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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: P

P - P designations were given to a series of classified US military technology and operational satellites launched from the 1960's. Status: Operational 1960.
P- - Cruise missile (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
P 11 - American technology satellite. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-03-18. Last Launch: 1963-03-18. Number: 1 .
P 2 - Alternate name of Pioneer 5 (P 2).
P 21, 21A - Ionospheric research (suborbital) satellite operated by NASA, USA. Gross mass: 31 kg (68 lb).
P 72 - American military technology satellite. Unknown satellite lost on a single Atlas launch failure. Evidently not repeated. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-04-13. Last Launch: 1975-04-13. Number: 1 .
P 76 - American communications technology satellite. Communications propagation experiments. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-05-22. Last Launch: 1976-05-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 73 kg (160 lb).
P 90 - Code name for APEX technology satellite.
P00-3 - Alternate name of C/NOFS (P00-3).
P-10 - Alternate designation for SEP 903.
P-10 - Alternate designation for SSBS S01-2 [SSBS S01-2] and [SSBS S01-2] rocket stage.
P-100 - Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Family of sea- or silo- launched Mach 3.5 cruise missiles with ranges up to intercontinental distances. Status: Cancelled 1961. Gross mass: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb).
P-1000 - Russian anti-ship missile. Sub-launched antiship missile. Separating hypersonic warhead. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
P-102 / P-698BK / P-770 (Agena-B based) - ELINT, SIGINT satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1962-1963. First Launch: 1962-02-21. Last Launch: 1963-06-29. Number: 4 .
P-102 / P-698BK / P-770 (Agena-D based) - ELINT, SIGINT satellite built by Lockheed (prime) for USAF, USA. Launched 1964-1966. First Launch: 1964-02-28. Last Launch: 1966-02-09. Number: 5 .
P-11 4051, 4201, 4202 - Alternate name of Hitchhiker 1, 2 (P-11 4051, 4201, 4202).
P-11 4401, ..., 4429 - ELINT satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1965 - 1974. Used mod. P-11 bus. First Launch: 1965-04-28. Last Launch: 1974-10-29. Number: 26 .
P-11 4430, ..., 4434 - ELINT satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1976 - 1984. Used mod. P-11 bus. First Launch: 1976-07-08. Last Launch: 1984-06-25. Number: 5 .
P-11 5103, ..., 5105 (USA 32, 45, 81) - ELINT or wide area surveillance satellite, USA. Launched 1988 - 1992. First Launch: 1988-09-05. Last Launch: 1992-04-25. Number: 3 .
P-120 - Russian anti-ship missile. Ship- and sub-launched antiship missile. Status: Operational 1969. Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
P-14 - American solar satellite. Magnetic field data. Research satellite built by NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center for NASA, USA. Launched 1961. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-02-25. Last Launch: 1961-05-24. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 34 kg (74 lb).
P-15 - Russian tactical cruise missile. Status: Operational 1959. Gross mass: 2,770 kg (6,100 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
P-15 Termit - Russian tactical cruise missile.
P-15 Termit-R - Russian tactical cruise missile.
P-15M - Alternate name of P-15 Termit.
P-15M - Alternate name of P-15 Termit-R.
P-15U - Russian tactical cruise missile. Antiship missile. Widely deployed. Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb).
P-16 - Alternate designation for SEP 902.
P-16 - Alternate designation for SSBS S3-1 rocket stage.
P-20 - Russian anti-ship missile. Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
P-205 - Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Development of a family of long-range cruise missiles was begun in 1956 by Ilyushin. The P-205 was a land-based strategic cruise missile based on the P-20 antiship missile. The land-launch version was developed for the VVS in 1958-1960. There were two submarine projects for the missile, 627A and 653, both designed by OKB-143. Construction of the 627A submarine began at Severodvinsk, but the work on the submarine was cancelled in November 1961. Status: Cancelled 1961.
P-21 - Russian cruise missile.
P-21 - Alternate name of Rubezh.
P-21 Termit-R - Russian cruise missile. P-21 has supplementary IR guidance.
P-22 - Russian cruise missile.
P-22 Sokol-P - Russian cruise missile.
P-22 Termit - Russian cruise missile.
P-22 Termit-R - Russian cruise missile.
P-226 1 - ELINT satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1975. Used mod. P-11 bus. First Launch: 1975-06-08. Last Launch: 1975-06-08. Number: 1 .
P230 - Alternate name for Ariane 5-0 P230.
P241 - Alternate designation for Ariane 5-0 P241.
P241 - Alternate designation for Ariane 5 EAP rocket stage.
P-27 - Russian cruise missile.
P-270 - Alternate name of Moskit-M 3M88.
P320 - Rocketdyne, Friedrichshafen LOx/LH2 rocket engine. BORD 1/P320 BOELKOW (Germany)/Rocketdyne Technology. Pressure-fed. Status: Development. Date: 1966. Thrust: 129.00 kN (29,000 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
P-35 - Russian short range cruise missile. Status: Operational 1960. Gross mass: 5,260 kg (11,590 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
P-35B - Russian short range cruise missile.
P360 - Alternate name of Nemesis 1, 2 (PAN, CLIO / P360).
P4 - SNPE solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Used on Diamant B launch vehicle. First flight 1970. Diamant BP second stage. Status: Out of Production. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 176.50 kN (39,679 lbf). More at: Solid
P-4 - Alternate designation for P4.
P-4 - Alternate designation for Diamant BP-2 rocket stage.
P-40 - Alternate name for Quill.
P4-1 Booster - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. AQM-37. Target System Booster. Pressure-fed. First flight 1963. Date: 1963. Thrust: 2.44 kN (549 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
P4-1 Sustainer - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. AQM-37. Target System Sustainer. Pressure-fed. First flight 1963. Date: 1963. Thrust: 470 N (100 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
P-5 - Russian cruise missile. The DOD used the SS-N-3 for both Sepal and Shaddock missiles.
P5 Hall thruster - UM-USAF electric/xenon rocket engine. 5 kW Hall thruster for research purposes. Thrust: 0.25 N (0.06 lbf). More at: Electric/Xenon
P-500 - Russian anti-ship missile. Ship-launched antiship missile. Replacing P-35/SS-N-3. Status: Operational 1976. Gross mass: 4,800 kg (10,500 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
P6 - SNPE . Out of production. First flight 1965. Status: Out of production. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Unfuelled mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 29.40 kN (6,609 lbf). More at: Solid
P-6 - Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
P-6 - Alternate designation for Diamant-3 and [Diamant-3] rocket stage.
P68-1 - Alternate name of Orbiscal 1 (P68-1).
P68-1 - Alternate name of RM 18 & UVR (P68-1).
P-7 - Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Aspen Booster. Pressure-fed. Thrust from 12,000 lb to 50,000 lb at sea level. Date: 1959. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 222.31 kN (49,977 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
P-70 - Russian anti-ship missile. Sub-launched antiship missile. Gross mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb).
P-700 - Russian anti-ship missile. Ship-launched antiship missile. Replacing SS-N-12. Status: Operational 1980. Gross mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb).
P72-2 - Alternate name of RM 20 (P72-2).
P73-4 - Alternate name of ELMS 1, 2 (P73-4, P74-3).
P74-3 - Alternate name of ELMS 1, 2 (P73-4, P74-3).
P-750 - Russian intermediate range cruise missile. IOC in 1988 est 1992+. SS-C-5 GLCM banned in INF. Status: Cancelled 1991.
P76-4 - Alternate name of NTS 2 (P76-4).
P76-5 - Alternate name of Wideband (P76-5).
P78-2 - Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. Flown in 1979. The thruster for the Scatha experiment consisted of one electron bombardment engines using xenon propellant. Status: Flown in 1979.. Date: 1979. Thrust: 0.0001 N (0.0000 lbf). More at: Electric/Xenon
P80 - Fiat-Avio solid rocket engine. In production. Vega's first stage, introduced advanced low-cost technologies that could be reused for future evolutions of Ariane-5 boosters. Solid propellant rocket stage. Vega's first stage, the P80 solid rocket motor, introduced advanced low-cost technologies that could be reused for future evolutions of Ariane-5 boosters. Status: In production. Gross mass: 95,000 kg (209,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Thrust: 3,040.00 kN (683,410 lbf). More at: Solid
P-800 - Russian anti-ship missile. New vertical-launched antiship missile for naval craft. Also known as ONIKS. Gross mass: 2,270 kg (5,000 lb).
P80-1 - Alternate name of Teal Ruby (P80-1, AFP-888).
P-801 1, ..., 7 (P-989, Subsatellite Ferret C) - ELINT satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1968 - 1983. Used mod. P-11 bus. First Launch: 1968-12-12. Last Launch: 1983-06-20. Number: 7 .
P80-2 - Technology, science satellite built by Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Ball Space Systems, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for US Air Force. Gross mass: 2,430 kg (5,350 lb).
P86-2 - Alternate name of Starscan (P86-2).
P87-1 - Alternate name of Polar Bear (P87-1).
P87-2 - Alternate designation for Stacksat P87-2 technology satellite.
P8E-9 - Rocketdyne Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Lance Booster and Sustainer System. Pressure-fed. Sustainer 4400 -14,400 lbf, 227 sec Isp. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1972. Date: 1964. Thrust: 205.44 kN (46,185 lbf). More at: Nitric acid/UDMH
P9.5 - Alternate name for Ariane 4-0 P9.5 SPB.
P-900 - Russian air-to-surface missile. AS-21 may be assigned to either the P-900 Alfa or the Yakhont.
P90-1 - Alternate name of STEP 1 (P90-1).
P90-2 - Alternate name of PRoFILE (P90-2).
P90-5 - Alternate name of STEP 0 (TAOS, P90-5).
P91-1 - Alternate designation for ARGOS ion engine technology satellite.
P91-2 - Alternate name of STEP 2 (SIDEX, P91-2).
P92-2 - Alternate name of STEP 3 (P92-2).
P95-1 - Alternate name of STEP 4 (P95-1).
P95-2 - Alternate name of TSX 5 (P95-2).
P97-2 - Alternate name of Mightysat 1 (P97-2).
P-989 - Alternate name of P-801 1, ..., 7 (P-989, "Subsatellite Ferret C").
P99-1 - Alternate name of Mightysat-2 (P99-1).
PA - Pad abort
Pablo De Leon - Argentinian manufacturer of spacecraft. Pablo De Leon, Argentina.
Pabst, Otto - German expert in ram jets during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
PAC - American technology satellite. Package Attitude Control; semi-active gravity gradient stabilization tests. Technology satellite for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA. Launched 1969. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-08-09. Last Launch: 1969-08-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 120 kg (260 lb).
PAC-3 - American anti-ballistic missile. In EMD. PAC-3 version has limited Theater Ballistic Missile Defense capability. Gross mass: 318 kg (701 lb).
Pace - 2U Cubesat for the National Cheng Kung University.
PACE satellite - Technology satellite for National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (Republic of China). Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2014-06-19. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Pace, Frank - American manager, Secretary of the Army, 1950-1953, president of General Dynamics 1953-1962. During his tenure General Dynamics acquired Convair and other companies and became a leading defense and space contractor. Born: 1912-07-05. Died: 1988-01-08.
Pacific American Launch Systems - American manufacturer of rockets. Pacific American Launch Systems, USA.
Pacific Ocean -
Pacific Proving Grounds - Alternate name for Bikini.
PACSAT - Amateur radio satellite in Oscar series.
PACSAT (AMSAT-OSCAR, OSCAR 16, AO 16) - Amateur radio communication satellite operated by AMSAT NA, USA. Launched 1990. Used the AMSAT-NA Microsat bus. First Launch: 1990-01-22. Last Launch: 1990-01-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 13 kg (28 lb).
Padalka, Gennadi Ivanovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1989-2017. 878 cumulative days in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-2017. Born: 1958-06-21. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 878.48 days.
pad-launched - Category of missiles.
Paektusan 1 - North Korean orbital launch vehicle. The third stage for the satellite launch version was probably a small solid rocket engine. It failed to reach orbit in the 1998 launch attempt, and later such tests are believed to have used a different design. Status: Retired 1998. First Launch: 1998-08-31. Last Launch: 1998-08-31. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 33,406 kg (73,647 lb). Payload: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Thrust: 525.25 kN (118,081 lbf).
PAET - American military technology satellite. One launch, 1971.06.20. Suborbital. Status: Operational 1971.
Paetz, Robert Heinrich Karl - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1909-08-13. Died: 1998-07-09.
Page, Edgar - Irish physicist who specialized in cosmic ray research at the ESRO, 1965-1975. Headed ESA's space science department 1976-1986. From 1986, served as science coordinator for the Ulysses spacecraft mission. Born: 1935.
Pageos - American earth geodetic satellite. 100 foot diameter. balloon. Geodesy satellite built by G. T. Schjeldahl Co. (Balloon) for NASA, USA. Launched 1966. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-06-24. Last Launch: 1966-06-24. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 55 kg (121 lb).
Pailes, William Arthur - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut 1982-1987. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1987. Born: 1952-06-26. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 4.07 days.
Paine, Thomas O - American engineer, at General Electric, then NASA Administrator 1968-1970. His ambitious post-Apollo programs were not received well by the Nixon administration. Born: 1921-11-09. Died: 1992-05-04.
Paiute Apache - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Paiute + 1 x Apache Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1972-03-28. Last Launch: 1972-03-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Thrust: 140.00 kN (31,470 lbf).
Paiute Apache-1 - Alternate name for TU-716.
Paiute Apache-2 - Alternate name for TE-307.
Paiute Tomahawk - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Paiute + 1 x Tomahawk Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1972-04-15. Last Launch: 1981-10-26. Number: 33 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Thrust: 140.00 kN (31,470 lbf).
Pak, Zinoviy Petrovich - Russian engineer. General Director of LNPO Soyuz 1989-1996. Leading designer in the chemistry and technology of solid rocket propellants.
Pakhomov, A K - Russian VVS Test pilot. Russian rocketplane pilot.
Pakistan - Pakistan
Pakistan Army - Pakistan Army.
Paksat - Pakistani commercial communications satellite series.
Paksat 1R - Communication satellite built by CAST for SUPARCO, Pakistan. Launched 2011. Used the DFH-4 Bus bus. First Launch: 2011-08-11. Last Launch: 2011-08-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,120 kg (11,280 lb).
Palamede - Technology satellite built by Politecnico University of Milan, Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA for Politecnico University of Milan. Gross mass: 40 kg (88 lb).
Palaoro, Hans Rudolf - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1919-02-25. Died: 1994-07-21.
Palapa - Indonesia's domestic communications satellite system. Palapas, stationed in geosynchronous orbit, provide voice circuits and television to the country's 6000+ inhabited islands.
Palapa A1, A2 - Communication satellite built by Hughes for PERUMTEL, Indonesia. Launched 1976 - 1977. Used the HS-333D bus. First Launch: 1976-07-08. Last Launch: 1977-03-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 574 kg (1,265 lb).
Palapa B1, B2, B2P, B2R, B4 / Palapa Pacific / Agila 1 / NewSat 1 - Communication satellite built by Hughes for Telkom, Indonesia. Launched 1983 - 1992. Used the HS-376 bus. First Launch: 1983-06-18. Last Launch: 1992-05-14. Number: 5 .
Palapa C1, C2 / HGS 3 / Anatolia 1 / Paksat 1 - Communication satellite built by Hughes for PT Satelit Palapa Indonesia (SATELINDO), Indonesia. Launched 1996. Used the HS-601 bus. First Launch: 1996-02-01. Last Launch: 1996-05-16. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Palapa D - Communication satellite built by Thales Alenia Space for PT Indosat Tbk, Indonesia. Launched 2009. Used the Spacebus-4000B3 bus. First Launch: 2009-08-30. Last Launch: 2009-08-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb).
Palapa E - Communication satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for PT Indosat Tbk. Used the GEOStar-2 Bus bus.
Palapa N1 - Communications satellite, 2017.
PALC1-2 - Alternate name for Vandenberg SLC3E.
PALC2-3 - Alternate name for Vandenberg SLC4W.
PALC2-4 - Alternate name for Vandenberg SLC4E.
Pallada - Russian communications satellite. Study 1993. The Pallada network was devised by the Moscow Radio Communications Research Institute for Commonwealth of Independent States communications services, including voice, telegraph, fax, and data transmissions. Status: Study 1993.
Pallo, Vladimir Vladimirovich - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of Chelomei Bureau Filial 1. Led work on the DOS and Salyut stations.
Palmachim - Israeli Air Force Test Range. Israeli coastal missile test site from which the Shavit satellite launch vehicle is also launched. A due-west launch over the Mediterranean is required to avoid overflying Arab countries, resulting in unique orbital inclinations and directions. First Launch: 1987-05-01. Last Launch: 2014-04-09. Number: 54 .
Palmachim IAFTR - Arrow launch complex. Sea Launch Area, Palmachim Beach First Launch: 1990-08-09. Last Launch: 1999-11-01. Number: 14 .
Palmachim SH - Shavit pad, Palmachim Beach
Palmdale Omni DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone.
Palo Alto - Alternate designation for Skynet Palo Alto.
Palo Alto - American manufacturer of rockets. Palo Alto, Palo Alto, California, USA.
PAM - Abbreviation for Payload Assist Module
PAM/LAM - American missiles; The US Army's PAM (Precision Attack Missile) and LAM (Loitering Attack Missile) are both part of the NetFires NLOS-LS (Non-Line-Of-Sight Launch System).
PAM-D - Alternate name for Star 48.
PAM-D2 - Alternate name for Star 63.
Pameungpeuk - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1965-08-07. Last Launch: 2009-07-02. Number: 14 .
Pamir (Pamir mountains) - Alternate name for Soyuz 27.
Pamir (Pamir mountains) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-12.
Pamir (Pamir mountains) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-13 EO-4-a.
Pamir (Pamir mountains) - Alternate name for Soyuz 39.
Pamir (Pamirs ) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-6.
Pamir (Pamirs) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-6.
PAMS - American technology satellite. Passive attitude control technology test. Deployed from shuttle STS-77 on 5/22/96; Re-entered Oct 26. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-05-19. Last Launch: 1996-05-19. Number: 1 .
PAM-S - Alternate name for Star 48.
PAMS-STU - Technology satellite for NASA-GSFC, USA. Launched 1996. First Launch: 1996-05-19. Last Launch: 1996-05-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 49 kg (108 lb).
PAN - Classified communications satellite, perhaps providing services for the CIA to replace channels hosted on the US Navy's UHF Follow-On series. Stationed in geostationary orbit at 34 deg E. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-09-08. Last Launch: 2009-09-08. Number: 1 .
Pan Zhanchun - Chinese PLAAF Pilot. In the 05/2003 issue of Fliegerrevue, this was one of 12 new names listed as Chinese astronauts in training. However did not appear later in association with the manned space program. Status: Active 1998-on.
PAN, CLIO - Alternate name of Nemesis 1, 2 (PAN, CLIO / P360).
Panaero - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Panaero, USA.
Panama - Panama
Panamsat - Pan American Satellite, in Greenwich, Connecticut, USA, was founded in 1984 as part of Alpha Lyracom. It orbited a series of communications satellites providing television broadcast to the US and Latin American markets. In 1996 it merged with Hughes Galaxy.
Panchenko, Yevgeniy Ivanovich - Russian officer. Lieutenant General, First Deputy Chief of Main Directorate of NKS 1986-1987. Born: 1927.
PANSAT (S97-D, PO 34, PANSAT-OSCAR 34) - Experimental satellite built by Naval Postgraduate School for Naval Postgraduate School, USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1998. First Launch: 1998-10-29. Last Launch: 1998-10-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 70 kg (154 lb).
PANSAT-OSCAR 34 - Alternate name of PANSAT (S97-D, PO 34, PANSAT-OSCAR 34).
Panstwowego Instytut Hydrologiczno-Meterologicznego - Alternate name for PIHM.
Pantera - Norwegian hybrid single stage sounding rocket based on Lockheed Martin's HYSR technology. Status: Development. Thrust: 31.00 kN (6,969 lbf).
Pantsir-S1 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Developed Tunguska - extended-range truck-mounted single-vehicle missile-gun anti-aircraft system for the export market. Status: Operational 2000. Gross mass: 66 kg (146 lb).
PAO - Abbreviation for Public Affairs Office
Papillon - Alternate name of CNUSail 1 (Papillon).
Paracone - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. The Douglas Paracone was one of the most minimal schemes for bail-out from orbit. The objective was to hit a continental land mass; for such purposes totally manual re-entry operations were used. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 227 kg (500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 216 kg (476 lb). Payload: 89 kg (196 lb). Thrust: 431 N (96 lbf). More at: Solid
Paradel - American mini-RPV.
Paradigm - British agency. Paradigm, UK.
Parana - Brazilian manufacturer of spacecraft. Parana, Brazil.
PARASOL - Science satellite for CNES, France. Launched 2004. Used the Myriade bus. First Launch: 2004-12-18. Last Launch: 2004-12-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 120 kg (260 lb).
Parasol - Parasol carried a wide-field imaging radiometer/polarimeter called POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of the EarthÆs Reflectance), designed in partnership with the LOA atmospheric optics laboratory in Lille. Used the Myriade bus.
Parazynski, Scott Edward - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1992-2009. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2009. Born: 1961-07-28. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 57.65 days.
Parca - French surface-to-air missile. Development of this first French surface-to-air missile began in 1948. The acronym PARCA stood for 'Self-propelled Radio-controlled Anti-Aircraft Projectile'. Flight tests began in 1954 and the system was deployed on a limited basis in 1958. Status: Operational 1958. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
PARCAE - Alternate designation for NOSS; AKA White Cloud type spacecraft; Navy Ocean Surveillance Satellite; ABSAD.
PARD - NACA Pilotless Aircraft Research Division, Langley Aero. Lab.
Parikshit - Technology satellite for Manipal Institute of Technology, India. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Parin, Vasili Vasilyevich - Russian physician. Director of IMBP 1965-1969. A leading space medicine specialist. Born: 1903-03-18. Died: 1971-06-15.
Paris Gun - German gun-launched missile. The Paris Gun of World War I could hurl a 120 kg shell with 7 kg of explosive to a range of 131 km and an altitude of 40 km. Status: Retired 1918. Gross mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Payload: 120 kg (260 lb).
Parise, Ronald Anthony - American astronomer payload specialist astronaut 1984-1995. Status: Deceased; Active 1984-1995. Born: 1951-05-24. Died: 2008-05-09. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 25.59 days.
Parker Bertea - Parker Bertea.
Parker, Robert Alan Ridley - American astronomer mission specialist astronaut 1967-1993. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1993. Born: 1936-12-14. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 19.29 days.
parking orbit - A temporary orbit in which a vehicle coasts before transfer into final orbit or trajectory.
PARKINSONSAT - 1.5U Cubesat from the US Naval Academy (UNSA) hosting the USN SCP/ODTML buoy communications payload and an amateur radio payload.
ParkinsonSat A, B - Alternate name of PSat A, B (ParkinsonSat A, B / NO 84 / Naval Academy-OSCAR 84).
Parkland Memorial Hospital - Parkland Memorial Hospital.
Parks, Robert J - American engineer, worked on the Mariner, Ranger, and Surveyor programs; served as JPL's planetary program director in the 1960s, then became JPL associate and finally deputy director. Born: 1922-04-01. Died: 2011-06-03.
Parmitano, Luca Salvo - Italian pilot mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1976-09-27. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 166.26 days.
Parom - Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 2009. In its latest iteration, RKK Energia's Parom was a reusable interorbital tug intended to transport cargo containers and the Kliper manned ferry from low earth orbit to the International Space Station. Status: Study 2009. Gross mass: 5,990 kg (13,200 lb).
Parsons, John Marvel Whiteside 'Jack' - American rocket pioneer; co-founder of Aerojet, inventor of solid rocket propellant and American inventor of the storable liquid rocket. Dabbled in the occult, expelled from Aerojet on DoD orders. Killed mixing rocket fuel in his garage. Born: 1914-10-02. Died: 1952-06-17.
Parus - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-15.
Parus - Alternate name of Soyuz TMA-07M.
Parus - Russian navigation satellite. Military satellite which provided navigation information and store-dump radio communications to Soviet naval forces and ballistic missile submarines. Navigation, data relay satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1974 - 2010. Used KAUR-1 bus. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-12-26. Last Launch: 2010-04-27. Number: 100 . Gross mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb).
PAS - PanAmSat Inc., USA; and designation of a series of communications satellites launched by Panamsat.
PAS 1 - Communication satellite built by RCA Astro for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 1988. Used the AS-3000 bus. First Launch: 1988-06-15. Last Launch: 1988-06-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,220 kg (2,680 lb).
PAS 1R - Communication satellite built by Hughes / Boeing for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 2000. Used the BSS-702 bus. First Launch: 2000-11-16. Last Launch: 2000-11-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,792 kg (10,564 lb).
PAS 2, 3, 3R, 4 / Intelsat 2, 3R, 4 - Communication satellite built by Hughes for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 1994 - 1996. Used the HS-601 bus. First Launch: 1994-07-08. Last Launch: 1996-01-12. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,920 kg (6,430 lb).
PAS 5( Arabsat 2C( Badr C (Intelsat 5) - Communication satellite built by Hughes / Boeing for PanAmSat => Arabsat, USA. Launched 1997. Used the HS-601HP bus. First Launch: 1997-08-28. Last Launch: 1997-08-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb).
PAS 6 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 1997. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 1997-08-08. Last Launch: 1997-08-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,420 kg (7,530 lb).
PAS 6B / Intelsat 6B - Communication satellite built by Hughes / Boeing for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 1998. Used the HS-601HP bus. First Launch: 1998-12-22. Last Launch: 1998-12-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,470 kg (7,650 lb).
PAS 7 / Intelsat 7 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 1998. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 1998-09-16. Last Launch: 1998-09-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,838 kg (8,461 lb).
PAS 8 / Intelsat 8 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 1998. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 1998-11-04. Last Launch: 1998-11-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb).
PAS 9, 10 / Intelsat 9, 10 - Communication satellite built by Hughes / Boeing for PanAmSat, USA. Launched 2000 - 2001. Used the HS-601HP / BSS-601HP bus. First Launch: 2000-07-28. Last Launch: 2001-05-15. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,659 kg (8,066 lb).
PasComSat - Spacecraft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Satellite in the USAF OV1 technology series.
PasComSat (OV1 8) - Experimental satellite built by Goodyear Aerospace Corp. for USAF, USA. Launched 1966. First Launch: 1966-07-14. Last Launch: 1966-07-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb).
Pashkov, Georgi Nikolayevich - Russian government official. Deputy Chairman of Military-Industrial Commission 1957-1970. Worked in Gosplan Second Department 1946-1955. Born: 1911.
Passive Aerodynamically Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite - Alternate designation for PAMS technology satellite.
Passive communications satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Patat, Frederic - French physician payload specialist astronaut 1985-1998. Degree in Acoustic Physics from the University of Paris (1981). Ph.D. in engineering (1984). Doctorate of medicine, 1991. Worked at the medical faculty of the University of Tours. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1998. Born: 1958-06-24.
Pathfinder - Pioneer Rocketplane two-crew single-stage-to-orbit aerial-refueled spaceplane design of 2003. It elaborated on the Black Horse and Black Colt concepts of the 1990's. Status: Design 2003. Gross mass: 110,000 kg (240,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Payload: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Thrust: 830.00 kN (186,590 lbf).
Paton, Boris Yevgenyevich - Russian engineer. Director of Institute of Electrical Welding from 1953. Developed equipment for N1 fabrication and the Vulkan space welding unit. Born: 1918-11-27.
Patrick AFB - Alternate name for Cape Canaveral launch site.
Patrick, Nicholas James MacDonald - British-American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1998-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2012. Born: 1964-03-22. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 26.62 days.
Patriot - Alternate designation for MIM-104A.
Patriot - American surface-to-air missile. Standard Army surface-to-air missile. Later versions had anti-tactical missile capability. Status: Active.
PATRIOT satellite - Technology satellite for University of Michigan PEPL and MXL, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Patsayev, Viktor Ivanovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1968-1971. Member of first crew to stay aboard a space station, however perished during landing. A street in Kaluga and Asteroid 1791 were named for him. Status: Deceased; Active 1968-1971. Born: 1933-06-19. Died: 1971-06-30. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 23.76 days.
Patt, Kurt Paul Erich - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1913-03-18. Died: 1969-04-01.
Patterson, William Howell - American engineer. Part of the Atlas management team. Born: 1917. Died: 1999-01-01.
Pauer, Walter - German thermodynamics expert; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2, then returned to Germany in 1952 and was a professor at Dresden. Born: 1887-04-01. Died: 1971-11-20.
Paul, Hans - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1909-04-15. Died: 1980-05-05.
Paup, John W - American North American engineer who managed their winning Apollo proposal and was the company's Apollo program manager 1961-1964. Replaced under NASA pressure, he died in 1968 before his spacecraft made it to the moon. Born: 1923-01-13. Died: 1968-05-01.
Pave Cricket CEM-138 - Boeing ground-launched ELINT missile.
Pave Tiger/Seek Spinner CGM-121 - Boeing ground-launched missile. Cancelled 1986. Multi-purpose drone, USAF. Other code names 'Pave Cricket' / 'Brave Tiger' / 'Brave Zoo'. Also YGM-121B version.. Gross mass: 127 kg (279 lb). Thrust: 13.00 kN (2,922 lbf).
Paveway I - American laser-guided bomb.
Paveway II - American laser-guided bomb.
Paveway III - American laser-guided bomb.
Pawelczyk, James Anthony 'Jim' - American physiologist payload specialist astronaut 1996-1998. Candidate Payload Specialist for STS-90 Neurolab. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-1998. Born: 1960-09-20. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.91 days.
Payette, Julie - Canadian engineer mission specialist astronaut 1992-2013. Engineer. Second Canadian female astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2013. Born: 1963-10-20. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 25.50 days.
Payload Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for Minuteman 2 PLV.
Payload Specialist Astronaut - Astronauts trained for spaceflight but for only support of a specific payload on a single space mission.
Payton, Gary Eugene - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut 1979-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1985. Born: 1948-06-20. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 3.06 days.
Paz - SAR satellite built by EADS CASA Espacio for Hisdesat. Used AstroBus. Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
PBAA - Abbreviation for Copolymer of polybutadiene and acrylic acid
PBAN - Abbreviation for Polybutadiene Acrylic Acid Acrylonitril Terpolymer
PBS - N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 1.40 kN (315 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
PC-2 - Alternate designation for Babylon Gun.
Pchela - Alternate name of Strela-1.
Pchela - Code name for Strela-2 military store-dump communications satellite.
PCM - Abbreviation for Pulse Code Modulation
PCMMU - Pulse code modulation master unit, 'puck-a-moo' when spoken
PCSat - Prototype Communications SATellite was to act as a relay for UHF/VHF Oscar amateur radio transmissions; built by the midshipmen at the US Naval Academy. It was to augment the existing worldwide Amateur Radio Automatic Position Reporting System.
PCSat 1 (Navy-OSCAR 44, NO 44) - Experimental Communication satellite built by US Naval Academy, USA. Launched 2001. First Launch: 2001-09-30. Last Launch: 2001-09-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb).
PDD - Technology satellite operated by DARPA, USA. Launched 1990. First Launch: 1990-04-11. Last Launch: 1990-04-11. Number: 1 .
PDP - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Plasma Diagnostics Package; released by STS 51F 8/1/85, retrieved 8/2/85. Technology satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1985. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-07-29. Last Launch: 1985-07-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 285 kg (628 lb).
PDS - Abbreviation for Planetary Data System
Peace-1 - Alternate designation for T-7A.
Peacekeeper - Alternate designation for Eaglet.
Peacekeeper - American intercontinental ballistic missile. 10 nuclear MIRV warheads. In service 1986-2004. Surplus stages were used as target vehicles for anti-ballistic missile tests. Status: Retired 2005. First Launch: 1983-06-18. Last Launch: 2004-07-21. Number: 51 . Gross mass: 88,430 kg (194,950 lb). Payload: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Thrust: 1,711.00 kN (384,648 lbf).
Peacekeeper 1 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. MX Stage 1. Used as first stage of Taurus launch vehicle for initial test. Solid propellant rocket stage. ICBM MX Peacekeeper ICBM 1st stage. Used for only first Taurus launch. Status: In Production. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 48,960 kg (107,930 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,300 kg (9,400 lb). Thrust: 2,204.50 kN (495,591 lbf). More at: Solid
Peacekeeper S4 - N2O4/MMH rocket stage. 11.80 kN (2,653 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb). Status: Retired 2005. Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Thrust: 11.80 kN (2,653 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Peacekeeper-1 - Alternate name for TU-904.
Peacekeeper-2 - Alternate name for SR119.
Peacekeeper-3 - Alternate name for SR120.
Peake, Timothy Nagel - British pilot mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1972-04-07. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 185.92 days.
Pearl and Rogue Go For a Ride - Poem: Dec 21st 1960 A clear night illuminated by the moon....
Pearl Ruby - Technology satellite operated by USAF, USA. Launched 1986. Used mod. P-11 bus. First Launch: 1986-04-18. Last Launch: 1986-04-18. Number: 1 .
PEASSS - Technology satellite for PEASSS consortium, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Israel. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2017-02-15. Last Launch: 2017-02-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Pechora - Alternate name of S-125.
PED - Abbreviation for Personnel equipment data
Pedro Recruit - American sounding rocket. Air Launch Probe System (ALPS) and Fighter Launched Advanced Materials Experiment (FLAME) were both vehicles that used a Pedro first stage and a Recruit second stage. They were launched from an F-4 fighter aircraft. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1975-02-04. Last Launch: 1976-01-26. Number: 8 . Thrust: 244.00 kN (54,853 lbf).
Pedro Recruit-1 - Alternate name for TX-261-3.
Peenemuende - Heersversuchsstelle Peenemunde. First launch site in the world, used for development of the V-1, A-4/V-2, Wasserfall, and other missiles. Among many major facilities, engine test stands were built that were capable of accommodating planned engines for the A-10 intercontinental missile. 296 known launches were made from the site between 1937 and 1945; the actual number of launches was much greater. First Launch: 1937-12-04. Last Launch: 1945-02-20. Number: 296 .
Peenemuende GWO - V-2, Wasserfall launch complex. Greifswalder Oie First Launch: 1944-02-29. Last Launch: 1944-03-08. Number: 2 .
Peenemuende P10 - V-2, A4b launch complex. Launch Site P10 First Launch: 1945-01-24. Last Launch: 1945-01-24. Number: 1 .
Peenemuende P12 - V-2 launch complex.
Peenemuende P6 - V-2 launch complex.
Peenemuende P7 - V-2 launch complex. Test Stand P7 First Launch: 1942-06-13. Last Launch: 1945-02-14. Number: 42 .
Peenemuende Rail - V-2 launch complex.
Peenemuende SK - V-2 launch complex. Siedlung Kalrshagen. First Launch: 1944-08-30. Last Launch: 1944-12-12. Number: 6 .
Peenemuende Tower - V-2 launch complex.
Peery, David J - American engineer. Influential aerospace structures engineer; proved integrity of Atlas balloon tank. Born: 1914. Died: 1979-11-09.
Pegase - Sud Aviation studied this three-stage vehicle, composed of two Stromboli and a Jericho. It was not built. Gross mass: 2,047 kg (4,512 lb). Payload: 32 kg (70 lb).
PegaStar - Orbital Sciences satellite bus used on two Pegasus launches in 1994-1997.
Pegasus - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Privately-funded, air-launched winged light satellite launcher. Status: Active. First Launch: 1990-04-05. Last Launch: 1994-08-03. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Payload: 375 kg (826 lb). Thrust: 486.64 kN (109,401 lbf).
Pegasus (QB50 AT03) - Technology, thermospheric research satellite for Fachhochschule Wiener Neustadt, Austria. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2017-05-25. Last Launch: 2017-05-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Pegasus H - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x L-1011 + 1 x Orion 50S + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 38 Status: Retired 2000. First Launch: 1995-04-03. Last Launch: 2000-10-09. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Payload: 350 kg (770 lb). Thrust: 580.00 kN (130,380 lbf).
Pegasus satellite - American earth micrometeoroid satellite. Pegasus satellites consisted of vast detector panels deployed from Saturn IV stages on Saturn I test flights. Micrometeroite Research satellite built by Fairchild Hiller for NASA, USA. Launched 1965. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-02-16. Last Launch: 1965-07-30. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 10,450 kg (23,030 lb).
Pegasus Tanks - xLOx/LH2 propellant rocket drop tank. . Four tanks jettisoned at 130 seconds after liftoff; two at 250 seconds, last two at orbital insertion, 360 seconds after liftoff. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). More at: Lox/LH2
Pegasus VTOVL - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Bono design for semi-single-stage-to-orbit ballistic VTOVL launch vehicle. Drop tanks were shed on the way to orbit. Pegasus could deliver either a Saturn V-size payload to LEO or 172 passengers and their luggage the 12,000 km from Vandenberg to Singapore in 39 minutes. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,520,000 kg (3,350,000 lb). Payload: 90,800 kg (200,100 lb). Thrust: 18,700.00 kN (4,203,900 lbf).
Pegasus VTOVL stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Empty mass includes 29,600 kg of propellants used for re-entry cooling of plug nozzle and rocket soft landing at landing field. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,250,000 kg (2,750,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 148,000 kg (326,000 lb). Thrust: 23,947.00 kN (5,383,499 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Pegasus XL - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Uprated version of Pegasus air-launched winged light satellite launcher. 4 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x L-1011 + 1 x Pegasus XL stage 1 + 1 x Orion 50XL + 1 x Orion 38. Status: Active. First Launch: 1994-06-27. Last Launch: 2016-12-15. Number: 27 . Gross mass: 24,000 kg (52,000 lb). Payload: 443 kg (976 lb). Thrust: 486.64 kN (109,401 lbf).
Pegasus XL/HAPS - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Five stage version consisting of 1 x L-1011 + 1 x Pegasus XL stage 1 + 1 x Orion 50XL + 1 x Orion 38 + 1 x HAPS Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-12-23. Last Launch: 2005-04-15. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 23,000 kg (50,000 lb). Payload: 350 kg (770 lb). Thrust: 726.00 kN (163,211 lbf).
Pegasus XL-1 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Used on Pegasus XL launch vehicle. First flight 1994. Status: Active. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 17,934 kg (39,537 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,886 kg (6,362 lb). Thrust: 589.00 kN (132,412 lbf). More at: Solid
Pegasus XL-2 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Used on Pegasus XL launch vehicle. First flight 1994. Status: Active. Number: 33 . Gross mass: 4,331 kg (9,548 lb). Unfuelled mass: 416 kg (917 lb). Thrust: 153.50 kN (34,508 lbf). More at: Solid
Pegasus/HAPS - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Five stage version consisting of 1 x NB-52 + 1 x Orion 50S + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 38 + 1 x HAPS Status: Retired 1994. First Launch: 1991-07-17. Last Launch: 1994-05-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Payload: 250 kg (550 lb). Thrust: 580.00 kN (130,380 lbf).
Pegasus-1 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Used on Pegasus, Taurus. First flight 1989. Solid propellant rocket stage. Pegasus stage 1 without the wings and stabilizers. Status: Active. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 13,242 kg (29,193 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,088 kg (2,398 lb). Thrust: 484.90 kN (109,010 lbf). More at: Solid
Pegasus-2 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Used on Pegasus, Taurus. First flight 1989. Status: Active. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 3,370 kg (7,420 lb). Unfuelled mass: 345 kg (760 lb). Thrust: 118.20 kN (26,572 lbf). More at: Solid
Pegasus-3 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Upper stage engine for Pegasus, Pegasus XL, Taurus. First flight 1989. Status: Active. Number: 52 . Gross mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Unfuelled mass: 104 kg (229 lb). Thrust: 34.60 kN (7,778 lbf). More at: Solid
Pegasus-4 - Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1994. Gross mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Unfuelled mass: 17 kg (37 lb). Thrust: 666 N (149 lbf).
Pegsat - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Chemical release experiment. R&D satellite NASA, Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC), USA. Launched 1990. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-04-05. Last Launch: 1990-04-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 178 kg (392 lb).
Pehle, Max - German measurement technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. Born: 1913.
Pehuensat - Argentinian technology satellite. Experimental satellite developed by the Universidad Nacional del Comahue and AMSAT-LU. The satellite remained attached to the PSLV's Dual Launch Adapter. Technology satellite for AATE, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, AMSAT-LU, Argentina. Launched 2007. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-01-10. Last Launch: 2007-01-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
Pekdosan-1 - Alternate designation for Paektusan 1.
Pelczak, Oldrich 'Olda' - Czech pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1978. Graduated from Air Force Academy of the Soviet Union Engineer, Czechoslovak Air Force. Status: Inactive; Active 1976-1978. Born: 1943-11-02.
Pelican - American anti-ship missile. Navy Engineering Experiment Station Annapolis completed development of rocket engine for Pelican radio-controlled pilotless aircraft (never used operationally). Status: Operational 1943.
Pellerin, Charles J - American physicist, at NASA 1974-1994. Director of Astrophysics in NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications 1983-1992; Deputy Associate Administrator for Safety and Mission Quality 1992-1994.
Penetrator - Two surface penetrators were to have been delivered to the martian surface by the Mars M1 spacecraft, which however failed in earth orbit in 1996.
Penguin - Russian anti-zero-G suit, tested 1975. Prophylactic Body-Loading Suit, in use from 1978-; looked like the standard Russian blue in-flight suit, but had additional elastic bands and pulleys that created artificial force against which the body could work. Status: tested 1975. Gross mass: 330 kg (720 lb).
Penguin AGM-119 - Kongsberg air-to-surface missile.
Penguin Mk 1 - Norwegian anti-ship missile. Gross mass: 369 kg (813 lb). Payload: 125 kg (275 lb).
Penguin Mk 2 - Norwegian anti-ship missile. Gross mass: 384 kg (846 lb). Payload: 125 kg (275 lb).
Penguin Mk 2 Mod 7 - Norwegian anti-ship missile. Antiship for helicopters, surface ships. Gross mass: 385 kg (848 lb). Payload: 120 kg (260 lb).
Penguin Mk 3 - Norwegian anti-ship missile. For use on fighter aircraft. Antiship. In development. Gross mass: 420 kg (920 lb). Payload: 120 kg (260 lb).
Penguins - Alternate name for NASA Group 17 - 1998.
Penguins - Alternate name of NASA-17 astronaut group, 1998.
Pentaborane - Pentaborane (B5H9) was considered as a high performance fuel in the US in the 1950's. Its development was pursued with some vigor by Glushko in Russia during the 1960's. But like the other fluorine and boron motors of the time, it presented too many handling and safety problems to be adopted as a flight engine.
Peole - French communications satellite. Gathered data from meteorological balloon system. Data relay satellite, France. Launched 1970. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-12-12. Last Launch: 1970-12-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 70 kg (154 lb).
PEP - Abbreviation for Program Evaluation Procedure
PEPL-70 - UM-JPL electric rocket engine. 1 kW Hall thruster, SPT type
Pepping, Raymond Austin - American engineer. Headed the Mercury, Gemini, and Skylab programs at McDonnell Saint Louis Born: 1918-11-08. Died: 2007-09-30.
Per·Sat 1 - Earth Observing satellite built by Airbus Defence and Space for Peruvian armed forces, Peru. Launched 2016. Used the AstroBus-300 (AstroBus-S) bus. First Launch: 2016-09-16. Last Launch: 2016-09-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 430 kg (940 lb).
Peralta y Fabi, Ricardo - Mexican engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1985. Research scientist at National University in Mexico City. Selected as backup for STS-61B, but mission cancelled after Challenger disaster. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1985. Born: 1950-08-15.
Percheron - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Low cost commercial test vehicle. First test failed and satellite launch project sank for lack of further investors and customers. Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1981-08-05. Last Launch: 1981-08-05. Number: 1 . Thrust: 588.00 kN (132,187 lbf).
Peregrine - Alternate name of FalconSat 7 (Peregrine).
Peregrine BQM-145 - Teledyne Ryan ground-launched drone. Joint Unmaned Aerial Vehicle - Medium Range. Recoverable surveillance / reconnaissance drone, ATARS payload..
perigee - That point on the trajectory of an orbiting body which is nearest the Earth when the Earth is the center of attraction. Also, used in connection with orbits of celestial bodies around other celestial bodies.
Perigee Orbit Transfer Motor - Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. In Production. Basic perigee kick motor for CZ-2E launch vehicle. Featured glass fiber-wound case, HTPB propellant, 3-D finocyl propellant grain, and carbon/carbon throat insert. First flight 1990. Status: In Production. Date: Late 1980's. Gross mass: 4,635 kg (10,218 lb). Unfuelled mass: 496 kg (1,093 lb). Thrust: 222.84 kN (50,096 lbf). More at: Solid
perilune - The point in a lunar-centric orbit which is closest to the Moon.
Perimeter - Alternate designation for Perimetr 15A11.
Perimetr 15A11 - Ukrainian strategic communications missile. Perimetr was developed for launch of a highly secret communications payload. This would be put in orbit or on a long high-altitude trajectory to provide back-up command and control of the strategic forces in the event of nuclear war. Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1979-01-01. Last Launch: 1988-01-01. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 71,000 kg (156,000 lb). Thrust: 1,236.00 kN (277,863 lbf).
Perimetr 15A11-2 - Alternate name for 15D169.
Perimetr Stage 1 - N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 1236.00 kN (277,864 lbf) thrust. Mass 59,000 kg (130,073 lb). Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 59,000 kg (130,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 1,236.00 kN (277,863 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Perimetr-RTs - Ukrainian strategic communications missile. 15Zh58A-derived missile replacing 15A11-derived Perimetr. Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1990-08-08. Last Launch: 1990-12-25. Number: 4 .
Perkin Elmer - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Perkin Elmer, USA.
Perkin, Richard S - American Manager. Richard S. Perkin was co-founder ad president of Perkin-Elmer Corp., 1937-1960, and then chairman of the board. Born: 1906-10-17. Died: 1969-05-01.
Perm - Alternate name for Bershet.
Perrin, Philippe - French test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1990-2004. Grew up in Avignon, Provence. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2004. Born: 1963-01-06. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 13.86 days.
Perseus - Los Alamos National Laboratory Cubesat, perhaps for ionospheric monitoring.
Perseus / STAM UGM-89 - American sub-launched missile.
Perseus 000, 001, 002, 003 - Technology satellite for Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. Launched 2010. Used the CubeSat (1.5 U) bus. First Launch: 2010-12-08. Last Launch: 2010-12-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Perseus-M 1, 2 - Maritime surveillance satellite built by Dauria Aerospace, Canopus Systems US for Canopus Systems US => Aquila Space, Russia. Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. First Launch: 2014-06-19. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 2 .
Perseus-O 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 - Earth observation satellite for SatByul Co. LTD, Russia, South Korea. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. First Launch: 2017-06-29. Last Launch: 2017-06-29. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb).
Pershing - US Army tactical missile, the first and only solid-fueled Medium Range Ballistic Missile deployed by the U.S. Army. It was in service for almost 30 years until all nuclear MRBMs were phased out and destroyed according to arms reduction treaties. Status: Retired 1988.
Pershing 1 - American intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1960-02-25. Last Launch: 1975-10-21. Number: 192 . Gross mass: 4,580 kg (10,090 lb). Payload: 290 kg (630 lb). Thrust: 117.00 kN (26,302 lbf).
Pershing 1A - American intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1968-03-05. Last Launch: 1988-10-21. Number: 278 . Gross mass: 7,390 kg (16,290 lb). Payload: 290 kg (630 lb). Thrust: 117.00 kN (26,302 lbf).
Pershing 1A-1 - Alternate name for TX-174.
Pershing 1A-2 - Alternate name for TX-175.
Pershing 1B - Alternate designation for MGM-31D.
Pershing 2 - American intermediate range two-stage ballistic missile. Cancelled Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1982-07-22. Last Launch: 1988-05-13. Number: 67 . Gross mass: 7,500 kg (16,500 lb).
Pershing 2 St1 - Thiokol, Hercules solid rocket engine. Pershing 2 first stage. Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 530 kg (1,160 lb). Thrust: 172.00 kN (38,667 lbf). More at: Solid
Pershing 2 St2 - Thiokol, Hercules solid rocket engine. Pershing 2 second stage. Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Thrust: 134.00 kN (30,124 lbf). More at: Solid
Pershing 2-1 - Alternate name for Pershing 2 St1.
Pershing 2-2 - Alternate name for Pershing 2 St2.
Pershing IA - Alternate designation for Pershing 1A.
Pershing IB - Alternate name of Pershing MGM-31B.
Pershing II - Alternate designation for Pershing 2.
Pershing MGM-31A - American intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Operational 1962. Gross mass: 4,580 kg (10,090 lb). Payload: 290 kg (630 lb). Thrust: 117.00 kN (26,302 lbf).
Pershing MGM-31B - American intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Operational 1984. Gross mass: 7,390 kg (16,290 lb). Payload: 290 kg (630 lb). Thrust: 117.00 kN (26,302 lbf).
Persona - Russian sun-synchronous orbit electro-optical reconnaissance satellite first flown in 2008. Reports also gave the code name Kvarts; and it was said to utilize a LOMO-built 17V321 optical system originally developed for the Arkon satellite. There were reports that a a Yantar-derived service module was used, but an illustration published in a Russian military document showed a satellite with a new service module and cruciform solar arrays. The first Persona satellite was launched in July 2008; it reportedly malfunctioned in February 2009 due to an electronics failure. The second was not launched until June 2013. It was said to be delayed because compenents had to be cannibalized from a Resurs-P 1 satellite.This spacecraft also failed after a short time in orbit, necessitating to bring the old film-return Kobalt-M satellites into service to bridge the gap. Reconnaissance, optical satellite built by TsSKB-Progress (bus), LOMO (payload) for VKS > VKO, Russia. Launched 2008 - 2015. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-07-26. Last Launch: 2015-06-23. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb).
Personal Rescue Enclosure - Alternate designation for Rescue Ball manned rescue spacecraft.
Peru - Peru
Perumtel - Indonesian agency. Perumtel, Indonesia.
Pervomaisk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1993. Base for units deployed with 90 light ICBM (UR-100/UR-100N) silos and later 46 mobile RT-23 launchers.
Pescador - Argentinian anti-ship missile. Gross mass: 140 kg (300 lb).
Pesquet, Thomas Gautier - French engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1978-02-27. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.00 days.
Petelin, Dmitri Aleksandrovich - Russian pilot astronaut 2012- . Status: Active 2012-on. Born: 1983-07-10.
Peters, Heinrich - German expert in aeronautical research during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Petersen, Forrest Silas 'Pete' - American test pilot, 1952-1962. Flew the X-15. Status: Deceased; Active 1958-1962. Born: 1922-05-16. Died: 1990-12-08.
Petersen, Karl - German expert in guided missiles during World War II.
Peterson, Bruce A - American test pilot, 1960-1967. Flew M2 lifting body, assigned to management after injury in a landing accident. Status: Deceased. Born: 1933-05-23. Died: 2006-05-01.
Peterson, Donald Herod - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1967-1984. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1984. Born: 1933-10-22. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 5.02 days.
PetitSat - Ionospheric research satellite for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus.
Petrel - British sounding rocket. Petrel was a larger sounding rocket built by Bristol Aerojet using the same tube-launch technique as Skua. A total of 240 Petrels were launched from 1967-1982 from many sites around the world. Status: Retired 1982. First Launch: 1967-06-01. Last Launch: 1982-08-11. Number: 231 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
Petrel 1 - British sounding rocket. Petrel was a larger sounding rocket built by Bristol Aerojet using the same launch technique as Skua. Three Chick rockets blasted the upper stage and payload out of a 10-m long launch tube. The 4.5 kN Lapwing second stage burned for 30 seconds. A unique aspect was that the Chick boosters could be recovered and reloaded with propellant. Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Payload: 18 kg (39 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf).
Petrel 2 - British sounding rocket. Improved Petrel using four Chick boosters and a lengthened Lapwing second stage which provide 4.5 kN thrust for 40 seconds. Petrel 2's were also fired as targets for missile tests at Woomera. Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1974-09-06. Last Launch: 1981-12-09. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 160 kg (350 lb). Payload: 18 kg (39 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf).
Petrel 2-1 - Alternate name for Lapwing.
Petrel AQM-41 - Fairchild 1950's US Navy air-to-underwater missile; ex Kingfisher C.
Petrel-0 - Alternate name for Chick.
Petrel-1 - Alternate name for Lapwing.
Petrikov - Base for units deployed with six Pioner missile launchers.
Petrone, Rocco - American engineer, managed development of the Redstone at Huntsville, then the Saturn V at NASA, 1960-1974. Born: 1926-03-31. Died: 2006-08-24.
Petrov, Boris Nikolayevich - Russian engineer, Department Chief 1951-1980 of the Institute of Control Problems, chair of the Inter-Cosmos Council, which promoted cooperation in space among eastern European nations during the height of the Cold War, 1966-1980. Born: 1913-03-11. Died: 1980-08-23.
Petrov, Georgi Ivanovich - Russian scientist. Director of Institute of Space Research 1965-1973. Conducted aerodynamic research at NII-1 before being named Director. Born: 1912-05-31. Died: 1987-05-17.
Petrov, Vladimir Petrovich - Russian engineer. Head and Chief Designer of the GSKB design bureau 1951-1963.
Petrovskiy, Boris Vasilyevich - Russian physician. Minister of Health from 1965 to 1980. Operated on Korolev. Born: 1908-06-27. Died: 2004-05-04.
Petrushenko, Aleksandr Yakovlevich - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1973. Later worked at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, then moved to the satellite control center in Monino until his retirement 1991. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1973. Born: 1942-01-01. Died: 1992-11-11.
Pettit, Donald Roy - American chemical engineer mission specialist astronaut 1996-on. 369 cumulative days in space. First NASA astronaut to return to earth in a Russian spacecraft. 369 cumulative days in space. Status: Active 1996-on. Born: 1955-04-20. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 369.70 days.
Petzold, Walter - German Manager. Director/manager of the power station at Peenemuende.
Pezzi Suit - Italian pressure suit, used 1934-37. The first Italian pressure suit was used between 1934 and 1937 by Italian pilots Pezzi and Negroni to break altitude records with the Caproni 161, 161bis and 113 aircraft. Status: Operational 1934.
PF N204/Alumizine-1925k - Notional N2O4/Alumizine rocket engine. Study 1967. Used on Saturn LCB-Alumizine-250 launch vehicle. Status: Study 1967. Thrust: 18,873.00 kN (4,242,819 lbf). More at: N2O4/Alumizine
PF N204/Alumizine-2300k - Notional N2O4/Alumizine rocket engine. Study 1967. Used on Saturn LCB-Alumizine-140 launch vehicle. Status: Study 1967. Thrust: 22,562.00 kN (5,072,139 lbf). More at: N2O4/Alumizine
PF N204/UDMH-2165k - Notional N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Study 1967. Used on Saturn LCB-Storable-250 launch vehicle. Status: Study 1967. Thrust: 21,232.00 kN (4,773,143 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
PF N204/UDMH-2912k - Notional N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Study 1967. Used on Saturn LCB-Storable-140 launch vehicle. Status: Study 1967. Thrust: 28,552.00 kN (6,418,744 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
PF RP-1 - Notional LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Study 1967. Used on Saturn LCB-LOx/RP-1 launch vehicle. Status: Study 1967. Thrust: 20,306.00 kN (4,564,970 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
PFRR - American agency. Poker Flat Research Range, USA.
PFS - American lunar orbiter. Released from Apollo; particles and fields experiments. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). Lunar lander built by TRW for NASA, USA. Launched 1971 - 1972. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-07-26. Last Launch: 1972-04-16. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 36 kg (79 lb).
PFTA - Shuttle Payload Flight Test Article, originally scheduled for launch on STS-16, but ultimately brought forward to STS-8 due to payload delays. It was an aluminum structure resembling two wheels with a six-meter long central axle, ballasted with lead to give it a total mass of 3,855 kg (8,499 lb), which could be lifted by the shuttle's Canadarm robot arm to give astronauts experience in using the system. It was stored in the midsection of the payload bay. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-08-30. Last Launch: 1983-08-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,855 kg (8,498 lb).
PGM-11A - Alternate designation for Redstone.
PGM-16A - Alternate designation for Atlas A.
PGM-16B - Alternate designation for Atlas B.
PGM-17A - Alternate designation for Thor.
PGM-19A - Alternate designation for Jupiter IRBM.
PGSUS (Lockheed Martin and Rafael) - American manufacturer. PGSUS (Lockheed Martin and Rafael), USA.
PHAFO - American pressure suit, tested 1977. Prototype High Altitude Flying Outfit. Prototype partial pressure suit by David Clark to integrate altitude, thermal, immersion, chemical defense and anti-G protection. Status: tested 1977.
Pham Tuan - Vietnamese pilot cosmonaut 1979-1980. First Vietnamese astronaut. Engineer, Air force pilot. Participated in the Vietnam War. Major General of Vietnam Air Force. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1980. Born: 1947-02-14. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.86 days.
Phantom Cosmonaut - Over the years the Western press named a number of cosmonauts that were never acknowledged by the Soviet Union. Most were said to have died in space. One allegedly was the first man in orbit and survived. What is the truth of these stories of 'phantom cosmonauts'?
Phantom Express (XS-1) - USAF launch vehicle with unmanned winged reusable first stage, expendable upper stages. Development contract awarded to Boeing in May 2017.
Phantoms of Space - James Oberg's classic debunking of all those 'dead cosmonaut' stories.
Pharmasat - 3U Cubesat for NASA Ames Research Center, Santa Clara University, UTMB. Measured the effect of antifungal countermeasures on yeast strains in microgravity. 96 hour experiment was successful.
PharmaSat 1 - Life sciences satellite built by Stanford University for NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Launched 2009. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2009-05-19. Last Launch: 2009-05-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
Phase - Alternate name for series of satellites for the Oscar amateur radio service.
PH-D Proposal - American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1981. 1981 Mars orbiter expedition design, using Phobos and Deimos as bases, and using solar electric propulsion. Status: Study 1981. Gross mass: 270,000 kg (590,000 lb).
Philco-Ford - Second name of Aeronutronics.
Philippines - Philippines
Phillips, Franklyn W - American engineer, at NACA and NASA 1941-1970. Administered variety of aircraft and missile programs in 1950's. Assistant to NASA administrator 1958-1962. Born: 1917-09-26. Died: 2008-02-18.
Phillips, John Lynch - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1996-2011. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2011. Born: 1951-04-15. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 203.73 days.
Phillips, Robert Ward - American physician payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1991. Status: Deceased; Active 1984-1991. Born: 1929-01-21. Died: 2013-02-26.
Phillips, Samuel C - American USAF officer, talented manager who developed the B-52 and Minuteman for the Air Force, then was brought to NASA to head the Apollo program 1964-1971. Born: 1921-02-19. Died: 1990-01-31.
Phobos - Alternate spelling for the Fobos 1F.
Phobos Expedition 88 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. Human Expedition to Phobos was one of four in-depth NASA case studies in 1988 in response to a perceived imminent Soviet manned Mars program. Status: Study 1988.
Phoebus reactor - Ground-test reactor for NERVA nuclear propulsion program in the 1960's.
Phoebus, Clifford P - American naval aviator, flight surgeon and medical corps officer who rose to the rank of captain in 1953 and was commander of the U.S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine in Pensacola, Florida, from 1960-1964. Born: 1910-05-11. Died: 1984-12-01.
Phoenix - American Mars lander. Mars lander based on surplus hardware from the cancelled Mars Surveyor 2001 and the failed Mars Polar Lander (whence the Phoenix designation). Mars Lander built by University of Arizona (Science); Lockheed Martin Space Systems (Spacecraft) for NASA, USA. Launched 2007. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-08-04. Last Launch: 2007-08-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
Phoenix - Alternate designation for SLS A-388.
Phoenix (QB50 TW01) - Education, amateur radio communication, technology satellite for National Cheng Kung University (NCKU), Taiwan (Republic of China). Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2017-04-18. Last Launch: 2017-04-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Phoenix AIM-54 - Hughes 1950's US Navy air-to-air missile.
Phoenix AIM-54A - American air-to-air missile. For use on F-14A/D. Semi-active / active- radar-guided. Status: Operational 1973. Gross mass: 447 kg (985 lb). Payload: 60 kg (132 lb).
Phoenix AIM-54B - American air-to-air missile. Semi-active / active- radar-guided
Phoenix AIM-54C - American air-to-air missile. Status: Operational 1984. Gross mass: 462 kg (1,018 lb). Payload: 61 kg (134 lb).
Phoenix AIM-54C-plus - American air-to-air missile. Solid-state electronics.
Phoenix C - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. The larger 180 metric ton Phoenix design of the 1980's was envisioned in two versions -- the Phoenix C (Cargo, unmanned) and Phoenix E (Excursion -- for use as a lunar or Mars lander and personnel transport to earth orbit). The earlier versions used liquid oxygen oxidizer and two fuels (hydrogen and propane) but later iterations used only oxygen and hydrogen (varying the oxidizer to fuel ration during ascent). The designs used an 'aeroplug' in place of the 'aerospike' of earlier SSTO designs. Gary Hudson and Maxwell Hunter spent several years trying to interest investors in the designs before the company folded. Status: Study 1982-1988. Gross mass: 180,000 kg (390,000 lb). Thrust: 2,840.00 kN (638,450 lbf).
Phoenix Eye - The Phoenix Eye bus was designed for sun synchronous orbits and used in the ZY-2 and CBERS earth observation satellites. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-10-14. Last Launch: 2014-12-07. Number: 7 .
Phoenix L - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. The small Phoenix design of the 1980's was envisioned in two versions -- the Phoenix L (Light, cargo only) and Phoenix LP (Light-Prime, crewed). The earlier versions used liquid oxygen oxidizer and two fuels (hydrogen and propane) but later iterations used only oxygen and hydrogen (varying the oxidizer to fuel ratio during ascent). The designs used an 'aeroplug' in place of the 'aerospike' of earlier SSTO designs. Status: Study 1982-1988. Gross mass: 31,000 kg (68,000 lb).
Phoenix M - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Intermediate versions of the Phoenix concept were sketched out in the mid-1980's. These more conservative vehicles used individual altitude-compensating bell nozzles rather than the aeroplug baseline. Composite materials were to be used in the aeroshell and, possibly, in the propellant tankage. Status: Study 1982-1988.
Phoenix sounding rocket - American sounding rocket of 1959.
PhoneSat - Cubesat for NASA Ames. Released from Falcon second stage.
PhoneSat 1.0 - Technology satellite for NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2013-04-21. Last Launch: 2013-04-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
PhoneSat 2.0, 2.4, 2.5 - Technology satellite for NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Launched 2013-2014. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2013-04-21. Last Launch: 2014-04-18. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
photometer - An instrument for measuring the intensity of light by comparing it with a standard.
photomultiplier tube - An electron tube that produces electrical signals in response to light. In the tube, the electric signal is amplified to produce a measurable output signal even from very small quantities of light.
photosphere - Intensely luminous surface layer of the Sun in which the sunspots and several other solar phenomena occur.
PI - Abbreviation for Principal Investigator
Picard - Solar Science satellite for CNES, France. Launched 2010. Used the Myriade bus. First Launch: 2010-06-15. Last Launch: 2010-06-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Picard - Solar observation payload. Used the Myriade bus.
PICASSO - Technology, thermospheric research satellite for Belgian Institute of Space Aeronomy (BISA), Belgium. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Pickering, William H - American Chief Designer, Director JPL, 1954-1976. Under his leadership the first successful probes to earth orbit, the Moon, Venus, and Mars were designed, built, and flown (Explorer, Pioneer, Ranger, Mariner, Surveyor, Viking). Born: 1910-12-24. Died: 2004-03-15.
PicoDragon - On 19 November a J-SSOD Cubesat deployer was retrieved from the Kibo module airlock by the JEM RMS arm and moved to a deployment position; at 12:18 GMT it ejected three 1U cubesats, including PicoDragon for Vietnam.
PicoDragon - Technology satellite for VNSC, Vietnam. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2013-08-03. Last Launch: 2013-08-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Picosat - American tether technology satellite. Picosat 7/Picosat 8 were ejected from the Mightysat II.1 satellite. The 0.25 kg satellites were connected by a 30 m tether and were deployed a year after launch. Experimental satellite built by SSTL for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 2001. Used the Microsat-70 bus. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-09-07. Last Launch: 2001-09-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 0.25 kg (0.55 lb).
PicoStar - Satellite bus built by OSC (ex CTA ex DSI), USA.
PicPot - Technology satellite for Politecnico del Torino, Italy. Launched 2006. First Launch: 2006-07-26. Last Launch: 2006-07-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
PICS 1, 2 - Technology satellite for Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
PicSat - Astronomy satellite for Observatoire de Paris (OBSPM), France. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Pierce, John Robinson - American engineer, commonly referred to as the inventor of the communications satellite in 1954. He worked for 35 years as an engineer at Bell Labs and then worked at the California Institute of Technology and its Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Born: 1910. Died: 2002-04-02.
PIHM - Polish manufacturer of rocket engines. Polish Hydro-Meteorological Institute, Poland.
Pillau - First Launch: 1932-10-06. Last Launch: 1932-10-06. Number: 1 .
Pilot - American missile.
Pilot (satellite) - Alternate designation for Pilot satellite.
Pilot 1 stage (NOTS-EV-1) - American suborbital test vehicle.
Pilot 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 - Technology satellite for NOTS, USA. Launched 1958. First Launch: 1958-07-25. Last Launch: 1958-08-28. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Pilot satellite - American technology satellite. 6 launches, 1958.07.25 (Pilot 1) to 1958.08.28 (Pilot 6). Pilot launches were deep-black tests of the US Navy's 1950's reconnaissance satellite and ASAT designs. Status: Operational 1958.
Piloted Gliding Spacecraft - Alternate designation for PKA manned spaceplane.
Pilotiruemiy korabl - Alternate designation for PK spacecraft.
Pilotiruemiy korabl - Alternate designation for PK manned spacecraft.
Pilyugin, Nikolai Alekseyevich - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1948-1982 of Nll-885 and NII AP. Specialized in missile and spaceship guidance. Born: 1908-05-18. Died: 1982-08-02.
Pilz, Arthur - German master mechanic in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Test Bench; Laboratory Department. Born: 1912-06-08.
Pilz, Wolfgang - German professor. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2; later worked in Egypt 1963-1963. Born: 1911. Died: 1994-01-01.
Pina-2 01, 02 - Used the CubeSat (xU) bus. First Launch: 2016-11-09. Last Launch: 2016-11-09. Number: 2 .
Ping-Pong - American reusable battlefield reconnaissance rocket of 1964.
Pinsk - Base for units deployed with R-12 missiles.
Pion - Russian earth atmosphere satellite. Deployed from Resurs F1, which carried two passive separable "Pion" probes to investigate upper atmospheric density. Atmosphere density satellite, Russia. Launched 1989 - 1992. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-05-25. Last Launch: 1992-08-19. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 67 kg (147 lb).
Pioneer - The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pioneer series were the first US probes sent towards the moon. Later Pioneers explored the heliocentric space environment and were the first spacecraft to reach the outer planets and to escape from the solar system.
Pioneer 0, 1, 2 - Lunar lander built by TRW for USAF, NASA, USA. Launched 1958. First Launch: 1958-08-17. Last Launch: 1958-11-08. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 38 kg (83 lb).
Pioneer 0-1-2 - American lunar orbiter. Pioneers 0, 1 and 2 were the first U. S. spacecraft to attempt to leave Earth orbit. Status: Operational 1958. First Launch: 1958-08-17. Last Launch: 1958-11-08. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 38 kg (83 lb).
Pioneer 10-11 - American outer planets probe. Pioneers 10 and 11 were the first spacecraft to fly by Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11 only). Jupiter (10,11), Saturn (11) flyby satellite built by TRW for NASA, USA. Launched 1972 - 1973. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-03-03. Last Launch: 1973-04-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 258 kg (568 lb).
Pioneer 12 - American Venus probe. Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Part of the Pioneer program Pioneer Venus Orbiter was designed to perform long-term observations of the Venusian atmosphere and surface features. Venus lander built by Hughes for NASA, USA. Launched 1978. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-05-20. Last Launch: 1978-05-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 582 kg (1,283 lb).
Pioneer 13 - American Venus probe. Launched 1978.08.08 (Pioneer Venus 2) to (Pioneer Venus Probe 4). The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe consisted of a bus which carried one large and three small atmospheric probes. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-08-08. Last Launch: 1978-08-08. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb).
Pioneer 3, 4 - Lunar flyby satellite built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA, USA. Launched 1958 - 1959. First Launch: 1958-12-06. Last Launch: 1959-03-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
Pioneer 3-4 - American lunar flyby probe. Smaller than the previous Pioneers, Pioneer 3 and 4 each carried only a single experiment to detect cosmic radiation. Status: Operational 1958. First Launch: 1958-12-06. Last Launch: 1959-03-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
Pioneer 5 - American solar satellite. Pioneer 5 was designed to provide the first map of the interplanetary magnetic field. The vehicle functioned for a record 106 days, and communicated with Earth from a record distance of 36.2 million km. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-03-11. Last Launch: 1960-03-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 43 kg (94 lb).
Pioneer 5 (P 2) - Solar lander built by TRW Space Technology Laboratory (STL) for NASA, USA. Launched 1960. First Launch: 1960-03-11. Last Launch: 1960-03-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 43 kg (94 lb).
Pioneer 6-7-8-9-E - American solar satellite. Pioneers 6, 7, 8, and 9 were created to make the first detailed, comprehensive measurements of the solar wind, solar magnetic field and cosmic rays. Solar lander built by TRW for NASA, USA. Launched 1965 - 1969. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-12-16. Last Launch: 1969-08-27. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 64 kg (141 lb).
Pioneer P 3 - American lunar orbiter. The least successful lunar spacecraft; none even achieved orbit in four attempts. Status: Operational 1959. First Launch: 1959-11-26. Last Launch: 1960-12-15. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 172 kg (379 lb).
Pioneer P-1, P-3, P-30, P-31 - Lunar lander built by TRW Space Technology Laboratory (STL) for NASA, USA. Launched 1959 - 1960. First Launch: 1959-11-26. Last Launch: 1960-12-15. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 168 kg (370 lb).
Pioneer Rocketplane - Pioneer Rocketplane, USA. Manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft.
Pioneer RQ-2 - Israeli UAV; became the first tactical battlefield UAV in service with the U.S. armed forces.
Pioneer XP - American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Pioneer Rocketplane, Solvang, California. No backing forthcoming. Status: Study 2004. Gross mass: 8,200 kg (18,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Payload: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 88.94 kN (19,995 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Pioneering the Space Frontier - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1986. In 1984 a National Commission on Space was formed, with ex-NASA Administrator Thomas Paine at its head. Status: Study 1986.
Pioner - Alternate designation for 15Zh45.
Pioner - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Mobile solid propellant intermediate range multiple warhead ballistic missile. Seen as an enormous threat to NATO. 405 launchers deployed by 1987 when the missile was banned by the INF Treaty. Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1974-09-21. Last Launch: 1985-06-18. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 37,000 kg (81,000 lb).
Pioner UTTKh - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The UTTKh model featured improved accuracy, range, and MIRV dispersal spread. It was not given a separate DoD 'mod' number. Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1979-01-01. Last Launch: 1988-12-29. Number: 14 . Payload: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
Pioner-2 - Alternate name for RD RT-21-2.
Pioner-3 - Alternate designation for 15Zh53.
Pion-NKS (14F139) - ELINT satellite built by TsSKB-Progress (bus), KB Arsenal (payload), Russia. Used Yantar bus.
Pirs-1 - Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. 2 launches, 1987.02.02 and 1987.07.10 . Status: Operational 1987. Gross mass: 3,550 kg (7,820 lb).
Pirs-2 - Russian military naval radar satellite. Cancelled 1988. The Pirs-2 was the second phase nuclear-powered active-radar naval targeting spacecraft. Status: Cancelled 1988. Gross mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb).
Pisarev, Viktor Mikhaylovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1967-1968. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1968. Born: 1941-08-15.
PISat - Technology, Earth observation satellite for Crucible of Research and Innovation Laboratory of PESIT, India. Launched 2016. First Launch: 2016-09-26. Last Launch: 2016-09-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
pitch - An angular movement (of a spacecraft) about an axis parallel to the lateral axis of the vehicle.
Pitskhelauri, Lado Vladimirovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1965. Was married to cosmonaut Tatyana Kuznetsova. Engineer, Soviet Air Force. Selected as a cosmonaut in August 1965, but on 23 October 1965 the selection was nullified by a government commission. Status: Inactive. Born: 1932.
PIX - Alternate name for IRAS.
PIX - American technology satellite. Plasma Interaction Experiment. Research satellite for NASA Lewis Research Center, USA. Launched 1978-1983. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-03-05. Last Launch: 1978-03-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 350 kg (770 lb).
PK - Islami Jamhuriya-i-Pakistan
PK spacecraft - Russian manned spacecraft. Study 2008. This conical, six-crew space capsule represented the Russian Space Agency's preferred design to support Russian spaceflight in the 2018-2068 period. Status: Study 2008. Gross mass: 11,000 kg (24,000 lb). Payload: 3,300 kg (7,200 lb).
PKA - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1959. Tsybin's VKA design was called the gliding spacecraft (PKA), and would be inserted into orbit by a Vostok launch vehicle. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
PKAFSC - Air Force Strategic Command, Pakistan Air Force
PKO - Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Anti-Ballistic Missile Forces, Russia.
PL-04 - Alternate designation for RT-23 15Zh52.
PL-04 - Alternate designation for RT-23U 15Zh61.
PL-10 - Chinese air-to-air missile. Air-to-air variant of HQ-61 SAM Gross mass: 299 kg (659 lb).
PL-19 - Alternate name of Nudol.
PL-2 - Chinese air-to-air missile. Licence built R-13. PL, Pi Li = Thunderbolt Gross mass: 76 kg (167 lb).
PL-2A - Chinese air-to-air missile. Derivative of Soviet K-13 with early generation IR seeker, canard steering. Gross mass: 76 kg (167 lb).
PL-3 - Chinese air-to-air missile. Enlarged version of PL-2 Gross mass: 82 kg (180 lb).
PL-4 - Chinese air-to-air missile. PL-2/3 variant Gross mass: 93 kg (205 lb).
PL-5 - Chinese air-to-air missile. AIM-9G look-alike Gross mass: 85 kg (187 lb).
PL-5B - Chinese air-to-air missile. Has off-boresight firing capability. Series production began in 1986. Gross mass: 85 kg (187 lb).
PL-7 - Chinese air-to-air missile. Magic look-alike Gross mass: 90 kg (198 lb).
PL-8 - Chinese air-to-air missile. Python 3 look-alike Gross mass: 120 kg (260 lb).
PL-9 - Chinese air-to-air missile. Larger version of PL-5. All-aspect capability seeker. Production certified in 1991. Available for export. Similar to US Army Chaparral. Naval derivative designated Type 88C. Gross mass: 115 kg (253 lb).
PLA - Chinese agency overseeing development of spacecraft. People's Liberation Army, China.
PLA2AC - Di Er Paobing Budui, Zhongguo Renmin Jeifangjun
PLAAF - Chinese agency overseeing development of spacecraft. People's Liberation Army Air Force, China.
PLACE - Position location and communications-experiment (on ATS 6)
plages - Bright regions in the chromosphere of the Sun, usually near sunspots, indicating areas of enhanced magnetic field strength (10 to 100 Gauss*) and increased solar activity. Plages are best observed in monochromatic light of hydrogen or calcium.
Planck - Space observatory designed to observe the fine detail of the cosmic microwave background. Planck reached the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrangian point in July 2009, and had successfully completed a second all-sky survey by February 2010. Cosmic Background satellite built by Alcatel Space Systems (prime), Astrium GmbH, Alenia Spazio for ESA, Europe. Launched 2009. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-05-14. Last Launch: 2009-05-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb).
Planet - Pre-launch name for a series of Japanese planetary satellites, each renamed after a successful launch.
Planet A (Suisei) - Comet fly by satellite operated by ISAS, Japan. Launched 1985. First Launch: 1985-08-18. Last Launch: 1985-08-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 138 kg (304 lb).
Planet B (Nozomi) - Mars lander operated by ISAS, Japan. Launched 1998. First Launch: 1998-07-03. Last Launch: 1998-07-03. Number: 1 .
Planet C (VCO, Akatsuki) - Venus lander operated by JAXA, Japan. Launched 2010. First Launch: 2010-05-20. Last Launch: 2010-05-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 480 kg (1,050 lb).
Planetary Atmosphere Experiment Test - Alternate designation for PAET military technology satellite.
Planetary Mission Module - American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1969. NASA had the long range goal of sending men to explore the planet Mars. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb).
Planetary Society - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Planetary Society, USA.
Planetary Society Mars Expedition 1983 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1983. Chemically-powered Mars flyby-rendezvous landing mission designed by SAIC under contract to the Planetary Society in 1983. Status: Study 1983. Gross mass: 460,000 kg (1,010,000 lb).
Planet-B - Alternate designation for Nozomi mars orbiter.
PlanetiQ 1, ..., 12 - Earth sciences satellite built by Blue Canyon Technologies ( satellite); PlanetiQ (instrument) for PlanetiQ. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb).
plasma - A gas composed of ions, electrons, neutral atoms, and molecules. The interactions between particles of a plasma are mainly electromagnetic. Although many of the individual particles are electrically positive or negative, the plasma as a whole is neutral.
Plasma Diagnostics Package - Alternate designation for PDP earth magnetosphere satellite.
Plasma Motor Generator - Alternate name for PMG.
Plasma-A - Technology, nuclear reactor satellite, Russia. Launched 1987. Used US Bus. First Launch: 1987-02-01. Last Launch: 1987-07-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,550 kg (7,820 lb).
Plathe, Albert - German Engineer. Pilot; main engineer at Peenemuende. Died: 1973-01-01.
Plato - US Army anti-ballistic missile, development started in 1951. Program cancelled in 1959. Status: Cancelled 1958.
Plattsburgh AFB - Atlas F (SMS 556) ICBM base. First Launch: 1976-12-14. Last Launch: 1976-12-14. Number: 2 .
Plattsburgh AFB Site 03 -
Plattsburgh AFB Site 04 -
Plattsburgh AFB Site 06 -
Plattsburgh AFB Site 07 -
Plattsburgh AFB Site 08 -
Plattsburgh AFB Site 09 -
Plattsburgh AFB Site 10 -
Plattsburgh AFB Site 11 -
Plattsburgh AFB Site 12 -
Playing with Fire - Poem: Remember silos of sentinels?...
Plazma-A - Russian ion engine technology satellite. In 1987 two experimental Plazma-A satellites (Cosmos 1818 and 1867) were launched with new-generation Topaz reactors. Status: Operational 1987. First Launch: 1987-02-01. Last Launch: 1987-07-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,550 kg (7,820 lb).
PLBD - Payload Bay Doors. These were a critical shuttle item. Failure of them to open would prevent deployment of the shuttle's cooling radiators and lead to an immediate mission abort and return home. Failure of them to close would doom the shuttle to burn up during reentry. Therefore there were redundant electrical systems to close the doors, and if these would fail, a manual method that could be accomplished by astronauts conducting an emergency spacewalk. Even missions with no spacewalk on the flight plan had spacesuits and astronauts aboard trained to manually shut the payload bay doors.
Pleiades - French military optical reconnaisance satellite. The Pleiades constellation consists of two one metric ton satellites offering a spatial resolution at nadir of 0.7 m and a field of view of 20 km. While designed for off-nadir imaging to support rapid retasking of targets, the satellites will also offer stereoscopic capability to meet detailed cartography requirements for urban regions. Earth Observing satellite built by Astrium (prime), Alcatel for CNES, France. Launched 2011 - 2012. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-12-17. Last Launch: 2012-12-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Plesetsk - Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch center in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch center. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. First Launch: 1963-10-22. Last Launch: 2014-07-09. Number: 2100 .
Plesetsk LC(T1) - 15Zh58 SP
Plesetsk LC(T2) - 15Zh44/15Zh60 SP
Plesetsk LC(T3) - Topol-M SP
Plesetsk LC(T4) - 15Zh44 SP
Plesetsk LC131 - Kosmos 3 launch complex.
Plesetsk LC132 - Plesetsk LC132
Plesetsk LC132/1 - Kosmos-3, Kosmos 3 launch complex. First Launch: 1969-10-21. Last Launch: 2010-04-27. Number: 213 .
Plesetsk LC132/2 - Kosmos 3 launch complex. First Launch: 1967-05-15. Last Launch: 1990-04-25. Number: 169 .
Plesetsk LC133/1 - UR-100N, Kosmos 2 launch complex. First Launch: 1967-03-16. Last Launch: 1977-06-18. Number: 90 .
Plesetsk LC133/3 - UR-100N, Kosmos 3 launch complex. First Launch: 1985-10-23. Last Launch: 2014-07-03. Number: 58 .
Plesetsk LC133/4 -
Plesetsk LC157 - Temp-2S, RT-20P launch complex. First Launch: 1967-10-20. Last Launch: 1972-03-14. Number: 2 .
Plesetsk LC158 - Topol launch complex. First Launch: 1993-03-25. Last Launch: 1995-03-28. Number: 2 .
Plesetsk LC16/2 - R-7 launch complex. Complex 16 was the second R-7A ICBM launch complex to become operational at Plesetsk, in 1960. In 1969, Pad 2 was cannibalized to upgrade the Area 1 facility in Baikonur. Pad 2 was not again brought into operation until 1979. It was then completely renovated as a space launch pad for Molniya 8K78M/Soyuz 11A511U class vehicles. The first launch was on 19 February 1981, and it continued in use in this role into the 21st Century. First Launch: 1981-02-19. Last Launch: 2012-05-17. Number: 136 .
Plesetsk LC161 - RT-2 launch complex.
Plesetsk LC163 - RT-23 launch complex. First Launch: 1984-01-18. Last Launch: 1984-01-18. Number: 1 .
Plesetsk LC167 - Topol launch complex. First Launch: 1981-09-29. Last Launch: 2000-09-27. Number: 2 .
Plesetsk LC32 - Tsiklon launch complex.
Plesetsk LC32/1 - Tsiklon launch complex. Construction of this highly-automated launch complex for the Tsiklon-3 launch vehicle started in 1970. The complex was designed by the Transmash Design bureau led by Chief Designer V N Solovyev. The complex consisted of two pads. The vehicle was assembled and integrated with its payload in the assembly building. It was then delivered to the launch pad by railway in a horizontal position. A launch pad erector placed the rocket into vertical position. No service tower was needed for the storable-propellant booster. First Launch: 1980-01-23. Last Launch: 2001-12-28. Number: 57 .
Plesetsk LC32/2 - Tsiklon launch complex. Construction of this highly-automated launch complex for the Tsiklon-3 launch vehicle started in 1970. The complex was designed by the Transmash Design bureau led by Chief Designer V N Solovyev. The complex consisted of two pads. The vehicle was assembled and integrated with its payload in the assembly building. It was then delivered to the launch pad by railway in a horizontal position. A launch pad erector placed the rocket into vertical position. No service tower was needed for the storable-propellant booster. First Launch: 1977-06-24. Last Launch: 2009-01-30. Number: 65 .
Plesetsk LC35/1 - Angara launch complex.
Plesetsk LC41/1 - R-7 launch complex. Code named 'Lesobaza', this was the first complex completed at Plesetsk, being declared ready for military service with the R-7A ICBM in November 1959. The complex followed the design of the prototype facility built at Area 31 of Baikonur and included its own residential area for military personnel and assembly buildings for launchers and payloads. First Launch: 1965-12-14. Last Launch: 1989-09-15. Number: 312 .
Plesetsk LC43 - Plesetsk LC43
Plesetsk LC43/3 - R-7 launch complex. First Launch: 1971-02-18. Last Launch: 2002-10-15. Number: 218 .
Plesetsk LC43/4 - R-7 launch complex 'Sankt-Peterburg'. First Launch: 1967-07-25. Last Launch: 2014-06-14. Number: 278 .
Plesetsk PL31 - R-9 launch complex.
Plesetsk PU11 - R-16 launch complex. First Launch: 1963-10-22. Last Launch: 1963-10-22. Number: 1 .
Plesetsk Yu-1 - Topol launch complex. ShPU area Yuzhnaya-1. First Launch: 1994-12-20. Last Launch: 1994-12-20. Number: 1 .
Pleshakov, Petr Stepanovich - Russian government official. Director of TsNII-108 1958-1964. Minister of Radio Industry 1974-1987. Born: 1922-07-13. Died: 1987-09-11.
plethysmograph - An instrument for determining and registering variations in the size of an organ part or limb, and in the amount of blood present or passing through it.
PLR - American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. A May 1992 USRA study by students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University sketched out a design for a Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR). Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb).
PLSS - Abbreviation for Portable Life Support System
PLT - Pilot, spelled out P-L-T when spoken
Plug-Nozzle J-2 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1993. Plug nozzle version of J-2 proposed for certain Saturn V upgrades in late 1960's. Used on DC-I launch vehicle. Status: Study 1993. Thrust: 6,864.60 kN (1,543,223 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Plug-Nozzle Pegasus - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1966. Used on Pegasus VTOVL launch vehicle. Status: Study 1966. Thrust: 23,928.00 kN (5,379,228 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Plug-Nozzle Rombus - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1964. Used on Rombus launch vehicle. Status: Study 1964. Thrust: 101,988.00 kN (22,927,814 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Plug-Nozzle SASSTO - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1967. Used on SASSTO launch vehicle. Status: Study 1967. Thrust: 1,574.90 kN (354,052 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Plug-Nozzle SERV - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1971. Used on Shuttle SERV launch vehicle. Status: Study 1971. Thrust: 31,980.20 kN (7,189,435 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Plug-Nozzle SSME - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1978. Used on VTOVL launch vehicle. Status: Study 1978. Unfuelled mass: 2,973 kg (6,554 lb). Thrust: 3,728.70 kN (838,245 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Plume shield - Alternate name for NOSS-Subsat.
Plunge - Base for units deployed with R-12 missiles.
Pluto - Alternate designation for Nerva.
Pluto - Alternate designation for SLAM.
Pluton - French short range ballistic missile. Status: Active. Gross mass: 2,423 kg (5,341 lb).
PLV - Alternate designation for Minuteman 2 PLV.
PM - Abbreviation for Pressurized Module
PMA 1, 2, 3 - ISS adaptor module built by Boeing for NASA, USA. Launched 1998 - 2000. First Launch: 1998-12-04. Last Launch: 2000-10-11. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb).
PMC - Abbreviation for Permanently Manned Capability
PMG - American tether technology satellite. Plasma Motor Generator Technology satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1993. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-06-26. Last Launch: 1993-06-26. Number: 2 .
PMIRR - Pressure Modulated InfraRed Radiometer (on Mars Observer)
PMR - Pacific Missile Range - Pt Mugu
PMT - Abbreviation for PhotoMultiplier Tube
PnPSat 1 - Technology satellite for Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), USA.
PO - Production organization (Russian abbreviation)
PO 28 - Alternate name of PoSAT 1 (POSAT-OSCAR 28, PO 28).
PO 34 - Alternate name of PANSAT (S97-D, PO 34, PANSAT-OSCAR 34).
PO Kosmicheskaya Sviaz - Second name of Svyaz.
Pobeda - Alternate designation for R-5M.
Pobeda - Alternate designation for R-5.
Pobedonostsev, Yuri Aleksandrovich - Russian engineer. Chief Engineer 1946-49 of Nll-88. Later Chief Engineer of Nll-125. Born: 1907-02-07. Died: 1973-10-01.
Pocket - PocketQube Cubesat ejected from PUCPSat-1.
Pocket-PUCP - Technology satellite for Institute for Radio Astronomy of the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (INRAS-PUCP), Peru. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2013-11-21. Last Launch: 2013-11-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 0 kg (0 lb).
PocketQube - Cubesat variant.
Poehlmann, Moritz - German rocket engine technical designer.
Poeschel - German Engineer. Engineer at Peenemuende.
Poggensee - German sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1931. First Launch: 1931-02-20. Last Launch: 1931-02-20. Number: 1 .
POGO - Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory
Pogo Hi - High-altitude radar target vehicle developed by the Physical Science Laboratory of the New Mexico State University under US Navy contract. Single stage vehicle using Deacon motor. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1954-04-20. Last Launch: 1961-01-01. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Pogo Hi II - High-altitude radar target vehicle developed by the Physical Science Laboratory of the New Mexico State University under US Navy contract. Single stage vehicle using Cajun motor. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1958-01-01. Last Launch: 1959-01-01. Number: 6 .
Pogo Hi III - American high-altitude radar target. Single stage vehicle using Asp motor. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1959-01-01. Last Launch: 1959-01-01. Number: 3 .
Pogo sounding rocket - American rocket vehicle developed under a US Navy contract to provide a high-altitude radar target. .
POGS - Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Survey satellite; measured the Earth's magnetic field vector as a function of position. Data was used to improve Earth navigation systems, stored in an experimental solid state recorder. Used the Stacksat P87-2 bus.
Pogue, William Reid - American test pilot astronaut 1966-1975. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1975. Born: 1930-01-23. Died: 2014-03-03. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 84.05 days.
Poindexter, Alan Goodwin 'Dex' - American test pilot astronaut 1998-2010. Grew up in Rockville, Maryland, son of John Poindexter, a US Naval Officer and senior US government official. Status: Deceased; Active 1998-2010. Born: 1961-11-05. Died: 2012-07-01. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 27.88 days.
Point Arguello - Naval Missile Facility. The US Navy had established a Naval Air Facility at Point Mugu for cruise missile test in November 1945. After the Air Force had acquired the northern part of Camp Cooke from the Army for use as Vandenberg AFB, the surplus southern portion of the former camp, encompassing over 19,800 acres, was transferred to the U.S. Navy in May 1958. The Navy subsequently established a Pacific Missile Range with headquarters at Point Mugu and instrumentation sites along the California coast and at various islands in the Pacific.
Point Arguello WADZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone. Point Arguello Warning Area Drop Zone, Pacific Ocean.
Point Barrow - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1965-01-27. Last Launch: 1972-05-17. Number: 73 .
Point Mugu - Naval Missile and Astronautics Center. US Naval Air Station and major missile testing center. The actual total of missile tests is many times greater than those listed. First Launch: 1955-12-01. Last Launch: 2011-07-09. Number: 2601 .
Point Mugu LC1 - Pad 1
Point Mugu LC2 - Pad 2
Pointer FQM-151 - AeroVironment man-launched drone. Man-portable, miniature glider / sailplane. Hand launched, radio-controlled, electro-motor engine. Control-radius 10 km. Endurance 70 minutes at 35 kph at 300 m altitude..
POISE - Abbreviation or acronym for Panel on In-Flight Scientific Experiments
Poisk - Docking/research module for the ISS. The spacecraft as launched consisted of the Poisk pressurized Small Research Module and a Progress M-SO service module. Docked at the zenith port of the Zvezda module of the ISS at 15:41 GMT on 12 November 2009. On 8 December at 00:16 GMT the service module separated from Small Research Module, leaving the docking port clear for future spacecraft visiting the ISS.
Poker Flat - Sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1969 to present. Poker Flat Rocket Range (PFRR) contains five major launch pads. Pads 1 and 2 each have a 7.5K launcher, pads 3 and 4 each contain 20K MRL launchers, and pad 5 contains a 4K twin boom launcher. Pad 3 is equipped with a moveable launcher enclosure which can be used to protect a rocket on pad 3 and workers from the severe winter weather. First Launch: 1969-03-04. Last Launch: 2014-03-03. Number: 1073 .
Poker Flat FW - Nike, Deacon launch complex. Fort Wainwright
Poker Flat LC1 - Tomahawk Sandia, Nike, Black Brant launch complex. MRL 7.5K launcher, Pad 1 First Launch: 1969-03-04. Last Launch: 2003-03-27. Number: 8 .
Poker Flat LC2 - Terrier, Hawk, Black Brant launch complex. MRL 7.5K launcher, Pad 2 First Launch: 2003-03-25. Last Launch: 2005-03-15. Number: 3 .
Poker Flat LC3 - Terrier, Hawk, Black Brant launch complex. AML 20K launcher, Pad 3 First Launch: 2000-02-25. Last Launch: 2014-03-03. Number: 9 .
Poker Flat LC4 - Black Brant launch complex. AML 20K launcher, Pad 4 First Launch: 2000-02-26. Last Launch: 2013-02-07. Number: 4 .
Poker Flat LC5 - Terrier launch complex. AML 4K3 launcher, Pad 5 First Launch: 2003-03-27. Last Launch: 2003-03-27. Number: 1 .
Poker Flat LC6 - Hilltop 7.5K launcher, Pad 6
Pokrovskiy, Aleksei Vasilyevich - Russian officer. Director of Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine from the 1940s to 1959. Born: 1903. Died: 1988-01-01.
Pokrovskiy, Boris Antolyevich - Russian officer. Colonel, Deputy Chief of Center for the KIK Space Tracking System for Material Support. Born: 1923.
Poland - Poland
Poland Aviation Institute - Polish manufacturer of rockets. Poland Aviation Institute, Poland.
Polansky, Mark Lewis 'Roman' - American test pilot astronaut 1996-2012. American test pilot astronaut 1996-2012. Flew on STS-98, STS-116, STS-127, , , , Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2012. Born: 1956-06-02. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 41.45 days.
Polar - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Polar was designed to measure the entry, energization, and transport of plasma into the magnetosphere as part of the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP). Scientific satellite built by Lockheed Martin Astro for NASA, USA. Launched 1996. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-02-24. Last Launch: 1996-02-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).
Polar Beacon Experiment & Auroral Research - Alternate designation for Polar Bear earth magnetosphere satellite.
Polar Bear - American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1986.11.14. also known as STP P87-1, a military mission designed to study communications interference caused by solar flares and increased auroral activity. Status: Operational 1986. Gross mass: 125 kg (275 lb).
Polar Bear (P87-1) - Experimental satellite built by JHU/APL for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1986. Used Transit-Bus. First Launch: 1986-11-14. Last Launch: 1986-11-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 125 kg (275 lb).
Polar orbit - Category of spacecraft.
Polar Platform - American manned space station. Study 1984. In order to increase the Space Station's and Space Shuttle's appeal, NASA tried to involve as many users as possible. Status: Study 1984.
Polar Platform (PPF) - Astrium polar orbit bus used on Envisat and METOP satellites.
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for PSLV-2.
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for PSLV-4.
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for PSLV.
PolarCube - Technology satellite for Colorado Space Grant Consortium (CoSGC), USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) / ALL-STAR bus. Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
polarimeter - An instrument for determining the degree of polarization of electromagnetic radiation, specifically the polarization of light.
Polaris - American submarine-launched ballistic missile. Probably the most technically innovative program in history, Polaris integrated solid-propellant, inertially-guided intermediate range ballistic missiles with nuclear submarines that could remain submerged for months at a time. All of these were new technologies, but the first ship was underway only three years after go-ahead. Status: Active.
Polaris A1 - American missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x A1P + 1 x A1P stage 2 Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1959-09-21. Last Launch: 1968-05-01. Number: 106 . Gross mass: 12,700 kg (27,900 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 289.20 kN (65,015 lbf).
Polaris A-1 - Alternate name of Polaris A1 UGM-27A.
Polaris A-1 - Alternate designation for Polaris A1.
Polaris A1 UGM-27A - American intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Operational 1960. Gross mass: 12,700 kg (27,900 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 289.20 kN (65,015 lbf).
Polaris A2 - American missile. In comparison to the A-1, the Polaris A-2 had a slightly longer first stage and a lighter second-stage motor casing. These features increased range to 2800 km (1500 nm), the performance originally envisioned by the Navy. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1960-11-10. Last Launch: 1971-11-12. Number: 206 . Gross mass: 13,600 kg (29,900 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 310.80 kN (69,871 lbf).
Polaris A-2 - Alternate name of Polaris A2 UGM-27B.
Polaris A-2 - Alternate designation for Polaris A2.
Polaris A2 UGM-27B - American intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Operational 1962. Gross mass: 13,600 kg (29,900 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 310.80 kN (69,871 lbf).
Polaris A2-2 - Alternate name for X-250.
Polaris A2E - American missile. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1965-03-05. Last Launch: 1969-11-15. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 14,700 kg (32,400 lb).
Polaris A2E-2 - Alternate name for X-250.
Polaris A3 - American missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x A3P + 1 x X-260 Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1962-08-07. Last Launch: 1987-05-10. Number: 286 . Gross mass: 15,870 kg (34,980 lb). Payload: 760 kg (1,670 lb). Thrust: 355.90 kN (80,010 lbf).
Polaris A-3 - Alternate name of Polaris A3 UGM-27C.
Polaris A-3 - Alternate designation for Polaris A3.
Polaris A3 A3T - American missile. Two stage test vehicle consisting of 1 x A3P + 1 x X-260
Polaris A3 A3TK - American missile. British version of Polaris A3. Gross mass: 13,600 kg (29,900 lb).
Polaris A3 UGM-27C - American intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Operational 1964. Gross mass: 15,870 kg (34,980 lb). Payload: 760 kg (1,670 lb). Thrust: 355.90 kN (80,010 lbf).
Polaris AX - American missile. 2 stage experimental vehicle Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1958-09-24. Last Launch: 1959-10-02. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Polaris AX-2 - Alternate name for A1P-2.
Polaris FTV-1 - American test vehicle for Polaris project using a Sergeant rocket motor. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1957-09-03. Last Launch: 1958-06-24. Number: 9 .
Polaris FTV-3 - American test vehicle to support Polaris SLBM development. 3 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sergeant + 3 x Recruit + 1 x Recruit. Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1957-07-19. Last Launch: 1957-11-08. Number: 4 .
Polaris FTV-4 - First Launch: 1957-01-11. Last Launch: 1957-07-16. Number: 7 .
Polaris FTV-5 - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-20 Sergeant + 1 x 10KS2500. Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1957-04-13. Last Launch: 1957-08-16. Number: 2 .
Polaris TV - American missile. Single stage test vehicle to test thrust-vectoring system. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1958-01-11. Last Launch: 1958-04-11. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 220.00 kN (49,450 lbf).
Polaris TV-1 - Alternate name for TX-33.
polarization - The state of electromagnetic radiation when the transverse oscillations take place in some regular manner, e.g., all in one plane.
Poleshchuk, Aleksandr Fyodorovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1989-2004. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO Status: Inactive; Active 1989-2004. Born: 1953-10-30. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 179.03 days.
Polet - Alternate name for Polyot.
Poletaev, Boris Ivanovich - Russian engineer. General Director and Chief Designer of KB Arsenal Developed naval artillery, missiles, and satellites.
Poligono de Salinas Grandes - Alternate name for Serrezuela.
Polikarpov - Russian manufacturer of rocketplanes.
Polish AF - Polish Air Force.
Politech.1 - Technology satellite for Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Politican-1 astronaut group, 1997 - Requirement: flight of representative of Russian President's office on Mir and ISS missions. Date: 1997.
Pollux - Alternate name of ANDE 2 AA, PA (Castor, Pollux).
Pollux - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Little Joe 1 2P first stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 4,200 kg (9,200 lb). More at: Solid
Pollux (D 5A) - Science satellite operated by CNES, France. Launched 1973 - 1975. First Launch: 1973-05-21. Last Launch: 1975-05-17. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 38 kg (83 lb).
Polonski, Anatoli Borisovich - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1991. Test pilot and Colonel, Soviet Air Force Test Pilot School. Cosmonaut training March 1989 - April 1991. Later a test pilot at Khalovskaya. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1991. Born: 1956.
Polotsk - Base for units deployed with nine Pioner launchers.
Polukhin, Dmitri Alekseyevich - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1973-1993 of Chelomei design bureau Filial 1. Led the development of Proton. Born: 1927-03-12. Died: 1993-09-07.
Polyakov, Boris Ivanovich - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1964. Status: Inactive; Active 1964-1964. Born: 1938-05-10.
Polyakov, Valeri Vladimirovich - Russian physician cosmonaut 1972-1995. Longest single space flight (437 days). 678 cumulative days in space. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Status: Inactive; Active 1972-1995. Born: 1942-04-27. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 678.69 days.
Polyarniy - Russian manufacturer of rocket engines.
Polyblock UR-500 - UR-500 design studies considered two variants of the first stage: polyblock and monoblock. The polyblock variant consisted of a center large diameter oxidizer tank surrounded by several smaller diameter fuel tanks. This version could be assembled in a special rig with the lateral blocks being sequentially mounted on the center. In January 1962 this design was chosen as most advantageous, following studies that indicated improved wind loads and bending moment characteristics compared to the monoblock design. The developed version of the design would become known as the Proton. Status: Design 1962. Gross mass: 554,940 kg (1,223,430 lb). Payload: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Thrust: 8,119.80 kN (1,825,404 lbf).
Polyblock UR-500-1P - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Original 'Polyblock' design for Proton first stage. This was selected configuration; although somewhat greater in dry mass, it had the advantages of shorter length. Status: Design 1962. Gross mass: 378,900 kg (835,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 26,900 kg (59,300 lb). Thrust: 8,989.70 kN (2,020,965 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Polyitan - 1U Cubesat by National Technical University of Ukraine.
PolyITAN 1 (Polytan 1) - Technology satellite for National Technical University of Ukraine – KPI, Ukraine. Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2014-06-19. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
PolyITAN 2-SAU (Polytan 2-SAU, QB50 UA01) - Technology satellite for National Technical University of Ukraine – KPI, Ukraine. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2017-04-18. Last Launch: 2017-04-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Polyot - Alternate designation for AKO Polyot.
Polyot - Russian military anti-satellite system. First prototype model of Chelomei's ASAT, used in an interceptor control and propulsion test. ASAT technology satellite, Russia. Launched 1963. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-11-01. Last Launch: 1964-04-12. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
Polyot - Alternate designation for Sputnik 11A59.
Polyot 2 / I1P 1 - ASAT technology satellite, Russia. Launched 1964. First Launch: 1964-04-12. Last Launch: 1964-04-12. Number: 1 .
Polypheme - French tactical ballistic missile. Operational and technical evaluation 1998-2002. Status: Active. Gross mass: 140 kg (300 lb).
Polytan 1 - Alternate name of PolyITAN 1 (Polytan 1).
Polytan 2-SAU - Alternate name of PolyITAN 2-SAU (Polytan 2-SAU, QB50 UA01).
Polyus - Russian military anti-satellite system. The Polyus military test bed was put together on a crash basis as an answer to America's Star Wars program. Missile defence technology satellite, Russia. Launched 1987. Status: Operational 1987. First Launch: 1987-05-15. Last Launch: 1987-05-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb).
Pomona - American manufacturer of rockets. Pomona, California, USA.
Ponomarev, Maksim Vladimirovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 2006-2012. Captain, Special-Purpose Command Staff (Moscow VO) Status: Inactive; Active 2006-2012. Born: 1980-02-20.
Ponomaryov, Yuri Anatoliyevich - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1983. Was married to astronaut Valentina Ponomaryova. Status: Deceased; Active 1972-1983. Born: 1932-03-24. Died: 2005-04-16.
Ponomaryova, Valentina Leonidovna - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969. Was married to astronaut Yuri Ponomaryov. Status: Inactive; Active 1962-1969. Born: 1933-09-18.
PONSFD A, B - Alternate name of CPOD A, B (PONSFD A, B).
Pontes, Marcos Cesar - Brazilian test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1998-on. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1963-03-11. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.89 days.
POPACS - Research (Atmospheric density) satellite, USA. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (3U) form factor bus. First Launch: 2013-09-29. Last Launch: 2013-09-29. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
POPACS - 3U Cubesat which split after deployment into four spacer sections that released three 0.10 m diameter aluminum spheres used as passive atmospheric density calibration probes.
Popeye - Alternate name of Have Nap AGM-142.
Popeye - Israeli cruise missile.
Popeye 1 - Israeli cruise missile. Operational in Israel 1985, operational on USAF B-52s 1989. Gross mass: 1,380 kg (3,040 lb). Payload: 364 kg (802 lb).
Popeye 2 - Israeli cruise missile. For smaller fighters.Turbofan and lighter. Gross mass: 1,134 kg (2,500 lb).
Popov, Leonid Ivanovich - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1970-1987. Status: Inactive; Active 1970-1987. Born: 1945-08-31. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 200.61 days.
Popovich, Marina Lavrentrevna Vasliyevna - Russian engineer at Antonov, VVS officer and test pilot, holder of 13 aviation world records, wife of cosmonaut Pavel Popovich, world-renowned UFO expert. Born: 1931-07-20.
Popovich, Pavel Romanovich - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1982. Commander of first military space station mission. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1982. Born: 1930-10-05. Died: 2009-09-29. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 18.69 days.
Poppel, Theodor Anton - German-American engineer, ember of von Braun's team, expert in guided missile ground support during WW2, and continued in that role in the US. Played a key role in designing Saturn I LC34, and the Saturn V's VAB and Transporter-Crawler. Born: 1918-05-27. Died: 1986-03-02.
Poppy - American military naval signals reconnaissance satellite series, launched 1962-1971. It evolved from the simple Grab satellite, but was launched in pairs, triplets, or quadruplets in order to localize the source of electronic emissions detected. Led to the NOSS production satellite series. First Launch: 1962-12-13. Last Launch: 1971-12-14. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 83 kg (182 lb).
Poppy (20 in series) - ELINT satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) / US Navy, USA. Launched 1962 - 1964. First Launch: 1962-12-13. Last Launch: 1964-01-11. Number: 5 .
Poppy (24 in series) - ELINT satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) / US Navy, USA. Launched 1963 - 1967. First Launch: 1963-06-15. Last Launch: 1967-05-31. Number: 5 .
Popsat Hip - 3U Cubesat by Microspace Rapid.
POPSAT-HIP 1 - Technology satellite for Microspace Rapid Pte Ltd., Singapore. Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2014-06-19. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb).
PORCUPINE - Alternate name for DODECAPOLE.
Porcupine 1, 2 - Alternate name of Dodecapole 1, 2 (Porcupine 1, 2).
Porter, Richard W - American engineer; his 400-strong GE team at Malta, NY, built US versions of the V-2 and Wasserfall, and engine for Vanguard. Influential, on many committees, but Malta was a dead-end, and closed in 1984. Born: 1913-03-24. Died: 1996-10-06.
Portugal - Portugal
Porvatkin, Nikolai Stepanovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Technical Air Force School, 1952. Graduated from Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy, Monino, 1960. Cosmonaut training May 1967 - 18 August 1967. Worked at NPO Energia. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1983. Born: 1932-04-15. Died: 2009-09-28.
POS - Permanent Orbital Station (Russian abbreviation)
Posadochnaya stuplen - Alternate designation for LK Energia PS.
Posadochnaya stuplen - Russian name (landing stage) for LEK PS manned spacecraft module.
Posat - Portugal's first satellite achieved through a technology transfer program with Surrey Satellite Technology. Carried store and forward, DSP communications, GPS and Earth observation payloads. Still operational in 2000. Used the SSTL-70 bus.
PoSAT 1 (POSAT-OSCAR 28, PO 28) - Earth observation, technology satellite built by SSTL for PoSAT consortium, Portugal. Launched 1993. Used the Microsat-70 bus. First Launch: 1993-09-26. Last Launch: 1993-09-26. Number: 1 .
POSAT-OSCAR 28 - Alternate name of PoSAT 1 (POSAT-OSCAR 28, PO 28).
Poseidon - Alternate name for Topex/Poseidon.
Poseidon C3 - American submarine-launched ballistic missile. SLBM, 2 stages, inertial guided, nuclear MIRV warhead, range that of twice Polaris A-3. Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1990-04-30. Number: 268 . Gross mass: 29,475 kg (64,981 lb). Payload: 1,630 kg (3,590 lb).
Poseidon C-3 - Alternate designation for Poseidon C3.
Poseidon C3-1 - Alternate name for C3-1.
Poseidon C3-2 - Alternate name for C3-2.
Poseidon C-4 - Alternate designation for Trident C-4.
Poseidon D-5 - Alternate designation for Trident D-5.
Post, Ferdinand - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Postavy - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1993. Base for units deployed with 12 R-12 and later 9 Pioner missile launchers.
Potapov, Mikhail Georgiyevich - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1985. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training October 1979 - July 1980. Later Chief of Laboratory 174 at IMBP. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1985. Born: 1952-10-28.
Potex - French manufacturer of spacecraft. Potex, France.
Potok - Russian military communications satellite. Potok was one element of the second generation global command and control system (GKKRS) developed according to a decree of 17 February 1976. Military relay satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1982 - 2000. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-05-17. Last Launch: 2000-07-04. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb).
Powell, Cecil - American test pilot. Flew the X-24A and M2-F3. Status: Inactive.
Power Tower Space Station - 1984 - American manned space station. Study 1984. The NASA Concept Definition Team eventually selected the Boeing/Grumman 'Power Tower' design as its baseline. Status: Study 1984.
Power, Thomas - American USAF officer, commanded Air Research and Development Command, in 1950s during development of early missiles. Commander of SAC, 1957-1964, during the crash program to deploy the Atlas, Titan, and Minuteman ICBMs. Born: 1905-06-18. Died: 1970-12-01.
Pozharskaya, Larisa Grigoriyevna - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1993. Status: Deceased; Active 1980-1993. Born: 1947-03-15. Died: 2002-02-18.
PPF - Alternate name of Polar Platform (PPF).
PPK - Personal Preference Kit. NASA astronauts were limited to taking a Personal Preference Kit (PPK) of no more than twenty items and 700 g mass on a spaceflight. These had to be submitted to NASA for approval weeks before the flight and were locked in a mid-deck shuttle locker. Collectibles such as rolls of coins, stamps, pins, flags, and so on were prohibited to prevent the astronauts from profiting personally from the flight.
PPM - American space tug. Study 1968. The Primary Propulsion Module was the definitive 1960's design for a nuclear thermal rocket stage suitable for interplanetary operations. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 245,600 kg (541,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 71,000 kg (156,000 lb). Thrust: 866.90 kN (194,887 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
PPM (abbreviation) - Positions and Proper Motions (catalog)
PPS-1350G - Safran Aircraft Engine license-built version of the SPT-100 plasma thruster designed for spacecraft orbital transfer and control duties. Used on ESA's Smart-1 lunar probe and the Alphabus satellite bus.
PPS-5000 - 5 kW plasma thruster developed by Safran Aircraft Engines capable of handling both satellite positioning and stationkeeping of geostationary satellites throughout their lifetime. Used on the Eurostar 3000 and Spacebus satellite buses. More at: Electric/
PQ-10 - Culver post-war USAF target drone; Model MR; cancelled.
PQ-11 - Fletcher post-war USAF target drone.
PQ-12 - Fleetwings post-war USAF target drone.
PQ-13 - Erco post-war USAF target drone; Model Ercoupe 415C.
PQ-14 - Alternate name of Q-14.
PQ-15 - Culver post-war USAF target drone.
PQ-8 - Alternate name of Cadet PQ-8.
PQ-9 - Culver post-war USAF target drone; Model NR-B; cancelled.
PQD - Abbreviation for Paraquinone dioxime
PQ-Gemini++ 1, 2, 3, 4 - Technology satellite for Micro-Space Inc, USA. Used the 1U PocketQube bus. Gross mass: 0 kg (0 lb).
PQM-56 - Nord/Bell pad-launched drone. Modified Nord CT.41.
PR-38 - Russian air-to-air missile. Intended for T-37 and P-37, cancelled
PR-90 - Russian short range ballistic missile. Short-range air-augmented ballistic missile. Tested concepts for Gnom ICBM. Status: Cancelled 1961. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Payload: 550 kg (1,210 lb).
Prahaar - Indian solid-propellant surface-to-surface tactical ballistic missile Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-07-21. Last Launch: 2011-07-21. Number: 1 .
Prahl, Joseph Markel - American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1990-1992. Assigned as backup for STS-50. Professor of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1943-03-30.
Prandl - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Prast, J - German expert in aero medicine during World War II. Worked at aeromedicine institute in Heidelberg after the war.
Prasthofer, Willibald P - Austrian-American engineer and rocket technician in World War II; later worked in France in the engine group at LRBA from 1947 to 1955. He returned briefly to Graz, Austria, and then went to work with von Braun's team at Huntsville, Alabama. During his tenure at NASA, he was US representative to the Paris Air Show for a number of years and lectured at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville. He was on the faculty of the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Born: 1917-05-17. Died: 1993-07-30.
Pratham - Technology, Earth observation satellite for IIT Bombay, India. Launched 2016. First Launch: 2016-09-26. Last Launch: 2016-09-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb).
Pratt and Whitney - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Pratt and Whitney, USA.
Pravetskiy, Vladimir Nikolayevich - Russian government official. Chief of Third Chief Directorate in Ministry of Health.
PRC - Chinese Ministry of Astronautics, Beijing, China.
PRCAS - Chinese agency. China, China.
PRD-15 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. Strela-1 missile. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1954-. Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf). More at: Solid
PRD-19M - Kartukov solid rocket engine. KSShch Shchuka. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1950s. More at: Solid
PRD-22 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. SM-30. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1950s. Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf). More at: Solid
PRD-33 - SKB-30 solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1973. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 1,962.00 kN (441,075 lbf). More at: Solid
PRD-36 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. V-600. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1956-60. More at: Solid
PRD-52 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. DBR-1 Yastreb. Out of Production. Thrust 80 metric tons at ignition, 75 metric tons at cutout. Solid propellant rocket stage. Zero-length launch stage for Tu-121. Thrust varied from 75 to 80 metric tons and duration from 3.75 to 5.0 seconds. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1956-. Thrust: 784.00 kN (176,250 lbf). More at: Solid
PRD-61 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. 036 Vikhr. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1958-. More at: Solid
PRD-70 - Kartukov solid rocket engine. 400/5V11 stage I. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1955-. More at: Solid
PRE - Manufacturer's designation for Rescue Ball manned rescue spacecraft.
precession - The angular motion (tilting) of the axis of a spinning or rotating body caused by a torque whose axis is not parallel with the axis of rotation.
Precision Engineering Design Bureau - Second name of Nudelman bureau.
Precourt, Charles Joseph - American test pilot astronaut 1990-2005. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2005. Born: 1955-06-29. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 38.84 days.
Predator - American anti-tank missile. In engineering and manufacturing development. Gross mass: 6.40 kg (14.10 lb).
Predator RQ/MQ-1 - USAF's first operational tactical multimission UAV.
Predvestnik - Russian civilian surveillance satellite. Study 1998. The Predvestnik satellites were planned to form a space-based earthquake prediction system. Status: Study 1998. Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb).
Preobrazhensky, Vladimir Yevgeniyevich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1965-1980. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute Soviet Air Force, liaising with aircraft industrial enterprises. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Worked at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Killed in an auto crash. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1980. Born: 1939-02-03. Died: 1993-11-25.
PreSat - American technology satellite for NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Launched 2008. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-08-02. Last Launch: 2008-08-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Pre-Sputnik Designs - Category of launch vehicles.
Presque Isle AFB - At this site the 556th Squadron of the USAF 702nd Strategic Missile Wing Squadron 556th operated the Snark intercontinental cruise missile from January 1959 to 25 June 25 1961.
Press Fed - TRW N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Design concept 1960's. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Status: Design concept 1960's. Unfuelled mass: 41 kg (90 lb). Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Press Fed 1000k - TRW N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Study 1968. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Used on LCLV launch vehicle. Status: Study 1968. Thrust: 9,793.20 kN (2,201,599 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Press Fed 200k - TRW N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Study 1968. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Used on LCLV launch vehicle. Status: Study 1968. Thrust: 2,028.00 kN (455,912 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Press Fed 25k - TRW LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept 1960's. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Status: Design concept 1960's. Unfuelled mass: 270 kg (590 lb). Thrust: 245.20 kN (55,123 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Press Fed 5748k - TRW N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Study 1968. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Used on LCLV launch vehicle. Status: Study 1968. Thrust: 56,368.00 kN (12,672,030 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Pressurized Lunar Rover - Dual Hull - American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. An alternate April 1992 USRA study by students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University sketched out a design for a Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR) using dual hulls. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb).
Preyer, Hans D - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
PRI - PRI.
Priborniy otsek - Alternate designation for Voskhod PO.
Priborniy otsek - Russian name (equipment module) for Vostok PO manned spacecraft module.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for LOK Energia PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-T PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for LK-1 PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-OKS PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-OK PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-MF6 PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-L1 PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for LOK PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz A PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for Progress M PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz ASTP PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz T PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Alternate designation for Progress PAO.
Priborno-agregatniy otsek - Russian name (equipment-propulsion module) for Soyuz TM PAO manned spacecraft module.
Priboy/Surf - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle using the 1st stage of the SS-N-20 SLBM topped by an SS-N-23 SLBM (RSM-52+RSM-54). Liftoff mass 104 metric tons. Can be launched from stationary or mobile platforms. Status: Design 1993. Payload: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb).
Prichal - Alternate name of UM (Prichal, NM, Progress-M-UM).
Priekule - Base for units deployed with up to 12 R-14 missile and R-12 missile launchers. Launcher deployment at site retirement was:

  • Vainode: 3 x R-14
  • Nikrace: 3 x R-14
  • Nigrande: 4 x R-14
Martin Trolle Mikkelsen has photo-documented the site.
Prier, Erich - German Engineer. Engineer at Rheinmetall Borsig. Born: 1912. Died: 1989-01-01.
Prikhodko, Yuri Viktorovich - Tajik-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1994. Status: Deceased; Active 1989-1994. Born: 1953-11-15. Died: 2001-07-25.
Prima - Satellites in the European Commission's Sentinel/Copernicus Earth observing program. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-04-03. Last Launch: 2014-04-03. Number: 1 .
Primary Propulsion Module - Alternate designation for PPM space tug.
Prime - American manned spaceplane. 3 launches, 1966.12.21 (Prime 1) to 1967.04.19 (Prime 3). The Prime (Precision Recovery Including Maneuvering Entry) project was the second part of the USAF START program. Lifting Body Reentry Testsatellite built by Martin Marietta for USAF. Status: Operational 1966. Gross mass: 405 kg (892 lb).
Primrose Lake - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1968-04-05. Last Launch: 1991-09-11. Number: 1299 .
Princeton - Princeton University.
principal investigator - The researcher responsible for defining an investigation or experiment as part of a NASA science or technology project, and for ensuring that the investigation of the experiment meets with its specific objectives.
PrintSat - Technology satellite for Montana State University, USA. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2015-11-04. Last Launch: 2015-11-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Prinz, Dianne Kasnic - American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1978-1985. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1985. Born: 1938-09-29. Died: 2002-10-12.
Priroda - Russian manned space station module. Priroda was the last Mir module launched. It was originally an all-Soviet remote sensing module for combined civilian and military surveillance of the earth. Launched 1996. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-04-23. Last Launch: 1996-04-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb).
PRISM - Japanese military surveillance radar satellite. Remote sensing picosatellite built by the University of Tokyo, with a 10-cm aperture Earth imager on a 1-meter deployable boom. Technology satellite for ISSL (Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory) at the University of Tokyo (UT), Japan. Launched 2009. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-01-23. Last Launch: 2009-01-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
Prisma - Prototype Research Instruments and Space Mission technology Advancement satellite to test space rendezvous and formation-flight technologies. Consisted of 140 kg primary satellite and 40 kg target. Technology satellite for SSC, Sweden. Launched 2010. Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-06-15. Last Launch: 2010-07-31. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 180 kg (390 lb).
Prithvi - Indian single-stage short range ballistic missile developed from upper stage of Soviet S-75 surface-to-air missile. First units deployed in 1995. Used as an upper stage in the Agni test system. Status: Active. First Launch: 1988-02-25. Last Launch: 2012-11-23. Number: 39 . Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Prithvi 2 - Indian missile. Status: Active. First Launch: 1996-01-01. Last Launch: 2014-04-27. Number: 18 .
Prithvi engine - HAL solid rocket engine. Agni TD second stage. Status: Active. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). More at: Solid
Private - American test vehicle. At request of Army Ordnance, Cal Tech's rocket laboratory developed the first US long-range missiles. Project ORDCIT resulted in development of the Private A and Corporal missiles. At Camp Irwin, Calif., 24 Private A rockets were launched by JPL, only 11 months after the start of Project ORDCIT. This rocket technology that led to later operational Corporal and Sergeant missiles. Status: Retired 1947. First Launch: 1945-04-01. Last Launch: 1945-04-13. Number: 16 .
Private A - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Private A Booster + 1 x Private A. Status: Retired 1945. First Launch: 1944-12-01. Last Launch: 1945-04-01. Number: 25 .
Private F - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Private A Booster + 1 x Private F. Status: Retired 1945. First Launch: 1945-04-01. Last Launch: 1945-04-13. Number: 16 .
PrivateA - Alternate designation for Private A.
PRO - Anti-Ballistic Missile Forces (Russian abbreviation)
PROBA - Project for On-Board Autonomy, spearheaded by ESA and CNES, was a small satellite bus to accommodate instruments previously flown on larger spacecraft. Qinetiq Space Belgium built the satellite, designed to be compatible with the Vega, Soyuz and Falcon-1e launch vehicles. Technology satellite built by Qinetiq Space Belgium (prime); OIP Space Systems (payload) for ESA, Europe. Launched 2013. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-10-22. Last Launch: 2013-05-07. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 94 kg (207 lb).
PROBA 2 - Technology satellite built by Verhaert for ESA, Europe. Launched 2009. Used MiniSIL Bus. First Launch: 2009-11-02. Last Launch: 2009-11-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb).
PROBA 3 - Technology satellite operated by ESA, Europe. Used 2 × Proba bus. Gross mass: 340 kg (740 lb).
PROCYON - Small spacecraft experiment to test interplanetary navigation with an ion engine. As of May 2015 the mission plan to perform an Earth swingby followed by flyby of asteroid 2000 DP107 had been abandoned following malfunction of its ion engine. The probe, in solar orbit, continued to make scientific measurements with its ultraviolet camera. Procyon was originally in a 0.9 x 1.1 AU x 6.8 deg solar orbit. Asteroid fly by probe satellite operated by JAXA, Japan. Launched 2014. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2014-12-03. Last Launch: 2014-12-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 59 kg (130 lb).
PRoFILE (P90-2) - Experimental satellite built by Ardak Corp., Fairchild for US Navy.
Prognoz - Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. This spacecraft, built by Lavochkin, was for study of geomagnetic fields, radiation, and solar physics. Science, magnetosphere satellite built by Lavochkin, Russia. Launched 1972 - 1973. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-04-14. Last Launch: 1985-04-26. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 920 kg (2,020 lb).
Prognoz 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 (SO-M) / Intersputnik 23 - Science, magnetosphere satellite built by Lavochkin, Russia. Launched 1975 - 1985. First Launch: 1975-12-22. Last Launch: 1985-04-26. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 905 kg (1,995 lb).
Prognoz SPRN - Russian military early warning satellite. Development began of the Soviet Union's Prognoz geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite in 1980. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-10-08. Last Launch: 2012-03-30. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 2,154 kg (4,748 lb).
Prognoz-M - Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. Interbol was originally an Intercosmos project with a launch planned for the late 1980's. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-08-02. Last Launch: 1996-08-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
Program 102 - Alternate designation for Ferret military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Program 35 - Alternate designation for DMSP Block 4A.
Program 35 - American earth weather satellite. First US weather satellite, classified for many years. Predecessor to the DMSP series of military satellites. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-05-24. Last Launch: 1963-09-27. Number: 5 .
Program 366 - Alternate designation for Chalet military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Program 417 - Alternate name for DMSP Block 4A.
Program 417, Program 35 - Code name for DMSP Block 4A earth weather satellite.
Program 437 - America's second operational anti-satellite system, launched on sub-orbital trajectories by Thor LV-2D's operated by the US Air Force from Johnson Atoll in the Pacific. Operational 1964-1970. Status: Operational 1964.
Program 472 - Manufacturer's designation for Rhyolite military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Program 505 - American military anti-satellite system. Operational 1962 to 1966. America's first ASAT system was Program 505, which used prototype Nike Zeus DM-15S anti-ballistic missiles, operated from Kwajalein Atoll by the U.S. Army. Status: Operational 1962.
Program 661 - EOS electric/cesium rocket engine. Flew 1962-1964. Cesium contact ion propulsion system used on three sub-orbital flight tests aboard Blue Scout Junior launch vehicles. Status: In Development, 1962-1964.. Date: 1962-1964. Thrust: 0.0089 N (0.0020 lbf). More at: Electric/Cesium
Program 661A - American ion engine technology satellite. Study 1961. In November of 1961, Electro-Optical Systems was awarded a contract by the U. S. Air Force to develop a 8.9 mN, cesium-contact ionization IPS for three sub-orbital flight tests. Status: Study 1961.
Program 720 - Alternate designation for Rhyolite military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Program 770 - Code name for Ferret military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Program 922 - American military anti-satellite system. Study 1968. Program 922 was a non-nuclear sub-orbital ASAT in development in the late 1960's. Status: Study 1968.
Program II - Manufacturer's designation for DMSP Block 4A earth weather satellite.
Progress - Alternate name of P-7.
Progress - Russian logistics spacecraft. Progress took the basic Soyuz 7K-T manned ferry designed for the Salyut space station and modified it for unmanned space station resupply. Cargo satellite operated by RKK, Russia. Launched 1978 - 1990. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-01-20. Last Launch: 1990-05-05. Number: 43 . Gross mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,520 kg (14,370 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). More at: Nitric acid/Hydrazine
Progress GO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Cargo section. Status: Operational 1978. Gross mass: 2,520 kg (5,550 lb). Payload: 1,340 kg (2,950 lb).
Progress M - Russian logistics spacecraft. Progress M was an upgraded version of the original Progress. New service module and rendezvous and docking systems were adopted from Soyuz T. Cargo satellite operated by RKK > RAKA, Russia. Launched 1989 - 2009. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-08-23. Last Launch: 2015-10-01. Number: 106 . Gross mass: 7,450 kg (16,420 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,550 kg (14,440 lb). Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Progress M GO - Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Two Kurs-type rendezvous antennas. Cargo section. Status: Operational 1989. Gross mass: 2,520 kg (5,550 lb). Payload: 1,340 kg (2,950 lb).
Progress M OKD - Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Fuel module for refueling space stations. Status: Operational 1989. Gross mass: 1,980 kg (4,360 lb). Payload: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Progress M PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Improved PAO service module derived from Soyuz 7K-S with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 1989. Gross mass: 2,950 kg (6,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,070 kg (4,560 lb). Thrust: 6.20 kN (1,393 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Progress M VBK - Russian manned spacecraft module. Two launched, 1993-1994. This payload return capsule was brought to the Mir space station aboard a Progress M freighter. It was loaded by the cosmonauts aboard the station, then reinstalled in the Progress M. Ballistic landing capsule - return of experimental materials from Mir space station. Status: Operational 1993. Gross mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb).
Progress M1 - Russian logistics spacecraft. Progress M1 was a modified version of the Progress M resupply spacecraft capable of delivering more propellant than the basic model to the ISS or Mir. Cargo satellite operated by RAKA, Russia. Launched 2000 - 2004. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-02-01. Last Launch: 2004-01-29. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Payload: 2,230 kg (4,910 lb).
Progress M2 - Russian logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1993. As Phase 2 of the third generation Soviet space systems it was planned to use a more capable resupply craft for the Mir-2 space station. Status: Cancelled 1993. Gross mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Payload: 5,700 kg (12,500 lb).
Progress MS - Russian logistics spacecraft. Incorporated systems evolved from the Soyuz TMA. New digital computer, more redundancy in attitude control and docking systems, modernized electronics and solar power. Cargo satellite operated by RKK > RAKA, Russia. Launched 2015 - 2017. First Launch: 2015-12-21. Last Launch: 2017-06-14. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 7,280 kg (16,040 lb).
Progress M-SO - Russian docking and airlock module for the International Space Station. Delivered to the station by the Progress service module, which was jettisoned after docking. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-09-14. Last Launch: 2009-11-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Payload: 3,900 kg (8,500 lb).
Progress OKD - Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Fuel module for refueling space stations. Status: Operational 1978. Gross mass: 1,846 kg (4,069 lb). Payload: 975 kg (2,149 lb).
Progress PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Derived from Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 1978. Gross mass: 2,654 kg (5,851 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,154 kg (4,748 lb). Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf). More at: Nitric acid/Hydrazine
Progress-M 1M - 29M (11F615A60, 7KTGM) - Cargo satellite operated by RKK > RAKA, Russia. Launched 2008 - 2015. First Launch: 2008-11-26. Last Launch: 2015-10-01. Number: 29 . Gross mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb).
Progress-M1 01M - 02M (11F615A70, 7KTGM) - Cargo satellite operated by RKK > RAKA, Russia. Gross mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb).
Progress-M-UM - Alternate name of UM (Prichal, NM, Progress-M-UM).
Progress-M-VDU 14, 38 (11F615A55, 7KTGM) - Cargo satellite operated by RKK > RAKA, Russia. Launched 1992 - 1998. First Launch: 1992-08-15. Last Launch: 1998-03-14. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb).
PROITERES - Technology satellite for Osaka Institute of Technology (OIT), Japan. Launched 2012. First Launch: 2012-09-09. Last Launch: 2012-09-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 15 kg (33 lb).
Proiteres - 15 kg pulsed plasma thruster experiment Cubesat: 'Project of Osaka Institute of Technology Electric Rocket Engine aboard small Spaceship'.
Project 1059 - Alternate designation for DF-1.
Project 4211 - Alternate designation for Eole.
Project 4212 - Alternate designation for Super V-2.
Project 4213 - Alternate designation for Veronique.
Project 5101 - Alternate name of AA.10.
Project 5103 - Alternate name of AA.20.
Project 581 - Chinese technology satellite. Study 1959. First Chinese satellite project, with the objective of placing a satellite in orbit by 1959. Status: Study 1959.
Project 621 - German sounding rocket. Dornier project of the early 1960's for a recoverable, reusable sounding rocket. The liquid fueled rocket would use a paraglider for recovery, and could be reused up to six times. Drop tests were made of the paraglider system in Sardinia in 1965 but no flights of the rocket itself ever took place. Status: Cancelled 1966. Gross mass: 240 kg (520 lb).
Project 714 - Code name for Shuguang 1 manned spacecraft.
Project 7969 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. North American was the final selected vendor for Manned-In-Space-Soonest. The 1360-kg ballistic capsule would be launched by an Atlas booster to an 185-km altitude orbit. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb).
Project 863 - Ambitious winged space shuttle concepts designed in China 1986-1988. Abandoned in favor of the more conservative and acheivable Shenzhou space capsule, although technology development of spaceplanes continued into the 21st Century. Status: Design 1986.
Project 921 - In 1992 Xiandong Bao of the Shanghai Astronautics Bureau revealed plans for a modular family of modern rockets to support future Chinese manned space activities. The entire family would be based on a LOx/Kerosene booster stage of 306 metric tons mass, and a LOx/LH2 upper stage of 57 metric tons mass. Status: Design 1992. Gross mass: 373,000 kg (822,000 lb). Payload: 11,000 kg (24,000 lb). Thrust: 4,801.00 kN (1,079,307 lbf).
Project 921 LV-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Additionally 4 vernier LOx/LH2 engines with a total thrust of 4600 kgf and a storable engine package for stage propellant ullage and restart. Status: Design 1992. Gross mass: 57,000 kg (125,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Thrust: 490.00 kN (110,150 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Project 921-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Engine chamber pressure 13 to 15 MPa. Status: Design 1992. Gross mass: 306,000 kg (674,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Thrust: 5,406.14 kN (1,215,349 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Project 921-1 - Alternate designation for Shenzhou manned spacecraft.
Project 921-2 - Alternate designation for Project 921 LV-2.
Project 921-2 - Alternate name of Tiangong.
Project 921-3 - Alternate name of Chinese Space Station.
Project 921-3 - Alternate designation for Chinese Space Laboratory manned space station.
Project Deimos - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1964. Project Deimos was a Mars expedition proposed by Philip Bono in the mid-1960's. It would use the huge Rombus single-stage-to-orbit booster, refueled in earth orbit, as the propulsion system to Mars and back. Status: Study 1964.
Project Gemini AMU Space Suit, 1966 - Alternate designation for G4C AMU space suit.
Project Horizon - The project summary of the US Army's 1959 plan to place a military base on the moon by 1965! Status: Design 1959.
Project Mer - American manned spacecraft. Study 1956. April 1958 design of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics for a Manned Earth Reconnaissance spacecraft - consisting of a cylindrical fuselage and telescoping, inflatable wings for flight in the atmosphere. Status: Study 1956.
Project Orion: Its Life, Death, and Possible Rebirth - 20,000 tonne Mars Expeditions Using Atom Bomb Propulsion - We could have sent whole cities there by 1970 - the classic web article, by Michael Flora
Project Pilot - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. The US Navy's satellite launcher project competed with the Army's Jupiter-C, the Air Force Atlas, and the civilian Vanguard. Air-launched satellite launch vehicle, and anti-satellite versions, tested by the US Navy shortly after Sputnik. One may have achieved orbit. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1958-07-04. Last Launch: 1958-08-28. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Payload: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Thrust: 125.00 kN (28,101 lbf).
Project Pilot 1 - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Ground-launched, 5 stage vehicle for Project Pilot. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 125.00 kN (28,101 lbf).
Project Pilot 1-3 - Alternate name for X-241.
Project Pilot 1-4 - Alternate name for NOTS 8.
Project Pilot 1-5 - Alternate name for NOTS 3SM.
Project Pilot 2 - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Six stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F4D-1 Skyray + 2 x HOTROC + 2 x HOTROC + 1 x X-241 + 1 x NOTS 8in + 1 x NOTS 3in Sphere. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Payload: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Thrust: 125.00 kN (28,101 lbf).
Project Pilot-1 - Alternate name for HOTROC.
Project Selena - American manned lunar base. Study 1964. Bono's enormous ROMBUS booster could fly all the way to the lunar surface and back if low Earth orbit rendezvous and propellant transfer were used. He therefore proposed using the booster to establish a lunar base. Status: Study 1964.
Prokopov, Nikolai Afansyevich - Russian officer, Deputy Chief Third Directorate of GURVO, 1960. Service in WW2; part of special team sent to Germany in 1946 to secure rocket technology. Active in overseeing development of liquid rocket technology. Died in Nedelin disaster. Born: 1921. Died: 1960-10-24.
Prokopyev, Sergei Valerievich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2010- Status: Active 2010-on. Born: 1975-02-19.
Prometheus - 1.5 U Cubesat; part of a constellation of low orbit military tactical communications satellites for the US Southern Command (SOCOM); developed by Los Alamos.
Prometheus - Sounding rocket for lightning research
Prometheus 1 - Alternate name of JIMO (Prometheus 1).
Prometheus satellite - Technology satellite for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), USA. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (1.5U) bus. First Launch: 2013-11-20. Last Launch: 2013-11-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Prometheus-2 - Technology satellite for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), USA. Launched 2016. Used the CubeSat (1.5U) bus. First Launch: 2016-11-11. Last Launch: 2016-11-11. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
prominence - A plasma protuberance above the surface of the Sun, originating in the chromosphere and extending sometimes to a height of several hundred thousand kilometers.
Pronina, Irina Rudolfovna - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1980-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1992. Born: 1953-04-14.
PropCube - One of two PropCube ionospheric-propagation-study Cubesats from Tyvak Nanosystems and the US Navy Postgraduate School.
PropCube 1, 2, 3 (Flora, Fauna, Merryweather) - Technology satellite built by Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) (prime); Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems Inc. (bus) for Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), USA. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2015-10-08. Last Launch: 2015-10-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Propellants - Propellants, fuels, and oxidizers - their characteristics and the vehicles that use them
Prophett, Philip M - American engineer. Convair chief test pilot; took Atlas ICBM base activation through its most critical phase. Born: 1917-08-30. Died: 1999-03-13.
Proposed Atlas - American orbital launch vehicle. The April 1953 design for the Atlas at the time of Convair's proposal used five main engines to power a 200 metric tone rocket able to send a 1400 kg nuclear warhead over a 10,200 km range. CEP was 1850 m. Status: Design 1953. Gross mass: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 1,210.00 kN (272,010 lbf).
PropSat - Technology satellite for Colorado Space Grant Consortium (CoSGC), Lockheed Martin, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) / ALL-STAR bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
ProSEDS - Alternate name of Icarus (ProSEDS).
Prospector - American lunar rover. Study 1961. The Prospector spacecraft was a NASA/JPL unmanned lunar rover of the early 1960's. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
Prospector sounding rocket - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1991-06-18. Last Launch: 1991-06-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 12,200 kg (26,800 lb). Thrust: 430.00 kN (96,660 lbf).
Prosper - Alternate name for Melanie.
Prospero - British earth micrometeoroid satellite. Tested space equipment for future satellites and conducted a scientific experiment to measure the incidence of micro-meteoroids. Technology satellite for Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), U.K.. Launched 1971. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-09-02. Last Launch: 1971-10-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 66 kg (145 lb).
Protchenko, Sergei Filippovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1979. Status: Inactive; Active 1976-1979. Born: 1947-01-03.
Proteus - The Proteus (Plateforme Reconfigurable pour l'Observation, les Telecommunications Et les Usages Scientifiques) bus was developed by Thales Alenia Space in partnership with the French Space Agency CNES from 1996 to 2000. The result was design and qualification of a small and versatile satellite bus as well as a generic ground segment that could accomodate a variety of payloads. These included all types of Earth environmental and science missions; surveillance, and communications applications. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-06-20. Last Launch: 2013-02-06. Number: 27 .
Protivo-Kosmicheskaya Oborona, VS SSSR - Alternate name for PKO.
Proton - The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over fifty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers. The latest potential replacement, the Angara, may not be operational until the 2020's. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-12-27. Last Launch: 2014-12-27. Number: 1 . More at: N2O4/UDMH
proton (definition) - Positively-charged nuclear particle which forms a significant part of all atomic nuclei. The nucleus of a normal hydrogen atom is a proton. It is 1,837 times heavier than the electron.
Proton (Proton ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 32.
Proton (Proton ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-6.
Proton (Proton ) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-9.
Proton (Proton) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-6.
Proton (Proton) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 32.
Proton (Proton) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-9.
Proton / Block D-1 - Alternate designation for Proton-K/D-1.
Proton / Block D-2 - Alternate designation for Proton-K/D-2.
Proton / Block DM - Alternate designation for Proton-K/DM.
Proton / Block DM-2M - Alternate designation for Proton-K/DM-2M.
Proton / Block DM-5 - Alternate designation for Proton-K/17S40.
Proton 1, 2, 3 (Proton-1 1, 2, 3, 4 / N-4 #1, 2, 3, 4) - Science satellite, Russia. Launched 1965 - 1966. First Launch: 1965-07-16. Last Launch: 1966-07-06. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 12,200 kg (26,800 lb).
Proton 11S824 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Originally designed as N1-L3 lunar expedition launch vehicle lunar orbit insertion/lunar crasher stage. Before it could fly on the N1, it was adapted for use with Proton UR-500K as a fourth stage for manned circumlunar flight. It was then further used to launch large Lavochkin bureau unmanned lunar/planetary spacecraft. In the 1970's it was adopted by the Soviet military and standardized for launch of geostationary satellites. Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 13,360 kg (29,450 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 83.30 kN (18,727 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Proton 11S824F - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Also known as Block D-2; article number 11S824F. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). Successor to 11S824M. Used for launch of Lavochkin Mars-bound spacecraft in 1988 and 1996. Status: Retired 1996. Gross mass: 16,900 kg (37,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 85.02 kN (19,113 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Proton 11S824M - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Also known as Block D-1; article number 11S824M. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). Successor to 11S824. Used to launch large Lavochkin bureau unmanned lunar/planetary/high earth orbit spacecraft from 1976 to 1989. Status: Retired 1989. Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,830 kg (4,030 lb). Thrust: 85.02 kN (19,113 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Proton 11S86 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Also known as Block DM; article number 11S86. With guidance unit, designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchronous/ medium earth orbit. Used from 1974 to 1990. Succeeded by 11S861. Status: Retired 1990. Gross mass: 17,550 kg (38,690 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 85.02 kN (19,113 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Proton 11S861 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Also known as Block DM-2 (different from commercial Block DM2 (no hyphen!)), article number 11S861. Commercial version designated Block DM1 and is equipped with Saab payload adapter for insertion of AS 4000 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. With improved guidance system as compared to 11S86, originally designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. Used from 1982 to present. Status: Active. Gross mass: 17,300 kg (38,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 85.02 kN (19,113 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Proton 11S861-01 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Also known as Block DM-2M, article number 11S861-01. Commercial versions are Block DM3, with Saab payload dispenser, for insertion of Hughes HS 601 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit; and Block DM4, for insertion of FS-1300 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. With guidance unit, originally designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. Capable of boosting heavier payloads than 11S861 through use of higher-performance 'Sintin' synthetic kerosene fuel. Status: Active. Gross mass: 18,650 kg (41,110 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,650 kg (5,840 lb). Thrust: 83.45 kN (18,760 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Proton 17S40 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Also known as Block DM-5. Commercial version is Block DM2, with Iridium dispenser, designed for insertion of multiple LM 700 (Iridium) spacecraft into medium earth orbit. With guidance unit, modification of 11S861 stage for heavier payloads and with different payload adapter. Status: Active. Gross mass: 14,600 kg (32,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,300 kg (7,200 lb). Thrust: 85.02 kN (19,113 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Proton 2 - Alternate designation for UR-500.
Proton 3 - Alternate designation for Proton-K.
Proton 4 (Proton-2 1 / N-6 #1) - Science satellite, Russia. Launched 1968. First Launch: 1968-11-16. Last Launch: 1968-11-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb).
Proton 8K82K / Block DM-2 - Alternate designation for Proton-K/DM-2.
Proton K-1 - Proton K stage 1. Status: Active. Gross mass: 450,510 kg (993,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 31,100 kg (68,500 lb). Thrust: 10,470.16 kN (2,353,785 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Proton K-2 - Proton K stage 2. Status: Active. Gross mass: 167,828 kg (369,997 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11,715 kg (25,827 lb). Thrust: 2,399.22 kN (539,365 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Proton K-3 - Proton K stage 3. Status: Active. Gross mass: 50,747 kg (111,877 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,185 kg (9,226 lb). Thrust: 630.17 kN (141,668 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Proton K-4H - Proposed LF2/Ammonia propellant Proton K fourth stage. Not put into production due to volatility of oxidizer. Status: Development 1992.. Gross mass: 21,700 kg (47,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). More at: LF2/Ammonia
Proton KM - Alternate designation for Proton/Briz K/M.
Proton KM-1 - Alternate name for Proton M-1.
Proton KM-3 - Alternate name for Proton M-3.
Proton KM-4 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Planned version for Proton. Never developed. Status: Development 1992.. Gross mass: 19,500 kg (42,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 73.58 kN (16,541 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Proton KM-4 Briz M - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. New upper stage for Proton, replacing Energia Corporation's Block DM, making Proton an all-Khrunichev launch vehicle. The Khrunichev-built Briz-M upper stage is a derivative of the flight-proven Briz -K stage (as used on the Rokot booster). Status: Active. Gross mass: 22,170 kg (48,870 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,370 kg (5,220 lb). Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Proton M - Alternate designation for Proton-M/Briz-M.
Proton M-1 - Proton M Stage 1. Status: Active. Gross mass: 450,400 kg (992,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 31,000 kg (68,000 lb). Thrust: 10,532.00 kN (2,367,687 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Proton M-3 - Proton M Stage 3. Status: Active. Gross mass: 50,300 kg (110,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Thrust: 613.80 kN (137,988 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Proton/Briz K/M - Earlier 8K82K model Proton, but Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaced the Block D cryogenic stage. Status: Retired 2003. First Launch: 1999-07-05. Last Launch: 2003-12-10. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 712,800 kg (1,571,400 lb). Payload: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb). Thrust: 9,469.10 kN (2,128,738 lbf).
Proton/Briz M - Alternate designation for Proton-M/Briz-M.
Proton-1 1, 2, 3, 4 - Alternate name of Proton 1, 2, 3 (Proton-1 1, 2, 3, 4 / N-4 #1, 2, 3, 4).
Proton-2 - Alternate name for UR-500-2.
Proton-2 1 / N-6 #1 - Alternate name of Proton 4 (Proton-2 1 / N-6 #1).
Proton-K - Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorized in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorized development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. Status: Retired 2000. First Launch: 1968-11-16. Last Launch: 2000-07-12. Number: 30 . Gross mass: 693,810 kg (1,529,580 lb). Payload: 19,760 kg (43,560 lb). Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf).
Proton-K Blok-DM1 - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 1996-09-06. Last Launch: 1996-09-06. Number: 1 .
Proton-K Blok-DM2 - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 1997-06-18. Last Launch: 1998-04-07. Number: 21 .
Proton-K Blok-DM3 - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 1996-04-08. Last Launch: 2006-06-17. Number: 25 .
Proton-K Blok-DM4 - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 1997-05-24. Last Launch: 1997-05-24. Number: 1 .
Proton-K/17S40 - Version of Proton using Block DM-5 / 17S40 fourth stage. This stage has a new payload adapter for use with heavier payloads launched into sub-synchronous orbits. Used for launch of Arkon reconnaissance satellite. Status: Retired 2002. First Launch: 1997-06-06. Last Launch: 2002-10-17. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 708,410 kg (1,561,770 lb). Payload: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf).
Proton-K/17S40 DM2 - Version of the 17S40 with payload adapter for deployment of multiple LM 700 (Iridium) spacecraft into medium earth orbit. Gross mass: 691,500 kg (1,524,400 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 9,500.00 kN (2,135,600 lbf).
Proton-K/D - This four stage version of the Proton was originally designed to send manned circumlunar spacecraft into translunar trajectory. Guidance to the Block D stage must be supplied by spacecraft. The design was proposed on 8 September 1965 by Korolev as an alternate to Chelomei's LK-1 circumlunar mission. It combined the Proton 8K82K booster for the LK-1 with the N1 lunar Block D stage to boost a stripped-down Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft around the moon. The Korolev design was selected, and first flight came on 10 March 1967. The crash lunar program led to a poor launch record. Following a protracted ten year test period, the booster finally reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1967-03-10. Last Launch: 1975-06-14. Number: 39 . Gross mass: 707,170 kg (1,559,040 lb). Payload: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf).
Proton-K/D-1 - This derivative of the original four stage Block D / 11S824 version of the Proton was used from 1978 to launch Lavochkin OKB planetary probes (Mars, Venera) and high earth orbit astronomical observatories (Astron, Granat). Guidance to the Block D-1 stage must be supplied by spacecraft. Equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in high orbits or planetary trajectories. Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1975-10-16. Last Launch: 1989-12-01. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 707,810 kg (1,560,450 lb). Payload: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf).
Proton-K/D-2 - This four stage version of the Proton was a modification of the original Block D / 11S824M for launch of late 1980's Lavochkin OKB probes on missions to Mars. Guidance to the Block D-2 stage must be supplied by spacecraft. Status: Retired 1996. First Launch: 1988-07-07. Last Launch: 1996-11-16. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 710,710 kg (1,566,840 lb). Payload: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf).
Proton-K/DM - The original four stage Proton / Block D configuration was used until 1976, at which time it was replaced by a modernized version equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in geosynchronous orbit and its own self-contained guidance unit. This was accepted into military service in 1978 with the first Raduga launch. The stage was first developed for launch of geosynchronous military communications and early warning satellites (Raduga, Ekran, Gorizont, Potok, SPRN). Its later versions continue in use for launch of MEO and geosynchronous communication satellites, and was Russia's most successful commercial launcher. Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1974-03-26. Last Launch: 1990-06-20. Number: 66 . Gross mass: 711,360 kg (1,568,280 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf).
Proton-K/DM-2 - This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-separation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'. Status: Active. First Launch: 1982-10-12. Last Launch: 2012-03-30. Number: 110 . Gross mass: 711,110 kg (1,567,720 lb). Payload: 1,880 kg (4,140 lb). Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf).
Proton-K/DM-2 DM1 - Version of the 11S861 with adapter for Lockheed Martin AS 4000 bus spacecraft. Gross mass: 691,500 kg (1,524,400 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 9,500.00 kN (2,135,600 lbf).
Proton-K/DM-2M - This four stage version uses the Block DM-2M / 11S861-01 upper stage, which has its own self-contained guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Used for launches of Russian geosynchronous satellites from 1994 on. Status: Active. First Launch: 1994-01-20. Last Launch: 2006-06-17. Number: 41 . Gross mass: 712,460 kg (1,570,700 lb). Payload: 1,880 kg (4,140 lb). Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf).
Proton-K/DM-2M DM3 - Version of the 11S861-01 with Saab payload adapter-separation system for insertion of Hughes HS-601 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. Gross mass: 691,500 kg (1,524,400 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 9,500.00 kN (2,135,600 lbf).
Proton-K/DM-2M DM4 - Version of the 11S861-01 with Saab payload adapter-separation system for insertion of FS-1300 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. Gross mass: 691,500 kg (1,524,400 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 9,500.00 kN (2,135,600 lbf).
Proton-M Briz-M 2 - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2004-03-15. Last Launch: 2004-03-15. Number: 1 .
Proton-M Briz-M P1 - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2004-06-16. Last Launch: 2010-01-28. Number: 21 .
Proton-M Briz-M P1M1 - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2010-02-12. Last Launch: 2011-11-04. Number: 4 .
Proton-M Briz-M P1M2 - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2011-09-20. Last Launch: 2015-12-13. Number: 3 .
Proton-M Briz-M P2 - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2007-07-07. Last Launch: 2010-11-14. Number: 12 .
Proton-M Briz-M P2M - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2008-08-18. Last Launch: 2008-08-18. Number: 1 .
Proton-M Briz-M P3 - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2009-02-11. Last Launch: 2016-03-14. Number: 54 .
Proton-M Briz-M P4 - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2016-06-09. Last Launch: 2017-05-29. Number: 2 .
Proton-M/Briz-M - Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cryogenic stage. Status: Active. First Launch: 2001-04-07. Last Launch: 2016-06-09. Number: 88 . Gross mass: 712,800 kg (1,571,400 lb). Payload: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb). Thrust: 21,000.00 kN (4,720,000 lbf).
Proton-M/DM-2 - Improved Proton-M, mated to the older 11S861 upper stage rather than the Briz-M for certain payloads. Status: Active. First Launch: 2007-12-25. Last Launch: 2010-09-02. Number: 6 .
Proton-M/DM-3 - Improved Proton-M, mated to the older DM-3 upper stage rather than the Briz-M for certain payloads. Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-12-06. Last Launch: 2015-09-14. Number: 3 .
Protostar - Commercial communications satellite. Originally Chinasat 8; sale cancelled due to new US export regulations. Sold to Protostar in 2006, still to serve Chinese market. After launch, when Protostar closed down sold to Intelsat and entered service as Intelsat 5. Used the FS-1300 bus.
ProtoStar 1 -> Intelsat 25 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for ProtoStar, USA. Launched 2008. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 2008-07-07. Last Launch: 2008-07-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb).
Proto-Vozdhusnoy Oborony - Alternate name for PVO.
Prowler - ELINT or Inspection satellite built by Hughes, USA. Launched 1990. Used the HS-376 bus. First Launch: 1990-11-15. Last Launch: 1990-11-15. Number: 1 .
Prox 1 (Nanosat 7) - Technology satellite for Georgia Tech, USA.
PRS-1 - Alternate designation for S-225.
PRS-1 - Alternate designation for 53T6.
PRS-101 - Redmond electric/Teflon rocket engine. In Production. Pulsed plasma thruster system. Completely solid state propulsion. Up to 100 W input power at 28 V DC, thrust to power ratio 12.4 microN/W. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 4.74 kg (10.44 lb). Thrust: 0.0124 N (0.0027 lbf). More at: Electric/Teflon
PRSP - Parachute landing propulsion system (Russian abbreviation)
Prunariu, Dumitru Dorin - Romanian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1981. First Rumanian astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1981. Born: 1952-09-27. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.86 days.
Pruzhany - Alternate name for Ruzhany.
PS - Alternate designation for Sputnik 1.
PS - Abbreviation for Payload Shroud
PS 1 - Technology satellite, China. Launched 2002 - 2003. First Launch: 2002-09-15. Last Launch: 2003-09-16. Number: 2 .
PS Model - Russian amateur radio communications satellite. Two subscale models of Sputnik 1, were built by students for hand-launch from Mir on fortieth anniversary of Sputnik 1. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-10-05. Last Launch: 1998-10-25. Number: 2 .
PS-1 - Alternate designation for Sputnik 1 technology satellite.
PS-1 #1 - Alternate name of Sputnik 1 (PS-1 #1).
PS-2 - Alternate designation for Sputnik 2 biology satellite.
PS-2 #1 - Alternate name of Sputnik 2 (PS-2 #1).
PSAC - Presidents Science Advisory Committee
PSat - 1.5U Cubesat from the US Naval Academy (UNSA) hosting the USN SCP/ODTML buoy communications payload and an amateur radio payload.
PSat 2 - Experimental Communication satellite for US Naval Academy Satellite Lab, USA. Used the CubeSat (1.5U) bus.
PSat A, B (ParkinsonSat A, B / NO 84 / Naval Academy-OSCAR 84) - Experimental Communication satellite for US Naval Academy Satellite Lab, USA. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (1.5U) bus. First Launch: 2015-05-20. Last Launch: 2015-05-20. Number: 1 .
psf - Abbreviation for pounds per square foot
PSG - Alternate name for Serrezuela.
psi - Abbreviation for pounds per square inch
psia - Abbreviation for pounds per square inch absolute
PSLV - Indian third-generation launch vehicle, large enough to carry polar-orbiting earth resources satellites. Status: Active. First Launch: 1993-09-20. Last Launch: 2016-09-26. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 294,000 kg (648,000 lb). Payload: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Thrust: 5,300.00 kN (1,191,400 lbf).
PSLV C - Indian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 6 x PSOM + 1 x S139 + 1 x PS2 + 1 x PS3 + 1 x PS4 Gross mass: 294,000 kg (648,000 lb). Payload: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Thrust: 5,290.00 kN (1,189,230 lbf).
PSLV CA - Core alone four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x S139 + 1 x PS2 + 1 x PS3 + 1 x PS4 First Launch: 2007-04-23. Last Launch: 2015-12-16. Number: 52 .
PSLV XL - Alternate designation for PSLV-XL.
PSLV-0 - Alternate name for SLV-1.
PSLV-1 - ISRO solid rocket engine. Used on GSLV, PSLV. First flight 1993. GSLV first stage. Status: Active. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 160,200 kg (353,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 31,200 kg (68,700 lb). Thrust: 4,860.00 kN (1,092,570 lbf). More at: Solid
PSLV-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 45,800 kg (100,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,300 kg (11,600 lb). Thrust: 725.02 kN (162,990 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
PSLV-3 - ISRO solid rocket engine. Used on PSLV launch vehicle. First flight 1993. Status: Active. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 328.70 kN (73,895 lbf). More at: Solid
PSLV-4 - ISRO N2O4/MMH rocket stage. Used on PSLV launch vehicle. First flight 1993. Status: Active. Gross mass: 2,920 kg (6,430 lb). Unfuelled mass: 920 kg (2,020 lb). Thrust: 14.00 kN (3,148 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
PSLV-G (1) - Indian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 1993-09-20. Last Launch: 1996-03-21. Number: 3 .
PSLV-G (2) - Indian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 1997-09-29. Last Launch: 2001-10-22. Number: 7 .
PSLV-G (3) - Indian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 2002-09-12. Last Launch: 2016-09-26. Number: 19 .
PSLV-HP - Indian orbital launch vehicle variant.
PSLV-XL - Five stage vehicle consisting of 6 x PSOM-XL + 1 x S139 + 1 x PS2 + 1 x PS3 + 1 x PS4 Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-10-22. Last Launch: 2017-02-15. Number: 15 .
PSN - Indonesian agency. PSN, Indonesia.
PSN 6 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for PT Pasifik Satelit Nusantara. Used the SSL-1300 bus. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
PSR - Abbreviation for PulSaR
PSSC - Picosatellite Solar Cell Testbed 2. Ejected from STS-135 prior to re-entry. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-07-08. Last Launch: 2011-07-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
PSSCT 1 - Alternate name of PSSC-Testbed 1 (PSSCT 1).
PSSCT 2 - Alternate name of PSSC-Testbed 2 (PSSCT 2).
PSSCT 3 - Alternate name of PSSC-Testbed 3 (PSSCT 3).
PSSC-Testbed 1 (PSSCT 1) - Technology test satellite built by Aerospace Corporation for USAF, USA. Launched 2008. First Launch: 2008-11-15. Last Launch: 2008-11-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 7.00 kg (15.40 lb).
PSSC-Testbed 2 (PSSCT 2) - Technology test satellite built by Aerospace Corporation for USAF, USA. Launched 2011. First Launch: 2011-07-08. Last Launch: 2011-07-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
PSSC-Testbed 3 (PSSCT 3) - Technology test satellite built by Aerospace Corporation for USAF. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus.
PSU - Penn State University
Psyche (Discovery 14) - Asteroid lander built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for NASA, USA. Used the SSL-1300 bus.
PT Pasifik Satelite Nusantara - Alternate name for PSN.
PT Telkom - Indonesian agency. PT Telkom, Indonesia.
PTB 1 - Alternate name of eXCITe (PTB 1).
PTD 1 - Technology satellite for NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
PTecSat - Technology satellite for University of Southern California/Space Engineering Research Center (USC/SERC), USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
PTLS - Technology test satellite for Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT), USA. Used the CubeSat (4U) bus.
Ptolemy, Claudius - Greek philosopher, theorized that the universe had the Earth at its center with the planets, Moon, Sun, and stars orbiting around it. This concept was dogma for 1500 years until Copernicus placed the sun at the center. Also catalogued 1,022 star Born: fl.127. Died: 0145-01-01.
PTP - Abbreviation for Pyroxyline TNT Powder
PTSS 1 - Early warning satellite built by Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU-APL) for Missile Defense Agency (MDA).
PTV-A-1 - Alternate name of Kingfisher AQM-60.
PTV-N-2 - Alternate name of Gorgon KD2N.
PTV-N-4 - Alternate designation for Cobra-BTV.
PU - Abbreviation for Polyurethane
Puchkov, Aleksandr Sergeyevich - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1996. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1996. Born: 1948-10-15.
Puckett, Allen E - American engineer. Leader at Hughes Aircraft, 1949-1987. Led development of radars and missiles in 1950's, took Hughes into communications satellite field in 1960's. Born: 1919-07-25. Died: 2014-03-31.
PUCPSat - 1U Cubesat deployed from Unisat-5 for Pontifica Universidad Catolica del Peru, Lima.
PUCP-Sat 1 - Technology satellite for Institute for Radio Astronomy of the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (INRAS-PUCP), Peru. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2013-11-21. Last Launch: 2013-11-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Puellenberg, Albert - German engineer. Led the Hannover Group of German rocket experimenters 1931-1935, and renewed German citizen rocketry 1952-1964. Born: 1913-07-03.
Puente del Inca - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1964-07-27. Last Launch: 1964-07-27. Number: 1 .
Puffin AUM-N-6 - Bureau of Standards/McDonnell 1950's US Navy air-to-underwater missile; ex Kingfisher F.
Pujiang - Pujiang, the Chinese Technology Experiment Satellite, was designed to promote the construction of smart cities in China, by monitoring urban weather, traffic and population density. It was the first Chinese satellite to use 3D printing for the titanium structure of its antenna. It included a Wi-Fi router providing a communication network between the three Tianwang cubesats released on the same launch. Technology satellite for SAST, China. Launched 2015. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-09-25. Last Launch: 2015-09-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
Pulsar - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-17.
Pulsar - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-10.
Pulsar - Alternate name of Soyuz TMA-10M.
Puma - American Pointer Upgraded Mission Ability UAV.
Pushenko, Nikolai Alekseyevich - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1996. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1996. Born: 1952-08-10.
Pustovyi, Yaroslav Igorevich 'Yarko' - Ukrainian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1996-2006. Ukraine Air Force. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2006. Born: 1970-12-29.
Putze, Oswald - German graduate engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. Born: 1900-08-28.
Puz, Craig Anton - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1990. Status: Deceased; Active 1982-1990. Born: 1954-06-24. Died: 2008-12-21.
PV - Abbreviation for Photovoltaic
PVC - Polyvinyl chloride
PVO - Russian Air Defense Forces.
PVO (abbreviation) - Pioneer Venus Orbiter
PW 1000000 lb LH2 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1988. Part of launch vehicle proposed by Martin as alternative to NLS. All figures estimated based on 1,000,000 lb thrust single engine. Status: Study 1988. Thrust: 4,457.00 kN (1,001,973 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
PWN-1 - Alternate designation for Loki Dart.
PWN-10 - US DoD designation for Super Loki.
PWN-10 - American sounding rocket, equipping the Loki-Dart payload with a radar transponder, in turn requiring the larger Super Loki motor to reach the same altitude.
PWN-11 - American sounding rocket. Version of the PWN-10 with a smaller payload dart without the transponder.
PWN-12 - American sounding rocket. The was another sounding rocket using the Super Loki booster. It used a dart with a ROBIN (Rocket Balloon Instrument) Inflatable Falling Sphere payload.
PWN-1A - US DoD designation for Loki Dart.
PWN-2 - Alternate designation for Aerobee 150.
PWN-2A - US DoD designation for Aerobee 150.
PWN-3 - Alternate designation for Nike Cajun.
PWN-3A - US DoD designation for Nike Cajun.
PWN-4 - US DoD designation for Exos RM-86.
PWN-4 - Alternate designation for Exos sounding rocket.
PWN-4A - US DoD designation for Exos RM-86.
PWN-5 - US DoD designation for Rocksonde 200 RM-88.
PWN-5 - American sounding rocket. Produced by Marquardt for the Army, Rocksonde meteorological sounding rockets first completed a series of tests at White Sands Missile Range and Pacific Missile Range. They were later successfully fired from Cape Canaveral, telemetered measurements of winds and temperatures at altitudes above 600,000 m. Status: Out of production.
PWN-5A - US DoD designation for Rocksonde 200 RM-88.
PWN-6 - Alternate designation for Kitty.
PWN-7 - Alternate designation for Rooster.
PWN-8 - US DoD designation for Loki Dart PWN-8B.
PWN-8 - American sounding rocket. In the early 1960s, the low-cost Loki-Dart sounding rockets could only carry a passive chaff payload to high altitude. For more sophisticated payloads like temperature transmitters, the USAF had to use the significantly more expensive Arcas. The Space Data Corporation (SDC) was founded in 1963 with the goal to develop a meteorological instrument package small enough to fit into the 3.5 cm (1.38 in) diameter darts of the Loki-Dart systems.
PWN-9 - Alternate designation for Kangaroo.
PWSat - 1U Cubesat student satellite from the Warsaw Institute of Technology.
PW-Sat 1 - Technology satellite for Warsaw University of Technology, Polish Academy of Sciences (Space Research Centre), Poland. Launched 2012. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2012-02-13. Last Launch: 2012-02-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
PW-Sat 2 - Technology satellite for Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
PX430 - Alternate name of Seawolf.
Pye Wacket - Pye Wacket was the code name for a flying saucer-shaped air-to-air missile being developed by the US Air Force 1957-1961. A study of newly declassified sources reveals a more complex history... and the ultimate intention to develop Pye Wacket into a manned antisatellite spacecraft design... before it probably 'went black'.
Python - Israeli air-to-air missile.
Python 3 - Israeli air-to-air missile. In production. Gross mass: 121 kg (266 lb).
Python 4 - Israeli air-to-air missile. Low-rate production reportedly began in 1990. Gross mass: 106 kg (233 lb).
Python 5 - Israeli air-to-air missile.

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