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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: Z

Z - Alternate designation for Tu-131.
ZA 003 - Alternate name of ZACUBE 1 (TshepisoSat, ZA 003).
ZA 004 - Alternate name of ZACUBE 2 (ZA 004).
ZA-AeroSat (QB50 AZ01) - Technology, atmosphere satellite for Stellenbosch University, South Africa. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2017-04-18. Last Launch: 2017-04-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Zabolotski, Viktor Vasiliyevich - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1984-1997. Cosmonaut training September 1985-1987. Buran Test Pilot. Civilian test pilot at the Zhukovsky Flight Test Center of LII. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1997. Born: 1946-04-19.
ZACUBE - Cubesat from South Africa's Cape Peninsula University of Tech (CPUT).
ZACUBE 1 (TshepisoSat, ZA 003) - Technology satellite for French South African Institute of Technology (F’SATI), Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), South Africa. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2013-11-21. Last Launch: 2013-11-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
ZACUBE 2 (ZA 004) - Technology satellite for French South African Institute of Technology (F’SATI), Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), South Africa. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Zafar - Iranian imaging micro satellite with 80-m resolution. Gross mass: 90 kg (198 lb).
Zaidan houjin mujin uchuu jikken shisutemu kenkyuu kaihatsu kikou - Alternate name for USEF.
Zaikin, Dmitri Alekseyevich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1969. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1969. Born: 1932-04-29. Died: 2013-10-21.
Zaisimovichi - Base for units deployed with six Pioner missile launchers.
Zaitsev, Andrei Yevgeniyevich - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1985-1996. Status: Deceased; Active 1985-1996. Born: 1957-08-05. Died: 2010-05-05.
Zakharov, Matvey Vasilyevich - Russian officer. Chief of Ministry of Defense General Staff 1960-1973. Born: 1898-08-05. Died: 1972-01-31.
Zakharova, Tamara Sergeyevna - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1995. Was married to cosmonaut Yuri Sheffer. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1995. Born: 1952-04-22.
Zakhorov, Aleksandr Grigoryevich - Russian officer. Commander of Baikonur range 1961-1965. Born: 1921-02-20.
Zaliv-GVM - Mass model of Zalive satellite. First Launch: 1967-05-15. Last Launch: 1973-01-26. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
Zalyotin, Sergei Viktorovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1990-2014. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2014. Born: 1962-04-21. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 83.69 days.
Zamka, George David 'Zambo' - American test pilot astronaut 1998-2011. Grew up in Rochester, Michigan. US Marine Corps. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2011. Born: 1962-06-29. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 28.85 days.
Zangl, Wolfgang - German engineer. Head of the Research Section at LRBA in France. Later worked as head of the research department at LRBA in France from 1947. Died in 1962, in Paris. Born: 1917. Died: 1962-01-01.
Zanker - German Manager. Business director of the Zentralwerk. Born: 1896. Died: 1973-01-01.
ZAO - ZAO
ZAP AGR-14 - Martin Marietta air-to-surface rocket.
Zarkae Al Yamama - Alternate name of Maroc-Tubsat (Zarkae Al Yamama).
Zarya - Russian for 'Dawn'. Call sign for Russian ground control during manned missions. Original designation for Salyut 1 manned space station, but changed after launch to prevent confusion.
Zarya - Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1989.' Super Soyuz' replacement for Soyuz and Progress. Status: Cancelled 1989. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Zarya NO - Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1989. Maneuver system consisted of two engines, each of 300 kgf. Expendable module for orbital maneuvering and experiments. Status: Cancelled 1989. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 5.88 kN (1,322 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Zarya VA - Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1989. The Zarya landing module was enlarged from the Soyuz 2.4 m diameter to 4.1 m diameter, while keeping the same shape and L/D coefficient of 0.26 at Mach 6. Reusable re-entry capsule. Status: Cancelled 1989. Gross mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). More at: H2O2/Kerosene
Zaslovskiy, Mark Yefimovich - Russian engineer. Chief of Section and Chief Designer of GOSNIITsRTI Minradioprom. Began work with Yangel at the end of the 1950's on electronic systems for satellites. Born: 1920. Died: 1995-01-01.
Zavadovski, V - Russian phantom cosmonaut. Phantom cosmonaut. 1959 Moscow newspaper showed a Zavadovski testing high altitude equipment. Later presumed to have died on Korabl Sputnik 1 in May 1960. Died: 1960-05-15.
Zborowski - German expert in rocket design during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Zborowski, Count Helmut - Austrian technical designer of liquid rocket motors and expert in anti-tank missiles. In WW2 joined SS, headed aircraft engine and rocket engine development near Dachau. Received over 300 patents. Worked for the French briefly after the war. Born: 1905-08-21. Died: 1969-11-16.
ZDPS - One of a pair of Zhejian University (Hangzhou, Zhejiang) satellites to test MEMS microelectronic technology, including a small deployable truss antenna on top of each satellite.
ZDPS 1, 1A (Zheda Pixing 1, 1A) - Satellite for Zhejiang University, China. Launched 2007-2010. First Launch: 2007-05-25. Last Launch: 2010-09-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
ZDPS 2A, 2B (Zheda Pixing 2A, 2B) - Satellite for Zhejiang University, China. Launched 2015. First Launch: 2015-09-19. Last Launch: 2015-09-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
Zebra - Alternate designation for Alcor Solid rocket engine.
Zefiro - FiatAvio solid rocket engine. Scout II TV first stage. Status: Retired 1992. Gross mass: 17,300 kg (38,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 590.00 kN (132,630 lbf). More at: Solid
Zefiro 23 - Fiat-Avio solid rocket engine. In production. Carbon epoxy filament wound case; low density EPDM insulation; HTPB 1912 composite propellant. Used on Vega launch vehicle. Solid propellant rocket stage. The Zefiro 23 was derived from a 16-metric ton solid rocket motor development (Zefiro 16) initiated by Fiat-Avio, now Avio S.p.A., with company funding and contracted by the Italian space agency ASI. Status: In production. Gross mass: 26,900 kg (59,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 1,200.00 kN (269,700 lbf). More at: Solid
Zefiro 9 - Fiat-Avio solid rocket engine. In production. Motor derived from the 16-metric-ton Zefiro 16. Carbon epoxy filament wound case; low density EPDM insulation; HTPB 1912 composite propellant. Solid propellant rocket stage. The Zefiro 9 was derived from a 16-metric ton solid rocket motor development (Zefiro 16) initiated by Fiat-Avio, now Avio S.p.A., with company funding and contracted by the Italian space agency ASI. Status: In production. Gross mass: 11,100 kg (24,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 313.00 kN (70,365 lbf). More at: Solid
Zeiler, Albert Franz - German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Died in Florida. Born: 1913-05-09. Died: 1976-01-01.
Zemlya - Alternate designation for R-17.
Zenit - Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium. Status: Active. Gross mass: 610 kg (1,340 lb).
Zenit (Zenith ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 28.
Zenit (Zenith ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 17.
Zenit (Zenith) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 28.
Zenit (Zenith) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 17.
Zenit C - Oerlikon solid rocket engine. Zenit C first stage. Status: R. First Launch: 1967-10-27. Last Launch: 1972-12-13. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Unfuelled mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf). More at: Solid
Zenit C-0 - Alternate name for Cuckoo IA.
Zenit C-1 - Alternate designation for Zenit C.
Zenit satellite - Original concept (1956-1957) for the Soviet Union's first spy satellite; replaced by a common design with the Vostok manned spacecraft using the same code name. Status: Cancelled 1957.
Zenit-1 - Alternate designation for Vulkan 0.
Zenit-1 - Alternate name for Zenit-A.
Zenit-2 - Alternate designation for Zenit-B.
Zenit-2 - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version that continued to be used for launch of Russian military satellites tailored to it after the fall of the Soviet Union. Status: Active. First Launch: 1985-04-13. Last Launch: 2004-06-10. Number: 35 . Gross mass: 459,000 kg (1,011,000 lb). Payload: 13,740 kg (30,290 lb). Thrust: 7,300.00 kN (1,641,100 lbf).
Zenit-2 11K77.05 - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version with a dispenser for multiple Globalstar communications satellite launches. Status: Retired 1998. First Launch: 1998-09-09. Last Launch: 1998-09-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 459,000 kg (1,011,000 lb). Payload: 13,500 kg (29,700 lb). Thrust: 7,259.00 kN (1,631,888 lbf).
Zenit-2 satellite - Russian military surveillance satellite. The Zenit-2 was a derivative of the manned Vostok, and the Soviet Union's first spy satellite. Reconnaissance, photo (low resolution, film return type), ELINT satellite built by OKB-1 for GRU, Russia. Launched 1961 - 1970. Used Zenit bus. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-12-11. Last Launch: 1970-05-12. Number: 81 . Gross mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb).
Zenit-2M - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version of the Zenit-3SL booster developed for the Sea Launch program, modified for launch from ground facilities at Baikonur. Uses the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with no upper stage. Status: Active. First Launch: 2007-06-29. Last Launch: 2007-06-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 458,900 kg (1,011,700 lb). Payload: 12,030 kg (26,520 lb). Thrust: 7,300.00 kN (1,641,100 lbf).
Zenit-2M satellite - Russian military surveillance satellite. 1 Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1968 - 1979. Used Zenit bus. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-03-21. Last Launch: 1979-08-17. Number: 101 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Zenit-2M/NKh (Gektor-Priroda, 11F690) - Earth observation (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB, Russia. Launched 1975 - 1979. Used Zenit bus. First Launch: 1975-05-30. Last Launch: 1979-08-17. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Zenit-2SB - Two stage version of the Zenit launch vehicle consisting of 1 x 11S771 + 1 x 11S772. Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-11-08. Last Launch: 2011-11-08. Number: 1 .
Zenit-2SLB - Alternate designation for Zenit-2M.
Zenit-3 - Alternate name for Zenit-V.
Zenit-3F - Alternate designation for Zenit-3SLBF.
Zenit-3SL - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. From the beginning of the program a Zenit-3 version was proposed for geosynchronous launches using the N1/Proton Block D third stage. This had the potential of replacing the Proton in the role of geosynchronous launcher. It was considered for launch from Australia / Cape York in the 1980's. Finally a joint US-Norwegian-Ukrainian-Russian consortium was formed to launch the three stage commercial Zenit from the Odyssey floating launch platform in the Pacific Ocean. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-03-28. Last Launch: 2014-05-26. Number: 36 . Gross mass: 471,000 kg (1,038,000 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 7,300.00 kN (1,641,100 lbf).
Zenit-3SL (2) - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2003-06-10. Last Launch: 2014-05-26. Number: 20 .
Zenit-3SLB - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Zenit-3SL modified for launch from existing ground facilities at Baikonur, using the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with an upper stage Block DM-SLB designed by RSC Energia (Russia) and a new payload fairing designed by NPO Lavochkin (Russia). Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-04-28. Last Launch: 2013-08-31. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 471,000 kg (1,038,000 lb). Payload: 3,750 kg (8,260 lb). Thrust: 7,300.00 kN (1,641,100 lbf).
Zenit-3SLBF - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-01-20. Last Launch: 2015-12-11. Number: 3 .
Zenit-4 - Russian military surveillance satellite. Zenit-4 was the second Soviet photo-reconnaissance satellite, providing high-resolution imagery to complement the area coverage of the Zenit-2. Reconnaissance, photo (high resolution, film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1963 - 1970. Used Zenit bus. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-11-16. Last Launch: 1970-08-07. Number: 76 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Zenit-4M - Russian military surveillance satellite. Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1968 - 1974. Used Zenit bus. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-10-31. Last Launch: 1974-07-25. Number: 61 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Zenit-4MK - Russian military surveillance satellite. Modernized high resolution version of the Zenit-4M satellite that went into service in 1972. Maneuverable; (two-tone telemetry). Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1969 - 1977. Used Zenit bus. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-12-23. Last Launch: 1977-06-22. Number: 80 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Zenit-4MKM - Alternate name of Zenit-4MK.
Zenit-4MKM - Russian military surveillance satellite. A further modification of the Zenit-4MK, accepted for military service in 1976, entered service in 1978. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1977 - 1980. Used Zenit bus. Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-07-12. Last Launch: 1980-10-10. Number: 39 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Zenit-4MKM / 11F692 - Alternate designation for Zenit-4MK military surveillance satellite.
Zenit-4MKT - Russian military surveillance satellite. The Zenit-4MKT / Fram was an adaptation of the recoverable Vostok spacecraft for reconnaissance/remote sensing missions. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1975 - 1985. Used Zenit bus. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-09-25. Last Launch: 1985-09-06. Number: 27 . Gross mass: 6,100 kg (13,400 lb).
Zenit-4MT - Russian military surveillance satellite. Special version of Zenit developed for topographical photography. This was developed by OKB-1 Filial 1 based on the Zenit-4M. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1971 - 1982. Used Zenit bus. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-12-27. Last Launch: 1982-08-03. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Zenit-6U - Russian military surveillance satellite. A universal variant of the Zenit spacecraft, used in two altitude ranges, for both observation and high resolution missions. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1976 - 1984. Used Zenit bus. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-11-23. Last Launch: 1984-06-19. Number: 95 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Zenit-8 - Russian military surveillance satellite. 1 Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1984 - 1994. Used Zenit bus. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-06-11. Last Launch: 1994-06-07. Number: 101 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Zenit-8-Dummy (Oblik-Dummy, 17F116ML) - Instrumented dummy satellite, Russia. Launched 2004. Used Zenit bus. First Launch: 2004-11-08. Last Launch: 2004-11-08. Number: 1 .
Zenit-A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Modification of same stage used as strap-on for Energia launch vehicle. Status: Active. Gross mass: 354,300 kg (781,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 28,600 kg (63,000 lb). Thrust: 8,181.13 kN (1,839,191 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Zenit-B - Zenit stage 2. LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 90,600 kg (199,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust: 912.00 kN (205,025 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Zenith Star - American military anti-satellite system. Study 1987. In 1987, the Zenith Star prototype space combat satellite prototype, using the Alpha laser, was announced by President Bush. The launch vehicle would be the Barbarian. Status: Study 1987. Gross mass: 39,400 kg (86,800 lb).
Zenit-V - Zenit stage 3. LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Adaptation of Block D for Zenit. Status: In production. Gross mass: 17,300 kg (38,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,720 kg (5,990 lb). Thrust: 84.92 kN (19,091 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Zerkalo - Russian communications satellite. In 1991 Lavochkin NPO teamed up with NOOS Space Technologies Ltd. Of Moscow to develop the Zerkalo spacecraft and telecommunications system. Status: Design 1991. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Zero-G and I'm Feeling Fine - Poem: Floating and floating...
Zeus A - GCR solid rocket engine. Nike Zeus A second stage. Status: Retired 1960. More at: Solid
Zeus SAM-N-8 - Naval Ordnance Lab 1950's US Navy surface-to-air missile; gun-launched guided projectile.
Zeya - Russian earth geodetic satellite. The Zeya satellite was used for navigation and geodesy tests from a sun-synchronous orbit. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-03-04. Last Launch: 1997-03-04. Number: 1 .
Zeyss - German expert in rocket propulsion and launchers during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
ZGZ Shiyan Zhuangzhi - In-Orbit Refeulling Experimental Device, a fluid-transfer experiment launched by China's new generation CZ-7/YZ1A launch vehicle in 2016. First Launch: 2016-06-25. Last Launch: 2016-06-25. Number: 1 .
Zh - Alternate designation for I-270 manned rocketplane.
Zhai Zhigang - Chinese pilot taikonaut 1998-on. First taikonaut to walk in space. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1966-11-21. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 2.85 days.
Zhang Cunhao - Chinese Engineer. Expert in solid rocket propellants and chemical lasers.
Zhang Lu - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 2010-on. Status: Active 2010-on.
Zhang Ruxiang - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Joined PLA in 1958. He was a PLAAF regiment commander when selected. Selected as Chinese astronaut in March 1971. Status: Inactive. Born: 1941.
Zhang Xiaoguang - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1998-on. 172 cm tall and weighing 65.5 kg, a lieutenant colonel, PLAAF squadron commander, and accumulated 1000 flight-hours as of 2004. Backup, Shenzhou 9 mission. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1968-01-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 14.60 days.
Zhangheng 1 - Science satellite, 2017.
Zhangheng 1 (CSES 1) - Science, Ionospheic, earth scienc satellite built by CAST for CNSA, ASI, China. Used CAST2000 bus. Gross mass: 730 kg (1,600 lb).
Zhangiz-Tobe - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-1995. Operated 52 heavy ICBM (R-36/R-36M2) silos.
Zhao Chuandong - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1998-on. In the 05/2003 issue of Fliegerrevue, this was one of 12 new names listed as Chinese astronauts in training. PLA Air Force Status: Active 1998-on.
Zhao Jiuzhang - Chinese Engineer. Leader in development of instruments for use on Chinese sounding rockets and artificial satellites. Killed by Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution. Born: 1907-10-15. Died: 1968-10-26.
Zheda Pixing - Alternate name for JB-6.
Zheda Pixing - Chinese technology satellite. Experimental microelectronics research picosatellite. Launched 2007.05.25, Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-05-25. Last Launch: 2010-09-26. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Zheda Pixing 1, 1A - Alternate name of ZDPS 1, 1A (Zheda Pixing 1, 1A).
Zheda Pixing 2A, 2B - Alternate name of ZDPS 2A, 2B (Zheda Pixing 2A, 2B).
Zhejiang - Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China.
Zhinui - Chinese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1988-12-19. Last Launch: 1991-01-22. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf).
Zhinui-1 - Alternate name for ZN-1.
Zhitkovichi - Base for units deployed with six Pioner missile launchers.
Zholobov, Vitali Mikhailovich - Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut 1963-1981. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1981. Born: 1937-06-18. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 49.27 days.
Zhonggou Renmin Jiefangjun - Alternate name for PLA.
Zhongguo hangtian keji jituangongsi - Alternate name for CASC.
Zhongguo kongjian jishu yanjiu yuan - Alternate name for CAST.
Zhongguo yunzaihuojian jishu yanjiu yuan - Alternate name for CALT.
Zhongwei 1 - Chinastar 1; comsat to serve China, India, Korea and Southeast Asia with 18 C-band and 20 Ku-band transponders. Operated by the China Orient Telecommunications Satellite Company. Used the AS 2100 bus.
Zhongwei 1 (ChinaStar 1) / ZX 5A (ChinaSat 5A / APStar 9A - Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin for China Orient Telecommunications Satellite Company => China Satcom, China. Launched 1998. Used the A2100A bus. First Launch: 1998-05-30. Last Launch: 1998-05-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,984 kg (6,578 lb).
Zhongxing - Designation of series of communications satellites launched by Chinasat.
Zhou Benlian - Chinese Engineer. Materials scientist, made important contributions to development of Chinese heat shield materials and composite structures for space station applications.
Zhuang Fenggan - Chinese Engineer. Rocket and missile aerodynamics specialist.
Zhuang Yuzhi - Chinese Engineer. Metallurgist, developed materials for China's first recoverable satellites. Born: 1924-07-27. Died: 1996-03-23.
Zhuhai-1 01, 02 - Chinese earth observation satellite, the video component of the Chinese Orbita earth observation system. Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Zhukov, Boris Petrovich - Russian engineer. From 1951-1989 headed LNPO Soyuz.
Zhukov, Georgiy Konstantinovich - Russian officer. Minister of Defense 1955-1957. Born: 1896-12-01. Died: 1974-06-18.
Zhukov, Nikolai Nikolayevich - Russian officer. Lieutenant General; Chief of Staff for GUKOS Space Command 1982-1984 Born: 1922.
Zhukov, Sergei Aleksandrovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 2003-2011. Status: Inactive; Active 2003-2011. Born: 1956-09-08.
Zhukov, Yuri Averkovich - Russian officer. Commander of Baikonur Cosmodrome 1983-1989. Born: 1933.
ZI - Zone of the Interior
Zi Yuan - Nominally a Chinese remote sensing satellite, although US intelligence sources indicated it had primarily an intelligence imaging mission. Used the Phoenix Eye bus.
Zi Yuan - Code name for ZY earth land resources satellite.
Zi Yuan-2 - Alternate name for JB-3.
Zidingxiang - Zidingxiang-2 ('LilacSat-2'),, using the Zidingxiang bus, was from the Harbin Institute of Technology in Heilongjiang province, in China's far northeast. The 11 kg satellite carries an ADS-B receiver, and an FPGA radiation exposure test.
Zidingxiang 1 - Alternate name of LilacSat 1 (Zidingxiang 1, QB50 CN02).
Zidingxiang 2 - Alternate name of LilacSat 2 (Zidingxiang 2, CAS 3H).
Ziegler, H - German expert in rocket design during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Ziegler, Jean 'Skip' - American test pilot. Flew the X-1A and X-1D. X-1A and X-1D test pilot. Killed in the explosion of an X-2 during a captive-carry flight. Status: Deceased. Died: 1953-05-12.
ZIF-IR-189 - Solid propellant rocket stage. . Used monolithic single motor with Nylon-S propellant. Combustion chamber pressure 30-40 kg/cm2. Gross mass: 5,850 kg (12,890 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb). More at: Solid
ZIF-IR-190 - Solid propellant rocket stage. . Used cluster of four motors with Nylon-B propellant. Gross mass: 12,200 kg (26,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). More at: Solid
ZIF-IR-191 - Solid propellant rocket stage. . Used cluster of four motors with Nylon-B propellant. Gross mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). More at: Solid
ZIF-IR-194 - Solid propellant rocket stage. . Used monolithic single motor with Nylon-S propellant. Gross mass: 14,700 kg (32,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). More at: Solid
Zijing - 234 gram picosat deployed from Naxing-2.
Zijing 1 - Alternate name of ZJ 1 (Zijing 1).
ZIKh - M V Khrunichev Machine Building Plant (Russian abbreviation)
ZIMCOR - American manufacturer of rockets. ZIMCOR, USA.
Zingst - A simple launch pad was set up at this East German firing range on the Baltic Sea for some of the last firings of the MMR-06 sounding rocket. First Launch: 1988-10-21. Last Launch: 1992-04-10. Number: 62 .
Zinney - American manufacturer of rockets. Zinney, USA.
Zisch, William E 'Bill' - American business manager of Aerojet, 1942-1966. No college degree or scientific training, but he led Aerojet from five employees to $700 million annual sales of JATO, Polaris, Aerobee, Delta, Titan, Apollo SPS, M-1 and Nerva rocket engines. Born: 1917-12-15. Died: 1998-11-10.
Zitter - German aviation engineer during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
ZJ 1 (Zijing 1) - Technology satellite for Tsinghua University, China. Launched 2015. First Launch: 2015-09-19. Last Launch: 2015-09-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 0 kg (0 lb).
ZN - Alternate designation for Zhinui.
ZN-1 - NUDT Changsha solid rocket engine. Zhinui first stage. Status: Retired 1991. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). More at: Solid
Znamensk - Base for units deployed with twelve R-12 launchers.
Znamya - Russian ground reflector. Reflector mirror, deployed from Progress M-15 after separation from Mir space station. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-10-27. Last Launch: 1992-10-27. Number: 1 .
zodiacal light - A faint light emanating from a region in the night sky roughly defined by the zodiac. This light results from sunlight scattered by fine dust particles that orbit the Sun at planetary distances; it is enhanced in the vicinity of the Sun.
Zohreh - Iranian communications satellite. In development, 2008. Iranian geosynchronous communications satellite that was to be built with Russian assistance, containing an Alcatel communications payload. Status: Design 2008.
Zohreh 1, 2 - Communication satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (ex NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM) (bus); Alcatel (payload) for Iran Telecommunication Company. Used the Ekspress-1000A bus.
Zolke, Helmut Max Arthur - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1915-05-09.
Zombie - ATACMS-derived target missile.
Zond - Cover name used by the Soviet Union for lunar / planetary spacecraft failures and unmanned tests of the Soyuz L1 circumlunar spacecraft. Earth observation satellite built by NPP VNIIEM for Roskosmos, Russia. Launched 2017. First Launch: 2017-06-29. Last Launch: 2017-06-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 390 kg (850 lb).
Zond (3MV-1A #1, 2) - Solar orbiter and earth reentry capsule (#1), Venus flyby and lander (#2) satellite, Russia. Launched 1963 - 1964. First Launch: 1963-11-11. Last Launch: 1964-02-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
Zond 1 - Alternate designation for Venera 3MV-1 Venus probe.
Zond 1 (3MV-1 #1, 2) - Venus flyby and lander, Russia. Launched 1964. First Launch: 1964-03-27. Last Launch: 1964-04-02. Number: 2 .
Zond 2-3 - Alternate designation for Mars 3MV-4A mars flyby probe.
Zond 4-8 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-L1 manned lunar flyby spacecraft.
Zond-PP (MKA-PN 1) - Earth observation satellite built by Lavochkin for Roskosmos, Russia. Launched 2012. Used Karat-Bus. First Launch: 2012-07-22. Last Launch: 2012-07-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 156 kg (343 lb).
ZRK-SD - Alternate name of Kub-M1.
Zubovich, Ivan Gerasimovich - Russian government official. Deputy Minister of Armaments 1949-1951. Deputy Chairman of Special Committee 2. Born: 1901. Died: 1956-07-18.
Zubrin, Robert - American Engineer. Co-developer of the Mars Direct mission model and a passionate advocate for manned exploration of Mars by methods cheaper and quicker than the NASA model.
Zucker Rocket - The Zucker Rocket was not an operational rocket at all, but a series of flashy-looking hulls powered by powder rockets like those used in fireworks. Zucker travelled through Germany in 1931-1933, displaying his rocket, selling tickets to launches, and then selling fraudulent postal covers carried aboard the 'flights'. The highest recorded altitude achieved in Germany was 15 m. Status: Retired 1933. First Launch: 1933-04-01. Last Launch: 1933-04-01. Number: 1 .
Zucker, Gerhard - German rocket enthusiast and fraudster. In 1931-1934 toured Germany and UK with bogus 'operational' and postal rockets. Caused a death in a rocket explosion in 1964, resulting in ban of private rocketry in Germany. Born: 1900. Died: 1985-01-01.
Zudin, Boris Grigoryevich - Russian officer, Deputy Chief, Plesetsk Cosmodrome for Space 1981-1985. Began military service in November 1943. Completed Rizhsk Higher Aviation School, 1958; assigned to Plesetsk, worked in trials branch, becoming its chief in 1974. Born: 1926. Died: 1985-01-01.
Zudov, Vyacheslav Dmitriyevich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1965-1987. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1987. Born: 1942-01-08. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 2.00 days.
Zuni 5-inch FFAR - NOTS 1950's US Navy unguided air-launched rocket; Navy.
Zverev, Sergei Alekseyevich - Russian government official. Chairman of GKOT 1963-1965. Born: 1912-10-18. Died: 1978-12-17.
Zvezda - Code name for DLB Module and [DLB Module] manned lunar base.
Zvezda bureau - Russian manufacturer of pressure suits.
ZX 10 (ChinaSat 10) - Communication satellite built by CAST for China Satcom (formerly Sino Satellite Communications), China. Launched 2011. Used the DFH-4 bus bus. First Launch: 2011-06-20. Last Launch: 2011-06-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
ZX 11 (ChinaSat 11) - Communication satellite built by CAST for China Satcom, China. Launched 2013. Used the DFH-4 bus bus. First Launch: 2013-05-01. Last Launch: 2013-05-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,234 kg (11,538 lb).
ZX 12 (ChinaSat 12, SupremeSat 1 / ZX 15A - Communication satellite built by Thales Alenia Space for China Satcom, China. Launched 2012. Used the Spacebus-4000C2 bus. First Launch: 2012-11-27. Last Launch: 2012-11-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,054 kg (11,142 lb).
ZX 15 - Alternate name of Belintersat 1 (ZX 15, ChinaSat 15).
ZX 18 (ChinaSat 18) - Communication satellite built by CAST for China Satcom, China. Used the DFH-4E bus bus.
ZX 1A, 1B, 1C - Alternate name of FH 2A, 2B, 2C (ZX 1A, 1B, 1C).
ZX 20, 20A - Alternate name of ST 1, 1B (ZX 20, 20A).
ZX 2A, 2B, 2C - Alternate name of ST 2A, 2B, 2C (ZX 2A, 2B, 2C).
ZX 6, 6A - Alternate name of DFH-3 1, 2 (ZX 6, 6A / ChinaSat 6, 6A).
ZX 6A (ChinaSat 6A) - Communication satellite built by CAST for China Satcom (formerly Sino Satellite Communications), China. Launched 2010. Used the DFH-4 bus bus. First Launch: 2010-09-04. Last Launch: 2010-09-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
ZX 6B (ChinaSat 6B) - Communication satellite built by Alcatel Alenia Space for China Telecommunications Broadcast Satellite Corporation (ChinaSat), China. Launched 2007. Used the Spacebus-4000C2 bus. First Launch: 2007-07-05. Last Launch: 2007-07-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,600 kg (10,100 lb).
ZX 6C (ChinaSat 6C) - Communication satellite built by CAST for China Satcom, China. Used the DFH-4 bus bus.
ZX 7 (ChinaSat 7) / HGS 2 - Communication satellite built by Hughes for China Telecommunications Broadcast Satellite Corporation (ChinaSat), China. Launched 1996. Used the HS-376 bus. First Launch: 1996-08-18. Last Launch: 1996-08-18. Number: 1 .
ZX 9 (ChinaSat 9) - Communication satellite built by Alcatel Alenia Space (formerly Alcatel Space) for China Telecommunications Broadcast Satellite Corporation (ChinaSat), China. Launched 2008. Used the Spacebus-4000C2. Launched 2008. First Launch: 2008-06-09. Last Launch: 2008-06-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
ZX 9A - Alternate name of Sinosat 2, 4 (Xinnuo 2, 4) / ZX 9A (ChinaSat 9A).
ZY - Chinese earth land resources satellite. 6 launches, 1999.10.14 (ZY-1) to 2007.09.19 (ZY-2C). From 1985 China and Brazil jointly developed a sun synchronous imaging satellite bus, the Zi Yuan-1 (Resouce-1) based on the Shi Jian 3 design. Status: Operational 1999. Gross mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb).
ZY-1 02C - Earth Observation satellite operated by CEODE, China. Launched 2011. Used Phoenix-Eye-2 bus. First Launch: 2011-12-22. Last Launch: 2011-12-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb).
ZY-2 - Alternate name for JB-3.
ZY-2 01, 02, 03 (JB-3 1, 2, 3) - Earth Observation satellite operated by PLA, China. Launched 2000 - 2004. Used Phoenix-Eye-2 bus. First Launch: 2000-09-01. Last Launch: 2004-11-06. Number: 3 .
ZY-3 01, 02 - Earth Observation satellite operated by State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping, China. Launched 2012 - 2016. Used Phoenix-Eye-2 bus. First Launch: 2012-01-09. Last Launch: 2016-05-30. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,630 kg (5,790 lb).
Zyb - Russian zero-G suborbital launch vehicle based on surplus R-27 SLBM. Suborbital; 17-24 min zero G. Payload volume 1.5 cu. M. Payload 650 kg to 1800 km or 1000 kg to 1000 km. Status: Retired 1993. First Launch: 1965-01-01. Last Launch: 1993-12-01. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 14,200 kg (31,300 lb). Payload: 650 kg (1,430 lb).
Zyb Mod 2-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1993. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Zyb R-27K - Russian launch vehicle based on surplus R-27K SLBM. Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1973-01-01. Last Launch: 1973-12-04. Number: 2 .
Zyb R-27U - Russian launch vehicle based on surplus R-27U SLBM. Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1972-10-01. Last Launch: 1973-08-01. Number: 2 .

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