Launch: 1960-05-01. Last Launch: 1961-10-01. Number: 3 .
Black Sparrow - Black Sparrow Status: Active. First Launch: 2000-09-14. Last Launch: 2011-11-15. Number: 6 .
Black Sparrow missile series -
Black Sphere - Identified by McDowell as probable NRL ELINT satellite.
BlackArrow - Alternate designation for Black Arrow.
Blackstar - American manned spaceplane. 2006 reports claimed it was flown covertly in the 1990s. If so, it may have derived from the Isinglass studies of the late 1960's. Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb).
Blagonravov - Russian scientist. President, Academy Artillery Sciences 1946-1950, leading development of first Soviet sounding rockets. Soviet representative to UN COPUOS and negotiator with NASA on cooperative space projects in early 1960's. Born: 1894-06-01. Died: 1975-02-04.
Blaha - American test pilot astronaut 1980-1997. Flew 361 combat missions in Vietnam. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1997. Born: 1942-08-26. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 161.11 days.
Blaik - American businessman. Vice president and director of Avco, 1959-60, then director and chairman of executive committee in 1960. Born: 1897-02-15. Died: 1989-05-05.
Blair - American writer. Magazine correspondent and editor of Saturday Evening Post 1957-1964. Born: 1925-05-01. Died: 1998-12-17.
Blass - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Engineer and German specialist in the Soviet Union. Born: 1901.
Blenck - German expert in aircraft design during World War II. Working at LFA Braunschweig after the war.
Blinov - Russian pilot astronaut 2012- . Status: Active 2012-on. Born: 1978-08-17.
BLITS - Spherical glass lens for laser geodesy, built by the NII for Precision Instruments (NIIPP), Moscow. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-09-17. Last Launch: 2009-09-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 7.00 kg (15.40 lb).
Blk Sparrow - Alternate designation for Black Sparrow.
Block 1 - Alternate designation for LK-700 Block 1.
Block 1 - American short range ballistic missile. In production. Advanced TACtical Missile System, Fire Support , Deep Attack Field Artillery, 1000 bomblets Gross mass: 1,659 kg (3,657 lb).
Block 11 - Alternate designation for LK-700 Block 11 manned spacecraft module.
Block 111 - Alternate designation for LK-700 Block 111 manned spacecraft module.
Block 1A - American short range ballistic missile. In production. Gross mass: 1,319 kg (2,907 lb).
Block 1V - Alternate designation for LK-700 Block 1V manned spacecraft module.
Block 2 - American short range ballistic missile. In development. Gross mass: 1,515 kg (3,340 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb).
Block D - Alternate designation for Proton 11S824.
Block D - Alternate designation for Proton 11S824F.
Block D - Alternate designation for Proton 11S824M.
Block D - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Adaptation of Block D for Energia payload low earth orbital insertion. Used when Buran orbiter not carried. Status: Design 1987. Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 84.94 kN (19,094 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Block DM - Alternate name for Proton 17S40.
Block DM - Alternate name for Proton 11S861.
Block DM - Alternate name for Proton 11S861-01.
Block DM - Alternate name for Proton 11S86.
Block L -
Block V - Alternate designation for LK-700 VA manned spacecraft module.
Blohm - German Director of Blohm and Voss during World War II.
Blok SO-L - LOx/Kerosene rocket stage. 66.70 kN (14,995 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,200 kg (13,669 lb). Status: U. Gross mass: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 999 kg (2,202 lb). Thrust: 66.70 kN (14,995 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Blok-A - Alternate designation for Soyuz-2-1V.
Bloka Skhoda s Orbiti - Alternate designation for TKS BSO manned spacecraft module.
Blokhin - Russian engineer. Head of Mikoyan KB space section. Worked on the Spiral spaceplane.
Blome - German expert in biological warfare during World War II. Released from Project Dustbin in 1945.
Bloodhound - British surface-to-air missile. Status: Active.
Bloodhound Mk. 1 - British surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 66.60 kN (14,972 lbf).
Bloodhound Mk. 2 - British surface-to-air missile. 4 wrap-around solid propellant boosters, ramjet sustainer. Program ended.
Bloodhound Mk.1 - Alternate designation for Bloodhound Mk. 1.
Bloom - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Bloom, USA.
Bloomfield - American test pilot astronaut 1994-2007. Grew up in Lake Fenton, Michigan. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2007. Born: 1959-03-16. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 32.46 days.
Blue Origin - Blue Origin was founded and funded by billionaire Jeff Bezos, founder of amazon.com. Commercial space passenger service would be conducted from a private spaceport at the 165,000-acre Corn Ranch, 40 kilometers north of Van Horn, west Texas. The launch point would be 8 kilometers west of Highway 54. The spaceport included a vehicle processing facility, a launch complex, vehicle landing and recovery area, an astronaut training facility, lodging, and other support facilities. The launch pad covered 3,000 square meters; the landing pad would be located 6.1 km north of it. First Launch: 2006-11-13. Last Launch: 2006-11-13. Number: 1 .
Blue Scout 1 - Alternate designation for Blue Scout I.
Blue Scout 2 - Alternate designation for Blue Scout II.
Blue Scout ERCS - American strategic communications missile. USAF initial Emergency Rocket Communications System booster.
Blue Scout I - American suborbital launch vehicle. Air Force version of Scout used for suborbital tests. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1961-01-07. Last Launch: 1962-04-12. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 16,738 kg (36,900 lb). Payload: 88 kg (194 lb). Thrust: 511.50 kN (114,990 lbf).
Blue Scout II - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Air Force version of Scout used for suborbital and orbital military tests. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1961-03-03. Last Launch: 1961-11-01. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 16,874 kg (37,200 lb). Payload: 30 kg (66 lb). Thrust: 511.50 kN (114,990 lbf).
Blue Scout Jr - American suborbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Alcor + 1 x Cetus Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1960-09-21. Last Launch: 1965-06-09. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 5,800 kg (12,700 lb). Thrust: 222.00 kN (49,907 lbf).
Blue Scout Jr 2 - American suborbital launch vehicle. Three stage version consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Alcor Gross mass: 5,800 kg (12,700 lb). Thrust: 222.00 kN (49,907 lbf).
Blue Scout Jr SLV-1B(m) - American suborbital launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1962-12-19. Last Launch: 1964-12-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 5,800 kg (12,700 lb).
Blue Scout Jr SLV-1C - American suborbital launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1962-05-31. Last Launch: 1970-11-25. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 5,800 kg (12,700 lb).
Blue Scout Junior - American suborbital launch vehicle. Smaller Air Force version of Scout used for suborbital military tests. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 5,797 kg (12,780 lb). Payload: 10 kg (22 lb). Thrust: 222.40 kN (49,998 lbf).
Blue Sparrow - Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-04-15. Last Launch: 2014-12-16. Number: 4 .
Blue Steel - British air-to-surface missile. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb).
Blue Streak - Alternate designation for Europa-1.
Blue Streak - British intermediate range ballistic missile. Cancelled 1960, but formed the basis for the ELDO Europa space launch vehicle in the late 1960's. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-06-04. Last Launch: 1965-03-21. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 90,000 kg (198,000 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 1,222.80 kN (274,896 lbf).
Blue Streak, ELDO-1 - Alternate designation for Europa-1 rocket stage.
Blue Water - British tactical ballistic missile. Cancelled 1962 Status: Cancelled 1962. First Launch: 1960-04-21. Last Launch: 1962-06-07. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb).
Bluebell - American military target satellite. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-02-15. Last Launch: 1966-02-15. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 7.00 kg (15.40 lb).
Bluford - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1978-1993. First African-American in space. Flew 144 combat missions in Vietnam. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1993. Born: 1942-11-22. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 28.69 days.
BMDO - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (formerly SDIO), USA.
BMMD - Abbreviation for Body Mass Measurement Device
BMO - US Army Ballistic Missiles Office; or US Air Force Ballistic Missiles Office
BMRSA2 - Alternate name for Vandenberg 576A2.
BMRSA3 - Alternate name for Vandenberg 576A3.
BMW - German manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. BMW, Germany.
BMW and Ruhrstahl AG - First name of BMW.
BNAS - Belarusian agency. Belarus Space Agency, Belarus.
BNSC - British National Space Center, UK.
BNSCSat - Alternate designation for MicroSat-100.
BNSCSat - Used the SSTL-100 bus.
BO - Abbreviation for Living Module
Bobko - American pilot astronaut 1966-1989. Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1989. Born: 1937-12-23. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 16.09 days.
Bode - American engineer, vice president of military development and systems engineering at Bell Telephone Laboratories 1958-1967. Worked for Bell from 1926 to 1967. Born: 1905-12-24. Died: 1982-06-01.
Bodenstein - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA in the mechanics group in the automated control loop department 1947-1952.
Boe - American pilot astronaut 2000-on. Status: Active 2000-on. Born: 1964-10-01. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 28.65 days.
Boehm - Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1908-08-07. Died: 1973-12-01.
Boehner - German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot. Captain, fighter pilot, shot down five allied aircraft on the Western Front, test pilot on the Me-163 rocket fighter, and Squadron Commander of Me-163 squadron 2./JG 400. Flew 16 Me-163 missions. As of 2008 member of DGLR and still living in Anweiler, Germany. Born: 1913-12-14.
Boei-cho - Alternate name for JDA.
Boeing - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Boeing Aerospace, Seattle, USA.
Boeing - First name of Kent.
Boeing - Fourth name of Seal Beach.
Boeing (1997-2008) - Fourth name of Convair.
Boeing Canoga Park - Fifth name of Rocketdyne.
Boeing EELV - American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing EELV as proposed in 1992. Status: Design 1992.
Boeing Huntington Beach - Third name of Douglas.
Boeing LES Rover - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Boeing Lunar Exploration Systems lunar rover design of November 1963 was for a multipurpose rover with a range of 480 km with a crew of 2 on a 8 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 4.95 cubic meters. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,920 kg (6,430 lb).
Boeing LSSM - American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Boeing LSSM lunar rover design of June 1965 had 4 wheels of 1.2 or 1.6 m diameter. and a range of 200 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 2,040 kg (4,490 lb).
Boeing North American - Third name of Seal Beach.
Boeing North American - Second name of North American.
Boeing Palmdale - Third name of North American.
Boeing Reusable Space Systems - Fourth name of North American.
Boeing Rocketdyne (1996) - Fourth name of Rocketdyne.
Boeing Satellite Systems - Third name of El Segundo.
Boeing SDV - American orbital launch vehicle. The Boeing SDV Class I vehicle would lead to the Shuttle-C, using the shuttle aft fuselage with SSME engines to power a cargo canister into orbit. Status: Study 1977. Gross mass: 922,000 kg (2,032,000 lb). Payload: 91,000 kg (200,000 lb).
Boeing Space Tug - Alternate designation for Space Tug.
Boeing SPS SSTO - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. In 1977 Boeing produced a vehicle design for a 227 metric tons payload vertical takeoff launch vehicle to be used to launch components for the huge Satellite Solar Power platforms that NASA was promoting at the time. The booster would launch from the edge of a water-filled man-made lagoon and recover in the lagoon and used a water-cooled heat shield for reentry. Status: Design 1977. Payload: 227,000 kg (500,000 lb).
Boeing/ES - Boeing, El Segundo (formerly Hughes), USA
Boeing-CP - Boeing Rocketdyne, Canoga Park, USA
Boeing-HSV - Boeing Huntsville, USA
Boeing-K - Boeing, Kent/Seattle, USA
Boeing-NA - Boeing North American (formerly Rockwell), USA
Boeing-SB - Boeing North American, Seal Beach (formerly Rockwell), USA
Boeing-SL - Boeing Sea Launch, Seattle, USA
Boenisch - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. Born: 1902-02-18.
Boergemann - German military instructor on the V-2 during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Boese - German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA as head of the Doppler tracking group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952.
Boesen - American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1987-1990. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1990. Born: 1942-08-09.
Boettcher - German designer on the V-2 during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Bofors Missiles - Swedish manufacturer. Bofors Missiles, Sweden.
Boggess - American scientist. Worked at NASA on IRAS and COBE infrared satellites.
Bogomolov - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1954-1988 of OKB MEI. Born: 1913-06-02. Died: 2009-04-14.
Bogomolov, Vladislav - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1971-1985 of Isayev rocket engine design bureau. Succeeded Isayev after his death. Born: 1919-09-14. Died: 1997-02-09.
Boguslavskiy - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1950-1969 of Ryazanskiy design bureau. Specialized in spacecraft guidance systems. Born: 1917. Died: 1969-05-18.
Bohlen - American diplomat. Career foreign service officer. Born: 1904-08-30. Died: 1974-01-01.
Bokov - Russian officer. Major General, Chief of Directorate at GUKOS space forces 1970-1980. Born: 1921.
Bold Orion - American air-launched anti-ballistic missile. Dropped from B-47 medium bombers, the missile consisted of a Sergeant booster and Altair upper stage. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1958-05-26. Last Launch: 1959-10-13. Number: 12 .
Bold Orion 1 - American anti-ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x B-47 Stratojet + 1 x Sergeant
Bold Orion 2 - American anti-ballistic missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x B-47 Stratojet + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Altair
Bolden - American test pilot astronaut 1980-1994. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1994. Born: 1946-08-19. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 28.36 days.
Bolivia -
Bolkhovitinov - Russian engineer. Engineer at NII-1. Led early study of Soviet derivative of the Saenger-Bredt antipodal bomber. Soviet airplane technical designer. Born: 1889. Died: 1970-01-01.
Bollermann - American Chief Engineer of Space Data Corporation, developer of its sounding rockets, from 1963-1996. These included the Super Loki and Viper Dart. Born: February 1926.
Bolo - Alternate designation for SLAM.
Bologoye/Vypolzovo - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM, later 90 light ICBM (UR-100) silos. At the end of the UR-100's service life 47 of these continued in use with the MR-UR-100.
Bolshoi - Russian officer. Department Chief of TsKIK. Led flight control teams for early missions.
Bomarc - Bomarc Mach 3 ramjet surface to air missile; the only surface-to-air missile ever deployed by the US Air Force. Its development in the 1950's played an important role in technological base for later missiles and launch vehicles. Later converted to target missiles and launched from Vandenberg AFB. Status: Retired 1982. First Launch: 1952-09-10. Last Launch: 1982-07-14. Number: 157 . Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb).
Bomarc - Alternate designation for CIM-10A.
Bomarc B - Alternate designation for CIM-10B.
Bombardier Aerospace - Second name of Short Brothers.
Bomi - Bell manned skip-glide space bomber project of the early 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar. Status: Design 1956.
Bondar - Canadian physician payload specialist astronaut 1983-1992. Neurologist. First Canadian female astronaut. IML-1 payload specialist. Status: Inactive; Active 1983-1992. Born: 1945-12-04. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 8.05 days.
Bondarenko - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. Killed in a fire in a spacecraft simulator run using a pure oxygen atmosphere. His death had a profound effect on future design of Soviet spacecraft. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1961. Born: 1937-02-16. Died: 1961-03-23.
Bondaryuk - Alternate designation for Bondaryuk bureau.
Bondaryuk - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1950-1969 of OKB-670. Specialized in ramjet engines, including the large systems designed for Burya and Buran. Born: 1908. Died: 1969-01-01.
Bondaryuk bureau - Russian manufacturer of ramjet and nuclear thermal engines.
Bonestell - Renowned American architectural artist who achieved greater fame as the illustrator of von Braun's vision of human space exploration in the 1950's. His realistic paintings inspired a generation of engineers to make space travel a reality. Born: 1888. Died: 1986-06-11.
Bonnet - French astronomer. Built first French space astronomy experiment, launched by Veronique 1967. Director of Stellar and Planetary Lab of CNRS 1969-1983. Director of the ESA Scientific Program, 1983-2001. Born: 1937-12-23.
Bonney - American journalist. Worked for NACA from 1949. NASA Director of Public Relations, 1958-1960. Avco Director of Public Relations 1960-1971. Born: 1909-05-27. Died: 1975-05-01.
Bono - In the 1960's Philip Bono proposed a series of innovative designs that would enable airline-like access to space. His single-stage-to-orbit vertical-takeoff-vertical-landing concepts would have transported passengers to any point in the world in 45 minutes or less, deployed an entire battalion of troops to crisis zones, and powered single-launch expeditions to the moon and Mars. Despite this promise, government was only backing conservative approaches. It is only in the 21st Century that Bono's concepts are finally becoming reality, at the hands of private enterprise. Born: 1921-01-13. Died: 1993-05-23.
Bono Manned Mars Vehicle - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. In 1960 Philip Bono, then working at Boeing, proposed a single-launch Mars manned expedition. Bono's scenario was the classic trade-off of weight for risk. Status: Study 1960.
Bono Saucer - American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In 1963 Phil Bono of Douglas Aircraft considered a lenticular configuration for a single-stage-to-orbit reusable booster. This was the largest application found to date for the lenticular concept. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 20,400,000 kg (44,900,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,940,000 kg (4,270,000 lb). Payload: 454,000 kg (1,000,000 lb). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
BONUM - BONUM satellites provide domestic Russian television service for Media Most, a Moscow media enterprise.
Booen - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1987. Born: 1957-05-30.
Boojum - Intercontinental supersonic cruise missile. A follow-on to the Snark that was Northrop's competitor with the North American Navaho. Never reached development stage and no details available. Name obviously derived from the punch line of Lewis Carroll's poem: "...for the Snark was a Boojum, you see..." Status: Design 1949.
Boone - American USN Officer. Walter F. Boone was an admiral, who after retiring from the Navy, became the NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Defense Affairs. He held this post until retiring from NASA in 1968.
Boost Glide Re-entry Vehicle - American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. The Boost Glide Re-entry Vehicle investigated related technological problems, particularly hypersonic maneuvering after re-entry into the atmosphere. Status: Operational 1968.
Boost Vehicle Plus - Alternate designation for GbI BV-Plus.
Boosted Arcas - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of a booster + 1 x Arcas second stage. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1961-01-01. Last Launch: 1972-11-02. Number: 55 . Thrust: 1.00 kN (225 lbf).
Boosted Arcas 2 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x MARC 42A1 + 1 x Arcas Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1966-07-25. Last Launch: 1971-10-13. Number: 25 .
Boosted Arcas 2-1 - Alternate name for MARC 42A1.
Boosted Arcas 2-2 - Alternate name for MARC 2B1.
Boosted Arcas-1 - Alternate name for MARC 14A1.
Booster Engine One - Alternate designation for XLR43-NA-1 LOx-Alcohol rocket engine.
Boost-glide -
BOR - Unpiloted Orbital Rocket-Glider (Russian abbreviation)
BOR-4 - Russian manned spaceplane. BOR-4 were subscale test versions of the Spiral manned spaceplanes. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-06-03. Last Launch: 1984-12-19. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
BOR-5 - Russian spaceplane. The aerodynamic characteristics of Buran at hypersonic speeds were validated by the BOR-5 1:8 sub-scale model of Buran. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-07-05. Last Launch: 1988-06-21. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
BORD 1 - Manufacturer's designation of P320 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
BORE - Optical radiation test. Satellite in the USAF OV1 technology series.
Boreas - Ionospheric and auroral investigations; lower than planned orbit. Used ESRO satellite bus.
boresighting - A process of parallel alignment of the lines of sight of two instruments by an optical procedure.
Boris Chimp 504 - Russian phantom cosmonaut. Fictional lunar landing chimpanzee, subject of Dwayne Allen Day satire of Soviet space history research articles. Died: 1969-07-20.
Borisenko - Russian designer of missile radio control systems, 1946-1975 developed radio control systems for R-1, R-2, R-5, and R-7 missiles and satellites at the Moscow Scientific Research Radio Technical Institute (MPSS). Director of MPSS 1975-1984. Born: 1917. Died: 1984-01-01.
Borisenko, Andrei - Russian engineer cosmonaut 2003-on. Status: Active 2003-on. Born: 1964-04-17. Spaceflights: 1 .
Borisyuk - Russian officer. Lieutenant General, First Deputy Commander of VKS space forces from 1993. Born: 1941. Died: 1984-01-01.
Borkum - First Launch: 1934-12-19. Last Launch: 1934-12-20. Number: 2 .
Borman - American test pilot astronaut 1962-1970. Member of first crew to rendezvous in space, and first to orbit the moon. Status: Inactive; Active 1962-1970. Born: 1928-03-14. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 19.90 days.
Bornscheuer - German professor, rocket expert in WW2; later worked in France, heading the structures group at LRBA from 1946 to 1950. Returned to teach at the University of Stuttgart.
Borodai - Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1993. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1993. Born: 1947-07-28.
Borodin - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1993. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training from October 1979 - July 1980. Worked again at IMBP. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1993. Born: 1953-03-03.
Borodin, Sergei - Russian engineer. Chief Designer after 1975 of the Special OKB of the Gromov LII. Designed spacecraft simulators and cockpit consoles. Born: 1935.
Borzenkova - Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. In March 1962 selected as cosmonaut, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. Status: Inactive.
BOSS - Biomedical Orbiting Satellite System - USAF primate biosatellite
Bossart - Belgian-American Chief Designer of the Atlas rocket. Conceived many innovative features - balloon propellant tanks, common fuel/oxidizer bulkheads, jettisonable booster engines, separable nose cone, and gimbaled engines. Born: 1904-02-09. Died: 1975-08-03.
Boston - Boston University Center for Space Physics.
Bottenhorn - German expert in rolling mill designer during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
Bowen - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 2000-on. Status: Active 2000-on. Born: 1964-02-13. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 40.42 days.
Bowers - American engineer. Convair corporate officer in charge of Atlas development during the peak of its development phase. Born: 1920-08-25. Died: 2000-09-09.
Bowersox - American test pilot astronaut 1987-2006. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-2006. Born: 1956-11-14. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 211.59 days.
Boyd - American test pilot, commanded Edwards AFB 1949-1951. Status: Deceased. Born: 1906. Died: 1976-10-01.
Boyle - British-American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984. Status: Deceased; Active 1984-1984. Born: 1941-01-18. Died: 2011-10-25.
Boyles Law Suit - American pressure suit, tested 1966. Concept by Otto Schueller, patented by Davis, Moore, Ritzinger and Whitmore at USAFSAM. Status: tested 1966.
BPD - Italian manufacturer of rocket engines. BPD, Italy.
BPD Difesa e Spazio - Alternate name for BPD.
BPT engine series -
BPT-2000 - Redmond electric/xenon rocket engine. In Production. Hall effect thruster. Nominal power input 2200 W at 350 V. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 5.20 kg (11.40 lb). Thrust: 0.12 N (0.03 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
BPT-4000 - Redmond electric/xenon rocket engine. In Production. Hall effect thruster. Nominal power input 4500 W at 350 V. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 7.50 kg (16.50 lb). Thrust: 0.27 N (0.06 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
BPT-600k - Redmond electric/xenon rocket engine. In Development, 2005-2006. Began as 1995 contract for 600kWe Hall thruster electric propulsion system designed for future interplanetary manned spacecraft. Status: In Development, 2005-2006. Thrust: 30 N (6 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
BQ - American intermediate range cruise missile family.
BQ-1/BQ-2 - Alternate designation for BQ-1-BQ-2.
BQ-1-BQ-2 - American intermediate range cruise missile. In March 1942, the USAAF initiated a program to develop radio-controlled assault drones, frequently called "aerial torpedoes" at that time. Status: Cancelled 1944.
BQ-3 - American intermediate range cruise missile. In October 1942, Fairchild received a contract to build two XBQ-3 prototype unmanned assault drones based on the AT-21 Gunner twin-engined trainer design. Status: Cancelled 1944.
BQ-4 - Alternate designation for BQ-4-TDR.
BQ-4-TDR - Early family of American unmanned remotely-controlled aircraft for use in combat. Status: Cancelled 1944.
BQ-7 - Alternate designation for Aphrodite.
BQ-8 - American intermediate range cruise missile. In 1944 the USAAF intended to convert some worn-out Consolidated B-24D/J Liberator bombers to BQ-8 radio-controlled assault drones for use against heavily defended targets on Japanese islands in the Pacific. The concept was the same as used for the B-17 Flying Fortress conversions in the BQ-7 Aphrodite project. Status: Cancelled 1945.
BQM-6C - American intermediate range cruise drone. Drone version.
Brackett - American bureaucrat. Director of NASA Procurement 1960-1968. Born: 1909-06-19. Died: 1991-05-10.
Brady - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1992-2002. Status: Deceased; Active 1992-2002. Born: 1951-08-12. Died: 2006-07-23. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 16.91 days.
Brand - American test pilot astronaut 1966-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1992. Born: 1931-05-09. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 31.08 days.
Brandenstein - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1992. Flew 192 combat missions in Vietnam. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1992. Born: 1943-01-17. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 32.88 days.
Branscomb - American Engineer. Lewis M. Branscomb is a Harvard University-trained physicist who served in a variety of university and public service posts before the chief scientist of the IBM Corp Born: 1926-08-17.
Brasilsat - Geosynchronous communications satellite series of the Brazilian communications company Embratel.
Brass Bell - American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1956. Hypersonic manned reconnaissance spaceplane project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar. Status: Study 1956.
Brazil - Brazil
Brazilian AF - Brazilian AF.
Brede - German expert in jet propulsion during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
Bredt - German engineer. Wife of Eugen Saenger and co-designer of the Silverbird spaceplane Born: 1911-04-24. Died: 1983-10-20.
Bremen - German manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. OHB System GmbH, Germany.
BremSat - German re-entry vehicle technology satellite. Atomic oxygen, dust particle, microgravity, reentry experiments. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-02-03. Last Launch: 1994-02-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 63 kg (138 lb).
Bresnik - American test pilot astronaut, 2004-on. Status: Active 2004-on. Born: 1967-09-11. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 10.80 days.
Brezhnev - Russian politician. Leader of the Soviet Union between 1965 and 1982. Born: 1912-12-19. Died: 1982-11-10.
Brezhnev, Mikhail - Russian politician. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building. Responsible for guidance systems industry.
Brezhnev, Valentin - Russian officer. Major General, Chief Director of GUKOS space forces 1985-1991. Higher officer training 1952-1954, entered TsUKOS in 1966, then reached ascending positions within the space forces. Retired in 1991. Born: 1934.
BrF5 - Bromine Pentafluoride was another of the extremely reactive and toxic oxidizers tested in the United States in the late 1950's. As in the other cases, it was found that the handling problems and safety risks if the toxic chemical outweighed the performance benefits.
BrF5/Hydrazine - BrF5/Hydrazine propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this storable propellant combination. The handling problems and safety risks of the toxic bromine pentafluoride oxidizer outweighed the performance benefits. Hydrazine (N2H4) found early use as a rocket fuel, but it was quickly replaced by UDMH in most applications.
BrF5/Hydyne - BrF5/Hydyne propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this storable propellant combination. The handling problems and safety risks of the toxic bromine pentafluoride oxidizer outweighed the performance benefits. Hydyne was a propellant blend pushed rather vigorously by the Redstone arsenal in the late 1950's, but it found little application.
BrF5/MMH - BrF5/MMH propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this storable propellant combination. The handling problems and safety risks of the toxic bromine pentafluoride oxidizer outweighed the performance benefits. Monomethylhydrazine (CH3NHNH2) is a storable liquid fuel that found favor in the United States for use in orbital spacecraft engines. Its advantages in comparison to UDMH are higher density and slightly higher performance.
BrF5/UDMH - BrF5/UDMH propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this storable propellant combination. The handling problems and safety risks of the toxic bromine pentafluoride oxidizer outweighed the performance benefits. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's.
BRICSat - 1.5U Cubesat from the US Naval Academy (UNSA), built in collaboration with George Washington University, testing an electric micropropulsion system.
Bridgeman - American test pilot, 1949-1960. Flew the D-558-2 rocketplane and X-3. Declared the latest "The Fastest Man Alive" in 1951. Status: Deceased. Born: 1916. Died: 1968-09-29.
Bridges - American test pilot astronaut 1980-1986. Grew up in Gainesville, Georgia. Flew 226 combat missions in Vietnam. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1986. Born: 1943-07-19. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.95 days.
Briggs - American scientist. Led Mars imaging teams for JPL Mariner and Viking missions 1969-1977. Deputy Director and Director, NASA HQ Solar System Exploration Division 1977-1990. Scientific Director, Ames Center for Mars Exploration, 1992-1997.
Brilliant Pebbles - American anti-ballistic missile. ABM-missiles, SDIO/BMDO project Status: Cancelled 1991.
Bringer - German engineer. Developer of the Viking engine and propulsion leader of the German Rocket Team in France after WW2. Born: 1908-06-16. Died: 1999-01-02.
Bristol - Canadian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Bristol Aerospace Limited, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Bristol 120 - Alternate designation for 9KS1660.
Bristol 260 stage series -
Bristol 440 - Alternate name for Nihka.
Bristol 90 - Alternate designation for BB7.
Bristol Aerojet - British manufacturer. Bristol Aerojet, UK.
Bristol Siddeley - British manufacturer of rocket engines. Bristol Siddeley, UK.
Bristol Spaceplanes - British manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Bristol Spaceplanes, UK.
BRITE - Satellite using the Toronto GNB bus carrying the BRITE-PL astronomical photometry payload for the Polish Academy of Sciences.
British Aerospace - British manufacturer of rockets. British Aerospace, UK.
British Aerospace Space Station - European manned space station. Study 1990. British Aerospace Ltd. (BAe) investigated alternate European space station designs for the European Space Agency. Status: Study 1990.
British Aircraft Corp. - Alternate name for BAC.
British Army - British Army.
British Commercial Group - 1989 - Requirement: British cosmonaut for commercially funded mission to Mir station. Date: 1989.
Briz K - Alternate designation for Rokot-3 Briz rocket stage.
Briz M - Alternate designation for Proton KM-4 Briz M rocket stage.
Briz stage series -
Briz-KM - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Briz KM differs from Briz K in having 'compact' components, special payload truss for Globalstar dispenser. The truss is 1.8 m in diameter and has a volume of 8.8 m3. Status: Active. Gross mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
BRL - American agency. Ballistic Research Laboratory (renamed Army Research Laboratory), USA.
Brode - American scientist. Associate director of the National Bureau of Standards 1947-1958. Born: 1900-06-12. Died: 1974-08-10.
Brodie - American scientist. Political scientist, specialized in Cold War strategy, member of Rand. Born: 1910-05-20. Died: 1978-11-01.
Broetler - German welding engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Shop 55. Born: 1898-11-09.
Broglio - Italian engineer. Leading Italian space engineer. Chairman of the Italian National Committee on Space Research. Conceived and directed the San Marco orbital launch platform off the coast of Kenya, 1964-1988. Born: 1911-11-11. Died: 2001-01-14.
Bronk - American scientist, president of the National Academy of Sciences, 1950-1962, and a member of the National Aeronautics and Space Council. President of Johns Hopkins University, 1949-1953, and Rockefeller University, 1953-1968. Born: 1897-08-13. Died: 1975-11-01.
Bronwell - American electrical engineer, professor at Northwestern University, then president of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute from 1955-1962, then the dean of engineering at the University of Connecticut at Storrs. Born: 1909-08-18. Died: 1985-05-01.
Brown - American test pilot astronaut 1987-1999. Flew in space six times. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1999. Born: 1956-03-11. Spaceflights: 6 . Total time in space: 57.63 days.
Brown, David - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1996-2003. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. Status: Deceased; Active 1996-2003. Born: 1956-04-16. Died: 2003-02-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.93 days.
Brown, Mark - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1984-1993. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1993. Born: 1951-11-18. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 10.39 days.
Browse - Browse the encyclopedia - by topic, or check out popular articles
Brucker - American politician. Secretary of the Army 1955-1961. Born: 1894. Died: 1968-01-01.
Bruemmer - Swiss engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1987-1993. Meteorologist. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1993. Born: 1955-05-04.
Bruenecke - German engineer and expert in guided missiles in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter.
Brunswick - American manufacturer. Brunswick, USA.
BS - Alternate designation for BS (Russian abbreviation).
BS - Designation of series of communications satellites launched by Japanese BS telecom. Medium-scale broadcasting satellites for experimental purposes and communications to Japanese home islands.
BS (Russian abbreviation) - Lateral stabilization (Russian abbreviation)
BSAT - Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.
BSB - British Satellite Broadcasting Ltd, direct broadcasting system owner/operator.
BSD - Ballistic Systems Division, Air Force
BSE - Broadcasting Satellite for Experimental purposes. Alternate name for Yuri.
BSS - Designation of satellite bus series by Boeing Satellite Systems (formally HS series from Hughes Satellite, acquired by Boeing).
BSU-V - TKS manned capsule guidance system (Russian abbreviation)
BT-310 - Japanese sounding rocket. Derivative of S-310. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1966-04-28. Last Launch: 1966-08-06. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Propellants: Solid.
BTDS - American anti-ballistic missile. SDIO/BMDO project, Baseline Terminal Defense System (ex-LoADS), with Sentry Status: Study.
BTTN - Butanetrioltrinitrate, a highly oxygenated energetic plasticizer
BTU - Abbreviation for British thermal unit
BTW - Abbreviation for By The Way
BU - Boston University, USA
Bucher - German expert in guided missiles during World War II.
Buchhold - German professor, expert in guided missiles during WW2. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1900-07-10. Died: 1984-01-01.
Buchholz - German expert in aircraft designer during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Buchli - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1978-1992. Grew up in Fargo, North Dakota. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1992. Born: 1945-06-20. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 20.43 days.
Buckey - American physician payload specialist astronaut 1991-1998. Active Payload Specialist Trainee for Shuttle STS-90 Neurolab Mission; he had been Alternate Payload Specialist for STS-58 Mission SLS-2. Status: Inactive; Active 1991-1998. Born: 1956-06-06. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.91 days.
Buckley - American engineer. Instrumentation and tracking expert at NASA, 1930 - 1969. Senior NASA official for tracking operations during the moon race, 1959-1969. Born: 1904. Died: 1977-01-01.
Budarin - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1989-2004. 444 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO Status: Inactive; Active 1989-2004. Born: 1953-04-29. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 444.06 days.
Budnik - Russian engineer. First Deputy Designer of KB Yuzhnoye 1954-1972. Born: 1913-06-24. Died: 2007-03-08.
Buechner - German professor, rocket expert in WW2; later worked in France as head of chemistry group at LRBA from 1947-1953. Then returned to professor post in Germany.
Bugayskiy - Russian engineer. Headed Chelomei design bureau Filial 1 1960-1973. Specialized in rockets and spacecraft.
Bugrov - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1966-1968. Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1968. Born: 1933-01-18.
Bugs - Alternate name for NASA Group 18 - 2000.
Bugsat - Technology testbed for components for a planned constellation of earth observation satellites by Satellogic SA. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-06-19. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
Buhl - German engineer, member of Rocket Team in France after WW2. Engineer and German rocket technician; later worked in France as part of the ballistics group at LRBA from 1947 until retirement in 1984. Remained in Vernon, France.
Buinovski - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1964. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1964. Born: 1936-02-26.
Bukreyev - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977. Flew for Gromov Institute. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. Died in an aircraft crash. Status: Deceased. Born: 1949. Died: 1977-05-17.
Bulava - Russian solid-propellant intercontinental ballistic missile, equipped with up to ten multiple independently targeted warheads. The first post-Soviet Russian ballistic missile, it was designed to provide Russia's submarine-launched deterrent by the third decade of the 21st Century. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-09-23. Last Launch: 2014-11-28. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 36,800 kg (81,100 lb).
Bulganin - Russian Minister of Defense 1947-1949 and 1953-1955. Chaired Special Committee 2 1947-1949. Chairman of the Soviet Council of Ministers, and heavily involved in the negotiations over freedom of space issue for overflight of territories. Born: 1895-06-11. Died: 1975-02-24.
Bulgaria - Bulgaria
Bulgarian AF - Bulgarian AF.
Bull - Canadian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Bull, Canada.
Bull Goose - Alternate designation for Bull Goose-1.
Bull Goose-1 - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Retired 1958. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Bull, John - American test pilot astronaut, 1966-1968. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1968. Born: 1934-09-25. Died: 2008-11-08.
BullGoose - Alternate designation for Goose.
Bullpup - Multi-source solid rocket engine. Bullpup Apache first stage. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 111.00 kN (24,953 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Bullpup Apache - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Bullpup + 1 x Apache Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1970-11-24. Last Launch: 1972-03-29. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 111.00 kN (24,953 lbf).
Bullpup Apache-1 - Alternate name for Bullpup.
Bullpup Cajun - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Bullpup + 1 x Cajun Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1970-01-16. Last Launch: 1970-01-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 111.00 kN (24,953 lbf).
Bululkov - Russian officer. Major General, Deputy Chief of the Mozhaiskiy Military Engineering Institute 1984-1989. Born: 1929.
Bulychev - Russian officer. Chief of Communications Directorate, Ministry of Defense, 1956-1958.
Bumblebee STV - American test vehicle in the 1940's. The primary goal of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program was to develop a ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. Bumblebee test vehicles and technologies led to the operational Terrier and Talos missile of the 1950's. Status: Cancelled 1948.
Bumper - German V-2 with a 700-pound Army-JPL Wac Corporal.
Bumper-WAC - German short range ballistic test vehicle. Pioneering US demonstration of a two stage launch vehicle, coupling a V-2 with a WAC Corporal. The first ballistic missile fired from Cape Canaveral. Status: Retired 1950. First Launch: 1948-05-13. Last Launch: 1950-07-29. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 12,862 kg (28,355 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf).
Bundesamt fur Wehrtechnik und Beschaffung - Alternate name for BWB.
Bundespost - German agency. Bundespost, Germany.
Bundy - American Bureaucrat. McGeorge Bundy was a professor of government before serving as the national security adviser to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson from 1961-1966. Born: 1919-03-30. Died: 1996-09-16.
Buran - Alternate designation for Buran M-40.
Buran - Alternate designation for Buran M-44.
Buran - Russian manned spaceplane which represented a huge leap in Soviet space technology and project management. Buran flew only once, in 1988. The cost of Buran - 14.5 billion rubles - was a significant part of the effort to maintain strategic and technical parity with the United States. In the end it contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union and thus the demise of Buran itself. Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-11-15. Last Launch: 1988-11-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 105,000 kg (231,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 90,400 kg (199,200 lb). Payload: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Thrust: 172.50 kN (38,780 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Sintin.
Buran - Code name for Buran M-42 and [M-42] manned rocketplanes.
Buran (Snowstorm ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 16.
Buran (Snowstorm ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 7.
Buran (Snowstorm) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7.
Buran (Snowstorm) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 16.
Buran 5 - Cancelled Buran Flight 5 (3K1) would have been the first flight of the third orbiter. It would be the first manned Buran flight; the third orbiter was the first outfitted with life support systems and ejection seats. Launched: 1994 Late or Early 1995. Number crew: 2 .
Buran Analogue - Russian manned spaceplane. This Buran OK-GLI 'Analogue' was a version of the Buran spaceplane equipped with jet engines to allow it to be flown in handling and landing system tests at subsonic speed in the earth's atmosphere. Status: Operational 1985.
Buran Group - 1978 - Requirement: test pilot for the Buran program. Date: 1978.
Buran Group 1 - 1978 - Requirement: test pilots for the Buran program. Date: 1978.
Buran Group 2 - 1985 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1985.
Buran Group 3 - 1989 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1989.
Buran Group 3 Supplemental - 1990 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1990.
Buran launch vehicle - Design version of Energia, with the reusable Buran manned spaceplane mounted to the side of the core. Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1988-11-15. Last Launch: 1988-11-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,524,000 kg (5,564,000 lb). Thrust: 88,000.00 kN (19,783,000 lbf).
Buran M-40 - Russian intercontinental cruise missile. A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorized the Myasishchev aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. The competing Burya design of Lavochkin was launched in July 1957, but the development of unstoppable ICBM's had made intercontinental cruise missiles obsolete. The equivalent American Navaho project was cancelled ten days later. Korolev's R-7 ICBM completed its first successful test flight in August. Buran was being prepared for its first flight when Myasishchev's project was cancelled on November 1957. Status: Cancelled 1957. Gross mass: 125,000 kg (275,000 lb). Thrust: 2,156.00 kN (484,688 lbf).
Buran M-41 - Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Booster for Buran missile. Four used to boost ramjet second stage to ignition conditions. Masses estimated based on missile known total mass. Specific impulse estimated. Status: Development ended 1957. Gross mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 755.00 kN (169,730 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
Buran M-42 - Alternate designation for Buran M-42 stage.
Buran M-42 - Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Cancelled 1957. Several variants of the Myasishchev Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile M-42 cruise stage were studied, including a piloted version. Status: Cancelled 1957. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Payload: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 103.90 kN (23,358 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Buran M-42 stage - Ramjet missile stage. Boosted by 4 x Glushko-engined boosters. 8,500 km cruise at Mach 3.1 at 18-20 km altitude with 3,500 kg warhead. Wing area 98 square meters; diameter of ramjet 2.0 m. Never reached flight test. Masses estimated based on missile known total mass. Status: Development ended 1957. Gross mass: 53,000 kg (116,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Payload: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 103.90 kN (23,358 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Buran M-44 - Russian manned ramjet-powered research aircraft. Study 1958. Air-launched derivative of the Buran Mach 3 high altitude cruise missile system, proposed for use as an unmanned high speed research vehicle. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 103.90 kN (23,358 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Buran M-48 - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1958. In 1958 the VVS (Soviet Air Force) requested development as quickly as possible of high-speed aerospace vehicles. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,300 kg (9,400 lb). Thrust: 15.60 kN (3,507 lbf).
Buran RSS-52 - Russian air-launched test vehicle. Hypersonic ramjet-powered research vehicle proposed by Myasishchev in 1958. This version of the cancelled Buran intercontinental cruise missile would have been air-launched at supersonic speed from a derivative of the M-50 bomber. It would then use its own ramjet to accelerate to hypersonic velocity. Status: Cancelled 1957. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust: 104.00 kN (23,380 lbf).
Buran-T - Fully recoverable version of Energia launch vehicle, with four winged boosters and a winged core stage. Status: Design 1989.
Burbank - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1996-on. Status: Active 1996-on. Born: 1961-07-27. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 188.91 days.
Burdayev - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1967-1983. Graduated from Air Force Engineering Academy, doctorate degree, 1987. Cosmonaut training from May 1967 - 18 August 1969. Worked as trainer at the Gagarin Center. Professor in space ballistics from 1994. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1983. Born: 1932-08-27.
Burden - American engineer. Aviation consultant, served on the National Aeronautics and Space Council 1958-1959. Born: 1906-04-08. Died: 1984-10-01.
Bureau of Standards - American agency. Bureau of Standards, USA.
Burial - Category of spacecraft.
Burke - American officer. Chief of Naval Operations, 1955-1961, during development of the Polaris SLBM. Born: 1901-10-19. Died: 1996-01-01.
Burlak - Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Burlak air-launched satellite launcher was proposed in 1992 and studied by Germany in 1992-1994. Evidently based on secret anti-satellite missile. Air launched from Tu-160 bomber, released at 13,500 m altitude and Mach 1.7. Development estimated to cost only DM 50 million, but not proceeded with. Burlak/Diana variant would have been launched from Concorde. Status: Cancelled 1992. Gross mass: 27,400 kg (60,400 lb). Payload: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 302.00 kN (67,892 lbf).
Burlak Stage 1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Masses, thrust, specific impulse estimated based on total vehicle mass of 28.5 metric tons and first stage burn time of 140 seconds. Air launched from Tu-160 at 13,500 m, Mach 1.7 release conditions. Status: Development ended 1992. Gross mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 357.90 kN (80,459 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Burlak Stage 2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Masses, thrust, specific impulse estimated based on total vehicle mass of 28.5 metric tons and first stage burn time of 140 seconds. Air launched from Tu-160 at 13,500 m, Mach 1.7 release conditions. Status: Development ended 1992. Gross mass: 9,400 kg (20,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Burnazyan - Russian bureaucrat. Deputy Minister of Health from 1947. Involved in Voskhod crew selection. Born: 1906-04-20. Died: 1981-10-25.
Burner 2 - Alternate name for Star 37.
Burner 2A - Alternate designation for Star 26.
Burner 2A - Solid propellant rocket stage. Burner II was a launch vehicle upper stage developed by Boeing for the Air Force Space Systems Division. It was the first solid-fuel upper stage with full control and guidance capability developed for general space applications. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 353 kg (778 lb). Unfuelled mass: 115 kg (253 lb). Thrust: 39.15 kN (8,801 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Burner 2A - Government designation of Star 26B Solid rocket engine.
Burner 3 - Alternate name for Star 37X.
Burose - German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Thereafter with the rocket team at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. Born: 1906-10-04. Died: 1983-04-22.
Bursch - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1990-2005. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2005. Born: 1957-07-25. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 226.93 days.
Burya - Ramjet missile stage. Boosted by 2 x R-11 derivative boosters. 6,500 km tested, 8,000 km specified, cruise at Mach 3.2 at 18-20 km altitude with 2,350 kg warhead. Flight tested 1957 - 1960. Wing area 60 square meters; diameter of ramjet inlet 1.7 m. Total missile mass 97,215 kg; gross masses prorated, empty masses estimated. Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 40,865 kg (90,091 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Payload: 2,350 kg (5,180 lb). Thrust: 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Burya booster - Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Booster for Burya missile. Two used to boost ramjet second stage to ignition conditions. Engines developed by Isayev from R-11 S2.253 engine. Early Buryas had S2.1100 engine. Masses estimated based on known total vehicle mass. Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 771.70 kN (173,485 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Burya La-350 - A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorized the Lavochkin aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Burya trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. Burya launches began in July 1957. The project was cancelled, but the team was allowed final tests in 1961 that demonstrated a 6,500 km range at Mach 3.2 with the 2,350 kg payload. In cancelling Burya the Russians gave up technology that Lavochkin planned to evolve into a manned shuttle-like recoverable launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1957-08-01. Last Launch: 1960-12-16. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 94,865 kg (209,141 lb). Thrust: 1,346.00 kN (302,592 lbf).
Busemann - German expert in dynamics during World War II, working for the Luftwaffe at Braunschweig-Voelkenrode. Went to the USA after the war. In the early 1960's active at NASA's Langley Research Center, working on deployable space station concepts. Born: 1901-04-20. Died: 1986-11-03.
Bush - American Politician. George H.W. Bush served as president of the United States between 1989 and 1993. Before that time he had been a diplomat, director of the CIA, and vice president under Ronald Reagan Born: 1924-06-12.
Bush, Vannevar - American engineer, primary scientific adviser to Roosevelt and Truman, immensely influential in plans for nuclear weapons, missiles, aviation, and advanced propulsion 1939-1949. Discouraged early development of the ICBM. Born: 1890-03-11. Died: 1974-06-28.
Bushuyev - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer to Korolev, 1954-1975. Born: 1914-05-23. Died: 1978-10-26.
Bussmann - German expert in remote control of rockets during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Butchart - American test pilot, flew D-558-1, D-558-2, X-4, X-5. Status: Inactive.
Butoma - Russian bureaucrat. Minister of Shipbuilding Industry 1957-1976. Born: 1907-05-01. Died: 1976-07-11.
Butterfly - Alternate designation for Schmetterling.
Butterworth - American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1986. Born: 1948-07-17.
BVK - Analogue computer, used during Almaz flights
BWB - German manufacturer of spacecraft. BWB, Germany.
BX - Alternate name for Ban Xing.
By Gemini to Mars! - In the 1960's many considered use of the cramped two-man Gemini reentry vehicle for journeys to the moon problematic. But there was even a proposal for use of Gemini on a mission to Mars… Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 880,000 kg (1,940,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 268,000 kg (590,000 lb). Payload: 88,000 kg (194,000 lb). Thrust: 580.00 kN (130,380 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
Bykov - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1959-1970 of Nll-95. Specialized in communications systems for piloted spacecraft. Born: 1916. Died: 1970-01-01.
Bykovsky - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1982. Status: Inactive; Active 1960-1982. Born: 1934-08-02. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 20.74 days.
Bynolzovo - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-on. Perhaps operated R-12 missiles.
Bytovoy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-OKS BO.
Bytovoy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz A BO.
Bytovoy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA BO.
Bytovoy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-LOK BO.
Bytovoy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-T BO.
Bytovoy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-MF6 BO.
Bytovoy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-OK BO.
Bytovoy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz T BO.
Bytovoy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz ASTP BO.
Bytovoy otsek - Russian name (living module) for Soyuz TM BO manned spacecraft module.

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