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Buran M
Russian intercontinental cruise missile. A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorized the Myasishchev aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. The competing Burya design of Lavochkin was launched in July 1957, but the development of unstoppable ICBM's had made intercontinental cruise missiles obsolete. The equivalent American Navaho project was cancelled ten days later. Korolev's R-7 ICBM completed its first successful test flight in August. Buran was being prepared for its first flight when Myasishchev's project was cancelled on November 1957. In an attempt to continue the project, two manned variants were proposed as follow-on projects, to no avail.



Subtopics

Buran M-40 Russian intercontinental cruise missile, consisting of four M-41 liquid propellant booster stages, and a Mach 3 M-42 ramjet cruise stage.

Buran RSS-52 Russian air-launched test vehicle. Hypersonic ramjet-powered research vehicle proposed by Myasishchev in 1958. This version of the cancelled Buran intercontinental cruise missile would have been air-launched at supersonic speed from a derivative of the M-50 bomber. It would then use its own ramjet to accelerate to hypersonic velocity.

Buran M-41 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Booster for Buran missile. Four used to boost ramjet second stage to ignition conditions. Masses estimated based on missile known total mass. Specific impulse estimated.

Buran M-42 stage Ramjet missile stage. Boosted by 4 x Glushko-engined boosters. 8,500 km cruise at Mach 3.1 at 18-20 km altitude with 3,500 kg warhead. Wing area 98 square meters; diameter of ramjet 2.0 m. Never reached flight test. Masses estimated based on missile known total mass.

Buran M-42 Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Cancelled 1957. Several variants of the Myasishchev Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile M-42 cruise stage were studied, including a piloted version.

Buran M-44 Russian manned ramjet-powered research aircraft. Study 1958. Air-launched derivative of the Buran Mach 3 high altitude cruise missile system, proposed for use as an unmanned high speed research vehicle.

Country: Russia.

1950 December 4 - . Launch Vehicle: Buran M, Burya La-350.
  • Research into intercontinental missile approaches authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Navaho. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On themes N1, N2, and N3 in the ballistic missile program.' was issued..

1951 March 24 - . LV Family: Buran M.
  • Central Committee decree created the OKB-23 Myasishchev design bureau. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Myasishchev. Program: Navaho.

    Myasishchev was tasked with building an intercontinental jet-powered bomber, something veteran aircraft designer Tupolev said was impossible. Myasishchev managed to complete the first prototype 103M (called M-4 Bear in the West) bomber ten months after go-ahead. Myasishchev would later play a key role in Soviet spaceplane development.


1953 January - . LV Family: R-12. Launch Vehicle: EKR.
  • Expert commission examined the EKR design - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev, Lavochkin, Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Spacecraft Bus: Buran M. Spacecraft: Buran M-42.

    In 1951 to 1953 Korolev's design bureau had prepared an experimental trisonic ramjet design, the EKR.The expert commission ifelt that there were still many technical problems to be solved, most of which were better handled by an aircraft designer rather than Korolev. Further, Korolev had to place the highest priority on development of the R-7 ICBM. Therefore a final government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles.


1953 April - . Launch Vehicle: Buran M, Burya La-350.
  • USSR Council of Ministers approve R-7 ICBM, Buran and Burya intercontinental cruise missiles - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev, Lavochkin, Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Informal go-ahead was given for Korolev to start design work on the R-7. In parallel, Myasishchev OKB-23 and Lavochkin OKB-301 began design of intercontinental ramjet cruise missiles..

1954 March 17 - . Launch Vehicle: Buran M, Burya La-350.
  • Baikonur and Vladimirovka launch site plans. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Navaho. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On selection of launch area for the R-7, 40 Buran, and 350 Burya' was issued..

1954 May 20 - . Launch Vehicle: Buran M, Burya La-350.
  • Soviet government decree for full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Glushko, Isayev, Korolev, Lavochkin, Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Spacecraft: Buran M-42, Buran M-44.

    Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 957-409 'On transfer of intercontinental cruise missile work to the Ministry of Aviation Industry' was issued. Korolev had to place the highest priority on development of the R-7 ICBM. Therefore the final government decree authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles. Both missiles would use ramjet engines by Bondaryuk, astronavigation systems by R Chachikyan, inertial navigation systems by G Tolstoysov, and aerodynamics developed by TsAGI (Central Hydrodynamics Institute). Lavochkin's Burya would use rocket booster engines built by Glushko, while Myasishchev's Buran would use Isayev engines. Both missiles were to deliver a nuclear warhead over an 8,500 km range. But the warhead design specified for the Lavochkin missile had a total mass of 2,100 kg, while that for the Myasishchev missile weighed 3,500 kg.


1955 May 23 - . LV Family: Buran M. Launch Vehicle: Buran RSS-52.
  • RS ramjet-powered Mach 3 intercontinental aircraft - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tsybin. P V Tsybinís OKB-256 selected to build the RS ramjet-powered Mach 3 intercontinental reconnaissance/strike aircraft. The aircraft, air-launched from a Tu-95N bomber, was in competition with the V M Myasishchev (OKB-23) RSS-52 system..

1956 During the Year - . Launch Vehicle: Buran M, Burya La-350.
  • Lavochkin begins construction of first Burya cruise missile. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lavochkin, Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Myasishchev was just completing project design of his Buran design, while Lavochkin was already completing construction of the first Burya..

1957 November - . LV Family: Buran M. Launch Vehicle: Buran M-40.
  • Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile cancelled. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lavochkin, Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Spacecraft Bus: Buran M. Spacecraft: Buran M-42.

    Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On termination of work on the 40 Buran intercontinental cruise missile' was issued. Buran was being prepared for its first flight when Myasishchev's project was cancelled. After successful flight tests of Lavochkinís Burya missile, the Soviet leadership did not see any need for continued development of a parallel ramjet design. Following the cancellation, Myasishchev sought approval for test of an air-launched version.


1958 During the Year - . LV Family: Buran M. Launch Vehicle: Buran RSS-52.
  • Myasishchev proposed use of the Buran M-42 cruise stage in aviation research - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Myasishchev. Spacecraft Bus: Buran M. Spacecraft: Buran M-44.

    On the basis of the immense delta-winged M-50 bomber Myasishchev proposed the RSS-52 aerospace vehicle. The M-50 derivative would enter a circuit 1,000 km from base, accelerate to supersonic speed, and then launch the M-44. The M-44 would accelerate to hypersonic velocity, conduct a high speed run of an overwater circuit, and then splash down in the sea. In the United States, the X-15 was being developed to answer analogous questions. However due to the expense and technical problems, Myasishchev was unable to convince the leadership to approve the RSS-52.



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