Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: A

A - Library of Congress designation for R-7 launch vehicles without upper stages (Sputnik 8K71PS, [Sputnik 8A91], [Sputnik 11A59], [Vostok 11A510]).
A - Apollo (mission designator)
A (Launch System) - Alternate designation for V-1000.
A Brief History of the HARP Project - Richard K Graf's account of the Canadian 1960's project to launch satellites from a 16 inch gun...
A I Polyarniy - First name of Polyarniy Design Bureau.
A M Bondaryuk - First name of Bondaryuk bureau.
A M Isayev - First name of Isayev bureau.
A M Lyulka (NPO Saturn) - First name of Lyulka bureau.
A Rocket a Day Keeps the High Costs Away - John Walker's classic 'modest proposal' to reduce launch costs.
A&A - Abbreviation for Astronomy and Astrophysics
A/P 22S-2 - American pressure suit, operational 1960. The David Clark XMC-2-DC prototype, although still in need of substantial development, evolved into the MC-2 suit and then into a standardized Air Force high altitude, full pressure garment known as the A/P 22S-2. Status: operational 1960.
A/P 22S-3 - American pressure suit, operational 1960. USAF version of the USN Mark IV suit (B. F. Goodrich and Arrow Rubber Company). Full pressure, two layers, oxygen regulator exterior of helmet, 12 torso sizes, 7 gloves sizes, 2 helmet sizes. Status: operational 1960.
A/P22S-4 - American pressure suit, operational 1967. Full pressure suit replacement for the A/P22S-2, 8 sizes for use in bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. Evolved from the original MC-2 design. Status: operational 1967.
A/P22S-6 - American pressure suit, operational 1975. Full pressure suit replacement for the A/P22S-4. 12 sizes, for bomber, reconnaissance and fighter aircraft. Status: operational 1975.
A/P22S-6A - American pressure suit, operational 1975. Modified A/P22S-6 suit to add urine collection device with other material and hardware changes. Status: operational 1975.
A1 - German test vehicle. First in series of rockets leading to V-2. Exploded at Kummersdorf during a test run. Considered aerodynamically unstable (a stabilizing flywheel was mounted forward) and no launch attempts were made. Status: Design 1933. Gross mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 3.00 kN (674 lbf).
A-1 - Library of Congress designation for R-7 launch vehicles with a single-engine upper stage (Vostok-L 8K72, [Vostok 8K72], [Vostok 8K72K], [Vostok 8A92], [Vostok 8A92M]).
A-1 (R-1) - Soviet designation for a sounding rocket version of the R-1 (Russian-built V-2) used for ionospheric research. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1954-05-26. Last Launch: 1964-09-13. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 13,400 kg (29,500 lb).
A-10 - Alternate designation for A-10 engine.
A-10 - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1944. Gross mass: 69,043 kg (152,213 lb). Unfuelled mass: 16,993 kg (37,463 lb). Thrust: 2,306.90 kN (518,611 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
A-10 engine - Thiel LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Study 1942. Planned for use in A-10. Unique dual-thrust chamber / single nozzle design, which was later shown to be not feasible technically. Status: Study 1942. Thrust: 2,306.80 kN (518,589 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
A-11 - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Masses estimated; dimensions scaled from drawing. Status: Study 1944. Gross mass: 500,000 kg (1,100,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb). Thrust: 13,841.38 kN (3,111,666 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
A12 - Alternate designation for Von Braun 1948.
A12 - Alternate designation for Von Braun 1956.
A12 - Alternate designation for Von Braun 1952.
A-12 - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. All values estimated. Status: Study 1944. Gross mass: 3,500,000 kg (7,700,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 350,000 kg (770,000 lb). Thrust: 98,000.00 kN (22,031,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
A-135 - Alternate designation for 53T6.
A-135 - Two-tier Russian anti-ballistic missile system for the defense of Moscow, with both endoatmospheric and exoatmospheric interceptor missiles. After protracted development, the system was said to have gone into operation in 1995. Status: Active. Gross mass: 33,000 kg (72,000 lb).
A-135 - Alternate designation for 51T6.
A1C - American space suit, tested 1965. For the initial Block I Apollo missions a modification of the Gemini G4C suit was to have been flown. After the death of the Apollo 1 crew on the pad, Block I missions were cancelled and the suit never flew. Status: tested 1965.
A1P - Alternate designation for Polaris FTV-4.
A1P stage series -
A1P-1 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1. Status: Retired 1965. Number: 117 . Gross mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Propellants: Solid.
A1P-2 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 2. Polaris AX second stage. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 4,300 kg (9,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 951 kg (2,096 lb). Propellants: Solid.
A2 - German test vehicle. First flight test rocket in the series that led to the V-2. Two were built, dubbed Max and Moritz. Both were successfully flown. Status: Retired 1934. First Launch: 1934-12-19. Last Launch: 1934-12-20. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 107 kg (235 lb). Thrust: 3.00 kN (674 lbf).
A-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511L.
A-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz-FG.
A-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A514.
A-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz-ST-B.
A-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz ST / Fregat ST.
A-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz-U.
A-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz-U2.
A-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511.
A-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A510.
A-2 - Alternate designation for Voskhod 11A57.
A-2 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511M.
A2100 - Alternate designation for AS 2100 communications satellite.
A2100A - Improved version of the AS 2100 bus.
A2100AX - Improved version of the AS 2100 bus.
A2100AXS - Improved version of the AS 2100 bus.
A2100M - Version of the AS 2100 bus, optimized for communications services with mobile users.
A-2e - Alternate designation for Molniya 8K78M.
A-2-e - Alternate designation for Molniya 8K78.
A2P-1 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1. Status: Retired 1971. Number: 227 . Gross mass: 10,100 kg (22,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Propellants: Solid.
A3 - German test vehicle. The A3 was the first large rocket attempted by Wernher von Braun's rocket team. It was equipped with an ambitious guidance package consisting of three gyroscopes and two integrating accelerometers. The rocket was intended as a subscale prototype for the propulsion and control system technology planned for the much larger A4. All of the launches were failures, and a total redesign, the A5, was developed. Status: Retired 1937. First Launch: 1937-12-04. Last Launch: 1937-12-11. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 740 kg (1,630 lb). Thrust: 14.70 kN (3,305 lbf).
A-35 - Alternate designation for A-35M.
A-35 - Russian anti-ballistic missile. First operational Soviet ABM system, going into limited operation around Moscow in 1972. Status: Retired 2000.
A-35 - Alternate designation for A-350Zh.
A-350 - Alternate designation for A-350R.
A-350-1 - N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb). Status: Retired 1999. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
A-350-2 - N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb). Status: Retired 1999. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
A-350R - Alternate designation for A-35.
A-350R - Alternate designation for A-35M.
A-350R - Russian anti-ballistic missile. Radiation-hardened version of the A-35 used in the A-35M system. Status: Retired 1999. First Launch: 1971-01-01. Last Launch: 1999-11-01. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 32,600 kg (71,800 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb).
A-350Zh - Alternate designation for A-35.
A-350Zh - Russian anti-ballistic missile. Initial version of the A-35 used in the A-35M system. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1962-01-01. Last Launch: 1967-09-01. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 33,000 kg (72,000 lb).
A-350Zh, A-350R - Alternate designation for A-35.
A-350Zh-1 - Alternate name for 5S47.
A-350Zh-2 - Alternate name for 5D22.
A-35M - Russian anti-ballistic missile. Improved version of the A-35 with radiation-hardened missiles and command centers, improved radars, and capability against tactical missiles fired from Europe against Moscow. Went into operation in 1978.
A-35M - Alternate designation for A-350R.
A3P-1 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1. Status: Active. Gross mass: 11,100 kg (24,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,270 kg (2,790 lb). Propellants: Solid.
A4 - Alternate designation for V-2.
A-4 - Alternate designation for Model 39.
A-4 - Alternate designation for A-4 stage.
A-4 - German production version. Status: Retired 1947. First Launch: 1942-06-13. Last Launch: 1947-11-13. Number: 156 . Gross mass: 12,800 kg (28,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,008 kg (8,836 lb). Thrust: 311.80 kN (70,095 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
A-4 stage - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. V-2 production version. Status: Retired 1952. Gross mass: 12,805 kg (28,230 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,008 kg (8,836 lb). Thrust: 311.80 kN (70,095 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
A4b - Alternate designation for A-4b.
A-4b - German intermediate range boost-glide missile. Winged version of the V-2 missile with over double the range. Two flown at the end of the war, but there was no time to complete development, let alone start production. Status: Retired 1945. First Launch: 1944-12-27. Last Launch: 1945-01-24. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 14,150 kg (31,190 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,360 kg (11,810 lb). Thrust: 312.00 kN (70,140 lbf).
A4H - American space suit, tested 1963. ILC Dover and Hamilton Standard full pressure suit, Contained a secondary bladder and restraint with a wrist cuff/dam for NASA/HSD (1963-1964), modified A4H suit for NASA-AMES (1964-1965). Status: tested 1963.
A5 - German test vehicle. Subscale test model of A4 (V-2). Replaced the A3 in this role after its unsuccessful test series. The A5 used the same powerplant as the A3, but had the aerodynamic form of the A4 and a new control system. 25 all-up versions were flown, some several times. Status: Retired 1942. First Launch: 1939-10-01. Last Launch: 1939-10-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 15.00 kN (3,372 lbf).
A6 - German intermediate range cruise missile. The A6 designation was applied to a version of the A5 subscale V-2 using alternate propellants. It also seems to have been applied to a manned, ramjet-powered version of the A9 winged V-2. Status: Design 1943. Thrust: 123.00 kN (27,651 lbf).
A-6 - Rocketdyne LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Redstone launch vehicle. First flight 1953. Developed from the XLR43-NA-1, an American version of the V-2 single-chamber engine tested in 1945. Status: Out of production. Date: 1950. Number: 148 . Unfuelled mass: 658 kg (1,450 lb). Thrust: 414.30 kN (93,138 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
A6-12 - Dushkin rocket engine. V-600. Developed 1955-62. Thrust variable 1500 - 4000 kgf. Status: Developed 1955-62. Date: 1955-62. Thrust: 39.00 kN (8,767 lbf).
A7 - German test vehicle. Subscale test model of the A9 rocket. Considered for use as a weapon as well. Status: Cancelled 1940. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 15.00 kN (3,372 lbf).
A-7 - Rocketdyne LOx/Hydyne rocket engine. Out of Production. Version of Redstone engine for Jupiter-C test vehicle, with Hydyne fuel and 140 seconds burn time. Flew 1956-1959. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust 370 kN at sea level. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1951. Number: 9 . Unfuelled mass: 658 kg (1,450 lb). Thrust: 416.20 kN (93,565 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Hydyne.
A7L - ILC Dover spacesuit used for the Apollo and Skylab programs, operational 1968. Hamilton Standard had overall development responsibility for the Apollo suit and associated portable life support system. A subcontract was awarded to International Latex Corporation for development of this suit. Status: operational 1968. Gross mass: 48 kg (105 lb).
A8 - German ballistic missile. Planned stretched version of the V-2 with storable propellants. Never reached the hardware stage, but design continued after the war in France as the 'Super V-2'. Status: Study 1941. Gross mass: 22,370 kg (49,310 lb). Thrust: 340.00 kN (76,430 lbf).
A9 - Alternate designation for A-4b.
A-9 - Alternate designation for A-9 stage.
A-9 - Alternate designation for Model 39a.
A-9 - German manned rocketplane. Study 1944. Manned, winged boost-glide version of the V-2 missile. It would have been capable of delivering express cargo 600 km from the launch point within 17 minutes. Status: Study 1944. Gross mass: 16,259 kg (35,844 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 288.68 kN (64,897 lbf).
A-9 stage - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Winged version. Status: Study 1944. Gross mass: 16,259 kg (35,844 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 288.68 kN (64,897 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
A9/A10 - German intercontinental boost-glide missile. The A9/A10 was the world's first practical design for a transatlantic ballistic missile. Design of the two stage missile began in 1940 and first flight would have been in 1946. Work on the A9/A10 was prohibited after 1943 when all efforts were to be spent on perfection and production of the A4 as a weapon-in-being. Von Braun managed to continue some development and flight tests of the A9 under the cover name of A4b (i.e. a modification of the A4, and therefore a production-related project). In late 1944 work on the A9/A10 resumed under the code name Projekt Amerika, but no significant hardware development was possible after the last test of the A4b in January 1945. Status: Cancelled 1945. Gross mass: 85,300 kg (188,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 2,000.00 kN (449,600 lbf).
A9/A10/A11 - German winged orbital launch vehicle. The A11 was planned at Peenemuende to use the A9/A10 transoceanic missile atop the tubby A11 stage to form the basis for launching the first earth satellite - or as an ICBM.... Status: Study 1944. Gross mass: 586,000 kg (1,291,000 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 11,770.00 kN (2,646,000 lbf).
A9/A10/A11/A12 - German orbital launch vehicle. The A12 has been named as the designation for a true orbital launch vehicle, as sketched out at Peenemuende. It would have been a four-stage vehicle consisting of the A9+A10+A11+A12 stages. Calculations suggest it could have placed 10 metric tons into low earth orbit. Status: Study 1944. Gross mass: 4,100,000 kg (9,000,000 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 83,400.00 kN (18,749,000 lbf).
A-925 - Alternate designation for 51T6.
A-925-1 - Alternate name for 51T6 Motor.
A-925-2 - N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. Status: Active. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
A9L - American space suit, tested 1969. Two hard-shell, constant-volume suits entered development for the Apollo Applications Program. Status: tested 1969.
AABS - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Aerospike Annular Booster and Sustainer. Pressure-fed. Booster thrust 3000 to 4000 lb vac; sustainer 1500-2000 lb vac, 257 sec specific impulse. Date: 1967. Thrust: 17.78 kN (3,997 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
AACB - After the Aerospaceplane was terminated, the USAF Flight Dynamics Laboratory began study of less ambitious near-term spaceplane designs. This eventually led to a series of studies completed in 1966 funded by a joint NASA-DoD Aeronautics and Astronautics Coordinating Board (AACB). These concepts provided the basis for the later USAF ILRV and NASA Space Shuttle projects. Status: Study 1966.
AACB Class 1 - American winged orbital launch vehicle. In 1965-1966 NASA and the Department of Defense jointly studied two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles as a follow-on to existing expendable launchers. Following review of the three classes of alternative approaches, it was recommended that the immediate goal of the United States should be development of a partially reusable 'Class I' launch vehicle, which could be available by 1975 and would be competitive with existing expendable boosters. A fully reusable vehicle should only be pursued at a later date. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 395,986 kg (872,999 lb). Payload: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb).
AACB Class 2 - American winged orbital launch vehicle. The AACB Class II launch vehicle was a fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. Both stages would be lifting bodies and be powered by LOx/LH2 engines. The system would be operational by 1978 and place 9,100 kg of payload in orbit. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 745,479 kg (1,643,499 lb). Payload: 9,072 kg (20,000 lb).
AACB Class 3 - American winged orbital launch vehicle. The AACB Class III launch vehicle was an advanced concept use air-breathing stages, but still requiring two stages to achieve orbit. The joint NASA/USAF panel concluded that the technology did not yet exist to develop this concept, so it was only regarded as an option by 1982 at the earliest. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 306,175 kg (675,000 lb). Payload: 15,876 kg (35,000 lb).
AAD - Status: Active. First Launch: 2007-12-02. Last Launch: 2012-11-23. Number: 6 .
AADC - Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation
Aalborg - Danish agency. University of Aalborg, Aalborg, Denmark.
AAM - The Dual Launch Adapter housed the secondary payload, an Advanced Avionics Module for future use on Indian launch vehicles. The AAM remained attached to the PSLV fourth stage. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-04-23. Last Launch: 2007-04-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 185 kg (407 lb).
AAO - Abbreviation for Anglo-Australian Observatory
AAP - Abbreviation for Apollo Applications Program
AAPO - Abbreviation for Apollo Applications Program Office
AAS - Abbreviation for American Astronautical Society
AAS - Classified payload; not identified as a subsatellite ferret SSF by McDowell.
AAU - Aalborg University successfully contacted its AAU-Cubesat nanosatellite after it was separated. It carried a 100-meter-resolution Earth imaging camera.
AAUSat - Danish gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2008.04.28. University of Aalborg nanosat; carried a gamma ray burst detector for the Danish National Space Center. Status: Operational 2008.
AAVSO - Abbreviation or acronym for American Association of Variable Star Observers
Ababil-100 - Alternate designation for Al Fatah.
Abbey - American engineer, headed NASA space shuttle operations and astronaut selection 1976-2003; focus of tremendous staff demoralization. For some reason beloved by upper management, surviving both Challenger and Columbia disasters. Born: 1932-08-21.
Abbott - American aerodynamicist, at NASA 1929-1962; supervised the X-15, supersonic transport, nuclear rocket, and advanced reentry programs. Born: 1906-07-18. Died: 1988-11-03.
Abdali - Alternate designation for Hatf II.
Aberporth - The Aberporth military test range is located on Cardigan Bay on the west coast of Wales. It already became associated with solid rocket tests during the Second World War. Development of surface-to-air missiles began there in 1948 and tests were made of re-entry and high-speed aircraft shapes in the 1960's. Due to the military nature of the site, the only sounding rocket launches have been to support military test operations. First Launch: 1959-06-29. Last Launch: 1973-01-01. Number: 44 .
Abid - Alternate designation for Tamouz.
ABL - Alternate name for Alleghany.
ABL Snark JATO - Hercules solid rocket engine. Snark first stage. Status: Retired 1960. Propellants: Solid.
ablation - The removal of surface material from a body by vaporization, melting chipping, or other erosive process; specifically, the intentional removal of surface matter from a reentry body during high-speed movement through a planetary atmosphere to protect the remaining body from the heat generated by friction.
Able - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Engine for Vanguard was AJ10-37; for later Able models AJ10-41 and AJ10-42. Total of 21 stages built and delivered by Aerojet. Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 1,884 kg (4,153 lb). Unfuelled mass: 429 kg (945 lb). Thrust: 34.69 kN (7,799 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Able - Alternate designation for Delta A rocket stage.
Able-Star - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. The Air Force requested increases in the propulsion system capabilities of the original Able upper stage design in an effort to meet their ever-expanding mission requirements. As a result, the stainless steel version of the basic Able engine was selected, and it was uprated to increase thrust 34.7 kN to 37.0 kN and to increase the duration 2-1/2 times (easily done with the stainless steel thrust chamber) - and this configuration was called Ablestar. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 4,497 kg (9,914 lb). Unfuelled mass: 599 kg (1,320 lb). Thrust: 36.02 kN (8,099 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
ABM - Abbreviation for Anti-ballistic missile
ABM-1 - Alternate designation for V-1000.
ABM-1 - Alternate designation for A-35.
ABM-1A - Alternate designation for A-350Zh.
ABM-1B - Alternate designation for A-350R.
ABM-2 - Alternate designation for A-35M.
ABM-3 - Alternate designation for 53T6.
ABM-4 - Alternate designation for 51T6.
ABMA - Fourth name of NASA Huntsville.
Abort Stage - Alternate designation for Dynasoar AS manned spacecraft module.
Abrahamson - American pilot astronaut, 1967-1969. Later Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1969. Born: 1933-05-19.
Abramov - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1966-1980 of Korolev design bureau. Specialized in launch complexes. Born: 1919. Died: 1998-08-15.
ABRES - Abbreviation or acronym for Advanced Ballistic Re-Entry System Project
ABRESA2 - Alternate name for Vandenberg 576A2.
ABRESA3 - Alternate name for Vandenberg 576A3.
ABRESB1 - Alternate name for Vandenberg 576B1.
ABRESB2 - Alternate name for Vandenberg 576B2.
ABRESB3 - Alternate name for Vandenberg 576B3.
ABRIXAS - German x-ray astronomy satellite. X-ray astronomy satellite with the mission to carry out an all-sky survey in the 1-10 keV band with 30 arc second resolution. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-04-28. Last Launch: 1999-04-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 470 kg (1,030 lb).
ABS - Communications satellite series for Hong-Kong-based Asia Broadcast Satellite.
absorptivity - A property of a material, characterizing its capability to absorb rather than transmit or reflect incident radiant energy.
Acaba - American geologist mission specialist astronaut 2004-on. Status: Active 2004-on. Born: 1967-05-17. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 137.81 days.
Academy of Rocket Motors Technology (4th Academy) - Alternate name for ARMT.
Academy of Sciences Group 1 - 1967 - Requirement: scientists for lunar landing missions. Date: 1967.
Academy of Sciences Group 1 Supplemental - 1968 - Requirement: senior scientist to command Academy of Sciences cosmonaut corps. Date: 1968.
Academy of Sciences Group 2 - 1980 - Requirement: female scientist cosmonauts to visit Salyut and Mir space stations, primarily for propaganda purposes, to upstage American female astronaut flights aboard the shuttle. Date: 1980.
ACC - Abbreviation for Air Combat Command
Acceleration - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Acceleration, Bath, Michigan, USA.
ACE - American solar satellite. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-08-25. Last Launch: 1997-08-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 785 kg (1,730 lb). Unfuelled mass: 596 kg (1,313 lb).
ACES - Alternate designation for ACES spacesuit.
ACES - Alternate designation for ACES ABM.
ACES - Alternate name for AS 2100.
ACES - Indonesian agency. Asia Cellular Satellite System, Jakarta, Indonesia.
ACES ABM - American anti-ballistic missile. SDIO/BMDO project, follow on to Arrow Status: Study.
ACES spacesuit - American space suit, operational 1995. The Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) replaced the Launch/Entry Suit (LES) from 1995 on. The ACES fulfilled the same functions as the LES. Status: operational 1995.
ACF - Aero Club de France, Paris, France. French agency overseeing development of spacecraft.
Achat - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-11.
Acheron - French solid rocket engine. Hades first stage. Status: Retired 1992. Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Acid/Aniline 4000 lbf thrust - Alternate name for Acid-Aniline 4000 lbf thrust.
Acid-Aniline 4000 lbf thrust - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Development begun December 1946. Engine design and testing Date: December 1946. Thrust: 17.60 kN (3,957 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Ackley - American engineer. Head of Atlas missile testing in the earliest part of the program Ackley, son of a violin repairman, was head of Atlas missile testing in the earliest part of the program. Born: 1908-01-18. Died: 1972-04-14.
ACRA - Romanian manufacturer of spacecraft. Aeronautics and Cosmonautics Romanian Association, Romania.
ACRIMSAT - American solar satellite. The NASA ACRIMSAT satellite was managed by JPL, and measured the integrated solar energy output from 0.2 to 2 microns. ACRIMSAT was built by Orbital Sciences. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-12-21. Last Launch: 1999-12-21. Number: 1 .
ACS - Abbreviation for Attitude control system
Acton - American solar physicist payload specialist astronaut 1978-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1985. Born: 1936-03-07. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.95 days.
ACTS - American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.09.12. NASA experimental communications; Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Status: Operational 1993. Gross mass: 2,767 kg (6,100 lb).
AD - Air density satellite (Explorer)
Adam - American manned spacecraft. In early 1958 Wernher von Braun proposed launching an American aboard an Army Redstone on a suborbital mission into space before the end of 1959 at a cost of under $12 million. Status: Study 1957.
Adam - Name of one Galileo Navsat.
Adam Flight 1 - In February 1958, building on the success of his Redstone putting America's first satellite into space, Wernher von Braun proposed Project Adam. This modest $12 million project promised to have an American in space by the end of 1959, a year sooner than the Air Force's $100 million MISS (Man-In-Space-Soonest). Originally dubbed "Man Very High", the idea was to use an Army Ballistic Missile Agency Redstone rocket to boost a USAF Man High balloon gondola with a human 'test subject' on a suborbital trajectory. The concept was opposed by both the USAF and NACA. It was finally killed in July 1958, but then roled into Project Mercury by NASA - with the first manned flight of Mercury-Redstone not coming until April 1961 - after the Soviets had orbited the first man in space. Launched: End of 1959.
Adamchuk - Ukrainian scientist cosmonaut, 1996-1996. Botanist. Status: Inactive. Born: 1970-10-04.
Adams - American test pilot astronaut 1965-1966. Died in crash of X-15 Flight 191 when spacecraft went out of control during reentry. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1966. Born: 1930-05-05. Died: 1967-11-15. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.0034 days.
Adamson - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1984-1992. US Army Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1992. Born: 1946-03-03. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 13.93 days.
Adapter Module - Alternate name for Gemini AM.
Adapter Module - Alternate name for Big Gemini AM.
Adapter Module - Alternate name for Gemini Ferry AM.
Adapter Module - Alternate name for Gemini B AM.
Adasko - Russian engineer. Talented engineer of electro-mechanical systems. Director of VNIIEM, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Electromechanics in 1991-1993. Born: 1933. Died: 1963-01-01.
ADCOM - Abbreviation or acronym for Air Defense Command
ADE - American earth atmosphere satellite. 12 foot diameter balloon, identical to Explorer 9, for atmospheric density studies. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-12-19. Last Launch: 1968-08-08. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 8.00 kg (17.60 lb).
ADEOS - Japanese earth atmosphere satellite. The polar orbiting ADEOS spacecraft was to perform Earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic remote sensing. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-08-17. Last Launch: 2002-12-14. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 135 kg (297 lb).
ADFRF - Abbreviation or acronym for Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, later DFRC, NASA facility
ADI - Italian agency. ADI, Italy.
ADLER - Ariane-5 derived semi-reusable proposal of 1993. Expendable fuel tanks but recoverable propulsion/avionics module. Status: Study 1993.
ADU - Abort engine unit (Russian abbreviation)
Advanced Composition Explorer - Alternate designation for ACE solar satellite.
Advanced Earth Observation Satellite - Alternate designation for ADEOS earth atmosphere satellite.
Advanced Extremely High Frequency - Alternate name for AEHF.
Advanced Land Observing Satellite - Alternate designation for Daichi civilian surveillance radar satellite.
Advanced Launch System - Alternate designation for ALS.
Advanced Launch System Core - Alternate designation for ALS stage rocket stage.
Advanced Manned System 1961 - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1961. Six crew ballistic re-entry capsule. Orbital escape - abort capability. Mass per crew 548 kg. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 3,288 kg (7,248 lb).
Advanced Mariner - American outer planets probe. need summary - see links
Advanced Orion - American military signals intelligence satellite. Highly classified. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-05-14. Last Launch: 2012-06-29. Number: 6 .
Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment - Alternate designation for APEX technology satellite.
Advanced Relay TEchnology MISsion - Alternate designation for Artemis communications technology satellite.
Advanced Satellite Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for ASLV.
Advanced Scout - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade of Scout proposed by the University of Rome with two strap-ons from the Ariane 4. Launch would have been from Italy's San Marco platform off Kenya. Further work cancelled in 1993. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 39,530 kg (87,140 lb). Payload: 521 kg (1,148 lb). Thrust: 1,259.30 kN (283,102 lbf).
Advanced Solid Rocket Motor - Alternate designation for Shuttle ASRM engine.
Advanced Solid Rocket Motor - Alternate designation for Shuttle ASRM rocket stage.
Advanced Solid Rocket Motors - Alternate designation for Shuttle ASRM.
Advanced Tiros N - American earth weather satellite. merican earth weather satellite. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-03-28. Last Launch: 2009-02-06. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 3,775 kg (8,322 lb).
Advanced Vela - American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-04-28. Last Launch: 1970-04-08. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 317 kg (698 lb).
Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility - Alternate designation for Chandra x-ray astronomy satellite.
Advent - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Advent, Houston, Texas, USA.
AE - Alternate designation for Arianespace.
AE - American earth atmosphere satellite. Atmospheric research. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-04-03. Last Launch: 1975-11-20. Number: 5 .
AEB - Brazilian agency. Agencia Espacial Brasileira, Brazil.
AEC - Alternate designation for AEC engine.
AEC - American agency overseeing development of rocket engines and rockets. Atomic Energy Commission, USA. Responsible for development of nuclear weapons and nuclear power applications. Became part of the newly-created Department of Energy in 1971.
AEC (1945-1971) - First name of AEC.
AEC engine - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Advanced Expander Cycle Engine. Expander regenerator, pump-fed. Date: 1981. Thrust: 66.70 kN (14,994 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
AEDC - Arnold Engineering Development Center (Air Force test organization and facilities)
AEHF - The Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) satellite program was the next generation of global, highly secure, survivable communications system for all services of the US Department of Defense, replacing the Milstar series. The first was finally launched three years behind schedule at a cost that had doubled from the original $5 billion estimate. The satellite was based on the commercial AS 2100 satellite bus (see for launch record). Gross mass: 6,168 kg (13,598 lb).
AEHF - USAF Advanced EHF communications satellites. Used the AS 2100 bus.
AEIP - Abbreviation for Augmented Engine Improvement Program
Aelita - Alternate designation for Aelita satellite.
Aelita satellite - Russian infrared astronomy satellite. Cancelled 1982. The Aelita infrared astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation. Status: Cancelled 1982. Gross mass: 7,350 kg (16,200 lb).
AEM - American earth atmosphere satellite. HCMM. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; produced thermal maps of atmosphere. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-04-26. Last Launch: 1978-04-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 134 kg (295 lb).
Aeneas - Cubesat with a cargo container tracking experiment by the University of Southern California, Los Angeles for the Department of Homeland Security
Aeolus - Australian test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aeolus Booster (a cluster of seven 5-inch LAPStar motors) + 1 x Mayfly second stage. Originally developed for the development of Woomera Range instrumentation in preparation for the British Black Knight orbital launch vehicle program. Thereafter used as a sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1958-12-04. Last Launch: 1961-01-01. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf).
Aeolus-1 - Alternate name for LAPSTAR-300.
AERCam - American logistics spacecraft. Remotely guided maneuvering spacecraft to be released and later retrieved from Shuttle or ISS. Purpose: examination of external surface of space vehicles. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-11-19. Last Launch: 1997-11-19. Number: 2 .
Aeritalia - Aeritalia. Italian agency.
AERO - Aeroclub, France
Aero Dyne - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Aero Dyne, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
Aero High - Australian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Gosling IV + 1 x Vela Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1964-07-01. Last Launch: 1972-01-01. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb).
Aero High-2 - Alternate designation for Vela engine.
Aero High-2 - Alternate name for Vela (engine).
AeroAstro - American manufacturer of spacecraft. AeroAstro Inc. , Herndon, Virginia, USA
Aerobee - Alternate designation for Aerobee 150-2.
Aerobee - Alternate designation for Aerobee 150A-2.
Aerobee - Alternate designation for Aerobee engine.
Aerobee - American sounding rocket. In late 1945 James Van Allen was assigned by John Hopkins University to survey sounding rocket requirements for upper atmosphere research. The V-2 was found to be too heavy and complex. In 1946 Van Allen decided that what was needed was a small rocket, derived from the Aerojet Wac Corporal and the Bumblebee missile developed under a US Navy program. This combination of an Aerojet booster and a Bumblebee second stage was dubbed the Aerobee. Aerobees were launched for 53 m tall launch towers to provide the necessary stability until enough speed had been gained for the fins to be effective in controlling the rocket. Launch towers were built at White Sands, Fort Churchill, Wallops Island, and aboard the research ship USN Norton Sound. The Aerobee could take 68 kg to 130 km altitude. Status: Retired 1985. First Launch: 1957-07-16. Last Launch: 1959-11-30. Number: 35 . Gross mass: 727 kg (1,602 lb). Payload: 68 kg (149 lb). Thrust: 18.00 kN (4,046 lbf).
Aerobee 100 - Alternate designation for Aerobee 100 engine.
Aerobee 100 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 100 Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1958-02-18. Last Launch: 1962-11-20. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee 100 engine - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Aerobee 100. Date: 1965. Number: 1 . Thrust: 11.57 kN (2,601 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Aerobee 100-2 - Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Thrust 11.50 kN. Status: Retired 1962. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 119 kg (262 lb). Thrust: 11.50 kN (2,585 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee 150 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 150. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1959-02-05. Last Launch: 1983-09-22. Number: 453 . Gross mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb). Payload: 68 kg (149 lb). Thrust: 18.00 kN (4,046 lbf).
Aerobee 150 MI - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1985. First Launch: 1968-09-13. Last Launch: 1985-01-17. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb).
Aerobee 150 MII - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1970-07-02. Last Launch: 1970-07-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb).
Aerobee 150 MII 20-1 - Alternate name for 2.5KS18000.
Aerobee 150-2 - Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Thrust 17.80 kN. Status: Retired 1985. Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Unfuelled mass: 133 kg (293 lb). Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee 150A - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 150A Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1960-03-25. Last Launch: 1973-05-23. Number: 68 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb).
Aerobee 150A MII - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1975-03-10. Last Launch: 1975-03-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb).
Aerobee 150A MII-1 - Alternate name for 2.5KS18000.
Aerobee 150A-2 - Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Nitric acid/Aniline propellants. Typical ideal dV=3839 m/s; gravity and drag losses = 1012 m/s. Status: Retired 1973. Gross mass: 611 kg (1,347 lb). Unfuelled mass: 133 kg (293 lb). Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee 170 - American sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket consisting of a solid Nike booster paired with an Aerobee 150 liquid-propellant second stage. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1968-09-16. Last Launch: 1983-04-19. Number: 111 . Gross mass: 1,270 kg (2,790 lb).
Aerobee 170A - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Aerobee 150 Status: Retired 1978. First Launch: 1971-08-10. Last Launch: 1978-11-16. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 1,270 kg (2,790 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Aerobee 170B - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Aerobee 150 Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1971-07-09. Last Launch: 1971-07-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,270 kg (2,790 lb). Thrust: 225.00 kN (50,582 lbf).
Aerobee 200 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x AJ60-92 Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1974-09-04. Last Launch: 1976-05-11. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Thrust: 225.00 kN (50,582 lbf).
Aerobee 200 St2 - Alternate designation for AJ60-92 stage rocket stage.
Aerobee 200A - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x AJ60-92 Status: Retired 1978. First Launch: 1972-11-20. Last Launch: 1978-02-04. Number: 51 . Gross mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb).
Aerobee 300 - American sounding rocket. The Aerobee 300, also called the Sparrowbee, consisted of an Aerobee 150 or Aerobee 180 lower stage with a 20 cm diameter Sparrow rocket as an upper stage. The Sparrow would ignite at 35 km altitude at 53 seconds into the flight, and boost the payload to 10,000 kph, allowing it to coast up to 420 km apogee. The rocket was designed for studies of the sun above the atmosphere and was only fired from Fort Churchill (the White Sands range was too small to cover the possible impact points of the high-altitude rocket). Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1958-10-22. Last Launch: 1965-03-20. Number: 21 . Gross mass: 983 kg (2,167 lb). Payload: 45 kg (99 lb). Thrust: 18.00 kN (4,046 lbf).
Aerobee 300A - American sounding rocket. Aerobee 300A used a four-fin Aerobee 150A second stage rather than the older three-fin 150. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1960-08-03. Last Launch: 1964-01-29. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb).
Aerobee 300A-1 - Alternate name for 2.5KS18000.
Aerobee 350 - American sounding rocket. In March 1957 an Aerojet engineer conceived of the 'ultimate Aerobee', with the body diameter increased to 46 cm diameter and powered by four engines. Status: Retired 1984. First Launch: 1964-12-11. Last Launch: 1984-05-09. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 3,839 kg (8,463 lb). Payload: 227 kg (500 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Aerobee 350 St2 - Alternate designation for Aerobee 350-2 rocket stage.
Aerobee 350-2 - Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Thrust 72.00 kN. Status: Retired 1984. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb). Thrust: 72.00 kN (16,186 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee 75 - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1958-05-23. Last Launch: 1958-11-22. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 7.00 kN (1,574 lbf).
Aerobee 75-1 - Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Thrust 13.00 kN. Status: Retired 1958. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 142 kg (313 lb). Thrust: 13.00 kN (2,922 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee AJ10-25 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25 Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1957-04-09. Last Launch: 1957-04-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee AJ10-27 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-27 Status: Retired 1955. First Launch: 1955-06-16. Last Launch: 1955-12-13. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee AJ10-27-2 - Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Thrust 17.80 kN. Status: Retired 1955. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 184 kg (405 lb). Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee AJ10-34 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-34 Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1956-05-08. Last Launch: 1960-02-13. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee engine - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Aerobee. Development begun December 1947. Research with high altitude vehicle as carriers of scientific information. Date: December 1947. Number: 1 . Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee Hi - American sounding rocket. Aerobee Hi was a development of the basic Aerobee with longer propellant tanks, improved materials, a better propellant fraction, and smaller fins. 9.3 m l x 0.39 m dia. The booster stage fired for 2.5 seconds and took the rocket to 270 m altitude and 820 kph. The upper stage then fired for 25 seconds, burning out at 40 km altitude travelling at 6400 kph. Thereafter the payload would coast up to 270 km altitude before falling back toward earth. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1955-04-21. Last Launch: 1960-04-19. Number: 44 . Gross mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb). Payload: 68 kg (149 lb). Thrust: 18.00 kN (4,046 lbf).
Aerobee Jr - Alternate designation for Aerobee 100-2.
Aerobee Jr - Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. Thrust: 11.50 kN (2,585 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee RTV-A-1 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 Status: Retired 1952. First Launch: 1949-12-02. Last Launch: 1952-12-12. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee RTV-A-1a - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25 Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1951-10-17. Last Launch: 1956-11-12. Number: 31 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee RTV-A-1a-2 - Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Thrust 17.80 kN. Status: Retired 1957. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 184 kg (405 lb). Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee RTV-A-1b - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 Status: Retired 1951. First Launch: 1951-08-30. Last Launch: 1951-08-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee RTV-A-1c - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1952. First Launch: 1952-02-19. Last Launch: 1952-02-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee RTV-N-10 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1950-01-15. Last Launch: 1957-09-17. Number: 27 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee RTV-N-10a - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25 Status: Retired 1955. First Launch: 1955-07-13. Last Launch: 1955-12-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee RTV-N-10b - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-24 Status: Retired 1954. First Launch: 1954-10-05. Last Launch: 1954-10-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee RTV-N-10b-2 - Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Thrust 17.80 kN. Status: Retired 1954. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 184 kg (405 lb). Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee RTV-N-10c - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-34 Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1955-02-21. Last Launch: 1957-03-29. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee RTV-N-10c-2 - Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Thrust 17.80 kN. Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 184 kg (405 lb). Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee RTV-N-8 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 Status: Retired 1950. First Launch: 1947-09-25. Last Launch: 1950-02-14. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee XASR-SC-1 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1948-12-09. Last Launch: 1956-08-10. Number: 21 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee XASR-SC-2 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 Status: Retired 1953. First Launch: 1950-04-26. Last Launch: 1953-09-01. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Aerobee XASR-SC-2-2 - Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Thrust 11.60 kN. Status: Retired 1957. Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Unfuelled mass: 184 kg (405 lb). Thrust: 11.60 kN (2,608 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Aerobee-Hi - Alternate designation for Aerobee 150.
Aerocube - Cubesat for Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, California.
Aerofan - Alternate designation for R-17.
Aerofon - Alternate designation for R-17.
AeroHTV - HTV test vehicle Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1955-06-17. Last Launch: 1956-11-28. Number: 35 .
Aerojet - Third owner of Redmond.
Aerojet - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Aerojet, Sacramento, CA, USA.
Aerojet 2 - Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.27 kg (0.59 lb). Thrust: 2.00 N (0.40 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Aerojet 21 - Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.60. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.57 kg (1.25 lb). Thrust: 21 N (5 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Aerojet 445 - Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.86 kg (4.10 lb). Thrust: 445 N (100 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Aerojet 50kW - Redmond electric/xenon rocket engine. Effort 2001-2003 developed a 50 kW Hall thruster in parallel to NASA's in-house development of the NASA-457M thruster. Date: 2001-2004. Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
Aerojet 62 - Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.13 kg (2.49 lb). Thrust: 62 N (13 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Aerojet Sr - Alternate designation for Algol 1 Solid rocket engine.
Aerojet SRB - Aerojet solid rocket engine. In production. First flight 2002. Solid propellant rocket stage. SRB boosters for Atlas V. Empty mass, vacuum thrust, sea level Isp estimated. Status: In production. Date: 1996-2002. Number: 40 . Gross mass: 40,824 kg (90,001 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 1,270.00 kN (285,500 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Aerokosmos - Alternate designation for Shtil-3A.
Aerolab - American manufacturer of rockets. Aerolab, USA.
Aeronutronics - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Aeronutronics, USA.
Aeronutronics Project 7969 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Aeronutronics' proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a cone-shaped vehicle 2.1 m in diameter with a spherical tip of 30 cm radius. It does not seem to have been seriously considered. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb).
Aerophysics - American manufacturer of rockets. Aerophysics, USA.
AEROS - German earth magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-12-16. Last Launch: 1974-07-16. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 127 kg (279 lb).
AEROSAT - Acronym for Joint FAA-ESRO Aeronautical Satellite
Aerospace - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Aerospace Corp, El Segundo, CA, USA.
Aerospace Dongfanghong Satellite Ltd - First name of DFH.
Aerospaceplane - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Development project from 1958-1963 for a horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle that would carry three crew and additional payload from any airfield to orbit and back. Abandoned and replaced by AACB studies for less-ambitious alternatives. Status: Cancelled 1963.
Aerospatiale - First name of Cannes.
Aerospatiale Matra - Fourth name of Toulouse.
Aerospatiale Tactical Missiles Div. - First name of Les Mureaux.
Aerospatiale VTVL - French SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Aerospatiale vertical takeoff, vertical landing single stage to orbit study. Status: Study 1990.
Aerospike Annular Booster - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Aerospike Typical Annular Booster . Pressure-fed. Thrust from 50,000 to 250,000 lbs at altitude. Date: 1967. Thrust: 1,111.66 kN (249,912 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Aerotherm - American manufacturer. Aerotherm, USA.
Aerotojet - Alternate designation for XCALR-2000A-1 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
Aerovironment - American manufacturer. Aerovironment, USA.
Aerozine-50 - A 50-50 mixture of hydrazine and UDMH developed by Aerojet for use as the fuel in the Titan 2 missile. Copied in one Russian missile but otherwise straight UDMH was more commonly used. Higher boiling point than UDMH.
AES - Abbreviation for Apollo Extension System
AES Lunar Base - American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. AES (Apollo Extension Systems) was planned as the first American lunar base. It would involve minimal modification of Apollo hardware. The Apollo CSM would be modified for long duration lunar orbit storage. Status: Cancelled 1968.
AES Series - American Apollo Extension Systems space suit, tested 1965. Developmental suit hybrids for use in long-term space stations and lunar based used laminated fabrics, rolling convolutes, toroidal joints, sealed bearings, and modular sizing. Versions by both AiResearch and Litton. Status: tested 1965.
AESP - ISS Cubesat deploys resumed after a five-month hiatus following deployer problems. Brazil's AESP-14 [cubesat] was ejected but appeared not to be transmitting.
Aespt. - Aerospatiale, Toulouse, France
Aestus - Friedrichshafen N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In production. Upper stage engine for Ariane 5 developed 1988 - 1995. Original version could not be restarted; version for EPS L10 stage for Ariane 5V allowed multiple restarts. First flight 1996. Status: In production. Number: 22 . Thrust: 29.00 kN (6,519 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Aestus DASA/Rocketdyne - Rocketdyne rocket engine. Dasa (Germany)/Rocketdyne Non-Toxic Shuttle OMS. Gas generator, pump-fed. Name later reapplied to storable propellant engine for Ariane 5.
Aestus-2 - Rocketdyne / DASA N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Production. Restartable upper-stage engine, began test firings at Lampoldshausen in February 2000. Status: Production. Thrust: 60.00 kN (13,488 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
AF - Air Force
AF Academy - USAF Academy, Colorado Springs, USA
Afanasyev - Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1985-2006. 555 cumulative days in space. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred to TsPK, 1987. Call sign: Derbent (Derbent - Russian city) Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2006. Born: 1948-12-31. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 555.77 days.
Afanasyev, Sergei - Russian politician. First Minister of General Machine Building, in charge of the Soviet ballistic rocket and space industries, from 1965-1983. Born: 1918-08-30.
AFB - Air Force Base
AFCRL - American agency. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Afghan AF - Afghan Air Force.
Afghanistan - Afghanistan
AFLC - Air Force Logistics Command
AFMC - Air Force Materiel Command
AFP - AFP series were classified US satellites.
AFP-43 - American military technology satellite. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-01-19. Last Launch: 1964-06-18. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb).
AFP-632 - Alternate name for MOL.
AFP-675 - American military technology satellite. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-04-28. Last Launch: 1991-04-28. Number: 1 .
AFP-731 - Alternate designation for Misty nuclear detection surveillance satellite.
AFR - Russian manufacturer. Astronautical Federation of Russia, Russia.
Afristar - Afristar was the first WorldSpace satellite. Afristar was to broadcast digital radio over Africa and the Middle East. Small hand-held radios could pick up radio channels available on the three L-band beams. Used the Eurostar 2000 bus.
AFRL - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Air Force Research Laboratory, USA.
AFSC - American agency. Air Force Systems Command, USA.
AFSPC - Air Force Space Command
AFSWC - Air Force Special Weapons Center
AFTAC - US Air Force Technical Applications Center
Agadzhanov - Russian officer. Deputy Chief for Scientific Research at Central KIK Tracking Centre, 1957-1971. Born: 1923-05-21.
Agaltsov - Russian officer. Air Force Deputy Commander-in-Chief 1958-1962. Directed the first selection of cosmonauts. Born: 1900-01-08. Died: 1980-01-01.
Agat - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-2.
Agat (Agate ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-19.
Agat (Agate) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-19.
Agate - Alternate designation for NA801.
Agate - The Agate was the first of the 'precious stone' series of French rockets leading to the Diamant satellite launcher. The Agate single-stage vehicle used the NA801 Mammouth solid propellant rocket developed originally for the SSBT program. The purpose of the fin-stabilized unguided rocket was to test the recoverable instrument pod planned for later missile tests. The Agate R / VE110RR version was used to develop recovery procedures at sea. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1961-06-03. Last Launch: 1964-04-20. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Thrust: 186.00 kN (41,814 lbf).
AGE - Abbreviation for Aerospace ground equipment
Agena - American modification of the Agena-D upper stage for use as a docking target and space tug for Gemini family.
Agena A - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. The Agena space vehicle was used in large numbers during the 1960s and 1970s as upper stage with SLV-2 Thor, SLV-3 Atlas and SLV-5 Titan boosters to launch a variety of military and civilian payloads into orbit. The Agena itself was actually the first general-purpose satellite, and formed the core for many operational satellites and experimental space vehicles. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 3,790 kg (8,350 lb). Unfuelled mass: 885 kg (1,951 lb). Thrust: 68.95 kN (15,501 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Agena B - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant restartable rocket stage. Often integrated with the functional payload, acting. 94 launches, 1960 to 1967. Launched by Atlas Agena B; Thor Agena B. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 7,167 kg (15,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 867 kg (1,911 lb). Thrust: 71.17 kN (15,999 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Agena D - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant restartable rocket stage. 205 launches, 1963 to 1987. Often integrated with the functional payload. Launched by Atlas Agena D; Thor Agena D; Titan 3B; Titan 34B. Status: Retired 1987. Gross mass: 6,821 kg (15,037 lb). Unfuelled mass: 673 kg (1,483 lb). Thrust: 71.17 kN (15,999 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Agila - Communications satellite series for MPSC.
AGILE - Italian gamma ray astronomy satellite. The Italian gamma-ray observatory satellite (Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero) carried the GRID 0. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-04-23. Last Launch: 2007-04-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 352 kg (776 lb).
AGM-131A - Alternate designation for SRAM-2.
AGM-28 - Alternate designation for Hound Dog.
AGM-28A - American intermediate range cruise missile.
AGM-28B - American intermediate range cruise missile. Gross mass: 4,601 kg (10,143 lb). Payload: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 33.30 kN (7,486 lbf).
AGM-48A - Alternate designation for Skybolt ALBM.
AGM-69A - Alternate designation for SRAM.
AGM-86 - Alternate designation for ALCM.
AGM-86A - American air-to-surface missile. The SCAD Subsonic Cruise Armed Decoy began full scale development in 1968. The nuclear armed missile was cancelled in 1973, only to be revived in 1982 as the ALCM, Air Launched Cruise Missile. Gross mass: 860 kg (1,890 lb). Payload: 110 kg (240 lb). Thrust: 2.64 kN (593 lbf).
AGM-86B - American air-to-surface missile. The SCAD project was revived and the redesigned missile was designated the 'Air-Launched Cruise Missile'. Nuclear warhead. Gross mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Payload: 110 kg (240 lb). Thrust: 2.64 kN (593 lbf).
AGM-86C - American air-to-surface missile. Conventional warhead version of ALCM. Gross mass: 1,458 kg (3,214 lb).
AGN - Abbreviation for Active Galactic Nucleus
Agnes - CFTH-HB solid rocket engine. Belisama first stage. Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Unfuelled mass: 32 kg (70 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Agnew - American politician. Vice President of the United States, 1968-1973. Born: 1918-11-09. Died: 1996-09-17.
Agni - Alternate designation for Agni engine.
Agni - Indian intermediate range ballistic missile using a solid rocket motor developed from the first stage of the SLV-3 space launch vehicle. Status: Active. Gross mass: 13,600 kg (29,900 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 503.00 kN (113,078 lbf).
Agni 1 - Indian single-stage short range ballistic missile. Status: Active. First Launch: 2002-01-25. Last Launch: 2014-09-11. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Thrust: 503.00 kN (113,078 lbf).
Agni 2 - Indian intermediate range ballistic missile. Program revived in 1998, assumed to be nuclear warhead-capable. Known flight tests from 1999. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-04-11. Last Launch: 2014-11-09. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Thrust: 503.00 kN (113,078 lbf).
Agni 2-1 - Alternate name for Agni engine.
Agni 2-2 - Alternate name for Agni St2.
Agni 2P - Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-12-10. Last Launch: 2010-12-10. Number: 1 .
Agni 3 - Indian intermediate range ballistic missile. Two stage missile consisting of 1 x Agni3 + 1 x Prithvi. Status: Active. First Launch: 2006-07-09. Last Launch: 2015-04-16. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 48,000 kg (105,000 lb).
Agni 3 engine - DRDO solid rocket engine. Agni 3 first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 33,000 kg (72,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,970 kg (6,540 lb). Thrust: 1,040.00 kN (233,800 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Agni 3 missile series -
Agni 3-1 - Alternate designation for Agni 3 engine.
Agni 3-1 - Alternate name for Agni3.
Agni 3-2 - Alternate name for Agni3 S2.
Agni 4 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-11-15. Last Launch: 2015-11-09. Number: 5 .
Agni 5 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-04-19. Last Launch: 2015-01-31. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 55,000 kg (121,000 lb).
Agni engine - DRDO solid rocket engine. Agni 2 first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 11,500 kg (25,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). Thrust: 700.00 kN (157,360 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Agni St2 - DRDO solid rocket engine. Agni 2 second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 4,200 kg (9,200 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Agni TD - Indian intermediate range ballistic missile. Two stage test missile consisting of 1 x Agni (developed from first stage of the SLV-3 space launcher) + 1 x Prithvi upper stage. Development began in 1979 and fewer than 10 systems were produced. Flight tests in 1989-1994 before the program was terminated. Status: Retired 1994. First Launch: 1989-05-22. Last Launch: 1994-02-19. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb).
Agni TD-2 - Alternate name for Prithvi engine.
Agni3 S2 - DRDO solid rocket engine. Agni 3 second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,820 kg (4,010 lb). Thrust: 314.00 kN (70,590 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
AGU - Abbreviation for American Geophysical Union
AHAFS - American pressure suit, operational 1987. Advanced High Altitude Flight Suit. High pressure (0.40 bar) full pressure suit developed for the USAF to increase mobility at higher operating pressures. Status: operational 1987.
AIAA - Abbreviation for American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics
AICBM - Advanced Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, a planned 1966 successor to the Minuteman. Cancelled in 1967, with the Minuteman also outlasting such competitors as the Peacekeeper and SICBM, to remain in service to the mid-21st Century. Status: Cancelled 1967.
Aigle VE10 - Alternate designation for VE10 Aigle.
Aigle VE10A - Alternate designation for VE10A Aigle.
AIM - NASA Small Explorer mission, for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere. AIM carried three scientific instruments to study polar mesospheric clouds: a solar occultation camera, an ultraviolet imager, and a cosmic dust experiment. Used RS-300 bus.
Aimbetov - Kazakh pilot cosmonaut, 2002-on. Status: Active 2002-on. Born: 1972-07-27.
AIMP - Anchored Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (Explorer)
AIPS - Abbreviation for Astronomical Image Processing System
Air - Air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) used as an inert cold gas, can be held under pressure and released by valves to create thrust. Ambient air can be scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines and burned with fuel as an oxidizer. It also can be mixed with the rocket exhaust to augment thrust.
Air Drop Zone - Launch areas designated for release of air-dropped rockets or rocketplanes by a mother aircraft for onward suborbital or orbital flights.
Air Force Group 1 - 1960 - Requirement: pilot astronauts for the Vostok program. Date: 1960.
Air Force Group 10 - 1989 - Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for Mir missions. Date: 1989.
Air Force Group 11 - 1990 - Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for Mir missions. Date: 1990.
Air Force Group 11 Supplemental - 1991 - Requirement: pilot cosmonaut for Mir missions. Date: 1991.
Air Force Group 11 Supplemental - 1996 - Requirement: pilot cosmonaut for Mir missions. Date: 1996.
Air Force Group 12 - 1997 - Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for ISS missions. Date: 1997.
Air Force Group 12 Supplemental - 1997 - Requirement: flight of representative of Russian President's office on Mir and ISS missions. Date: 1997.
Air Force Group 12 Supplemental - 1998 - Requirement: flight of representative of Russian space forces on ISS missions. Date: 1998.
Air Force Group 13 - 2003 - Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for ISS missions. Date: 2003.
Air Force Group 14 - 2006 - Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for ISS missions. Date: 2006.
Air Force Group 15 - 2010 - Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for ISS missions. Date: 2010.
Air Force Group 2 - 1963 - Requirement: astronauts for the Soyuz manned spaceflight program. Date: 1963.
Air Force Group 2 Supplemental - 1964 - Requirement: experienced test pilot for the Soyuz manned spaceflight program. Date: 1964.
Air Force Group 3 - 1965 - Requirement: pilots for planned Soyuz, Soyuz VI, Spiral, and Almaz flights. In 1968-1975 the VVS expected no fewer than 20 Almaz space stations, 50 military 7K-VI missions, 200 Soyuz training spacecraft flights and 400 Soyuz space transport flights. Date: 1965.
Air Force Group 4 - 1967 - Requirement: engineers for planned Soyuz and Almaz flights. In 1968-1975 the VVS expected no fewer than 20 Almaz space stations, 50 military 7K-VI missions, 200 Soyuz training spacecraft flights and 400 Soyuz space transport flights. Date: 1967.
Air Force Group 5 - 1970 - Requirement: test pilots for the Spiral spaceplane. Date: 1970.
Air Force Group 6 - 1976 - Requirement: test pilots for the Buran program. Date: 1976.
Air Force Group 7 - 1978 - Requirement: pilots for the Buran and Mir programs. Date: 1978.
Air Force Group 8 - 1987 - Requirement: pilots for the Buran and Mir programs. Date: 1987.
Air Force Ministry - Air Force Ministry.
Air Launch - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Air Launch LLC, USA.
Air Ministry - First name of Institute 601.
Air Turborocket - Aerojet air augmented rocket engine. Development begun 1950. Date: 1950.
Air/Kerosene - Air/Kerosene propellant. The propellants used in a conventional jet engine. Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines. It is used to burn aviation-grade kerosene, commercial grade JP-4 or JP-5, their military equivalents, or special high-temperature blends such as those used in the SR-71.
Air/LH2 - Air/LH2 propellant. The propellants tested and proposed for use in environmentally-friendly or high-speed jet engines. Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines as an oxidizer. Liquid hydrogen has not been used as a fuel for aircraft to date due to its big drawbacks - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. It is mainly proposed in air-breathing engines for high-speed scramjet aircraft, and mixed propulsion reusable single-stage-to-orbit designs, where use of hydrocarbon propellants creates coking and other issues. It is also proposed for, and has been tested as, the fuel for all commerical jet aircraft, as part of a post-petroleum 'hydrogen economy'.
Air/Lox/LH2 - Air/Lox/LH2 tripropellant scheme. Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines as an oxidizer. In single-stage-to-orbit variants the air may be liquefied prior to use, and later the motor converts to pure rocket propulsion, using on-board liquid oxygen for the final push to orbit. In the air augmented rocket, air is collected by an intake surrounding the rocket body, and used to augment the rocket exhaust.
Air/Slush LH2 - Air/Slush LH2 propellant. In this propellant scheme, ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines as an oxidizer. Slush hydrogen is formed by taking liquid hydrogen down to nearly the melting point. This produces a partly-solidified but still mobile version of the fuel with 20% greater density than liquid hydrogen itself. Proposed for use from the 1980's in air-breathing and rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit vehicles where maximization of fuel weight to empty weight was absolutely essential.
aircraft-launched -
AiResearch - American manufacturer of spacecraft. AiResearch, USA.
AirLaunch Propane Engine - Air Launch LOx/Propane rocket engine. Flow calibration, ignition and initial short duration tests completed in 2005 of this upper stage rocket engine with application to future small spacecraft launchers. Status: Developed 2005-. Date: 2005-. Thrust: 106.80 kN (24,010 lbf). Propellants: Lox/C3H8.
Air-Launched Cruise Missile - Alternate designation for AGM-86B.
Air-Launched Miniature Vehicle - Alternate designation for ASAT.
Airlock Module - Alternate designation for Skylab AM manned space station module.
AIRMAT - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1968. Inflatable; space suits required; ejection seat; requires development of flexible heat shield and new materials. Mass per crew 570 kg. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 1,140 kg (2,510 lb).
air-to-surface - Category of missiles.
AIS -
Aisat - DLR satellite with experimental Automatic Identification System (AIS) for tracking ships. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-06-30. Last Launch: 2014-06-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 14 kg (30 lb).
Aissat - Satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) payloads to track maritime assets worldwide (all vessels over 300 metric tons are equipped with AIS transponders).
Aist - Small satellite developed by TsSKB-Progress and the Samara Aerospace University; carried a magnetometer, acclerometers and a micrometeor experiment. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-04-19. Last Launch: 2013-12-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 53 kg (116 lb).
ait - American target missile. The ait vehicles were developed to support the USAF Airborne Intercept Technology program. They consisted of a Minuteman SR19AJ1 first stage (the basic ait version) or Thiokol Castor IVB first stage (designated ait-2), and a Minuteman II M57A1 second stage. A front-end module housed the payloads, the control system, GPS, and inertial guidance electronics. Status: Active. Gross mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf).
ait test vehicle - The ait vehicles were developed to support the USAF Airborne Intercept Technology program. They consisted of a Minuteman SR19AJ1 first stage (the basic ait version) or Thiokol Castor IVB first stage (designated ait-2), and a Minuteman II M57A1 second stage. A front-end module housed the payloads, the control system, GPS, and inertial guidance electronics.
ait-2 - Alternate designation for Castor-M57A1.
AJ - Abbreviation for Astronomical Journal
AJ10 - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine family, originally designed for the Vanguard, then developed into versions for the Able and Delta upper stages.
AJ10-101 - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Derivative of Vanguard second stage for use with Thor IRBM to produce satellite launch vehicle. First tests February 21, 1958. Flown through 1960. Number: 21 . Thrust: 34.30 kN (7,711 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
AJ10-104 - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Stainless steel version of the basic Able engine, uprated to increase thrust 34.7 kN to 37.0 kN and to increase the duration 2-1/2 times First flight 1960. Number: 31 . Unfuelled mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Thrust: 35.10 kN (7,891 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
AJ10-118 - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Out of Production. Engine originally developed for the Vanguard launch vehicle, and then for use on the Able and Delta upper stages and as the Apollo Service module engine. Flown 1957-1962. Status: Out of Production. Number: 14 . Unfuelled mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Thrust: 33.80 kN (7,599 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
AJ10-118D - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Delta B, Delta C, Delta D upper stages. First flight 1962. Number: 24 . Unfuelled mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Thrust: 33.70 kN (7,576 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
AJ10-118E - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Delta E, Delta G, Delta J, Delta L, Delta M, Delta N upper stages. First flight 1965. Number: 57 . Unfuelled mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Thrust: 35.10 kN (7,891 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
AJ10-118F - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Delta upper stage for Delta 0100, Delta 1000, N-2 boosters. First flight 1972. Number: 13 . Unfuelled mass: 95 kg (209 lb). Thrust: 41.40 kN (9,307 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
AJ10-118G - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Delta G. Thrust: 43.41 kN (9,760 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
AJ10-118H - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Delta H. Thrust: 43.41 kN (9,760 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
AJ10-118J - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Delta J. Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
AJ10-118K - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Pressure-fed engine, optimized for altitude operation, used in Delta K stage from 1989. Not regeneratively cooled; used a rubber modified silica phenolic ablative at the combustion flame front. Number: 127 . Unfuelled mass: 98 kg (216 lb). Thrust: 43.40 kN (9,757 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
AJ10-131 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Subscale Apollo SPS. Subscale Apollo SPS Date: 1960. Thrust: 9.80 kN (2,203 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
AJ10-137 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Apollo SPS. Out of Production. Pressure-fed engine. Used as Apollo SM engine. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 97.50 kN (21,919 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
AJ10-138 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Out of production. Originally developed for Vanguard and Able. Two used, thrust uprated from 3540 kgf to 3628 kgf, with higher specific impulse, in Transtage. Flown 1964-1980. Status: Out of production. Date: 1958. Number: 80 . Unfuelled mass: 110 kg (240 lb). Thrust: 35.60 kN (8,003 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
AJ10-190 - Manufacturer's designation of OME N2O4-MMH rocket engine.
AJ10-196 - Aerojet rocket engine. Liquid Throttling Engine. Liquid Throttling Engine Date: 1963. Thrust: 40.10 kN (9,015 lbf).
AJ10-198 - Aerojet rocket engine. Kick Stage. Kick Stage Date: 1960. Thrust: 13.33 kN (2,997 lbf).
AJ10-24 - Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
AJ10-25 - Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
AJ10-27 - Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
AJ10-28 - Aerojet Nitric acid/JP-X rocket engine. SNORT Sled. Development begun early 1950s. 35,000 lbf thrust, 2-10 second duration. JP-X was a jet fuel / hydrazine mixture. Date: Early 1950s. Thrust: 156.00 kN (35,070 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/JP-X.
AJ10-33 - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. SMART Sled. Development begun early 1950s. 114,000 lbf thrust, uncooled, ceramic lined, 3 chamber system Date: Early 1950s. Thrust: 509.00 kN (114,427 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
AJ10-34 - Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
AJ10-40 - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Minor modification of the Vanguard aluminum tube thrust chamber to meet the Able requirements. accomplished in the record time of only three months. Thrust: 34.69 kN (7,799 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
AJ10-51 - Aerojet rocket engine. Sled. Thrust variable to 33% indicated. Date: 1957. Thrust: 666.00 kN (149,722 lbf).
AJ11 engine series -
AJ11-21 - Aerojet rocket engine. Aerobee 150 & 170. Date: 1965. Thrust: 18.24 kN (4,101 lbf).
AJ11-6 - Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. Typical ideal dV=3839 m/s; gravity and drag losses = 1012 m/s. Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
AJ23 - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine family. The AJ23 was a series of high-performance staged combustion engine designs. None ever made it to production.
AJ23-127 - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Booster. The AJ23 was a series of high-performance staged combustion engine designs. None ever made it to production. The -127 featured a gas generator cycle, 56 atm Date: 1969. Thrust: 1,010.00 kN (227,050 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
AJ23-130 - Manufacturer's designation of LR87-3 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
AJ23-131 - Manufacturer's designation of LR91-3 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
AJ23-132 - Manufacturer's designation of LR87-5 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.
AJ23-133 - Manufacturer's designation of LR91-5 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.
AJ23-134 - Manufacturer's designation of LR87-7 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.
AJ23-135 - Manufacturer's designation of LR91-7 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.
AJ23-136 - Manufacturer's designation of LR87-9 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.
AJ23-137 - Manufacturer's designation of LR91-9 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.
AJ23-138 - Manufacturer's designation of LR87-11 AJ23-138 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.
AJ23-139 - Manufacturer's designation of LR87-11 rocket engine.
AJ23-140 - Manufacturer's designation of LR91-11 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.
AJ23-141 - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Upper Stage. MIST - Staged Combustion. Date: 1965. Thrust: 222.41 kN (50,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
AJ23-142 - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Booster. ARES - Staged Combustion Date: 1962 . Thrust: 424.60 kN (95,454 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
AJ23-143 - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Booster. Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 204 atm Date: 1968. Thrust: 2,213.85 kN (497,693 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
AJ23-144 - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Booster (Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 4000 psi). Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 272 atm Date: 1985. Thrust: 3,020.00 kN (678,920 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
AJ23-145 - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Booster (Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 4000 psi, LOX/RJ-5 or LH2, Single Stage). Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 272 atm, LOX/RJ-5 or LH2, Single Stage Date: 1985. Thrust: 3,020.00 kN (678,920 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
AJ23-146 - Manufacturer's designation of M-1 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
AJ23-147 - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Booster. Gas generator cycle, 55 atm Date: 1968. Thrust: 994.30 kN (223,528 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
AJ24-1 - Manufacturer's designation of YLR45-AJ-1 Nitric acid-Kerosene rocket engine.
AJ-260 - Aerojet solid rocket engine family, the largest monolithic solid rocket motors ever tested.
AJ-260-1/3 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Design concept 1960's. Used on Saturn INT-05B launch vehicle. Solid propellant rocket stage. Study NASA 1969. Status: Design concept 1960's. Thrust: 10,105.00 kN (2,271,694 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
AJ-260-2 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. 260 inch solid rocket booster half length. The version tested and also proposed for use as a first stage with the Saturn IVB. Solid propellant rocket stage. 260 inch solid rocket booster half length. Status: Tested 1965. Gross mass: 831,345 kg (1,832,801 lb). Unfuelled mass: 85,321 kg (188,100 lb). Thrust: 17,695.30 kN (3,978,062 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
AJ-260X - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Study 1967. Full length version of 260 inch motor tested in 1960's. Proposed for use in various Saturn and Nova configurations. Solid propellant rocket stage. 260 inch solid booster - full length. These would have been the flight configuration motors, replacing the Saturn V first stage or being used as booster motors in various Uprated Saturn and Nova configurations. Solid propellant rocket stage. Boeing study, 1969. Solid propellant rocket stage. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb payload to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Solid Propellant. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 1,648,355 kg (3,634,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 156,126 kg (344,198 lb). Thrust: 35,390.70 kN (7,956,146 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
AJ-260X 1/3 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Design concept 1960's. Solid propellant rocket stage. 260 inch solid booster - full length. Saturn 3S second stage. Status: Design concept 1960's. Thrust: 11,143.00 kN (2,505,046 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
AJ26-62 - Aerojet designation for refurbished Kuznetsov NK-33 rocket engine.
AJ60 engine series -
AJ60-91 - Aerojet rocket engine. Aerobee 350. Aerobee motor. Four chambers. Date: 1965. Thrust: 72.32 kN (16,259 lbf).
AJ60-92 - Alternate designation for AJ60-92 stage.
AJ60-92 - Aerojet rocket engine. Aerobee 200. Single chamber. Date: 1973. Thrust: 22.57 kN (5,073 lbf).
AJ60-92 stage - Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Thrust 22.60 kN. Status: Retired 1978. Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Unfuelled mass: 131 kg (288 lb). Thrust: 22.60 kN (5,081 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
AJ-60C - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design 2000. Design announced on 3 October 2000 for a new cryogenic upper-stage engine aimed at the very large commercial spacecraft market. Status: Design 2000. Thrust: 280.00 kN (62,940 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ajax - Alternate designation for Ajax engine.
Ajax - Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched, air-breathing, single stage to orbit, horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing launch vehicle proposed in Russia. Status: Study 1993.
Ajax engine - Bell liquid rocket engine for the Nike Ajax sustainer stage. Red fuming nitric acid was the oxidizer; in the test missiles, the fuel was aniline-furfuryl alcohol as fuel, changing to JP-4 kerosene in the production missiles. Nike Ajax second stage. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 372 kg (820 lb). Thrust: 11.60 kN (2,608 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Ajisai - Alternate name for EGS. Experimental Geophysical Payload for improvement of the accuracy of domestic geodetic triangulation network and determination of accurate location of remote islands.
AK - Nitric acid (Russian abbreviation)
Akademia Nauk SSSR - Alternate name for AN.
Akari - Japanese infrared astronomy satellite. Astro F (Akari). Carried a 0.67m-diameter liquid-helium-cooled infrared telescope with detectors ranging from the near infrared to 60 and 170 micron channels in the far IR. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-02-21. Last Launch: 2006-02-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 960 kg (2,110 lb).
Akatsuki - Venus-orbiting weather satellite with visible, infrared and ultraviolet cameras. Launched 2010.05.20, Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-05-20. Last Launch: 2010-05-20. Number: 1 .
Akbar - Indonesian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1951-01-08.
Akebono - Alternate name for EXOS.
Akers - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1987-1997. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1997. Born: 1951-05-20. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 33.95 days.
Akhtopol - Akhtopol Meteorological Rocket Station First Launch: 1984-01-30. Last Launch: 1990-12-25. Number: 28 .
Akita - Akita Rocket Range. Sounding rocket launch site for Kappa series. First Launch: 1956-09-24. Last Launch: 1962-05-24. Number: 58 .
Akiyama - Japanese journalist cosmonaut 1989-1990. First Japanese to fly in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1990. Born: 1942-07-22. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.91 days.
AKO Polyot - Russian manufacturer of rockets, Omsk, Russia.
Aksyonov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1973-1988. Status: Inactive; Active 1973-1988. Born: 1935-02-01. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 11.84 days.
Aksyutin - Russian Chief Designer of the Central Design Bureau for Heavy Machine Industry, TsKB TM, 1977-1988; designed much of the pneumatic and hydraulic equipment for launch pads and silos. From 1969, lead designer for silo-mounted command points.
Akunin - Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Deputy Commander of Logistics for the Soviet Space Forces 1981-1986. Born: 1928. Died: 1997-01-01.
Akvamarin - Alternate designation for Rif-MA.
Al Aabed - Iraqi intermediate range ballistic missile. Basis for the Tamouz space launch vehicle. Cancelled 1991. Status: Cancelled 2002. First Launch: 1989-12-05. Last Launch: 1989-12-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 48,000 kg (105,000 lb).
Al Abbas - Iraqi modification of the R-17 with an 800-km range, achieved by reducing warhead weight to 125 kg, and increasing propellant load by 30 percent . Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1988-04-25. Last Launch: 1990-12-28. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 7,700 kg (16,900 lb). Payload: 125 kg (275 lb).
Al Amarah - Al Amarah First Launch: 1988-02-29. Last Launch: 1988-03-01. Number: 6 .
Al Anbar - Military testing range. Launch gantry located here for Tamouz satellite launcher, used for one known launch attempt in 1989. Probably destroyed in Gulf War. First Launch: 1989-12-05. Last Launch: 1989-12-05. Number: 1 .
Al Fatah - Al Fatah. Iraqi developed single-stage solid propellant missile. Status: Retired 2003. First Launch: 2000-09-01. Last Launch: 2003-03-27. Number: 43 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Al Hijara - Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1990-04-18. Last Launch: 1991-02-25. Number: 6 .
Al Hussein - Iraqi modification of the R-17 that doubled the missile's range at the expense of more than halving the payload and accuracy. Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1987-08-03. Last Launch: 1991-02-25. Number: 72 . Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Payload: 250 kg (550 lb). Thrust: 90.00 kN (20,232 lbf).
Al Kahir - Alternate designation for Al Kahir missile.
Al Kahir - Ballistic missile launch location. First Launch: 1961-11-14. Last Launch: 1961-11-14. Number: 1 .
Al Kahir missile - Egyptian intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1970's. First Launch: 1962-07-21. Last Launch: 1973-10-06. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Al Kahir missile series -
Al Kahir-1 - Rocket stage used on Al Kahir missile. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Al Nasriyah - Missile base, Syria First Launch: 2012-12-10. Last Launch: 2013-02-22. Number: 24 .
Al Nikheb - Al Nikheb First Launch: 1990-12-26. Last Launch: 1990-12-26. Number: 1 .
Al Nuqaub - Alternate name for Al Nikheb.
Al Qalamon - Missile base near Damascus First Launch: 2013-01-05. Last Launch: 2013-06-20. Number: 3 .
Al Raid - Egyptian intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Cancelled 1962. Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Al Safir - Alternate name for Minakh.
Al Samoud - Status: Retired 2001. First Launch: 1997-10-24. Last Launch: 2001-09-24. Number: 37 .
Al Samoud 2 - Status: Retired 2003. First Launch: 2001-08-23. Last Launch: 2003-04-01. Number: 25 .
Al Zafir - Egyptian short range ballistic missile. Status: Cancelled 1962. Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Al Zahar - Egyptian short range ballistic missile. United Arab Republic neither confirmed nor denied reports of November 8 that it had successfully launched its first rocket. Dr. Eugen Saenger of the Stuttgart Jet Propulsion Institute in Germany denied any connection with the United Arab Republic program as charged by Israel. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1961-11-14. Last Launch: 1961-11-14. Number: 1 .
Alabama-Birmingham - American agency. University of Alabama-Birmingham.
Alacran - Argentinian short range ballistic missile. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 1,746 kg (3,849 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
ALARR - American air-launched test vehicle. An F4D Phantom was used to launch a Genie-Alarr two-stage rocket. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1966-03-28. Last Launch: 1970-04-01. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
ALARR-1 - Alternate name for MB-1 engine.
Alaska - American agency. Alaska, USA.
Alba - Name of one Galileo Navsat.
Al-Bassam - Saudi Air Force pilot, alternate payload specialist to Al-Saud for STS-51G in April 1985. Graduated from King Faisal Air Academy, Riyadh. RSAF attaché at the Saudi embassy in London. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1985. Born: 1948-12-12.
Albatros - Russian manned spaceplane. Competitor with Buran. Unique Russian space shuttle design of 1974. Hydrofoil-launched, winged recoverable first and second stages. Status: Study 1974. Gross mass: 320,000 kg (700,000 lb). Payload: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Thrust: 7,263.40 kN (1,632,877 lbf).
Albatros Carrier Aircraft - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Configuration: delta wing with wingtip vertical stabilizers and canards. Engine type and performance, empty weight estimated. Status: Study 1974. Gross mass: 1,250,000 kg (2,750,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 210,000 kg (460,000 lb). Thrust: 7,840.00 kN (1,762,500 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Albatros ICBM - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Albatros was an ICBM designed by NPO Mashinostroyeniye under Chief Designer Gerbert Yefremov according to a decree of 9 February 1987. Like the Yuzhnoye Universal ICBM, it was to be built in enormous numbers in order to defeat any deployment by America of mass missile defenses under their Strategic Defense Initiative. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the abandonment of SDI by the United States, the missile was cancelled. Status: Cancelled 1991.
Albatros Momentum Block - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Unique hydrofoil launch stage for Albatros. Contains 200,000 kg propellants for acceleration by Albatros stage 1 motors to 50 m/s / 180 km/hr launch conditions. Designed by Alekseev Hydrofoil/Ekranoplan OKB. Status: Study 1974. Gross mass: 2,000,000 kg (4,400,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,800,000 kg (3,900,000 lb). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Albatros Raketoplan - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Configuration: delta wing with wingtip vertical stabilizers. Status: Study 1974. Gross mass: 320,000 kg (700,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 82,000 kg (180,000 lb). Thrust: 1,960.00 kN (440,620 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Albedo - The ratio of the amount of electromagnetic radiation reflected by a body to the amount incident upon it. This concept is identical with reflectance but should be distinguished from spectral reflectance.
Albring - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Born: 1914.
Alcantara - Alcantara Space Center. Sounding rocket and the launch complex for Brazil's indigenous VLS orbital booster was located here. First Launch: 1990-02-21. Last Launch: 2014-05-09. Number: 83 .
Alcantara HAD - HAD launcher
Alcantara MRL - MRL launcher
Alcantara RAG - RAG launcher
Alcantara UL - UL launcher
Alcantara VLS - VLS launch complex. First Launch: 1997-11-02. Last Launch: 2003-08-22. Number: 3 .
Alcatel - Second name of Cannes.
Alcatel Alenia Space - First name of Alenia.
ALCM - Air-Launched Cruise Missile, the major long-range standoff attack missile for USAF B-52 bombers in the late 20th Century. At the end of the Cold War the nuclear warheads were replaced with high explosives. Status: Active.
ALCM - Alternate designation for AGM-86B.
Alcohol - Alcohol (ethyl alcohol or ethanol) (C2H5OH) was the fuel used for the German V-2 rocket, and the first derivative rocket engines in the United States, Soviet Union, and China. Better performance was achieved by increasing the alcohol concentration in the post-war engines. But after better-performance rocket-grade kerosene was developed by Rocketdyne in the REAP program of 1953, use of alcohol was abandoned.
Alcor - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Originally developed for the Air Force as a third stage for the Athena sounding rocket; in some applications known as Zebra. One of its main attractions was a very high mass fraction First flight 1960. Solid propellant rocket stage. Masses, specific impulse estimated. Status: Retired 1977. Number: 31 . Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 36.00 kN (8,093 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Alcor 1B - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 88 kg (194 lb). Thrust: 42.00 kN (9,441 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Alcor IA - Alternate name for 23KS11000.
Alcor IB - Alternate name for Alcor 1B.
Alcyone - Alternate name for BE-3B1.
Aldan - Alternate designation for A-35.
Aldebaran - American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Immense nuclear pulse launch vehicle proposed by Dandridge Cole. Status: Design 1962.
Aldrich - American Engineer. White Knight crew chief.
Aldridge - American politician payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1938-08-18.
Aldrin - American test pilot astronaut 1963-1971. Second person on the moon. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1971. Born: 1930-01-20. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 12.08 days.
Aleisk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Base for units deployed with 30 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M).
Aleksandrov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1993. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1993. Born: 1943-02-20. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 309.75 days.
Aleksandrov, Aleksandr - Bulgarian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1988. Graduated from Air Force Academy, 1974. Candidate of technical sciences degree, 1983. Lieutenant Colonel, Bulgarian Air Force. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1988. Born: 1951-12-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.84 days.
Aleksandrov, Anatoliy - Russian scientist. President, Academy of Sciences, 1980-1986. Born: 1903-02-13. Died: 1994-02-03.
Alekseyev - Alternate designation for Alekseyev bureau.
Alekseyev - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1983. Born: 1933-08-19. Died: 2013-03-01.
Alekseyev bureau - Russian manufacturer of Ekranoplan sea-skimming aircraft, some of which were designed to launch missiles, and one design which was proposed as first stage of the Albatros winged orbital launch system.
Alekseyev, Eduard - Russian officer. Chief of 50 TsNII KS (50th Central Scientific Research Institute for Space Systems of the Space Forces) from 1988 to 1992. Born: 1935.
Alekseyev, Nikolai - Russian officer. Marshal of Communications Forces, 1970; Deputy Minister of Defense for Armaments 1970-1980. Born: 1914. Died: 1980-11-12.
Alekseyev, Semyon - Russian engineer. Graduated from MAI in 1937. Lavochkin's right hand man, having a key role in the design of that bureau's fighter designs of World War II (La-3, -5, -7, -9). In 1946 made Chief Designer of OKB-21 in Gorkiy, designing and building prototypes of a twin-engined jet fighter. OKB-21 closed in October 1948 after Yakovlev compared Alekseyev's designs to copies of Me-272. Alekseyev then put in as head of captured German design team at OKB-1, where he oversaw further development and test of German rocketplane and medium jet bomber designs. This program was terminated in 1950. Thereafter leader 1952-1973 of OKB Zvezda, specialized in design of high altitude pilot gear, and later, spacesuits and airlocks. Born: 1909-12-24. Died: 1993-01-01.
ALEM - Apollo Lunar Exploration Mission
Alenia - Italian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Alenia Spazio, Italy.
Alenia Aerospazio - Second name of Alenia.
Alenia Difesa - Fifth name of Alenia.
Alexander - 1U Cubesat from NASA's Ames Research Center, designed to demonstrate use of a commercial Nexus S mobile phone as a spacecraft avionics/computer system, together with an S-band radio, solar panels, GPS receiver, magnetorquers and reaction wheels.
ALEXIS - American x-ray astronomy satellite. ALEXIS was a small spacecraft built for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Its mission was to provide high resolution maps of low-energy astronomical x-ray sources. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-04-25. Last Launch: 1993-04-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 115 kg (253 lb).
Alfa - Alternate designation for Alfa engine.
Alfa - Italy briefly flirted with the creation of an independent nuclear deterrent in the late 1960's. The Alfa project for an indigenous Italian submarine- and ship-launched ballistic missile was begun in 1971. Three Alfa test missiles with inert second stages were successfully launched in 1975-1976 from Salto di Quirra in Sardinia. The program was abandoned at this stage, when Italy and its neighbors ratified the nuclear proliferation treaty. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1973-02-01. Last Launch: 1976-04-06. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 250.00 kN (56,200 lbf).
Alfa engine - Aeritalia solid rocket engine. Alfa first stage. Status: Retired 1976. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 250.00 kN (56,200 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Alfa-1 - Alternate designation for Alfa engine.
Alfa-1 - Alternate name for Alfa (engine).
Alflex - Japanese spaceplane. Study 2000. Unmanned glider to test technology for Japanese HOPE spaceplane. Wing area 9.45 square meters. Status: Study 2000. Gross mass: 760 kg (1,670 lb).
ALFMED - Acronym for Apollo light-flash moving-emulsion detection
Algeria - France conducted numerous space and missile launches from Algerian territory from 1947-1967. These facilities were abandoned as a condition of the agreement ending the Algerian Civil War. Algeria did not take concrete steps to return to space until the 1990's, when the decision was taken to participate in an international constellation of disaster-monitoring satellites.
Algol - Aerojet solid rocket engine family. This rocket started as a Polaris test motor with a 40 inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor ever tested. First flight 1960.
Algol 1 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. This rocket started as a Polaris test motor with a 40 inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor ever tested. First flight 1960. Solid propellant rocket stage. This rocket started as a Polaris test motor with a 40 inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor ever tested. It had a nominal performance rating of 45 seconds duration and 45,000 kgf thrust. Variations included Algol I, I-D, II, II-A, II-B and possibly others. Another popular rating was 40KS-115,000 (52,000 kgf for 40 seconds), also known as Senior. Status: Retired 1962. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 10,705 kg (23,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Thrust: 470.90 kN (105,863 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Algol 1D - CSD solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 10,700 kg (23,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Algol 2 - CSD solid rocket engine. Used on Scout A, Scout B, Scout X-3, Scout X-4; proposed as strap-on for Titan 3BAS2. First flight 1962. Status: First flight 1962. Number: 67 . Gross mass: 11,600 kg (25,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,650 kg (3,630 lb). Thrust: 564.20 kN (126,837 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Algol 2B - CSD solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 10,700 kg (23,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Thrust: 400.00 kN (89,920 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Algol 2C - CSD solid rocket engine. Status: O. Gross mass: 10,800 kg (23,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Thrust: 436.00 kN (98,016 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Algol 3 - CSD solid rocket engine. Used on Advanced Scout, Scout D, Scout F, Scout G. First flight 1972. Status: First flight 1972. Number: 36 . Gross mass: 14,320 kg (31,570 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Thrust: 471.90 kN (106,087 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Algol 3A - CSD solid rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 14,732 kg (32,478 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb). Thrust: 464.70 kN (104,469 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Algol ID - Alternate name for Algol 1D.
Algol IIB - Alternate name for Algol 2B.
Algol IIC - Alternate name for Algol 2C.
ALICE - 1U Cubesat from the Air Force Institute of Technology carrying technology experiments.
Aliyev - Kyrgyzstani pilot cosmonaut, 1996-2001. Kirgiz guest cosmonaut mission cancelled. Aliyev had been a Soviet military officer in charge of a transport squadron of the Transbaikal military district. Status: Inactive. Born: 1962.
All - Cubesat for the Colorado Space Grant consortium. Released from Falcon second stage.
Alleghany - American manufacturer. Alleghany Ballistics Laboratory, USA.
Allen - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1967-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1985. Born: 1937-06-27. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 13.08 days.
Allen, Andy - American test pilot astronaut 1987-1997. US Marine Corps Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1997. Born: 1955-08-04. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 37.68 days.
Alliant - Alliant TechSystems.
Allison - American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astronauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. Status: Inactive. Born: 1928.
all-solid - Category of launch vehicles.
All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra Terrestrial Explorer - Alternate designation for Athlete lunar rover.
All-Union State Institute for Telemechanics and Communications - Second name of Altair Design Bureau.
Almasat - Student satellite from the University of Bologna, testing a cold gas microthruster system and the platform for a future Earth observing satellite. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-02-13. Last Launch: 2012-02-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
Almaz - Alternate designation for Almaz bureau.
Almaz - Vladimir Chelomei's Almaz was the only manned military spacecraft ever actually flown. The project continued through many twists and turns over a period of 25 years. As with many Soviet space endeavors, the technical merits of the project are impossible to separate from the combative personalities and intense politics involved. The stations that flew were equipped with an unprecedented array of sensors for ‘man-in-the-loop' observation and targeting of mobile ground units. Combat equipment included a space-to-space gun, which was tested in orbit. In the end the station officially proved that manned systems were not a cost-effective method for space reconnaissance and targeting. However the designs of the Almaz station and its TKS resupply vehicle lived on as the Russian space station modules for the Salyut, Mir, and the International Space Station programs.
Almaz (Diamond ) - Alternate name for Voskhod 2.
Almaz (Diamond) - Alternate designation for Voskhod 2.
Almaz APOS - Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1966. The initial Almaz phase 1 configuration as conceived in 1965 included a single-launch station with its own VA crew return re-entry module. Status: Cancelled 1966. Gross mass: 19,900 kg (43,800 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Almaz bureau - Russian manufacturer of rockets, Moscow, Russia.
Almaz Engineer Group 1 - 1972 - Requirement: engineer for Almaz military space station missions. Date: 1972.
Almaz Engineer Group 2 - 1973 - Requirement: engineer for Almaz military space station missions. Date: 1973.
Almaz Engineer Group 3 - 1978 - Requirement: engineers for Almaz military space station missions. Date: 1978.
Almaz NPO - Fourth name of Almaz bureau.
Almaz OPS - Russian manned space station. Vladimir Chelomei's Almaz OPS was the only manned military space station ever actually flown. Status: Operational 1973. First Launch: 1973-04-03. Last Launch: 1976-06-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 17,800 kg (39,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Almaz OPS-2 - Russian manned space station. Configuration with two docking ports, one at each end of the station. Cancelled 1979. The initial Almaz military space station program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases. In the second phase sustained operations would be conducted with Almaz dual-docking port stations serviced by TKS manned resupply vehicles. Status: Cancelled 1979. Gross mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Almaz-1B - Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. Study 1993. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 18,550 kg (40,890 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Almaz-1V - Alternate designation for Almaz-1B civilian surveillance radar satellite.
Almaz-2 - Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. Study 1995. Plans for an even more sophisticated and capable civilian Almaz 2 spacecraft were made in the early 1990's. Almaz 2's payload mass of 6. Status: Study 1995. Gross mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Almaz-K - Alternate designation for Almaz-T civilian surveillance radar satellite.
Almaz-T - Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. The results of the manned Almaz flights showed that manned reconnaissance from space was not worth the expense. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-11-29. Last Launch: 1991-03-31. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
ALOS - Advanced Land Observing Satellite, alternate name for Daichi civilian surveillance radar satellite.
Alouette - Canadian earth magnetosphere satellite. Ionospheric research. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-09-29. Last Launch: 1965-11-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 145 kg (319 lb).
Alpaidze - Georgian-Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Chief of the Plesetsk launch center, 1963-1975. Born: 1916.
Alpex - Japanese spaceplane. Study 2000. Kawasaki unmanned glider to test technologies for HOPE spaceplane. Wing area 7.57 square meters. Status: Study 2000. Gross mass: 450 kg (990 lb).
Alpha Lifeboat - Russian manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1995. 1995 joint Energia-Rockwell-Khrunichev design for space station Alpha lifeboat based on the Zarya reentry vehicle with a solid retrofire motor, cold gas thruster package. Five years on-orbit storage. Status: Study 1995. Gross mass: 12,500 kg (27,500 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer - Particle physics experiment, carried on STS-91, which used a cross-bay carrier containing a 3,000 kg magnet and scintillator detectors used in a search for antiprotons and antinuclei in cosmic rays. A later version of AMS was delivered to and installed on the International Space Station on STS-134. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-06-02. Last Launch: 1998-06-02. Number: 1 .
alpha particle - The positively charged nucleus of a helium atom. Each alpha particle consists of two protons and two neutrons. Alpha particles are emitted by some of the radioactive substances, they are also found in cosmic radiation.
Alphabus - Testbed communications satellite, a joint project between the European Space Agency and Inmarsat. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-07-25. Last Launch: 2013-07-25. Number: 1 .
Alpha-FGB - Alternate designation for ISS Zarya manned space station.
Alphasat - Testbed communications satellite, a joint project between the European Space Agency and Inmarsat. Demonstrated a laser communications system and radio communications links in Q and V bands. Used the Alphabus.
Alpha-SM - Alternate designation for ISS Zvezda manned space station.
ALPO - Abbreviation for Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers
ALS - Alternate designation for ALS stage.
ALS - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), was a US Air Force funded effort in 1987-1989 to develop a flexible, modular, heavy-lift, high rate space launch vehicle that could deliver payloads to earth orbit at a tenth the cost of existing boosters. Such a vehicle was seen as essential to supporting the launch of the huge numbers of satellites required for deployment of the ‘Star Wars' ballistic missile defense system. With the end of the Cold War, Star Wars was abandoned. The projected launch rate without the Star Wars requirement could never pay back the $15 billion non recurring cost, and the program was ended. Status: Cancelled 1988. Gross mass: 2,340,000 kg (5,150,000 lb). Thrust: 35,223.87 kN (7,918,641 lbf).
ALS stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Development ended 1988. Gross mass: 780,000 kg (1,710,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb). Thrust: 15,477.16 kN (3,479,404 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Alsat -
Al-Saud - Saudi prince, payload specialist astronaut 1985. First Arab in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1985. Born: 1956-06-27. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.07 days.
Alsbury -
ALSEP - Abbreviation or acronym for Apollo lunar surface experiments package
ALSOR - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F-104A Starfighter + 1 x Viper I Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1959-01-01. Last Launch: 1960-04-30. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
ALSS Lunar Base - American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. The ALSS (Apollo Logistics Support System) Lunar Base would require a new development, the LM Truck, to allow delivery of up to 4100 kg in payload to the lunar surface. Status: Cancelled 1968.
Alt Air - American air-launched target missile. Single-stage launch vehicle air dropped from a C-130 consisting of a surplus Minuteman SR19 stage and a payload section. Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-01-30. Last Launch: 1997-01-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf).
Altair - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-14.
Altair - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-17 Altair.
Altair - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-28.
Altair - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-4.
Altair - Alternate designation for Altair Design Bureau.
Altair - Code name for Luch military communications satellite.
Altair 1 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Used on Atlas Able, Blue Scout 2, Caleb, Delta, Delta A, Delta B, Delta C. First flight 1959. Status: Retired 1962. Number: 51 . Gross mass: 238 kg (524 lb). Unfuelled mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Thrust: 12.40 kN (2,788 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Altair 1A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Used on Scout X-1, Scout X-2, Scout X-3. First flight 1960. Status: Retired 1964. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 390 kg (850 lb). Unfuelled mass: 181 kg (399 lb). Thrust: 13.80 kN (3,102 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Altair 2 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Kick stage motor for Delta D, Scout A, Scout X-4. First flight 1963. Status: Retired 1973. Number: 29 . Gross mass: 275 kg (606 lb). Unfuelled mass: 37 kg (81 lb). Thrust: 22.20 kN (4,991 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Altair 3 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Altair III was developed as the propulsion unit for the fourth stage of the Scout launch vehicle. A filament-wound, fiberglass-epoxy case contained the CTPB propellant grain. Status: In Production. Number: 39 . Gross mass: 301 kg (663 lb). Unfuelled mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Thrust: 27.14 kN (6,100 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Altair 3A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 83,839 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.91. Status: Out of Production. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 314 kg (692 lb). Unfuelled mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Altair 3B - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Modified version of the STAR 20 with increased case structural capability over the. A filament-wound, fiberglass-epoxy case contained the CTPB propellant grain. Status: In Production. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 307 kg (676 lb). Unfuelled mass: 33 kg (72 lb). Thrust: 24.47 kN (5,500 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Altair 3D - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Kick stage motor for Delta E, Delta L. First flight 1965. Status: Retired 1972. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Thrust: 25.00 kN (5,620 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Altair Design Bureau - Russian manufacturer of anti-aircraft missiles. Altair Design Bureau, Russia.
Altair GosNPO - Third name of Altair Design Bureau.
Altairis - American manned spacecraft. Study 2006. Rocket utilizing liquid oxygen / kerosene propulsion, launched vertically and with the planned capability of sending seven tourists on a suborbital space trip. Status: Study 2006.
altimeter - An instrument that determines height above a reference level, commonly by measuring the change of atmospheric pressure, or by measuring vertical distance directly with a radar-type system.
Altitude Sounder - Russian earth atmosphere satellite. Study 1969. Used the KAUR-1 bus, which consisted of a 2.035 m diameter cylindrical spacecraft body, with solar cells and radiators of the thermostatic temperature regulating system mounted on the exterior. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Altman - American test pilot astronaut 1994-2010. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2010. Born: 1959-08-15. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 51.53 days.
Altus AFB - Atlas F ICBM (SMS 577) base, 1962-1965. The 12 missiles here constituted America's ICBM deterrent force during the Cuban Missile Crisis. First Launch: 1962-05-05. Last Launch: 1964-05-14. Number: 2 .
Altus AFB 577-1 -
Altus AFB 577-10 -
Altus AFB 577-11 -
Altus AFB 577-12 -
Altus AFB 577-2 -
Altus AFB 577-3 -
Altus AFB 577-4 -
Altus AFB 577-5 -
Altus AFB 577-6 - Atlas launch complex. First Launch: 1964-05-14. Last Launch: 1964-05-14. Number: 1 .
Altus AFB 577-7 -
Altus AFB 577-8 -
Altus AFB 577-9 -
Alumizine - Alumizine was a mixture of 43% aluminum powder suspended in anhydrous hydrazine with a gelling agent. The idea was to increase the heat of combustion due to the high enthalpy of formation of aluminum oxide as a combustion product, similar to the metallized kerosene ("Kerosol") tested by Saenger in the 30's. Alumizine was never flown and was only tested in static ground tests. A drum of alumizine exploded in California when it was not disposed of safely. The fuel was proposed for some pressure-fed 'big dumb booster' designs of the late 1960's.
ALV - American sounding rocket. Family of small low-cost all-solid-propellant launch vehicles, which use numerous off-the-shelf components and require minimal ground support Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-08-22. Last Launch: 2008-08-22. Number: 1 .
A-Lyracom - Alpha Lyracom, USA
AM - Amplitude Modulation; or Airlock module (Skylab spacecraft component)
Amateur radio communications satellite - Type of spacecraft.
Amazonas - Communications satellite series for Hispasat.
AMC - Series of cable television distribution satellites for SES Americom.
Amelkina - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1983. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1983. Born: 1954-05-22.
America - Alternate name for Apollo 17.
American Astronautics Corporation - American manufacturer of spacecraft. American Astronautics Corporation, USA.
American Eagle / Little Eva - Alternate name for Gemini 4.
American Interplanetary Society - First name of Reaction Motors.
American Mars Expeditions - American manned Mars orbiter family.
American Rocket Society - American manufacturer of rockets. American Rocket Society, USA.
American Rocket Society - Second name of Reaction Motors.
American Rocketplanes - American manned rocketplane family.
American Telephone and Telegraph Co. - Alternate name for ATT.
America's Space Prize - Following the success of the Ansari X-Prize in motivating flight of the first commercial suborbital manned spacecraft, Robert Bigelow announced the 'America's Space Prize' - $ 50 million - to the first team to fly an orbital manned spacecraft that completes two missions safely and successfully by January 10, 2010. The prize was not claimed.
Americom - Communications satellite network.
Americom - First name of RCA Amer.
Americom - First name of SES Americom.
Ames - American engineer, at NASA in leadership positions, 1936-1972. Born: 1913-09-21. Died: 1992-02-21.
Ames Mach 10 Demonstrator - American manned spaceplane. Ames proposed in 1957 to air-launch a high-wing designed hypersonic glider from a B-36 bomber. Early versions would use an XLR-99-powered booster stage and be capable of reaching Mach 6. Status: Design 1957. Gross mass: 68,000 kg (149,000 lb). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Ames, Charles - American engineer, son of an iron works machinist, Project Engineer on the MX-774 and early Atlas programs. He was remembered as rock-solid, smart, practical, able to obtain the best designs by trading off inter-departmental concepts. Born: 1915-06-28. Died: 1988-11-09.
Amine - Early storable rocket systems sought to improve ignition characteristics and performance by eliminating the kerosene portion of the fuel. An amine is an organic compound produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. Mixed amine fuels were first developed by the Germans in World War II. TONKA-250, developed for the Wasserfall rocket, was used by the Russians after the war in various engines under the specification TG-02.
Ammonia - Ammonia (NH3) is a colorless gas and liquid with a strong irritating characteristic odor. Although ammonia itself is toxic, the exhaust gases from the combustion of ammonia and oxygen are not. Used as the fuel in the XLR-99 engine that powered the X-15 manned spaceplane; used as the propellant in some electric engine designs; developed as the propellant in Russian nuclear-powered ICBM designs of the 1950's.
Ammonia+Alcohol - Proposed as the propellant to be heated by a thermal nuclear reactor in one Soviet design of 1960.
AMOS - Israeli communications satellite. 7 Ku-band transponders. Israeli indigenous communications satellite program. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-05-16. Last Launch: 2013-08-31. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 996 kg (2,195 lb).
AMPS - Atmospheric, Magnetospheric Plasma-in-Space laboratory (Space Shuttle payload)
AMPS-1 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Advanced Maneuvering Propulsion System Booster. Pressure-fed. Date: 1967. Thrust: 80.03 kN (17,992 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
AMPTE - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Charge Composition Explorer; detected tracer ions released into magnetosphere by IRM. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-08-16. Last Launch: 1984-08-16. Number: 4 .
AMR - Abbreviation for Atlantic Missile Range
AMRL - Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories
AMROC - Alternate designation for AMROC Aquila.
AMROC - AMROC (the American Rocket Company) proposed development of low-cost hybrid-propulsion orbital launch vehicles in the 1980's. Actual flight hardware did not go beyond a small test vehicle. Status: Retired 1989.
AMROC Aquila - LOx/Solid propellant rocket stage. . Status: Design 1988. Gross mass: 31,000 kg (68,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,900 kg (13,000 lb). Thrust: 931.33 kN (209,371 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Solid.
AMROC IRR - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1989-10-05. Last Launch: 1989-10-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 12,200 kg (26,800 lb). Thrust: 315.00 kN (70,814 lbf).
AMS - Alternate name for Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer.
AMSAT - Citizen of the World agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Amateur Satellite Corp - Branches in various countries, International.
Amsat - Alternate designation for Oscar.
Amsat Echo - American military communications satellite. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-06-29. Last Launch: 2004-06-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
AMSAT-DL - Amateur Satellite Corp., Germany
AMSAT-NA - Amateur Satellite Corporation of North America, USA
AMSAT-R - Abbreviation for Amateur Satellite-Russia
AMSC - American Mobile Satellite Corp. , USA
AMS-H - American tactical ballistic missile. Advanced Missile System - Heavy, US Army Status: Study.
AMSS - Austere Modular Space Station - American manned space station. Study 1975. North American Rockwell's 'Austere Modular Space Station' was in contrast to more grandiose schemes in the mid-1970's. Status: Study 1975.
AMU - Abbreviation for Astronaut maneuvering unit
Amur (Amur - river) - Alternate name for Soyuz 4.
AN - Russian agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Academy of Sciences (Russian abbreviation), Russia.
AN SSSR - First name of AN.
AN Ukraine - AN Ukraine.
AN-1 - Alternate name for Academy of Sciences Group 1 - 1967.
An-124 - Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Antonov cargo aircraft swept wing. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, 900 kph at 8 to 9 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 430,000 kg (940,000 lb). Payload: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
AN-2 - Alternate name for Academy of Sciences Group 2 - 1980.
An-225 - Subsonic rocket carrier. Antonov cargo aircraft swept wing. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 600,000 kg (1,320,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 216,000 kg (476,000 lb). Payload: 275,000 kg (606,000 lb). Thrust: 1,387.07 kN (311,826 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Ananoff - Franco-Russian aerospace and science writer who published the encyclopedic L'Astronautique in March 1950. A leading advocate for spaceflight in France and also instrumental in the founding of the International Astronautical Federation.
Anastasia - Name of one Galileo Navsat.
ANDE - Pair of passive and active satellites ejected from the Endeavour on 30 July at 12:33 GMT. Upper atmosphere studies. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-07-15. Last Launch: 2009-07-15. Number: 2 .
Anders - American pilot astronaut 1963-1969. Member of first crew to orbit the moon. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1969. Born: 1933-10-17. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 6.13 days.
Anderson - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1994-2003. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. Status: Deceased; Active 1994-2003. Born: 1959-12-25. Died: 2003-02-01. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 24.76 days.
Anderson, Clayton - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1998-2011. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2011. Born: 1959-02-23. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 166.88 days.
Anderson, Lloyd - American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1988-2001. Status: Inactive; Active 1988-2001. Born: 1952-02-28.
Anderson, Robert - American engineer. President of Rockwell International during development of the space shuttle.
Andoya - Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) is the world's northernmost permanent launch facility for sounding rockets and scientific balloons and is responsible for all scientific-related balloon and rocket operations in Norwegian territory. ARR provides complete services for launch, operations, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The range has conducted more than 650 rocket launches and hosted scientists and engineers from more than 70 institutes and universities. First Launch: 1962-08-18. Last Launch: 2013-09-18. Number: 770 .
Andoya Athena - Black Brant launch complex. First Launch: 2007-12-10. Last Launch: 2011-10-11. Number: 2 .
Andoya Haugnes - Tomahawk Sandia launch complex. Haugnes site First Launch: 1982-10-05. Last Launch: 1982-12-14. Number: 4 .
Andoya LC10 - Sounding rocket launcher
Andoya LC5 - Sounding rocket launcher
Andoya LC9 - Sounding rocket launcher
Andoya Research Range - Alternate name for ARR.
Andoya U3 - S, Black Brant launch complex. Universal Launcher 3, Pad 7. First Launch: 1995-01-25. Last Launch: 2012-06-22. Number: 7 .
Andreas - German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot.
Andre-Deshays - French biologist cosmonaut 1985-2002. Biologist, first French female astronaut. Was married to astronaut Jean-Pierre Haignere. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2002. Born: 1957-05-13. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 25.60 days.
Andrews - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Andrews, USA.
Andrews ETOS - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed Earth-to-Orbit Segment booster for Andrews CEV architecture. Consisted of an Atlas V core, two Zenit-2 booster strap-ons, and a new-development LOx/LH2 upper stage. Status: Design 2005. Gross mass: 1,213,618 kg (2,675,569 lb). Payload: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb).
Andreyev - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1983. Off flight roster for medical reasons. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB Status: Inactive; Active 1972-1983. Born: 1940-10-06.
Andropov - Russian officer. Chief of the Directorate for the Main Direction of Forces of NKS Space Forces from 1987 to 1989. Born: 1932.
Andryushkov - Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. Status: Deceased; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1947-10-06. Died: 2007-01-24.
Angara - The Angara was a new all-Russian heavy launch vehicle designed in the 1990's to replace the Zenit (which was built by a Ukrainian company) and Proton (which had launch pads only on Kazakh territory). The booster was sized for rail transport of modular manufactured components to cosmodromes at Plesetsk and Svobodniy. The design featured a single modular core that could be clustered for large payloads or used as a first stage with a variety of existing upper stages. Lack of financing led to a very protracted development. A prototype was financed by the Korean government as the first stage of their KSR launch vehicle, and a full-up Russian Angara finally was launched in 2015. Status: In production.
Angara - Alternate designation for V-860P.
Angara - Alternate designation for S-200.
Angara 1.1 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. The initial flight version would be the Angara 1.1, featuring a single URM core module with the existing Briz upper stage. Payload would be 2.0 metric tons to a 200 km / 63 deg orbit). Other vehicle variants were numbered according to the number of URM's. Status: In development. Gross mass: 145,000 kg (319,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 1,910.00 kN (429,380 lbf).
Angara 1.2 - Alternate designation for Angara-1.2PP.
Angara 3A - Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 3A was a proposed variant of the modular launch vehicle that would use two universal rocket modules (URM's) as boosters flanking one URM in the core, with a LOx/Kerosene upper stage. It could put 14 metric tons into low earth orbit Status: In development. Gross mass: 478,000 kg (1,053,000 lb). Payload: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Thrust: 5,740.00 kN (1,290,400 lbf).
Angara 4A - Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 4A had the same configuration as the Angara 1.2 but with a winged, recoverable URM. The booster would have 158 metric tons lift-off mass, and could place a 2.7 metric ton payload into a 200 km / 63 deg orbit). The winged URM would have two jet engines and fly back to the Mirniy airfield at Plesetsk for recovery. One problem was that some abort profiles would require overflight of Norway. First flight of this version was predicted for 2003 in 1998.
Angara 5A - Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 5A was a proposed variant of the modular launch vehicle that would use four universal rocket modules (URM's) as boosters surrounding one URM in the core, with a LOx/LH2 upper stage. It could put 5.0 metric tons into geosynchronous orbit, or 8.0 metric tons into geosynchronous transfer orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-12-23. Last Launch: 2014-12-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 790,000 kg (1,740,000 lb). Payload: 28,500 kg (62,800 lb). Thrust: 9,560.00 kN (2,149,170 lbf).
Angara A-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Two thrust levels. Propellant ration 2.6:1, chamber pressure 162 bar. Status: In development. Gross mass: 25,200 kg (55,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,355 kg (5,191 lb). Thrust: 294.00 kN (66,093 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Angara Briz M - Alternate designation for Angara Briz M stage.
Angara Briz M - Russian space tug. Study 2004. Upper stage / space tug - in development 2004. Launched by Angara launch vehicle family. 8 restarts. Propellant ration 2.0:1. Status: Study 2004. Gross mass: 6,565 kg (14,473 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Angara Briz M stage - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Version proposed as Angara upper stage. 8 restarts. Propellant ration 2.0:1. Status: In development. Gross mass: 6,565 kg (14,473 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Angara KVRB - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Planned version for Angara. 5 restarts. Status: In development. Gross mass: 23,300 kg (51,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 73.50 kN (16,523 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Angara Orel - Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Orel, consisted of the Angara 3I plus an MKK spaceplane, similar to the MAKS. This would have a 431 metric ton gross lift-off mass, with the spacecraft weighing 13.5 metric tons including a 4.2 metric ton payload. This could be an eventual replacement of the Soyuz spacecraft for ferry of crews to space stations.
Angara Stage 1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Unique configuration with oxidizer in core and fuel in two tanks strapped on in parallel - all of rail-transportable 3.9 m diameter. Product of Khrunichev. Masses estimated based on engine selected and vehicle performance. Status: Development 2004. Gross mass: 500,000 kg (1,100,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Thrust: 8,181.13 kN (1,839,191 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Angara Stage 2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Unique configuration with oxidizer in core and fuel in two tanks strapped on in parallel - all of rail-transportable 3.9 m diameter. Built by NPO Energia to Khrunichev design (their own design for Angara and Energia-M were rejected in favor of Khrunichev version). Masses estimated based on engine selected and vehicle performance. Assumed that engine is throttled back to maintain constant 3-G acceleration. Status: Development 2004. Gross mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust: 1,960.00 kN (440,620 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Angara UM - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Can be throttled to 95%. Propellant ration 2.6:1, chamber pressure 257 bar. Status: In development. Gross mass: 140,000 kg (300,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 2,094.70 kN (470,907 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Angara-1.2PP - Russian orbital launch vehicle. First planned upgrade of Angara, the 1.2 version would use a new Block I LOx/kerosene upper stage. Payload would be 3.7 metric tons to a 200 km / 63 deg orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-07-09. Last Launch: 2014-07-09. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 170,000 kg (370,000 lb). Payload: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Thrust: 1,910.00 kN (429,380 lbf).
Angele - German-American engineer. Avid amateur astronomer, control specialist in von Braun's Rocket Team. Became Head of Pilot Manufacturing Development Branch, Guidance and Control Division, Huntsville. Born: 1905-02-08. Died: 1996-08-22.
ANGELS - Small satellite for the Air Force Research Lab which made observations of the Delta rocket's second stage at ranges from 50 kilometers down to a few kilometers, for further development of satellite inspection technology. Orbit and mass classified; figures shown are speculative. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-07-28. Last Launch: 2014-07-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 70 kg (154 lb).
Angstrom - Unit of length employed to measure wave lengths of light. One Angstrom unit is one ten-thousandth of a micrometer or one ten-billionth of a meter. Ten Angstrom units make one nanometer.
Anhueng - South Korean sounding rocket launch site, used from June 1993. First Launch: 1993-06-04. Last Launch: 2002-11-28. Number: 5 .
Anik - Alternate designation for Anik satellite.
Anik - Telecommunications satellite system of Telesat Canada. The satellites act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada. The antenna coverage of the satellite provides the capability of serving virtually all of Canada.
Anik satellite - Canadian communications satellite. Function - telecommunications. Operating entity - Telesat Canada. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-12-16. Last Launch: 1978-12-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb).
Anikeyev - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Left with Filatyev and Nelyubov after alcohol incident. After discharge, again served as Air Force pilot and then navigation officer for ground control services of the Soviet Air Force. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1963. Born: 1933-02-12. Died: 1992-08-20.
Aniline - Aniline was used as a hypergolic fuel in several early rocket engines of the 1940's. It was used straight or with furfural alcohol to improve its cooling properties. It was quickly succeeded after the war by hydrazine in storable rocket applications. Aniline ignites spontaneously in the presence of red fuming nitric acid, and with sodium.
Anisimov - Russian officer. Major-General, Deputy Chief of 53-NIIP-MO for research, test, and scientific work 1974-1985. Born: 1931.
Anna - American earth geodetic satellite. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-05-10. Last Launch: 1962-10-31. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 160 kg (350 lb).
Anna Plains - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1997-09-02. Last Launch: 1997-09-11. Number: 4 .
Anokhin - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1966-1968. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1968. Born: 1910-04-01. Died: 1986-04-15.
anomaly - In general, a deviation from the norm, an irregularity, a malfunction.
ANS - Dutch visible astronomy satellite. Astronomical Netherlands Satellite; lower than planned orbit. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-08-30. Last Launch: 1974-08-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 129 kg (284 lb).
Ansari - Iranian-American engineer cosmonaut 2006. First female space tourist. First Iranian in space. Status: Inactive; Active 2006-2006. Born: 1966-09-12. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 10.88 days.
Anshakov - Russian engineer. Designer of automated information systems for spacecraft, General Designer at TsKB Progress. Born: 1937.
ANSI - Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute
Antarctica - Antarctica
Antares - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-15 Antares.
Antares 110 - American orbital launch vehicle. Originally designated Taurus II. Pad-launched launch vehicle using Pegasus upper stages and a first stage combining a Ukrainian Zenit lower stage fitted with 30-year old surplus Russian N1 moon program rocket engines. Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-04-21. Last Launch: 2013-09-18. Number: 2 .
Antares 120 - Antares variant with a more powerful ATK Castor 30B second stage replacing the Castor 30 used on earlier flights. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-01-09. Last Launch: 2014-07-13. Number: 2 .
Antares 130 - Antares variant with a stretched ATK Castor 30XL second stage replacing the Castor 30B used on earlier flights. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-10-28. Last Launch: 2014-10-28. Number: 1 .
Antares 1A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Used on Blue Scout 1, Blue Scout 2, Blue Scout Junior, Scout X-1. First flight 1960. Status: Retired 1970. Number: 45 . Gross mass: 1,225 kg (2,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 294 kg (648 lb). Thrust: 60.50 kN (13,601 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Antares 2 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Used on Scout A, Scout B, Scout D, Scout F, Scout X-2, Scout X-3, Scout X-4. First flight 1962. Status: Retired 1995. Number: 92 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 93.10 kN (20,930 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Antares 230 - American orbital launch vehicle. Pad-launched launch vehicle using Pegasus upper stages and a first stage combining a Ukrainian Zenit lower stage fitted with RD-181 lox/kerosene engines in place of NK-33 engines disastorously used in the earlier versions. Status: In development 2010.
Antares 3 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Antares III, third-generation third stage for Scout launch vehicle. Propellant: AP/HTPB/Al propellant in a filament wound Kevlar case. Status: In Production. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 1,384 kg (3,051 lb). Unfuelled mass: 98 kg (216 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Antares 3A - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Scout G launch vehicle. First flight 1979. Status: Out of production. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 1,637 kg (3,608 lb). Unfuelled mass: 352 kg (776 lb). Thrust: 80.80 kN (18,165 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Antares LV - Series of Orbital Science launch vehicles built to support NASA's ISS resupply contract. The design used solid propellant upper stages based on the company's Pegasus / Taurus heritage mated to a lox/kerosene first stage made in the Ukraine with Russian engines.
Antares Test Vehicle - French test vehicle. Antares was a re-entry vehicle test booster. The first three stages lofted the fourth stage and RV model to 150 km altitude. The fourth stage then fired downward to ram the RV at Mach 7 into the atmosphere. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1960-11-25. Last Launch: 1961-05-13. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 1,770 kg (3,900 lb). Payload: 35 kg (77 lb). Thrust: 200.00 kN (44,960 lbf).
Antelsat - 2U Cubesat by Uruguayan State Faculty of engineering; carried infrared imager and amateur radio payloads.
Antey (Antaeus - mythological giant) - Alternate name for Soyuz 6.
Antey NPO - Third name of Efremov Design Bureau.
Antey-2500 - Russian surface-to-air missile. The Antey-2500 was a new generation of the S-300V, capable of shooting down re-entry vehicles of IRBMs of up to 2500 km range. Status: Active. Payload: 150 kg (330 lb).
anti-ballistic - Category of missiles and spacecraft.
Antigua - Antigua Air Force Station. Tracking facility also used for sounding rocket launches. First Launch: 1966-02-02. Last Launch: 1992-03-03. Number: 1042 .
anti-satellite - Category of missiles and spacecraft.
anti-satellite target - Category of spacecraft.
Antonelli - American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. Status: Inactive; active 2000-2015. Born: 1967-08-23. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 24.58 days.
Antrix - Indian manufacturer.
Anusat - 40 kg imaging satellite from Anna University, Chennai, India. Launched 2009.04.20, Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-04-20. Last Launch: 2009-04-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 40 kg (88 lb).
AO - Engine Section (Russian abbreviation)
AO Gazco - Russian agency. AO Gazco, Russia.
AO Infor - Russian agency. AO Infor, Russia.
AO Kosmicheskaya Svyaz - First name of Svyaz.
AOA - Angle Of Attack; or Abort Once Around (Shuttle abort plan used in last stage of ascent, involving reaching earth orbit, flying once around the earth, and landing at Kennedy Space Center)
AOCS - Abbreviation for Attitude and Orbit Control System
AOIK - AO Informkosmos, Russia
A-OK - All-OK; Everything in good working order
AOMC - Army Ordnance Missile Command
AP - Ammonium perchlorate
Ap.J - Abbreviation for Astrophysical Journal
Apache - American sounding rocket. The Apache upper stage was an improved version of the Cajun. The Thiokol engine used aluminized polyurethane propellant with a higher specific impulse and phenolic lining in the steel nozzle. Cost to NASA was $ 6,000 per rocket. The Apache could be used in a single stage version, but was normally used with a booster stage, usually the Nike. Status: Retired 1980. First Launch: 1960-06-01. Last Launch: 1962-03-28. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
APCS - Abbreviation for Attitude and Pointing Control System
Apel - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Born: 1917. Died: 1965-01-01.
APEX - American technology satellite. P90-6 APEX. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-08-03. Last Launch: 1994-08-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 260 kg (570 lb).
Apex RV - American logistics spacecraft. Study 2005. Spacehab's Apex design provided a family of launcher-neutral maneuverable spacecraft that could be used for resupply of the ISS and return of payloads to earth. Status: Study 2005.
APGC - American agency. Air Force Air Proving Ground Command.
Aphrodite - American intermediate range cruise missile. In July 1944, the USAAF implemented the idea to convert "war-weary" B-17 Flying Fortress bombers to radio-controlled assault drones. About 25 B-17s, mostly B-17F, were converted to BQ-7 configuration under program Aphrodite. The BQ-7 was to be flown from Great Britain against very hardened or heavily defended German targets - submarine pens or V-1 missile sites. Status: Cancelled 1945.
APL - Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland, USA. American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft.
APL satellite - American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1963.09.28 (APL SN 39) to 1964.12.13 (APL SN 43). Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory built several satellites for the Air Force in the 1960's. Status: Operational 1963. Gross mass: 64 kg (141 lb).
APM - Attached Pressurized Module (a.k.a. Columbus)
apogee - That point on the trajectory of an Earth-orbiting body which is most distant from the Earth. Also used in connection with orbits of celestial bodies around other celestial bodies.
Apogee Motor - Manufacturer's designation of DFH-2 AKM Solid rocket engine.
Apollo - Alternate designation for Apollo (ASTP).
Apollo - The successful US project to land a man on the moon.
Apollo (ASTP) - First international joint manned space mission; first docking between two spacecraft launched from different countries. Crew nearly killed by toxic propellant vapors dumped into the cabin air supply during re-entry. Launched: 1975-07-15. Returned: 1975-07-24. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 9.06 days.
Apollo 1 - Alternate name for Apollo 204.
Apollo 10 - Final dress rehearsal in lunar orbit for landing on moon. LM separated and descended to 10 km from surface of moon but did not land. Speed record (11,107 m/s). Launched: 1969-05-18. Returned: 1969-05-26. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 8.00 days.
Apollo 11 - First manned lunar landing. The end of the moon race and public support for large space programs. The many changes made after the Apollo 204 fire paid off; all went according to plan, virtually no problems. Launched: 1969-07-16. Returned: 1969-07-24. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 8.14 days.
Apollo 12 - Second manned lunar landing. Precision landing near Surveyor 3 that landed in 1967. Lightning struck the booster twice during ascent. Decision was made to press on to moon, despite possibility landing pyrotechnics damaged. Launched: 1969-11-14. Returned: 1969-11-24. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 10.19 days.
Apollo 120 in Telescope - American manned space station. Study 1968. Concept for use of a Saturn V-launched Apollo CSM with an enormous 10 m diameter space laboratory equipped with a 3 m diameter astronomical telescope. Status: Study 1968.
Apollo 13 - Fuel cell tank exploded en route to the moon, resulting in loss of all power and oxygen. Only through use of the still-attached LM as a lifeboat could the crew survive to return to earth. Altitude (401,056 km) record. Launched: 1970-04-11. Returned: 1970-04-17. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 5.95 days.
Apollo 14 - Third manned lunar landing. Only Mercury astronaut to reach moon. Five attempts to dock the command module with the lunar module failed for no apparent reason - mission saved when sixth was successful. Hike to Cone Crater frustrating; rim not reached. Launched: 1971-01-31. Returned: 1971-02-09. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 9.00 days.
Apollo 15 - First use of lunar rover on moon. Beautiful images of crew prospecting at edge of Hadley Rill. One of the three main parachutes failed, causing a hard but survivable splashdown. Launched: 1971-07-26. Returned: 1971-08-07. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 12.30 days.
Apollo 16 - Second Apollo mission with lunar rover. CSM main engine failure detected in lunar orbit. Landing almost aborted. Launched: 1972-04-16. Returned: 1972-04-27. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 11.08 days.
Apollo 17 - Final Apollo lunar landing mission. First geologist to walk on the moon. Launched: 1972-12-07. Returned: 1972-12-19. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 12.58 days.
Apollo 18 - Apollo 18 was originally planned in July 1969 to land in the moon's Schroter's Valley, a river-like channel-way. The original February 1972 landing date was extended when NASA cancelled the Apollo 20 mission in January 1970. Apollo 18 in turn cancelled on 2 September 1970 because of congressional cuts in FY 1971 NASA appropriations. Launched: 1973 July. Number crew: 3 .
Apollo 19 - Apollo 19 was originally planned to land in the Hyginus Rille region, which would allow study of lunar linear rilles and craters. Apollo 19 in turn cancelled on 2 September 1970 because of congressional cuts in FY 1971 NASA appropriations. Launched: 1973 December. Number crew: 3 .
Apollo 20 - Apollo 20 was originally planned in July 1969 to land in Crater Copernicus, a spectacular large crater impact area. Later Copernicus was assigned to Apollo 19, and the preferred landing site for Apollo 20 was the Marius Hills, or, if the operational constraints were relaxed, the bright crater Tycho. The planned December 1972 flight was cancelled on January 4, 1970, before any crew assignments were made. Launched: 1974 July. Number crew: 3 .
Apollo 204 - The planned first manned flight of the Apollo CSM, the Apollo C category mission. The crew was killed in a fire while testing their capsule on the pad on 27 January 1967, still weeks away from launch. Set back Apollo program by 18 months. Launched: 1967-01-27. Number crew: 3 .
Apollo 205 - Planned second solo flight test of the Block I Apollo CSM on a Saturn IB. Cancelled after the Apollo 204 fire. Launched: 1967 April. Number crew: 3 .
Apollo 207 - Planned Apollo D mission. Two Saturn IB launches would put Apollo CSM and LM into orbit. CSM crew would dock with LM, test it in earth orbit. Cancelled after Apollo 204 fire. Launched: 1967 August. Number crew: 3 .
Apollo 503 - Cancelled Apollo E mission - test of the Apollo lunar module in high earth orbit. Lunar module was not ready. Instead mission flown only with CSM into lunar orbit as Apollo 8. Launched: 1967 December. Number crew: 3 .
Apollo 7 - First manned test of the Apollo spacecraft. Although the systems worked well, the crew became grumpy with head colds and talked back to the ground. As a result, NASA management determined that none of them would fly again. Launched: 1968-10-11. Returned: 1968-10-22. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 10.84 days.
Apollo 8 - First manned flight to lunar orbit. Speed (10,807 m/s) and altitude (378,504 km) records. Mission resulted from audacious decision to send crew around moon to beat Soviets on only second manned Apollo CSM mission and third Saturn V launch. Launched: 1968-12-21. Returned: 1968-12-27. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 6.13 days.
Apollo 9 - First manned test of the Lunar Module. First test of the Apollo space suits. First manned flight of a spacecraft incapable of returning to earth. If rendezvous of the Lunar Module with the Apollo CSM had failed, crew would have been stranded in orbit. Launched: 1969-03-03. Returned: 1969-03-13. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 10.04 days.
Apollo A - American manned space station. Study 1961. Apollo A was a lighter-weight July 1961 version of the Apollo spacecraft. Status: Study 1961.
Apollo A7L Space Suit - Alternate designation for A7L space suit.
Apollo ALSEP - American lunar lander. 7 launches, 1969.07.16 (EASEP) to 1972.12.07 (ALSEP). ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) was the array of connected scientific instruments left behind on the lunar surface by each Apollo expedition. Status: Operational 1969.
Apollo Applications A9L Space Suit - Alternate designation for A9L space suit.
Apollo ASTP Docking Module - American manned space station module. Docking Module 2. The ASTP docking module was basically an airlock with docking facilities on each end to allow crew transfer between the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-07-15. Last Launch: 1975-07-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,012 kg (4,435 lb).
Apollo ATM - American manned space station. Study 1966. The Apollo Telescope Mount began as a solar telescope built into the spaceframe of an Apollo lunar module. Status: Study 1966.
Apollo CM - American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). Status: Operational 1964. Gross mass: 5,806 kg (12,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,731 kg (12,634 lb).
Apollo CM Escape Concept - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. Escape capsule using Apollo command module studied by Rockwell for NASA for use with the shuttle in the 1970's-80's. Mass per crew: 750 kg. Status: Study 1976. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Apollo CMLS - American manned lunar habitat. Study 1966. Status: Study 1966.
Apollo CSM - The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-11-09. Last Launch: 1975-07-15. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 30,329 kg (66,863 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11,841 kg (26,104 lb). Thrust: 97.86 kN (22,000 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Apollo CSM Block I - American manned spacecraft. The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions. Status: Cancelled 1967. Gross mass: 18,488 kg (40,759 lb). Thrust: 97.86 kN (22,000 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Apollo CSM Boilerplate - American manned spacecraft. Boilerplate structural Apollo CSM's were used for various systems and booster tests, especially proving of the LES (launch escape system). Status: Operational 1963.
Apollo D-2 - American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1962. The General Electric design for Apollo put all systems and space not necessary for re-entry and recovery into a separate jettisonable 'mission module', joined to the re-entry vehicle by a hatch. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 7,470 kg (16,460 lb).
Apollo Direct 2-Man - American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. A direct lunar lander design of 1961, capable of being launched to the moon in a single Saturn V launch through use of a 75% scale 2-man Apollo command module. Status: Study 1961.
Apollo Direct CM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Conventional spacecraft structures were employed, following the proven materials and concepts demonstrated in the Mercury and Gemini designs. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 2,337 kg (5,152 lb).
Apollo Direct RM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. The retrograde module supplied the velocity increments required during the translunar portion of the mission up to a staging point approximately 1800 m above the lunar surface. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 24,393 kg (53,777 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,833 kg (6,245 lb). Thrust: 117.86 kN (26,495 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Apollo Direct SM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. The Service Module housed the fuel cells, environmental control, and other major equipment items required for the mission. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 10,624 kg (23,421 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,784 kg (3,933 lb). Payload: 520 kg (1,140 lb). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Apollo Direct TLM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Final letdown, translation hover and landing on the lunar surface from 1800 m above the surface was performed by the terminal landing module. Engine thrust could be throttled down to 1546 kgf. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 2,773 kg (6,113 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,240 kg (2,730 lb). Thrust: 50.12 kN (11,268 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Apollo ELS - American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. The capabilities of a lunar shelter not derived from Apollo hardware were surveyed in the Early Lunar Shelter Study (ELS), completed in February 1967 by AiResearch. Status: Cancelled 1968.
Apollo Experiments Pallet - American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. The Apollo Experiments Pallet was a sophisticated instrument payload that would have been installed in the Apollo CSM for dedicated lunar or earth orbital resource assessment missions. Status: Study 1965.
Apollo Extension Systems - Alternate designation for AES Lunar Base manned lunar base.
Apollo L-2C - American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Martin's L-2C design was the basis for the Apollo spacecraft that ultimately emerged. The 2590 kg command module was a flat-bottomed cone, 3. 91 m in diameter, 2.67 m high, with a rounded apex. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 6,466 kg (14,255 lb).
Apollo LASS - American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. In the LASS (LM Adapter Surface Station) lunar shelter concept, the LM ascent stage was replaced by an SLA 'mini-base' and the position of the Apollo Service Module (SM) was reversed. Status: Cancelled 1968. Gross mass: 7,700 kg (16,900 lb).
Apollo LASS S-IVB - American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. The Douglas Company (DAC) proposed the "Lunar Application of a Spent S-IVB Stage (LASS)". The LASS concept required a landing gear on a S-IVB Stage. Status: Study 1966.
Apollo Lenticular - American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. The Convair/Astronautics alternate Lenticular Apollo was a flying saucer configuration with the highest hypersonic lift to drag ratio (4.4) of any proposed design. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 8,778 kg (19,352 lb).
Apollo LES - American test vehicle. Flight tests from a surface pad of the Apollo Launch Escape System using a boilerplate capsule. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1963-11-07. Last Launch: 1965-06-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 690.00 kN (155,110 lbf).
Apollo LES-1 - Alternate name for LPC A-1.
Apollo LLRF - American Lunar Landing Research Facility. The huge structure (76.2 m high and 121.9 m long) was used to explore techniques and to forecast various problems of landing on the moon. Status: Operational 1965.
Apollo LLRV - American manned lunar lander test vehicle. Bell Aerosystems initially built two manned lunar landing research vehicles (LLRV) for NASA to assess the handling characteristics of Apollo LM-type vehicles on earth. Status: Operational 1965.
Apollo LLTV - Alternate designation for Apollo LLRV manned lunar lander test vehicle.
Apollo LM - American manned lunar lander. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-01-22. Last Launch: 1972-12-07. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 14,696 kg (32,399 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,173 kg (9,199 lb). Thrust: 44.04 kN (9,901 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Apollo LM AS - American manned spacecraft module. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17). Status: Operational 1968. Gross mass: 4,547 kg (10,024 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,189 kg (4,825 lb). Thrust: 15.57 kN (3,501 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Apollo LM CSD - American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1965. The Apollo Lunar Module was considered for military use in the Covert Space Denial role in 1964. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
Apollo LM DS - American manned spacecraft module. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17). Status: Operational 1968. Gross mass: 10,149 kg (22,374 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,984 kg (4,373 lb). Thrust: 44.04 kN (9,901 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Apollo LM Lab - American manned space station. Study 1965. Use of the Apollo LM as an earth-orbiting laboratory was proposed for Apollo Applications Program missions. Status: Study 1965.
Apollo LM Shelter - American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. The LM Shelter was essentially an Apollo LM lunar module with ascent stage engine and fuel tanks removed and replaced with consumables and scientific equipment for 14 days extended lunar exploration. Status: Cancelled 1968. Gross mass: 14,700 kg (32,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Payload: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Thrust: 44.04 kN (9,901 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Apollo LM Taxi - American manned lunar lander. Cancelled 1968. The LM Taxi was essentially the basic Apollo LM modified for extended lunar surface stays. Status: Cancelled 1968. Gross mass: 14,700 kg (32,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,200 kg (9,200 lb). Thrust: 44.04 kN (9,901 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Apollo LM Truck - American lunar logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1968. The LM Truck was an LM Descent stage adapted for unmanned delivery of payloads of up to 5,000 kg to the lunar surface in support of a lunar base using Apollo technology. Status: Cancelled 1968. Gross mass: 8,990 kg (19,810 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,570 kg (3,460 lb). Thrust: 44.04 kN (9,901 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Apollo LMAL - American manned space station. Study 1968. Status: Study 1968.
Apollo LMSS - American manned space station. Cancelled 1967. Under the Apollo Applications Program NASA began hardware and software procurement, development, and testing for a Lunar Mapping and Survey System. The system would be mounted in an Apollo CSM. Status: Cancelled 1967.
Apollo Logistics Support System - Alternate designation for ALSS Lunar Base manned lunar base.
Apollo LPM - American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1968. The unmanned portion of the Lunar Surface Rendezvous and Exploration Phase of Apollo envisioned in 1969 was the Lunar Payload Module (LPM). Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Payload: 3,620 kg (7,980 lb).
Apollo LRM - American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1969. Grumman proposed to use the LM as a lunar reconnaissance module. But NASA had already considered this and many other possibilities (Apollo MSS, Apollo LMSS); and there was no budget available for any of them. Status: Study 1969.
Apollo LRV - American manned lunar rover. The Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle was one of those sweet pieces of hardware that NASA and its contractors seemed to be able to develop so effortlessly during the short maturity of the Apollo program. The Lunar Rover was the only piece of equipment from NASA's ambitious post-Apollo lunar exploration plans to actually fly in space, being used on Apollo missions 15, 16, and 17 in 1971-1972. The design was based on three years of studies for light, two-crew, open-cockpit 'Local Science Survey Modules'. Although Bendix built a prototype, Boeing ended up with the production contract. Status: Operational 1971. Gross mass: 208 kg (458 lb).
Apollo LTA - American technology satellite. 3 launches, 1967.11.09 (LTA-10R) to 1968.12.21 (LTA-B). Apollo Lunar module Test Articles were simple mass/structural models of the Lunar Module. Status: Operational 1967.
Apollo Lunar Landing - American manned lunar expedition. Begun in 1962; first landing on the moon 1969; sixth and final lunar landing 1972. The project that succeeded in putting a man on the moon. Status: Completed 1972.
Apollo M-1 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Convair/Astronautics preferred M-1 Apollo design was a three-module lunar-orbiting spacecraft. Status: Study 1962.
Apollo Martin 410 - American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. The Model 410 was Martin's preferred design for the Apollo spacecraft. Status: Study 1961.
Apollo MET - American lunar hand cart. Flown 1971. NASA designed the MET lunar hand cart to help with problems such as the Apollo 12 astronauts had in carrying hand tools, sample boxes and bags, a stereo camera, and other equipment on the lunar surface. Status: Operational 1971.
Apollo MSS - American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. The Apollo Mapping and Survey System was a kit of photographic equipment that was at one time part of the basic Apollo Block II configuration. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Payload: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
Apollo R-3 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. General Electric's Apollo horizontal-landing alternative to the ballistic D-2 capsule was the R-3 lifting body. This modified lenticular shape provided a lift-to-drag ratio of just 0. Status: Study 1962.
Apollo Rescue CSM - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1970. Influenced by the stranded Skylab crew portrayed in the book and movie 'Marooned', NASA provided a crew rescue capability for the first time in its history. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 16,800 kg (37,000 lb).
Apollo RM - American logistics spacecraft. Study 1967. In 1967 it was planned that Saturn IB-launched Orbital Workshops would be supplied by Apollo CSM spacecraft and Resupply Modules (RM) with up to three metric tons of supplies and instruments. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 18,600 kg (41,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 17,400 kg (38,300 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 97.86 kN (22,000 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Apollo SA-11 - From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB. Launched: 1965 Winter. Number crew: 3 .
Apollo SA-12 - From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB. Launched: 1966 Spring. Number crew: 3 .
Apollo SA-13 - From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB. Launched: 1966 Summer. Number crew: 3 .
Apollo SA-14 - From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB. Launched: 1966 Fall. Number crew: 3 .
Apollo SM - American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). Status: Operational 1964. Gross mass: 24,523 kg (54,063 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,110 kg (13,470 lb). Thrust: 97.86 kN (22,000 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Apollo SMLL - American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. North American Aviation (NAA) proposed use of the SM as a lunar logistics vehicle (LLV) in 1966. The configuration, simply stated, put a landing gear on the SM. Status: Study 1966.
Apollo Spacecraft Systems Development Diaries - Detailed chronologies of development of Apollo spacecraft systems, arranged by system and configuration.....
Apollo Telescope Mount - Alternate designation for Apollo ATM.
Apollo Telescope Mount - Alternate designation for Skylab ATM manned space station module or [Skylab ATM] manned space station.
Apollo ULS - American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. An Apollo unmanned logistic system to aid astronauts on a lunar landing mission was studied. Status: Study 1962.
Apollo W-1 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Martin's W-1 design for the Apollo spacecraft was an alternative to the preferred L-2C configuration. The 2652 kg command module was a blunt cone lifting body re-entry vehicle, 3.45 m in diameter, 3.61 m long. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 6,677 kg (14,720 lb).
Apollo X - American manned space station. Study 1963. Status: Study 1963.
Apollo: Soviets Recovered an Apollo Capsule! - The truth only emerged 32 years later - the Soviets recovered an Apollo space capsule in 1970… the original article.
Apollo-I - Manufacturer's designation for Apollo RM logistics spacecraft.
apolune - That point in a lunar-centric orbit which is most distant from the Moon.
APOS - Manufacturer's designation for Almaz APOS manned space station.
APOS - Advanced piloted orbital station (Russian abbreviation)
APPI - Autonomous Points of Information Collection (Russian abbreviation)
Apple - Indian experimental communications satellite using the Insat 1 bus.
Applications Technology Satellite - Alternate designation for ATS-6.
Applications Technology Satellite - Alternate designation for ATS-5.
Applications Technology Satellite - Alternate designation for ATS-3.
Applications Technology Satellite - Alternate designation for ATS-2.
Applications Technology Satellite - Alternate designation for ATS-4.
Applications Technology Satellite - Alternate designation for ATS-1 communications technology satellite.
Aprize - Argentinian manufacturer of spacecraft. Aprize Satellite, Argentina.
AprizeSat - American civilian store-dump communications satellite. Aprize's satellites were miniature spacecraft designed and optimized for data relay with very low power consumption. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-12-20. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
APS - Alternate designation for APS (definition).
APS - American pressure suit, tested 1989. The Advanced Pressure Suit (APS) was a bladder type partial pressure suit designed and developed by Northrop and ILC Dover for the F-23 Advanced Tactical Fighter. Status: tested 1989.
APS (definition) - Ascent propulsion system (Apollo LM component); also auxiliary propulsion system
Apstar - Communications satellite series for APT.
APT - Alternate designation for APT Satellite Company.
Apt - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1985-1997. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1997. Born: 1949-04-28. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 35.30 days.
APT Satellite Company - Chinese agency. APT Satellite Company (Asia Pacific Telecom), Hong Kong, China. Number: 4 . Duration: 35.30 days.
Apt, Milburn - American test pilot, killed in 1956 air catastrophe with X-2 # 1. Status: Deceased. Born: 1924. Died: 1956-09-27.
APU - Abbreviation for Auxiliary Power Unit
Aqua - American earth sea satellite. Aqua was also designated the EOS-PM Earth Observing System satellite, joining EOS-AM/Terra. The CERES and MODIS instruments aboard Aqua were also carried on the Terra satellite. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-05-04. Last Launch: 2002-05-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,934 kg (6,468 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,832 kg (6,243 lb). Payload: 1,082 kg (2,385 lb).
Aquacade - Revised designation for Rhyolite geostationary ELINT satellite. Code name changed to Aquacade after Rhyolite name came out in trial of spy Boyce.
Aquarius - American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. Proposed expendable, water launch, single-stage-to-orbit, liquid oxygen/hydrogen, low-cost launch vehicle designed to carry small bulk payloads to low earth orbit. A unique attribute was that low reliability was accepted in order to achieve low cost. Status: Study 1998-2006. Gross mass: 130,000 kg (280,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 818.00 kN (183,893 lbf).
Aquila - Alternate designation for Industrial Launch Vehicle.
Aquila - Alternate name for Quasar classified geostationary data relay satellite.
Aquila - Alternate designation for AMROC Aquila rocket stage.
AR1 - Rocketdyne h2o2/kerosene rocket engine. Engine for FJ-4F naval interceptor. Date: 1957. Thrust: 22.26 kN (5,004 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
AR2-3 - Rocketdyne h2o2/kerosene rocket engine. Future-X Demonstrator Engine. Gas generator, pump-fed. Heritage technology in evaluation for current applications. X-37 Reusable Upper Stage Vehicle. Date: 1999. Thrust: 29.34 kN (6,596 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
Arab States - Arab States
Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization, agency overseeing development of spacecraft for a group of Arab states.
Araks - Alternate designation for Arkon-1 military surveillance satellite.
ARAV-ER - Status: Retired 2004. First Launch: 2004-07-16. Last Launch: 2004-07-16. Number: 1 .
Arboleda - Un. S. Arboleda, Colombia
ARC - Ames Research Center (NASA); or Astrophysical Research Consortium
Arcas - American sounding rocket. The Arcas (All-Purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research (ONR) with the support of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. Primarily a meteorological rocket, the Arcas was first fired in July 1959. The single-stage version was designed to lift 5.4 kg to 64 km. For more demanding missions, several versions of boosted Arcas were developed, as well as a stretched Super Arcas motor. Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1958-11-04. Last Launch: 1975-09-26. Number: 1441 . Gross mass: 34 kg (76 lb). Payload: 4.50 kg (9.90 lb). Thrust: 1.50 kN (336 lbf).
Archambault - American test pilot astronaut 1998-2012. Grew up in Bellwood, Illinois. Flew 22 combat missions in F-117s during the Gulf War. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2012. Born: 1960-08-25. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 26.65 days.
Arcon - American sounding rocket. Similar to the Deacon and Cajun. Developed by the Atlantic Research Corp. for NRL. First used in 1958. Designed to lift 18 kg to 113 km. The two-stage vehicle consisted of two Arcon motors in tandem. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1958-07-16. Last Launch: 1959-08-07. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 14.00 kN (3,147 lbf).
Arcon booster - ARC solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1959. Unfuelled mass: 8.00 kg (17.60 lb). Thrust: 14.00 kN (3,147 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Arcon-0 - Alternate name for Arcon booster.
Arcon-1 - ARC solid rocket engine. Arcon first stage. Status: Retired 1959. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Thrust: 4.50 kN (1,012 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Arcon-1 - Alternate name for Arcon engine.
ARD - French re-entry vehicle technology satellite. The ARD was an 80 percent scale model of the Apollo Command Module, and a technology test for a possible International Space Station Crew Rescue Vehicle. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-10-21. Last Launch: 1998-10-21. Number: 1 .
ARDC - Abbreviation for USAF Air Research and Development Command
Arde - American manufacturer. Arde, Norwood, NJ, USA.
Ardenne - German Professor. Atomic physicist; worked in the Soviet Union after World War II. Born: 1907. Died: 1997-01-01.
Ardusat - Cubesat from Nanosatisfi Inc., San Francisco, with an Arduino processor.
Area 26 - Alternate name for Nevada Test Site.
Arecibo - Sounding rocket launch site near world's largest radio telescope. First Launch: 1966-02-19. Last Launch: 1998-03-25. Number: 40 .
Arecibo HAD - HAD launcher
Arecibo MRL - MRL launcher
Arecibo VB - Vega Baja site. Tomahawk Sandia, Nike, Javelin, Apache launch complex. First Launch: 1966-02-19. Last Launch: 1968-06-12. Number: 24 .
Ares - Alternate designation for Ares spaceplane.
Ares - Alternate designation for Ares engine.
Ares - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The design selected to boost America's Orion manned spacecraft into space in the 21st Century was a family of launch vehicles dubbed Ares. Originally sold as being derivatives of space shuttle technology, tinkering by NASA engineers and necessary changes during development quickly resulted in the designs being essentially all-new. Following inevitable cost growth and schedule slippage, it was cancelled in 2010. However continued development and eventual production of one derivative or another continued to be funded by Congress for many years afterwards. Status: Development.
Ares engine - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. SSTO ICBM. Development 1968. Advanced Rocket Engine System - single shaft turbopump, integrated single pressure vessel in a staged combustion cycle configuration. Status: Development 1968.. Thrust: 440.00 kN (98,910 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Ares FBB - American winged orbital launch vehicle. The ARES ((Affordable REsponsive Spacelift) concept was of a reusable fly-back booster with expendable upper stages. The US Air Force began development of a demonstrator in May 2005, with a first flight date of 2010. It was felt that derivatives of the concept could support all space lift requirements of the USAF. Status: Development. Gross mass: 300,000 kg (660,000 lb). Payload: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Ares I - Alternate designation for Ares I-X.
Ares I-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Second stage figures as of summer 2008. Dry mass includes 2500 kg for avionics bay. Status: In development. Gross mass: 158,500 kg (349,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20,500 kg (45,100 lb). Thrust: 1,304.00 kN (293,150 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ares ICBM - American intercontinental ballistic missile. The Ares single-stage, liquid-propellant ICBM was the objective of propulsion studies at both Aerojet and Rocketdyne. Status: Cancelled 1964. Gross mass: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). Payload: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
Ares I-X - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Shuttle-derived launch vehicle design selected by NASA Administrator Mike Griffin to boost the manned CEV Crew Exploration Vehicle into low earth orbit. A single five-segment version of the shuttle solid rocket booster would be mated with a LOx/LH2 upper stage powered by a single J-2S engine. Status: Active. First Launch: 2009-10-28. Last Launch: 2009-10-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 907,000 kg (1,999,000 lb). Payload: 24,500 kg (54,000 lb). Thrust: 13,963.44 kN (3,139,107 lbf).
Ares Mars Direct - American orbital launch vehicle. The Ares launch vehicle was designed for support of Zubrin's Mars Direct expedition. It was a shuttle-derived design taking maximum advantage of existing hardware. It would use shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Boosters, a modified shuttle external tank for handling vertically-mounted payloads, and a new LOx/LH2 third stage for trans-Mars or trans-lunar injection of the payload. Ares would put 121 metric tons into a 300 km circular orbit , boost 59 metric tons toward the moon or 47 metric tons toward Mars. Without the upper stage 75 metric tons could be placed in low earth orbit. Status: Design 1991. Gross mass: 2,194,600 kg (4,838,200 lb). Payload: 121,200 kg (267,200 lb).
Ares spaceplane - French spaceplane. Study 1998. Small 7-meter long delta wing spaceplane, proposed by Aerospatiale, weighing 2,000 kg. Launched 2009.10.28, Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-10-28. Last Launch: 2009-10-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Ares Stage 1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Core vehicle proposed by NASA for Project Constellation exploration of moon and Mars. It would use shuttle external tank tooling. All masses estimated. Status: In development. Gross mass: 787,700 kg (1,736,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 64,200 kg (141,500 lb). Thrust: 8,705.99 kN (1,957,184 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ares Stage 2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Second stage proposed later in design stage by NASA for launch of CEV into low earth orbit. All masses estimated. Status: In development. Gross mass: 172,000 kg (379,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,200 kg (29,100 lb). Thrust: 1,113.00 kN (250,212 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ares V - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA baseline heavy-lift vehicle to renew manned lunar exploration by 2020. Status: In development. Gross mass: 3,360,000 kg (7,400,000 lb). Payload: 124,600 kg (274,600 lb). Thrust: 32,629.61 kN (7,335,427 lbf).
Argentina - The Argentine Interplanetary Society was organized in the 1940's. In 1952 Argentina was one of the founding members of the International Astronautical Federation. From 1960 the Comision Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales (CNIE) worked with the Argentine Air Force's Instituto de Investigaciones Aeronauticas y Espaciales (IIAE) to develop indigenous sounding rockets and missiles. Argentina was the first country in Latin America to send an object into space using an indigenously-developed rocket. In the 1980's Argentina took part in a multinational effort to develop the Condor intermediate range missile. Under American pressure, the Condor Program was canceled in 1991, the IIAE and CNIE were dismantled, and further work on launch vehicles was banned. A new civilian space agency, CONAE was created, which concentrated on development of surveillance satellites for earth resource and environmental monitoring.
Argentine Air Force - First name of CONAE.
Argo - American sounding rocket. Argo sounding rockets measured radiation caused by the Project Argus high altitude nuclear explosions. The missiles reached 800 km altitude, and were launched from Wallops Island, AMR, and Ramey AFB, Puerto Rico. The Argo A-1, also known as Percheron, consisted of a modified Sergeant plus 2 Recruits, and was later used on occasion by NASA's Langley Research Center. It could lift 180 kg to 177 km. The Argo D-4, D-8, and E-5 are listed under Javelin, Journeyman, and Jason. Status: Retired 1959.
Argo - Alternate designation for Jason sounding rocket.
Argo D-4 - Alternate designation for Javelin.
Argo D-8 - Alternate designation for Journeyman.
Argo E-5 - Alternate designation for Jason sounding rocket.
Argon - Code name for Zenit-6U military surveillance satellite.
Argon - Code name for KH-5 military surveillance satellite.
Argon (Argon ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 3.
Argon (Argon) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 3.
ARGOS - American ion engine technology satellite. ARGOS was the USAF Space Test Program P91-1 technology satellite by Boeing/Seal Beach. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-02-23. Last Launch: 1999-02-23. Number: 1 . Thrust: 2.00 N (0.40 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Ammonia.
Argus - American sounding rocket. NASA Bios (biological investigation of space). Status: Retired.
Ariane - First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from the L3S, an Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorized in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. Status: Retired 2003.
Ariane 1 - First version of the Ariane launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1986. First Launch: 1979-12-24. Last Launch: 1986-02-22. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 207,200 kg (456,700 lb). Payload: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 2,446.50 kN (549,995 lbf).
Ariane 1-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 160,030 kg (352,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,750 kg (30,310 lb). Thrust: 2,771.94 kN (623,157 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Ariane 1-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 37,130 kg (81,850 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,625 kg (7,991 lb). Thrust: 720.97 kN (162,079 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Ariane 1-3 H8 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. High energy upper stage for Ariane booster series. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 9,687 kg (21,356 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,457 kg (3,212 lb). Thrust: 61.67 kN (13,865 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ariane 2 - Basic three stage vehicle without solid rocket motor strap-ons. Payload to geosynchronous transfer orbit was 2,175 kg. Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1986-05-31. Last Launch: 1989-04-02. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 217,000 kg (478,000 lb). Payload: 2,175 kg (4,795 lb). Thrust: 2,689.00 kN (604,511 lbf).
Ariane 2/3 - Improved version of the Ariane 1. It featured increased thrust first and second stage engines, a 25% stretched third stage, 4 seconds specific impulse improvement in the third stage, a larger internal payload fairing volume, and introduced the Sylda payload carrier for dual payloads. The Ariane 3 version added two solid rocket motor strap-ons. Development was authorized in July 1980 and had a total cost of 144 million 1986 Euros. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 248,300 kg (547,400 lb). Payload: 2,580 kg (5,680 lb). Thrust: 5,060.40 kN (1,137,623 lbf).
Ariane 2010 - Projected version of Ariane 5 with improvements in engine and materials. Status: Design 1999.
Ariane 2-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1989. Gross mass: 160,030 kg (352,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,750 kg (30,310 lb). Thrust: 2,880.00 kN (647,449 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Ariane 2-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1989. Gross mass: 37,130 kg (81,850 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,625 kg (7,991 lb). Thrust: 805.00 kN (180,971 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Ariane 2-3 H10 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 2003. Gross mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Thrust: 62.70 kN (14,096 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ariane 3 - Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x PAP solid rocket boosters + Ariane 2 core. Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1984-08-04. Last Launch: 1989-07-12. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 237,000 kg (522,000 lb). Payload: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Thrust: 4,021.00 kN (903,956 lbf).
Ariane 3-0 - Alternate name for Ariane 3-0 P7.35.
Ariane 3-0 P7.35 - SNPE solid rocket engine. Strap-on booster for Advanced Scout, Ariane 2/3. First flight 1984. Status: First flight 1984. Number: 68 . Gross mass: 9,663 kg (21,303 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,313 kg (5,099 lb). Thrust: 690.00 kN (155,110 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Ariane 4 - The ultimate Ariane development. Compared with the Ariane 2/3, the Ariane 4 featured stretched first (61%) and third stages, a strengthened structure, new propulsion bay layouts, new avionics, and the Spelda dual-payload carrier. The basic 40 version used no strap-on motors, while the Ariane 42L, 44L, 42P, 44P, and 44LP versions used various combinations of solid and liquid propellant strap-on motors). Development was authorized in January 1982, with the objective of increasing payload by 90%. Total development cost 476 million 1986 ECU's. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 240,000 kg (520,000 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 2,706.70 kN (608,490 lbf).
Ariane 40 - 3 stage core vehicle with original Ariane H10 upper stage. A fully fueled Ariane core cannot lift off the ground without strap-on liquid or solid motors. When Ariane 4 is launched in this configuration, the propellant tanks of the first and second stages are not completely filled. Status: Retired 1999. First Launch: 1990-01-22. Last Launch: 1999-12-03. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 243,000 kg (535,000 lb). Payload: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Thrust: 2,708.00 kN (608,782 lbf).
Ariane 4-0 P9.5 SPB - SNPE solid rocket engine. Strap-on booster engine for Ariane 42P, Ariane 44LP, Ariane 44P. First flight 1988. Status: Retired 2003. Number: 142 . Gross mass: 12,560 kg (27,690 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,060 kg (6,740 lb). Thrust: 690.00 kN (155,110 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Ariane 40-3 - 3 stage core vehicle with Ariane H10-3 upper stage. Gross mass: 245,000 kg (540,000 lb). Payload: 2,740 kg (6,040 lb). Thrust: 2,718.00 kN (611,030 lbf).
Ariane 4-0-4L - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 2003. Gross mass: 43,772 kg (96,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,493 kg (9,905 lb). Thrust: 752.00 kN (169,057 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Ariane 40p - 3 stage core vehicle with Ariane H10+ upper stage. Gross mass: 245,000 kg (540,000 lb). Payload: 2,740 kg (6,040 lb). Thrust: 2,718.00 kN (611,030 lbf).
Ariane 4-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 2003. Gross mass: 245,900 kg (542,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 17,900 kg (39,400 lb). Thrust: 3,034.10 kN (682,093 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Ariane 42L - Ariane 4 with 2 liquid rocket strap-ons. Status: Retired 2002. First Launch: 1993-05-12. Last Launch: 2002-01-23. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 363,000 kg (800,000 lb). Payload: 7,900 kg (17,400 lb). Thrust: 4,048.50 kN (910,139 lbf).
Ariane 42L-3 - As Ariane 42L but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage. Gross mass: 363,000 kg (800,000 lb). Payload: 3,480 kg (7,670 lb). Thrust: 4,228.00 kN (950,492 lbf).
Ariane 42P - Ariane 4 with 2 solid rocket strap-ons. Status: Retired 2002. First Launch: 1990-11-20. Last Launch: 2002-05-04. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 339,000 kg (747,000 lb). Payload: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Thrust: 4,135.00 kN (929,584 lbf).
Ariane 42P-3 - As Ariane 42P but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage. Gross mass: 324,000 kg (714,000 lb). Payload: 2,930 kg (6,450 lb). Thrust: 4,028.00 kN (905,530 lbf).
Ariane 42Pp - As Ariane 42P but with Ariane H10+ upper stage. Gross mass: 324,000 kg (714,000 lb). Payload: 2,740 kg (6,040 lb). Thrust: 4,028.00 kN (905,530 lbf).
Ariane 4-3 H10-3 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 2003. Gross mass: 12,310 kg (27,130 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,570 kg (3,460 lb). Thrust: 62.70 kN (14,096 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ariane 4-3 H10plus - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1989. Gross mass: 12,800 kg (28,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,740 kg (3,830 lb). Thrust: 62.70 kN (14,096 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ariane 44L - Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons. Status: Retired 2003. First Launch: 1989-06-05. Last Launch: 2003-02-15. Number: 40 . Gross mass: 470,000 kg (1,030,000 lb). Payload: 10,200 kg (22,400 lb). Thrust: 5,390.10 kN (1,211,743 lbf).
Ariane 44L-3 - As Ariane 44L but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage. Gross mass: 484,000 kg (1,067,000 lb). Payload: 4,820 kg (10,620 lb). Thrust: 5,728.00 kN (1,287,705 lbf).
Ariane 44LP - Ariane 4 with 2 liquid rocket + 2 solid rocket strap-ons. Status: Retired 2001. First Launch: 1988-06-15. Last Launch: 2001-11-27. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 420,000 kg (920,000 lb). Payload: 9,100 kg (20,000 lb). Thrust: 5,250.00 kN (1,180,240 lbf).
Ariane 44LP-3 - As Ariane 44LP but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage. Gross mass: 421,000 kg (928,000 lb). Payload: 4,220 kg (9,300 lb). Thrust: 5,528.00 kN (1,242,743 lbf).
Ariane 44Lplus - As Ariane 44L but with Ariane H10+ upper stage. Gross mass: 484,000 kg (1,067,000 lb). Payload: 4,460 kg (9,830 lb). Thrust: 5,728.00 kN (1,287,705 lbf).
Ariane 44LPp - As Ariane 44LP but with Ariane H10+ upper stage. Gross mass: 421,000 kg (928,000 lb). Payload: 4,030 kg (8,880 lb). Thrust: 5,508.00 kN (1,238,247 lbf).
Ariane 44P - Ariane 4 with 4 solid rocket strap-ons. Status: Retired 2001. First Launch: 1991-04-04. Last Launch: 2001-09-25. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 358,000 kg (789,000 lb). Payload: 7,600 kg (16,700 lb). Thrust: 5,603.00 kN (1,259,604 lbf).
Ariane 44P-3 - As Ariane 44P but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage. Gross mass: 356,000 kg (784,000 lb). Payload: 3,465 kg (7,639 lb). Thrust: 5,328.00 kN (1,197,782 lbf).
Ariane 4L - Alternate name for Ariane 4-0-4L.
Ariane 5 - French orbital launch vehicle. The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine LOx/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. Status: Active. First Launch: 2015-09-30. Last Launch: 2015-09-30. Number: 1 .
Ariane 5 EAP - Alternate name for Ariane 5-0 P241.
Ariane 5 EC-B - The ultimate evolved Ariane 5 funded as of the end of the millennium. A larger LOx/LH2 upper stage using the Vinci motor in place of the HM7B. The core remains the same. Result is an increase in GTO payload from 10.5 metric tons to 12.0 metric tons. Status: In development. Gross mass: 790,000 kg (1,740,000 lb). Payload: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Thrust: 15,360.00 kN (3,453,060 lbf).
Ariane 5 EPC - Alternate name for Ariane 5-1 EPC.
Ariane 5 EPS L10 - Alternate name for Ariane 5-2 EPS L10 Aestus.
Ariane 5 ESC A - Alternate name for Ariane 5-2 ESC A.
Ariane 5 ESC B - Alternate name for Ariane 5-2 ESC B.
Ariane 5 FLS - Partially reusable concept of 1988 using Ariane 5 core with twin reusable flyback boosters. Status: Study 1988.
Ariane 5 RRL - Partially reusable concept of 1993 using Ariane 5 core with flyback booster stages with Russian engines (RD-120 or RD-701). Status: Study 1993.
Ariane 5 V - Alternate designation for Ariane 5ES.
Ariane 5 Versatile - Alternate designation for Ariane 5ES.
Ariane 5 VTVL - Partially reusable concept of 1995 using Ariane 5 core with vertical takeoff, vertical landing boosters. Status: Study 1995.
Ariane 5-0 - Alternate name for Ariane 5-0 P230.
Ariane 5-0 P230 - SNPE solid rocket engine. In production. Used on Ariane 5 launch vehicle. First flight 1996. Solid propellant rocket stage. Solid rocket booster for Ariane 5. Nozzle expansion ratio increased from 9.7 to 11.0 after 1997. Chamber pressure 61.3 bar. HTPB propellant. Status: In production. Date: 1966. Number: 44 . Gross mass: 269,000 kg (593,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 34,000 kg (74,000 lb). Thrust: 6,472.30 kN (1,455,031 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Ariane 5-0 P241 - SEP solid rocket engine. First flight 2002. Solid propellant rocket stage. Increased propellant loading (+2.43 metric tons), lighter welded case (-1.6 metric tons) compared to earlier versions. Status: In development. Date: 1996-2002. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 278,330 kg (613,610 lb). Unfuelled mass: 38,200 kg (84,200 lb). Thrust: 6,470.00 kN (1,454,510 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Ariane 5-1 EPC - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. 15.2 metric tons increased propellant by moving liquid oxygen bulkhead. Status: In development. Gross mass: 186,000 kg (410,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 12,700 kg (27,900 lb). Thrust: 1,114.00 kN (250,437 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ariane 5-1 H155 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Chamber pressure 108 bar; expansion ratio 45.0; propellant mix ratio 5.3. Status: Active. Gross mass: 170,800 kg (376,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 12,700 kg (27,900 lb). Thrust: 1,114.00 kN (250,437 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ariane 5-2 - N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Storable propellant, restartable upper stage for use with Ariane 5. Chamber pressure 10 bar; expansion ratio 83.0; propellant mix ratio 2.05. Empty mass without VEB payload fairing support ring and avionics is 1200 kg. Status: Active. Gross mass: 12,500 kg (27,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Thrust: 27.40 kN (6,160 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Ariane 5-2 EPS L10 Aestus - N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage for Ariane 5V. 250 kg additional propellant compared to Ariane 5G version. Status: In development. Gross mass: 12,750 kg (28,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Thrust: 27.40 kN (6,160 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Ariane 5-2 ESC A - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Uses engine and oxygen tank from Ariane 4 + new liquid hydrogen tank. Status: Active. Gross mass: 16,500 kg (36,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Thrust: 64.70 kN (14,545 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ariane 5-2 ESC B - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. New upper stage for Ariane 5. Restartable. Status: In development. Gross mass: 27,500 kg (60,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Thrust: 153.90 kN (34,598 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ariane 5-2 L7 Astris - MBB N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Used on Ariane 5 launch vehicle. First flight 1996. Status: In Production. Number: 4 . Unfuelled mass: 110 kg (240 lb). Thrust: 27.40 kN (6,160 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Ariane 5ECA - French orbital launch vehicle, first version of the evolved Ariane 5. The solid booster motors propellant load was increased by 2.43 metric tons and the case was welded, for a weight saving in dry mass of 1.9 metric tons. The core was powered by an improved Vulcain 2 engine. The oxygen-rich cycle of the engine allowed the oxygen bulkhead to be moved within the stage, resulting in a 15.2 metric ton increase in propellant in the core. A new LOx/LH2 upper stage, using the HM7B engine and oxygen tank from the Ariane 4 series, replaced the storable propellant EPS stage of earlier models. The result was an increase in payload to geosynchronous transfer orbit from 6 metric tons to 10.5 metric tons. Status: Active. First Launch: 2002-12-11. Last Launch: 2015-11-10. Number: 54 . Gross mass: 777,000 kg (1,712,000 lb). Payload: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Thrust: 15,360.00 kN (3,453,060 lbf).
Ariane 5ES - Version of the evolved Ariane 5 using a version of the EPS storable propellant stage instead of the new LOx/LH2 stage. Result was a payload to GTO of 8 metric tons. The use of the new Aestus restartable engine in the upper stage fitted the vehicle for space station logistics missions or launch of space probes requiring complex orbital maneuvers. Specifically designed to orbit ESA's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) resupply vehicle for the International Space Station. Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-03-09. Last Launch: 2014-07-29. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 767,000 kg (1,690,000 lb). Payload: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Thrust: 15,360.00 kN (3,453,060 lbf).
Ariane 5G - Initial version of the Ariane 5, a bit too large for the main commercial geosynchronous communications satellite payloads. Status: Active. First Launch: 1996-06-04. Last Launch: 2003-09-27. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 746,000 kg (1,644,000 lb). Payload: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Thrust: 11,400.00 kN (2,562,800 lbf).
Ariane 5Gp - As Ariane 5G but with new L10 upper stage. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-03-02. Last Launch: 2004-12-18. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 746,000 kg (1,644,000 lb). Payload: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb). Thrust: 10,000.00 kN (2,248,000 lbf).
Ariane 5GS - As Ariane 5g+ but the solid booster motors propellant load was increased by 2.43 metric tons and the case was welded, for a weight saving in dry mass of 1.9 metric tons. Status: Active. First Launch: 2005-08-11. Last Launch: 2009-12-18. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 746,000 kg (1,644,000 lb). Payload: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb). Thrust: 10,000.00 kN (2,248,000 lbf).
Ariane 5V - Alternate designation for Ariane 5ES.
Ariane 6 - Alternate designation for FLTP/FESTIP.
Ariane H10 - Alternate name for Ariane 2-3 H10.
Ariane H10-3 - Alternate name for Ariane 4-3 H10-3.
Ariane H10plus - Alternate name for Ariane 4-3 H10plus.
Ariane H155 - Alternate name for Ariane 5-1 H155.
Ariane H8 - Alternate name for Ariane 1-3 H8.
Arianespace - French agency. Arianespace SA, France.
Ariel - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Ionospheric studies; returned X-ray, ionospheric, cosmic ray data. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-04-26. Last Launch: 1979-06-02. Number: 6 .
Aries - American target missile. Space Vector Corporation developed and flew the Aries test vehicle (based on the Minuteman 1 second stage) for Strategic Defense Initiative payloads. Status: Active. First Launch: 1973-10-17. Last Launch: 1996-07-09. Number: 47 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Thrust: 200.00 kN (44,960 lbf).
Arirang - South Korean civilian surveillance satellite. Study 2015. South Korean indigenously-designed, multipurpose 1500 kg sun-synchronous orbit satellite, to be lofted by KSLV-III by 2015. Status: Study 2015. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
Arirang - Alternate designation for KOMPSAT.
Arizona - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Arizona State University, USA.
Arizona State - Arizona State University, USA
Arkon-1 - Russian military surveillance satellite. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-06-06. Last Launch: 2002-07-25. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Arkos - Russian communications satellite. Study 1996. Applied Mechanics' Arkos satellite was to have served as the geosynchronous anchor of the Marathon telecommunications network, while the highly elliptical Mayak spacecraft completed the system. Status: Study 1996.
Arkyd - 3U Cubesat from Planetary Resources, testing software and systems for future Arkyd satellites.
ARMAD - Armadillo Aerospace
Armadillo Aerospace - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Armadillo Aerospace, USA.
Armenia - Armenia
Armor - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1985. Born: 1950-09-25.
Armsco - South African agency. State Arms Procurement Agency, South Africa.
Armstrong - American test pilot astronaut 1962-1970. First person to step onto the moon. Member of first crew to dock in space. Status: Deceased; Active 1962-1970. Born: 1930-08-05. Died: 2012-08-25. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 8.58 days.
Armstrong Whitworth - British manufacturer of spacecraft. Armstrong Whitworth, UK.
Armstrong Whitworth Waverider - British manned spaceplane. Study 1960. The Armstrong Whitworth Waverider study of the 1950`s called for a two-crew waverider spacecraft powered by a second stage atop a British Blue Streak rocket. Status: Study 1960.
ARMT - Chinese manufacturer of rockets. ARMT, China.
Army Ballistic Missile Agency - First name of NASA Huntsville.
Army Research Laboratory - Second name of BRL.
Army-Navy-NASA - Alternate designation for Anna earth geodetic satellite.
Arniston - Alternate name for Overberg.
Arno - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Arno, USA.
Arnold - American officer. Commander of the Army Air Forces in WW2 Born: 1886-06-25. Died: 1950-01-15.
Arnold, Ricky - American teacher mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on. Status: Active 2004-on. Born: 1963-11-26. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.81 days.
ARPA - Second name of DARPA.
ARPA Taurus - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version consisting of 1 x TU-904 + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 38 Status: Retired 1998. First Launch: 1994-03-13. Last Launch: 1998-10-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 73,000 kg (160,000 lb). Payload: 1,320 kg (2,910 lb). Thrust: 1,711.00 kN (384,648 lbf).
ARPAT - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1962-12-01. Last Launch: 1965-02-01. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
ARPAT-2 - Alternate name for TX-261-3.
ARR - Alternate designation for Andoya.
ARR - Norwegian agency. ARR, Tromso, Norway.
Array of Low-Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors - Alternate designation for ALEXIS x-ray astronomy satellite.
Arrow - Alternate designation for Deacon Arrow II-2.
Arrow - Israeli anti-ballistic missile. The Arrow weapon system was a ground-based, ballistic missile defense system designed to protect Israel against ballistic missiles. Status: Active.
Arrow 1 - Prototype and initial model Israeli Anti Tactical Ballistic Missile, originally an SDIO/BMDO project. Status: Retired 1999. First Launch: 1990-08-09. Last Launch: 1999-11-01. Number: 14 .
Arrow 1-1 - Alternate name for IAI-Arrow-1.
Arrow 2 - Israeli theater missile defense weapon developed and manufactured using substantial American funding. Status: Active. First Launch: 1995-07-30. Last Launch: 2011-02-23. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
Arrow 2-1 - Alternate name for IAI-Arrow-2-1500.
Arrow 3 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-10-01. Last Launch: 2014-01-03. Number: 3 .
Arrow St2 - Alternate designation for IAI-Arrow-2 rocket stage.
Arrow3 - Alternate designation for Arrow 3.
ARS - The ARS-2 was an improvement by the American Interplanetary Society of the German Mirak design. It used liquid oxygen and gasoline propellants, and was successfully launched on 14 May 1933. Successive rockets refined the design. Status: Cancelled 1933.
ArSat - Argentinian agency. ArSat, Argentina.
ARSAT-3K - Argentina's first domestic geosynchronous communications satellite. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-10-16. Last Launch: 2015-09-30. Number: 2 .
Arsenal - Russian manufacturer of missiles, spacecraft, and rocket engines, located in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Arsenal NE Tug - Electric/Xenon propellant rocket stage. In 1994-1995 KB Arsenal collaborated with NII PME MAI, NPO Lavochkin, and others in international group to study interplanetary flight using nuclear-electric and solar-electric engines. The final selected design was a nuclear-electric interplanetary tug. Status: Study 1980s. Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
Arsene - UNAMSAT was an AMSAT Microsat class Oscar amateur radio satellite built by UNAM, the Autonomous University of Mexico.
Artemis - European communications technology satellite. One launch, 2001.07.12. Artemis was a European Space Agency satellite to test new communications technologies. Status: Operational 2001. Gross mass: 3,105 kg (6,845 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,567 kg (3,454 lb).
Artemyev - Latvian engineer cosmonaut, 2003-on. Status: Active 2003-on. Born: 1970-12-28.
Article 105 - Manufacturer's designation for Spiral OS manned spaceplane.
Article 50 - Alternate designation for Spiral OS manned spaceplane.
Article R - Alternate designation for D-6.
Artsebarsky - Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1985-1994. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1994. Born: 1956-09-09. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 144.64 days.
ARTV - American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. 3 launches, 1958.04.24 (ARTV 1) to 1958.07.23 (ARTV 3). Suborbital advanced reentry test vehicle. Status: Operational 1958.
Artyukhin - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1963-1982. Member of first military space station mission. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1982. Born: 1930-06-02. Died: 1998-08-04. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.73 days.
Aryabhata - Indian earth atmosphere satellite. The Soviet Union assisted India in development of Aryabhata, its first satellite, named for the Indian astronomer. The satellite conducted scientific experiments on atmospheric research. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-04-19. Last Launch: 1975-04-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 360 kg (790 lb).
Arzamazov - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1995. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1995. Born: 1946-03-09.
AS - Apollo-Saturn. Used until mid-1967 as Apollo mission designations; thereafter used as working designations, although missions were assigned 'Apollo x' numbers. AS-100 series used the Saturn I booster; AS-200 series the Saturn-IB; and AS-500 the Saturn V.
AS 1000 - American communications satellite. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-12-13. Last Launch: 1979-12-07. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 463 kg (1,020 lb).
AS 2100 - American communications satellite. Cost per satellite $100 million for the spacecraft including ground support equipment, but not including launch costs. 3-axis stabilized. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-09-08. Last Launch: 2015-09-02. Number: 51 . Gross mass: 2,760 kg (6,080 lb).
AS 3000 - American communications satellite. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-11-20. Last Launch: 1996-01-14. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
AS 4000 - American communications satellite. 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-11-27. Last Launch: 1998-02-04. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb).
AS 4000 - Manufacturer's designation for GPS Block 2R navigation satellite.
AS 5000 - American communications satellite. 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 20 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-03-02. Last Launch: 1992-06-10. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,862 kg (6,309 lb).
AS 7000 - American communications satellite. 3-axis stabilized. Two large solar panels with 1-axis articulation. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-12-16. Last Launch: 1998-06-18. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 3,415 kg (7,528 lb).
As The Sun Sets - Poem: as the sun sets, the mourners, hoarse,...
ASA - Alternate designation for ASA (abbreviation).
ASA - Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched airbreathing single stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing launch vehicle proposed in Russia. Status: Study 1993.
ASA (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Astronomical Society of the Atlantic
ASAT - American anti-satellite missile. The ASAT air-launched anti-satellite missile was developed by Vought in response to a 1977 Air Force requirement for a missile that could be launched from an F-15A fighter yet was capable of intercepting and destroying enemy satellites in low earth orbit. Four of five tests were successful before the program was cancelled in 1988. Status: Retired 1986. First Launch: 1984-01-21. Last Launch: 1986-09-30. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
ASAT-1 - Alternate name for LPC-415.
ASBM - Abbreviation for Air-launched strategic ballistic missile
ASC - Spacecraft bus used for commercial satellites and a British military communications satellite. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-08-27. Last Launch: 1991-04-13. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,280 kg (2,820 lb).
ASCA - Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. Study 2005. The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics was a high throughput spectroscopic observatory. Status: Study 2005.
ASCAMP - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Asp + 1 x RTV Motor Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1958-08-01. Last Launch: 1958-08-12. Number: 27 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 42.00 kN (9,441 lbf).
ASCAN Commandments - The Ten Commandments for ASCAN (Astronaut Candidates).
ASCC - NATO ASCC Reporting Committee. Assigned code names (Badger, Kelt, Scarp etc.) to Soviet and Chinese aircraft and missiles.
Ascender - British manned rocketplane. The Bristol Spaceplanes Ascender of the 1992 was a sub-orbital four-crew manned spaceplane concept proposed by David Ashford. In 2001 Ashford proposed the design as an X-Prize contender. However adequate funding was still not forthcoming for development. Status: Design 1992.
Ascension - Ascension Island. Sounding rocket launch site located on an island in the South Atlantic near a NASA/USAF tracking station. First Launch: 1963-03-02. Last Launch: 2000-02-27. Number: 1703 .
Ascent Module - Alternate designation for Gemini LSRS AM manned spacecraft module.
Ascent Stage - Alternate designation for Apollo LM AS manned spacecraft module.
ASCO - Arab Satellite Communications Organization, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
ASD - American manufacturer of spacecraft. ASD, USA.
ASE - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Advanced Space Engine. Staged combustion, pump-fed. Date: 1970. Thrust: 88.93 kN (19,991 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Ashby - American test pilot astronaut 1994-2008. Grew up near Evergreen, Colorado. Flew 33 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2008. Born: 1954-06-16. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 27.68 days.
Ashura - Iranian two-stage solid-propellant missile, evidently using some Shahab systems and its re-entry vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 2007-11-20. Last Launch: 2007-11-20. Number: 1 .
ASI - Italian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Alenia, Agenzia Spaziale Italiano (Italian space agency), Italy.
ASI - Agenzia Spaziale Italiana
Asia Pacific Space - Asia Pacific Space.
Asiasat - AsiaSat is a wholly owned subsidiary of Asia Satellite Telecommunications Holdings Ltd., a company listed on both the Hong Kong (SEHK: 1135HK) and New York (NYSE: SAT) stock exchanges. AsiaSat's two major shareholders are China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC) and Société Européene des Satellites (SES), the operator of Europe's premier ASTRA satellite system.
Asiastar - Worldspace digital radio satellite providing radio broadcasting to developing Asian countries. Small hand-held radios could pick up radio channels available on the three L-band beams. Used the Eurostar 2000 bus.
Asimov - American writer. Writer of science fiction and popular science. Born: 1920-01-02. Died: 1992-04-06.
ASLV - Indian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Used two lateral boosters derived from the SLV-3 first stage. Status: Retired 1994. First Launch: 1987-03-24. Last Launch: 1994-05-04. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 41,000 kg (90,000 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 909.90 kN (204,554 lbf).
ASLV-0 - Alternate name for SLV-1.
ASLV-1 - Alternate name for SLV-1.
ASLV-2 - Alternate name for SLV-2.
ASLV-3 - Alternate name for SLV-3 engine.
ASLV-4 - Alternate name for SLV-4.
ASM-135A - Alternate designation for ASAT.
ASMP - French cruise missile. Tactical nuclear. ASMP-A is improved version expected to enter service in 2008. Status: Active. Gross mass: 857 kg (1,889 lb). Payload: 140 kg (300 lb).
ASMS - Second name of USAF BMD.
ASMU - Abbreviation for Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit
ASNARO - High resolution imaging satellite developed by NEC and managed by Japan Space Systems rather than by the main Japanese space agency JAXA. The ASNARO had 0.5m resolution on a 10 km nadir swath width. Used the NEXTAR NX-300L bus.
ASP - Alternate designation for ASP (abbreviation).
Asp - Alternate designation for RM-1100.
Asp - American sounding rocket (Atmospheric Sounding Projectile) originally designed against a US Navy Bureau of Ships requirement to sample the mushroom clouds of nuclear explosions. Developed by Cooper Development Corporation for the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Flight test in 1956. Designed to lift 13.6 kg to 40 km. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1955-12-01. Last Launch: 1962-06-14. Number: 30 . Gross mass: 111 kg (244 lb). Payload: 11 kg (24 lb). Thrust: 42.00 kN (9,441 lbf).
ASP (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Asp Apache - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Asp + 1 x Apache Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 42.00 kN (9,441 lbf).
Asp II - Alternate designation for Asp II engine.
Asp II - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1959-01-01. Last Launch: 1959-01-01. Number: 1 .
Asp II engine - Cooper solid rocket engine. Asp III 4L first stage. Status: Retired 1959. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Thrust: 26.00 kN (5,845 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Asp III - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1957-01-01. Last Launch: 1958-01-01. Number: 4 .
Asp III 4L-1 - Alternate name for Asp II engine.
Asp III-0 - Alternate designation for Loki.
Asp IV - Alternate designation for RM-1400.
Asp IV - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1960-05-18. Last Launch: 1960-05-19. Number: 2 .
ASPO - Apollo Spacecraft Program Office (NASA-MSC, Houston)
ASRM - Abbreviation for Advanced Solid Rocket Motor
ASROC - Multiple-source solid rocket engine. Terrier ASROC Cajun second stage. Status: Retired 1959. Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Asset - American manned spaceplane. 6 launches, 1963.09.18 (ASSET 1) to 1965.02.23 (ASSET 6). One part of the Dynasoar manned spaceplane project was ASSET ( 'Aerothermodynamic Elastic Structural Systems Environmental Tests') . Status: Operational 1963. Gross mass: 540 kg (1,190 lb).
Association Technique pour l'Etude des Fusees - Alternate name for ATEF.
Asterix - French technology satellite. First French satellite. Launched from Hammaguir (Algeria) in order to test the "Diamant" launching vehicle for the first time. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-11-26. Last Launch: 1965-11-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 42 kg (92 lb).
Asteroids - Category of spacecraft.
ASTEX - American technology satellite. Space Test Program; technology experiments. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-10-17. Last Launch: 1971-10-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
ASTP - Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Meetings began in 1969 between Russian and American representatives on a joint manned space mission. Ambitious plans for use of Skylab or Salyut space stations were not approved. Instead it was decided to develop a universal docking system for space rescue. A working group was set up in October 1970 and in May 1972 the USA/USSR Agreement was signed with launch to take place in 1975. D Bushuev and G Lanin were the technical directors of the Soviet-designed EPAS docking system program. 1600 experiments were conducted in developing the system.
ASTP spacecraft family - Alternate designation for ASTP.
Astra - European TV broadcast.
Astra - First name of SES.
Astrid - Alternate designation for Astrid test vehicle.
Astrid - Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. Sweden's third scientific satellite and first microsatellite. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-01-24. Last Launch: 1995-01-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 26 kg (57 lb).
Astrid test vehicle - American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle to demonstrate laser-pumped propulsion. Status: Retired 1994. First Launch: 1994-02-04. Last Launch: 1994-02-04. Number: 1 .
Astrid-1 - Alternate name for MR-125.
Astrid-2 - Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. Swedish Space Corporation's second microsatellite (based on Astrid-1) was slated to perform high resolution E-field and B-filed measurements in the Earth's auroral regions. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-12-10. Last Launch: 1998-12-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 30 kg (66 lb).
Astris - Alternate designation for Astris engine.
Astris - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 3,370 kg (7,420 lb). Unfuelled mass: 610 kg (1,340 lb). Thrust: 23.33 kN (5,245 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Astris engine - German N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Used on Europa launch vehicle. First flight 1964. Number: 11 . Unfuelled mass: 68 kg (149 lb). Thrust: 23.30 kN (5,238 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Astrium - Second name of Toulouse.
Astrium - Fourth name of Friedrichshafen.
Astrium SAS - Fifth name of Friedrichshafen.
Astrium-F - Astrium, Friedrichshafen (former Dornier), Germany
Astrium-T - Astrium, Toulouse (former Matra), France
Astro - Alternate designation for Astro launch vehicle.
Astro - Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. X-ray experiments. Launching organization: ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science). Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-02-21. Last Launch: 1993-02-20. Number: 4 .
Astro - Alternate designation for Orbital Express Astro rendezvous technology satellite.
Astro (Japan) - Alternate name for Akari.
Astro 2 - Alternate designation for Astro-2.
Astro E - Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. ASTRO-E was to be fifth in a series of Japanese astronomy satellites devoted to observations of celestial X-ray sources. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-02-10. Last Launch: 2005-07-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,650 kg (3,630 lb).
Astro IV - American orbital launch vehicle. A two-stage all-LOx/LH2 vehicle proposed for the USAF SLV-4 requirement. Ruled out because it did not use the large segmented solids then favored by the USAF and its think tanks. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 278,290 kg (613,520 lb). Payload: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb).
Astro launch vehicle - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Douglas design of the early 1960's for a two-stage-to-orbit, winged, recoverable vehicle. Two versions were envisioned - a preliminary one the size of a DC-8 and a monster vehicle capable of delivering one million pounds payload to orbit. It was assumed at this scale that LOx/LH2 vehicles could achieve stage propellant mass fractions of 88% to 86%. Status: Study 1963. Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb).
Astro Space - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Astro Space, USA.
ASTRO-1 - Alternate designation for STS-35.
Astro-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Engines 1 x M-1 plus 2 x J-2. Status: Study. Gross mass: 302,183 kg (666,199 lb). Unfuelled mass: 32,558 kg (71,778 lb). Thrust: 8,820.00 kN (1,982,810 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Astro-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Engines 2 x RL-10 plus 1 x J-2. Status: Study. Gross mass: 89,290 kg (196,850 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Thrust: 1,170.00 kN (263,020 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Astro-200 - Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-03-09. Last Launch: 2013-11-20. Number: 3 .
Astrobee - Aerojet-designed family of sounding rockets conceived as a lower-cost replacement of the liquid-propellant Aerobee. Status: Retired 1983.
Astrobee 1500 - American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Aerojet Jr + 1 x Alcor Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1961-03-08. Last Launch: 1969-10-15. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb). Thrust: 566.00 kN (127,241 lbf).
Astrobee 200 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Genie + 1 x Alcor Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1961-06-30. Last Launch: 1966-12-14. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 161.00 kN (36,194 lbf).
Astrobee 500 - American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Genie + 1 x Alcor + 1 x Asp Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1960-03-22. Last Launch: 1960-03-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 161.00 kN (36,194 lbf).
Astrobee 500-1 - Alternate name for MB-1 engine.
Astrobee D - Alternate designation for Astrobee D engine.
Astrobee D - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1980. First Launch: 1970-06-08. Last Launch: 1980-02-16. Number: 48 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 23.00 kN (5,170 lbf).
Astrobee D engine - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Astrobee D first stage. Status: Retired 1980. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Thrust: 8.90 kN (2,001 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Astrobee D-1 - Alternate name for Astrobee D engine.
Astrobee F - Alternate designation for Astrobee F engine.
Astrobee F - American sounding rocket. Single stage solid-fueled dual-thrust rocket replacement for the Aerobee 150. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1972-09-26. Last Launch: 1983-03-02. Number: 49 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 178.00 kN (40,015 lbf).
Astrobee F engine - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Astrobee F first stage. Status: Retired 1983. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Thrust: 36.40 kN (8,183 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Astrobee F-1 - Alternate name for Astrobee F engine.
Astrobus - Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-09-09. Last Launch: 2014-06-30. Number: 2 .
Astrocommuter - American manned spaceplane. The Lockheed Astrocommuter was a 1963 design for a manned space shuttle that would use the Saturn 1B as a first stage. Status: Design 1963.
Astrofizika - Russian earth geodetic satellite. Cosmos 1066. Based on the Meteor-1 bus but carried special optical instruments for the observation of lasers on Earth. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-12-23. Last Launch: 1978-12-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb).
Astroliner - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. The Kelly Space & Technology Astroliner Space Launch System was a two-stage-to-orbit, towed space launch concept. Towing an aerodynamic vehicle to an altitude of 6,000 m yielded higher system performance due to vacuum engine performance, reduced drag and gravity losses, and aerodynamic lift during flight. Status: Design 2002. Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Astron - Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. Astrophysics satellite based on the Venera 4V-2 bus design. Electrophysical research of galactic and extragalactic sources of ultraviolet ray and X-ray emission. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-03-23. Last Launch: 1983-03-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,250 kg (7,160 lb).
Astronaut - Persons trained for spaceflight outside of Russia and China.
Astronaut beach house - Rickety house on the beach within the security area of the Kennedy Space Center that predated the space age. Never improved by NASA, it provided the premises for astronaut get-togethers, trysts, and parties with their families prior to launch.
Astronaut commandment - Informal astronaut rules. Known commandments: 2. Thou shalt not bask in the glory of publicity. 3. Thou shalt not show weakness.
Astronaut crew quarters - The cheerless, windowless, dormitory where the American astronauts stayed in quarantine for the last few days before their missions. Anomalies included a television that received the Playboy Channel, austere rooms decorated with pictures of exploding volcanoes, and thin walls that conveyed phone conversations from other astronauts in the fearful, sleepless nights before a launch.
Astronaut Statistics - The right stuff - Who's flown the most hours in space? Who's the fastest man alive?
Astronautics - American manufacturer. Astronautics, USA.
Astronauts - Astronauts, cosmonauts, taikonauts, and their selection groups
Astronomy - Category of spacecraft.
Astrophysics Module - Alternate designation for Kvant AM manned space station module.
Astroplane - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Martin concept of 1961 for a horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle that would be powered by nuclear magnetohydrodynamic engines. Status: Design 1961.
Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero - Alternate designation for AGILE gamma ray astronomy satellite.
Astrorocket stage series -
Astrorocket-1 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Delta wing configuration. LR87-derivative engines. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 981,859 kg (2,164,628 lb). Unfuelled mass: 132,000 kg (291,000 lb). Thrust: 14,700.00 kN (3,304,600 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Astrorocket-2 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. X-20 Dynasoar configuration. LR87-derivative engines. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 151,927 kg (334,941 lb). Unfuelled mass: 23,500 kg (51,800 lb). Thrust: 2,150.00 kN (483,330 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Astros - German sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Under the Future European Space Transportation Investigation Programme (FESTIP) of 1994-1999 French agencies and contractors designed a number of alternative reusable space launchers. This one was a Sled-launched horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit. Essentially similar to FESTIP FSS-4 Status: Study 1990.
AstroSat - Earth observation satellite with a 2 meter resolution on a 60 kilometer swath. Used the Astrobus bus.
AstroSat - Remote sensing satellite for the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. Used the Myriade bus.
AstroSat-100 - Commercial name for the Myriade bus.
AstroSat-500 - Alternate name for Astrobus bus.
Astrotech - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Astrotech, USA.
Astrozond - Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-09-18. Last Launch: 1982-09-18. Number: 1 .
ASU - Satellite constellation automatic control system (Russian designation)
Asuka - X-ray imaging and astronomy. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of various astronomical objects (stars and galaxies) in the X-ray band. One of the Astro series of Japanese astronomy satellites.
ASUSAT - American technology satellite. Arizona State University satellite with an Earth imager and an amateur radio transponder. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2000-01-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
ASV-3 - Alternate designation for Asset manned spaceplane.
ATACMS - American short range ballistic missile. The ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System) was the U.S. Army's short/medium-range tactical ballistic missile system from the 1990's. Status: Development.
ATACMS (Block 1) - Alternate designation for Block 1.
ATACMS (Block 1A) - Alternate designation for Block 1A.
ATACMS (Block 2) - Alternate designation for Block 2.
ATACMS II - American short range ballistic missile. ATACMS Block II is a derivative of the MGM-140 ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System). The Block II designation applies to ATACMS variants designed to deliver the BAT (Brilliant Anti-Tank) guided submunition. Status: Active.
Atar 9K - SNECMA turbojet engine. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 48.00 kN (10,790 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
ATBM - Alternate designation for Arrow 1.
ATC - Alternate designation for Akita.
ATC - Abbreviation for Air Training Command
ATCOS - Ionospheric studies. Spacecraft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Satellite in the USAF OV3 technology series.
ATCRE - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1985. Used on Sanger II launch vehicle. Status: Study 1985. Thrust: 1,280.00 kN (287,750 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
ATDA - Abbreviation for Augmented target docking adapter
ATDRS - Abbreviation or acronym for Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite
ATE - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Developed 1990's. Advance technology engine for maneuvering stages. Status: Developed 1990's. Unfuelled mass: 58 kg (127 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Atea - Family of launch vehicles.
Atea-1 - New Zealander sounding rocket. Single-stage New Zealand hybrid sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 2009-11-30. Last Launch: 2009-11-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Payload: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Thrust: 6.70 kN (1,506 lbf).
Atea-2 - New Zealander sounding rocket. Two-stage increased-diameter New Zealand hybrid sounding rocket.Payload: 25 kg (55 lb) to a 250 km altitude. Status: In development 2010. Payload: 25 kg (55 lb).
ATEF - French agency overseeing development of rocket engines. ATEF, France.
ATEX - NRO's ATeX (Advanced Tether eXperiment); part of TiPS series. Tether failed to deploy.
Athena - Privately funded family of solid propellant satellite launch vehicles. Originally known as LMLV (Lockheed-Martin Launch Vehicle); LLV (Lockheed Launch Vehicle). Sales did not develop as hoped by the company after the MEO-satellite bubble burst in the 1990's.
Athena H - American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 1 x Castor 4 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Alcor IA Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1971-04-03. Last Launch: 1974-06-23. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Thrust: 422.00 kN (94,869 lbf).
Athena III - Alternate designation for Satellite Launch Vehicle.
Athena Mars Flyby - American manned Mars flyby. Study 1996. In 1996 Robert Zubrin proposed a new version of a manned Mars flyby mission, dubbed Athena. Status: Study 1996. Gross mass: 25,900 kg (57,000 lb).
Athena RTV - American test vehicle. The Athena was designed to simulate the re-entry environment of an intercontinental ballistic missile and was one of the few examples of sustained interstate missile tests within the United States. Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1964-02-10. Last Launch: 1977-03-20. Number: 142 . Gross mass: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb). Thrust: 586.00 kN (131,738 lbf).
Athena-1 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Basic version of the Athena with a Castor 120 first stage, Orbus second stage, and OAM Orbital Adjustment Module. Status: Retired 2001. First Launch: 1999-01-27. Last Launch: 2001-09-30. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 66,300 kg (146,100 lb). Payload: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Thrust: 1,449.00 kN (325,748 lbf).
Athena-2 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. The Athena-2 version featured a Castor 120 first stage, Castor 120 second stage, Orbus third stage, and OAM Orbital Adjustment Module. Status: Retired 1999. First Launch: 1998-01-07. Last Launch: 1999-09-24. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 120,700 kg (266,000 lb). Payload: 2,065 kg (4,552 lb). Thrust: 1,449.00 kN (325,748 lbf).
Athena-3 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Planned but never flown heavier-lift version of Athena. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 146,800 kg (323,600 lb). Payload: 3,655 kg (8,057 lb). Thrust: 2,140.00 kN (481,090 lbf).
Athlete - American lunar rover. Study 2005. Athlete was a Habot-inspired mobility system for doing cargo handling, assembly, maintenance, and servicing tasks on the moon. Each of the six limbs had a 6-degree-of-freedom manipulator with a wheel at the end. Status: Study 2005.
ATK GASL - American manufacturer. ATK GASL, USA.
ATK Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for ALV.
ATK Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for ATK LV.
ATK LV - American sounding rocket. Suborbital version.
Atkov - Russian physician cosmonaut 1983-1984. Status: Inactive; Active 1983-1984. Born: 1949-05-09. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 236.95 days.
Atlantic Bird - Series of communications satellites launched by the European consortium Eutelsat.
Atlantic Research - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Atlantic Research, Gainesville, USA.
Atlantic Research Liquid Propellant Division (1987 - Second name of Bell.
Atlantic Research Liquid Propellant Division (1987) - Second name of Atlantic Research.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-122.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-115.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-34.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-30.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-27.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-135.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-132.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-37.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-125.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-38.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-117.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-112.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-110.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-106.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-104.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-101.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-129.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-66.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-86.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-84.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-81.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-79.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-76.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-74.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-36.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-71.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-98.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-61-B.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-51-J.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-46.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-45.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-44.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-43.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for STS-71 Mir EO-19.
Atlantis - American manned spaceplane. The space shuttle Atlantis was the fourth orbiter to become operational at Kennedy Space Center, and the last of the original production run. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-10-03. Last Launch: 2011-07-08. Number: 33 . Gross mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 103,488 kg (228,151 lb). Payload: 24,990 kg (55,090 lb). Thrust: 53.37 kN (11,997 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Atlantis - Alternate designation for UR-500.
ATLAS - Alternate designation for ATLAS (abbreviation).
Atlas - The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career. Status: Retired 2004.
ATLAS (abbreviation) - Acronym for Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science
Atlas 3A - American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas IIIA was a development of the Atlas using Russian engines in place of the Rocketdyne MA-5 booster/sustainer group used on all previous models. It was the centerpiece of Lockheed Martin's strategy to remain a leader in the commercial launch services industry. However customers never materialized, and it was used for only two launches in 2002-2004 before being replaced by the Atlas V. Status: Retired 2004. First Launch: 2000-05-24. Last Launch: 2004-03-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 214,338 kg (472,534 lb). Payload: 8,640 kg (19,040 lb). Thrust: 2,600.00 kN (584,500 lbf).
Atlas 3B - American orbital launch vehicle. This was the first version of the Atlas to fly using Russian RD-180 engines; and the last version to fly using the original balloon-tank concept for the first stage. It differed from the Atlas IIIA in use of a stretched, two-engine upper stage, and had a brief three-year operational career in 2002-2005 before being superseded by the Atlas V. Status: Retired 2005. First Launch: 2002-02-21. Last Launch: 2005-02-03. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 218,588 kg (481,904 lb). Payload: 10,718 kg (23,629 lb). Thrust: 2,600.00 kN (584,500 lbf).
Atlas 3B DEC - American orbital launch vehicle. Status: Retired 2002.
Atlas A - Alternate designation for Atlas A stage.
Atlas A - American test vehicle. First test model of Atlas ICBM. Two booster engines, no sustainer, dummy warhead. 50% reliability in 8 flight tests. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1957-06-11. Last Launch: 1958-06-03. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 81,647 kg (180,000 lb). Thrust: 1,334.50 kN (300,008 lbf).
Atlas A stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 81,647 kg (180,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,230 kg (15,930 lb). Thrust: 1,517.41 kN (341,128 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas Able - Alternate designation for Atlas Able stage.
Atlas Able - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas with upper stage based on Vanguard second stage. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1959-11-26. Last Launch: 1960-12-15. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 120,051 kg (264,667 lb). Payload: 170 kg (370 lb). Thrust: 1,587.20 kN (356,817 lbf).
Atlas Able stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 114,495 kg (252,418 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,200 kg (9,200 lb). Thrust: 363.22 kN (81,655 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas Agena A - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D + 1 x Agena A upper stage. Agena originally called 'Hustler', based on engine for cancelled rocket-propelled nuclear warhead pod for B-58 Hustler bomber. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1960-02-26. Last Launch: 1961-01-31. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 123,990 kg (273,350 lb). Payload: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 1,587.19 kN (356,815 lbf).
Atlas Agena B - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D with improved, enlarged Agena upper stage. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1961-07-12. Last Launch: 1965-03-21. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 127,367 kg (280,796 lb). Payload: 850 kg (1,870 lb). Thrust: 1,721.10 kN (386,919 lbf).
Atlas Agena D - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D with further improved and lightened Agena upper stage. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1963-07-12. Last Launch: 1965-07-20. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 153,365 kg (338,111 lb). Payload: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 1,939.29 kN (435,970 lbf).
Atlas Agena D SLV-3 - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3 Agena D.
Atlas Agena D SLV-3A - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3A Agena D.
Atlas Agena LV-3A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 117,150 kg (258,270 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,390 kg (5,260 lb). Thrust: 363.22 kN (81,655 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas Agena SLV-3 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 117,026 kg (257,998 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,326 kg (5,127 lb). Thrust: 386.30 kN (86,844 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas Agena SLV-3A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 142,000 kg (313,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Thrust: 386.30 kN (86,844 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas B - Alternate designation for Atlas B stage.
Atlas B - American test vehicle. First all-up test version of the Atlas ICBM, with jettisonable booster engines and a single engine sustainer on core - a '1 1/2' stage launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1958-07-19. Last Launch: 1959-02-04. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 110,740 kg (244,130 lb). Payload: 70 kg (154 lb). Thrust: 1,587.20 kN (356,817 lbf).
Atlas B stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 107,610 kg (237,230 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,980 kg (8,770 lb). Thrust: 363.22 kN (81,655 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas Burner 2 - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas SLV-3 + 1 x Star 37B upper stage. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1972-10-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 130,000 kg (280,000 lb). Thrust: 1,700.00 kN (382,100 lbf).
Atlas C - American test vehicle. Last development version of Atlas. Never deployed operationally or used for space launches. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1958-12-24. Last Launch: 1959-08-24. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 110,740 kg (244,130 lb). Payload: 70 kg (154 lb). Thrust: 1,587.20 kN (356,817 lbf).
Atlas C Able - American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Atlas C first stage, Able AJ10-101A second stage, Altair solid third stage. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1959-09-24. Last Launch: 1959-09-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 120,000 kg (260,000 lb). Thrust: 1,615.00 kN (363,066 lbf).
Atlas CCB - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Common Core Booster uses Glushko RD-180 engine and new isogrid tanks. Used in Atlas IV/USAF EELV, Atlas V. Includes 272 kg booster interstage adapter and 1297 kg Centaur interstage adapter. Status: Active. Gross mass: 306,914 kg (676,629 lb). Unfuelled mass: 22,461 kg (49,518 lb). Thrust: 4,152.00 kN (933,406 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas Centaur - American orbital launch vehicle. First test version of Atlas with Centaur upper stage. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1962-05-08. Last Launch: 1965-03-02. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 136,124 kg (300,102 lb). Payload: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Thrust: 1,704.82 kN (383,259 lbf).
Atlas Centaur D - American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Centaur D upper stage. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1965-08-11. Last Launch: 1967-07-14. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 136,100 kg (300,000 lb). Payload: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
Atlas Centaur G - Alternate designation for Atlas G Centaur.
Atlas Centaur LV-3C - Alternate designation for Atlas Centaur LV-3C stage.
Atlas Centaur LV-3C - American orbital launch vehicle. Version with basic Centaur upper stage. Payload: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
Atlas Centaur LV-3C stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 117,350 kg (258,710 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Thrust: 363.22 kN (81,655 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas Centaur SLV-3C - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
Atlas Centaur SLV-3C/D - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 128,500 kg (283,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 386.30 kN (86,844 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas Centaur SLV-3D - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3D Centaur.
Atlas D - Alternate designation for Atlas D stage.
Atlas D - American intercontinental ballistic missile. Rocket used both as a space launcher and ICBM. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1959-04-14. Last Launch: 1967-11-07. Number: 135 . Gross mass: 119,000 kg (262,000 lb). Payload: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 1,629.00 kN (366,213 lbf).
Atlas D Able - American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Atlas D first stage, Able AJ10-101A second stage, Altair solid third stage.
Atlas D stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 113,050 kg (249,230 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,347 kg (5,174 lb). Thrust: 363.22 kN (81,655 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas E - American intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial fully operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance system from Atlas F. Deployed as missiles from 1960 to 1966. After retirement, the ICBM's were refurbished and used over twenty years as space launch vehicles. Status: Retired 1995. First Launch: 1960-10-11. Last Launch: 1995-03-24. Number: 48 . Gross mass: 121,000 kg (266,000 lb). Payload: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Thrust: 1,713.80 kN (385,278 lbf).
Atlas E - Alternate designation for Atlas E CGM-16E.
Atlas E Altair - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 20 upper stage. Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1990-04-11. Last Launch: 1990-04-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 125,000 kg (275,000 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf).
Atlas E CGM-16E - American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM version Gross mass: 120,000 kg (260,000 lb). Payload: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
Atlas E/F - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1995. Gross mass: 117,826 kg (259,761 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,926 kg (10,859 lb). Thrust: 386.30 kN (86,844 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas E/MSD - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x MSD upper stage. Status: Retired 1980. First Launch: 1980-12-09. Last Launch: 1980-12-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 122,000 kg (268,000 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf).
Atlas E/OIS - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x OIS upper stage. Status: Retired 1985. First Launch: 1985-03-13. Last Launch: 1985-03-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 120,000 kg (260,000 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf).
Atlas E/SGS-2 - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 48 + 1 x Star 48 upper stages. Status: Retired 1985. First Launch: 1983-07-14. Last Launch: 1985-10-09. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 125,000 kg (275,000 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Atlas E/SVS - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 37E + 1 x Star 37E upper stages. Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1981-12-19. Last Launch: 1981-12-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 125,000 kg (275,000 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf).
Atlas E/Trident - Atlas E + 1 x Trident upper stage. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1968-03-06. Last Launch: 1968-04-27. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 130,000 kg (280,000 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf).
Atlas F - American intercontinental ballistic missile. Final operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance systems. Deployed as missiles from 1961 to 1966. After retirement, the ICBM's were refurbished and used for over thirty years as space launch vehicles. Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1961-08-09. Last Launch: 1981-06-23. Number: 69 . Gross mass: 121,980 kg (268,910 lb). Payload: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Thrust: 1,713.80 kN (385,278 lbf).
Atlas F - Alternate designation for Atlas F HGM-16F.
Atlas F HGM-16F - American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM version. Also CGM-16F Gross mass: 120,000 kg (260,000 lb). Payload: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
Atlas F/Agena D - Atlas F + 1 x Agena D upper stage. Status: Retired 1978. First Launch: 1978-06-27. Last Launch: 1978-06-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 130,000 kg (280,000 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf).
Atlas F/MSD - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x MSD upper stage. Status: Retired 1980. First Launch: 1976-04-30. Last Launch: 1980-03-03. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 122,000 kg (268,000 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf).
Atlas F/OIS - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x OIS upper stage. Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1979-02-24. Last Launch: 1979-02-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 120,000 kg (260,000 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf).
Atlas F/PTS - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x Star 37E upper stage. Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1974-07-14. Last Launch: 1974-07-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 125,000 kg (275,000 lb). Payload: 295 kg (650 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf).
Atlas F/SVS - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x Star 37E + 1 x Star 37E upper stages. Status: Retired 1980. First Launch: 1977-06-23. Last Launch: 1980-04-26. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 125,000 kg (275,000 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf).
Atlas F/Trident - Atlas F + 1 x Trident upper stage. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1967-06-09. Last Launch: 1971-06-29. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 130,000 kg (280,000 lb). Thrust: 1,731.00 kN (389,144 lbf).
Atlas F/Trident-2 - Alternate name for Trident Motor.
Atlas G Centaur - Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles using stretched, uprated Atlas core. Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1984-06-09. Last Launch: 1989-09-25. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 166,140 kg (366,270 lb). Payload: 3,630 kg (8,000 lb). Thrust: 1,939.30 kN (435,972 lbf).
Atlas G/H/I - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 142,536 kg (314,238 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,236 kg (9,338 lb). Thrust: 386.30 kN (86,844 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas H - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas H used the Atlas first stage developed for the Atlas G vehicle. It was flown without the Centaur upper stage. Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1983-02-09. Last Launch: 1987-05-15. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 150,540 kg (331,880 lb). Payload: 3,630 kg (8,000 lb). Thrust: 1,939.30 kN (435,972 lbf).
Atlas I - American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas I launch vehicle was derived from the Atlas G, and included the same basic vehicle components (Atlas booster and Centaur upper stage). Significant improvements in the guidance and control system were made with an emphasis on replacing analog flight control components with digital units interconnected with a digital data bus. Status: Retired 1997. First Launch: 1990-07-25. Last Launch: 1997-04-25. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 164,300 kg (362,200 lb). Payload: 3,630 kg (8,000 lb). Thrust: 1,939.30 kN (435,972 lbf).
Atlas II - Alternate designation for Atlas II stage.
Atlas II - American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas II booster was 2.7-meters longer than an Atlas I and included uprated Rocketdyne MA-5A engines. The Atlas I vernier engines were replaced with a hydrazine roll control system. The Centaur stage was stretched 0.9-meters compared to the Centaur I stage. Fixed foam insulation replaced Atlas I's jettisonable insulation panels. The original Atlas II model was developed to support the United States Air Force Medium Launch Vehicle II program. Its Centaur used RL10A-3-3A engines operating at an increased mixture ratio. The first Atlas II flew on 7 December 1991, successfully delivering AC-102/Eutelsat II F3 to orbit. Status: Retired 1998. First Launch: 1991-12-07. Last Launch: 1998-03-16. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 187,600 kg (413,500 lb). Payload: 6,580 kg (14,500 lb). Thrust: 2,110.60 kN (474,482 lbf).
Atlas II stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 161,995 kg (357,137 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,095 kg (13,437 lb). Thrust: 386.30 kN (86,844 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas IIA - Alternate designation for Atlas IIA stage.
Atlas IIA - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas IIA was a commercial derivative of the Atlas II developed for the US Air Force. Higher performance RL10A-4 (or RL10A-4-1) engines replaced Atlas II's RL10A-3-3A engines. Status: Retired 2002. First Launch: 1992-06-10. Last Launch: 2002-12-05. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 187,700 kg (413,800 lb). Payload: 7,280 kg (16,040 lb). Thrust: 2,110.60 kN (474,482 lbf).
Atlas IIA stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 162,495 kg (358,240 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,595 kg (14,539 lb). Thrust: 386.30 kN (86,844 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas IIAR - Alternate designation for Atlas 3A.
Atlas IIARC - Alternate designation for Atlas 3B.
Atlas IIAS - Alternate designation for Atlas IIAS stage.
Atlas IIAS - American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas II booster was 2.7-meters longer than the Atlas I and included uprated Rocketdyne MA-5A engines. The Atlas I vernier engines were replaced with a hydrazine roll control system. The Centaur stage was stretched 0.9-meters compared to the Centaur I stage. Fixed foam insulation replaced Atlas I's jettisonable insulation panels. Higher performance RL10A-4 or RL10A-4-1 engines replaced Atlas II's RL10A-3-3A. The Atlas IIAS model added four Thiokol Castor IVA solid rocket boosters (SRBs) to the core Atlas stage to augment thrust for the first two minutes of flight. Status: Retired 2004. First Launch: 1993-12-16. Last Launch: 2004-08-31. Number: 30 . Gross mass: 234,000 kg (515,000 lb). Payload: 8,610 kg (18,980 lb). Thrust: 3,546.30 kN (797,240 lbf).
Atlas IIAS stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 161,950 kg (357,030 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,050 kg (13,330 lb). Thrust: 386.30 kN (86,844 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas IIIA - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. The American Atlas booster and sustainer engine arrangement was replaced by derivatives of Glushko engines developed for the Ukrainian Zenit launch vehicle. Not capable of single stage to single stage to orbit capability (an Internet spaceflight urban myth). Status: Retired 2005. Gross mass: 195,628 kg (431,285 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,725 kg (30,258 lb). Thrust: 4,148.72 kN (932,670 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas IIIA - Alternate designation for Atlas 3A.
Atlas IIIB - Alternate designation for Atlas 3B.
Atlas IIR - Alternate designation for Atlas 3A.
Atlas IIR; Atlas IIAR - Alternate designation for Atlas IIIA.
Atlas IIRC - Alternate designation for Atlas 3B.
Atlas IIRC; Atlas IIARC - Alternate designation for Atlas IIIB.
Atlas LV-3B - American orbital launch vehicle. First operational version of Atlas ICBM and used as launch vehicle for Project Mercury. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 117,730 kg (259,550 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 1,587.20 kN (356,817 lbf).
Atlas LV-3B / Mercury - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D modified for use in Project Mercury. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 116,100 kg (255,900 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 1,587.19 kN (356,815 lbf).
Atlas MA engine series -
Atlas MA-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 3,050 kg (6,720 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,050 kg (6,720 lb). Thrust: 1,517.42 kN (341,130 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas MA-3 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1995. Gross mass: 3,174 kg (6,997 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,174 kg (6,997 lb). Thrust: 1,644.96 kN (369,802 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas MA-5 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 3,646 kg (8,038 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,646 kg (8,038 lb). Thrust: 1,896.01 kN (426,240 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas MA-5A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 4,187 kg (9,230 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,187 kg (9,230 lb). Thrust: 2,093.70 kN (470,682 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas MA-5AS - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 5,632 kg (12,416 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,632 kg (12,416 lb). Thrust: 2,093.70 kN (470,682 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Atlas SLV-3 - American orbital launch vehicle. Standardized Atlas booster with no or small solid upper stage. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1966-06-01. Last Launch: 1967-04-20. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 120,000 kg (260,000 lb). Payload: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 1,650.00 kN (370,930 lbf).
Atlas SLV-3 Agena B - American orbital launch vehicle. Standardized Atlas booster with Agena B upper stage. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1966-06-07. Last Launch: 1966-06-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 140,000 kg (300,000 lb). Payload: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Thrust: 1,629.00 kN (366,213 lbf).
Atlas SLV-3 Agena D - Standardized Atlas booster with Agena D upper stage. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1964-08-14. Last Launch: 1967-11-05. Number: 48 . Gross mass: 140,000 kg (300,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 1,629.00 kN (366,213 lbf).
Atlas SLV-3A Agena D - Uprated Atlas booster with Agena D upper stage. Status: Retired 1978. First Launch: 1968-03-04. Last Launch: 1978-04-07. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 155,000 kg (341,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 1,700.00 kN (382,100 lbf).
Atlas SLV-3C Centaur - Standardized SLV-3C Atlas booster with Centaur D upper stage. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1967-09-08. Last Launch: 1972-08-21. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 148,404 kg (327,174 lb). Payload: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 1,939.29 kN (435,970 lbf).
Atlas SLV-3D Centaur - Fully developed version of Atlas with Centaur D-1A upper stage. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1973-04-06. Last Launch: 1983-05-19. Number: 32 . Gross mass: 148,404 kg (327,174 lb). Payload: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Thrust: 1,939.29 kN (435,970 lbf).
Atlas Target Docking Adapter - American logistics spacecraft. Gemini 9 ATDA. An unpowered Gemini docking collar less the Agena rocket stage, launched one time by an Atlas when the Agena stage was not available. Fairing separation failed. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-06-01. Last Launch: 1966-06-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 794 kg (1,750 lb).
Atlas V - American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas V launch vehicle system was a completely new design that succeeded the earlier Atlas series. Atlas V vehicles were based on the 3.8-m (12.5-ft) diameter Common Core Booster (CCB) powered by a single Russian RD-180 engine. These could be clustered together, and complemented by a Centaur upper stage, and up to five solid rocket boosters, to achieve a wide range of performance. Status: Active. Gross mass: 546,700 kg (1,205,200 lb). Payload: 12,500 kg (27,500 lb). Thrust: 8,590.00 kN (1,931,100 lbf).
Atlas V 401 - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V version with a 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and no strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 7,095 kg (15,642 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 4,950 kg (10,910 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 2002-08-21. Last Launch: 2015-10-31. Number: 29 . Gross mass: 338,640 kg (746,570 lb). Payload: 7,095 kg (15,641 lb). Thrust: 3,827.00 kN (860,343 lbf).
Atlas V 411 - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and one strap-on solid booster. Payloads: 8,763 kg (19,320 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 6,075 kg (13,393 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 2006-04-20. Last Launch: 2011-04-15. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 386,800 kg (852,700 lb). Payload: 8,763 kg (19,319 lb). Thrust: 5,188.00 kN (1,166,308 lbf).
Atlas V 421 - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and two strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 10,168 kg (22,416 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 7,000 kg (15,432 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 2007-10-11. Last Launch: 2015-10-05. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 435,000 kg (959,000 lb). Payload: 10,168 kg (22,416 lb). Thrust: 6,549.00 kN (1,472,273 lbf).
Atlas V 431 - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and three strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 11,547 kg (25,458 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 7,800 kg (17,196 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 2005-03-11. Last Launch: 2009-11-23. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 482,500 kg (1,063,700 lb). Payload: 11,547 kg (25,456 lb). Thrust: 7,910.00 kN (1,778,230 lbf).
Atlas V 501 - Atlas V with 5-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and no strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 6,319 kg (13,931 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 3,970 kg (8,752 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-04-22. Last Launch: 2015-05-20. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 340,000 kg (740,000 lb). Payload: 6,319 kg (13,931 lb). Thrust: 3,827.00 kN (860,343 lbf).
Atlas V 521 - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 5-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and two strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 10,161 kg (22,401 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 6,485 kg (14,297 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 2003-07-17. Last Launch: 2004-12-17. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 433,000 kg (954,000 lb). Payload: 10,161 kg (22,401 lb). Thrust: 6,549.00 kN (1,472,273 lbf).
Atlas V 531 - Atlas V 531 Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-08-14. Last Launch: 2013-09-18. Number: 3 .
Atlas V 541 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-11-26. Last Launch: 2014-12-13. Number: 3 .
Atlas V 551 - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 5-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and five strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 20,520 kg (45,238 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 8,700 kg (19,180 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 2006-01-19. Last Launch: 2015-09-02. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 587,000 kg (1,294,000 lb). Payload: 20,520 kg (45,230 lb). Thrust: 10,632.00 kN (2,390,168 lbf).
Atlas V Growth Phase 1 - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed growth variant of the heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle with three parallel 3.8-m-diameter Common Core Boosters (CCB), a 5-m-diameter wide body version of the Centaur upper stage with a single-engine, and a 5 m diameter payload fairing. Another variant would use a stretched wide body version of the Centaur upper stage with 2 or 4 motors, allowing payloads of up to 13,500 kg to be lofted to earth escape velocity. Status: Design 2003. Gross mass: 960,000 kg (2,110,000 lb). Payload: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Thrust: 11,470.00 kN (2,578,550 lbf).
Atlas V Growth Phase 2 - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed growth variant of the heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle with three parallel 5-m-diameter wide-body Common Core Boosters (CCB), each with 1 or 2 RD-180 engines; a 5-m-diameter new LOx/LH2 stage with 2 or 4 engines with a total thrust of 180,000 kgf; and a 5 m diameter payload fairing. Status: Design 2003. Gross mass: 1,800,000 kg (3,900,000 lb). Payload: 29,000 kg (63,000 lb). Thrust: 22,940.00 kN (5,157,110 lbf).
Atlas V Growth Phase 3 - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed Saturn-V class variant of the heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle with five parallel 5-m-diameter wide-body Common Core Boosters (CCB), each with 1 or 2 RD-180 engines; a 7-m-diameter new LOx/LH2 stage; and a 7 m diameter payload fairing. Status: Design 2003. Gross mass: 2,900,000 kg (6,300,000 lb). Payload: 44,000 kg (97,000 lb). Thrust: 35,300.00 kN (7,935,700 lbf).
Atlas V Heavy - American orbital launch vehicle. Heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle system with three parallel 3.8-m-diameter Common Core Boosters (CCB), and a stretched version of the Centaur upper stage (CIII), which could be configured as a single-engine Centaur (SEC) or a dual engine Centaur (DEC), and a 5 m diameter payload fairing. As of 2004 no work had been authorized to build Atlas V Heavy facilities at either Cape Canaveral or Vandenberg AFB. Status: Design 2003. Gross mass: 945,000 kg (2,083,000 lb). Payload: 8,600 kg (18,900 lb). Thrust: 11,470.00 kN (2,578,550 lbf).
Atlas V SRB - Alternate name for Aerojet SRB.
Atlas Vega - American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas-Vega consisted of an Atlas booster with a storable propellant upper stage. It was planned by NASA at its inception for deep space and planetary missions before the Atlas Centaur was available. Work had already begun when NASA discovered that the CIA and the US Air Force had an essentially identical launch vehicle (Atlas-Hustler, later called Atlas-Agena) in development for the highly classified Corona reconnaissance satellite program. Atlas-Vega was accordingly cancelled. Status: Development ended 1959.
Atlas/Agena F/D - Alternate designation for Atlas F/Agena D.
Atlas/Trident E - Alternate designation for Atlas E/Trident.
Atlas/Trident F - Alternate designation for Atlas F/Trident.
ATLAS-1 - Alternate name for STS-45.
ATLAS-2 - Alternate name for STS-56.
Atlas-Hustler - Alternate designation for Atlas Agena A.
ATM - Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab spacecraft component)
ATMDC - Abbreviation or acronym for Apollo Telescope Mount Digital Computer
Atmosphere Explorer - Alternate designation for AE earth atmosphere satellite.
Atmosphere sat - Category of spacecraft.
Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator - Alternate designation for ARD re-entry vehicle technology satellite.
Atmospheric Sounding Projectile - Alternate designation for Asp.
ATO - Abort To Orbit (Shuttle abort plan)
ATS - The Applications Technology Satellite was a project with the purpose of improving other satellites, specifically to enhance the ability of existing and future satellites to provide weather, and communications data and air/sea navigation aids.
ATS 5 cm - EOS electric/cesium rocket engine. Flown in 1968-1969. Thruster for the ATS-4 and ATS-5 tests; consisted of two contact ionization engines using cesium propellant. Status: Flown in 1968-1969.. Date: 1966-1969. Thrust: 0.0089 N (0.0020 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Cesium.
ATS 8 cm - EOS electric/cesium rocket engine. Flown in 1974. Thruster for the ATS-6 test; consisted of two electron bombardment engines using cesium propellant. The thruster anode diameter was 8 cm, and a cesiated tungsten neutralizer was used. Status: Flown in 1974. Date: 1974. Thrust: 0.0045 N (0.0010 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Cesium.
ATS-1 - American communications technology satellite. ATS 1. During its 18 year lifetime, ATS-1 examined spin stabilization techniques, investigated the geostationary environment, and performed several communications experiments. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-12-07. Last Launch: 1966-12-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 352 kg (776 lb).
ATS-2 - American communications technology satellite. ATS 2. ATS-2 was placed into an undesirable orbit due to a launch vehicle failure. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-04-06. Last Launch: 1967-04-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 370 kg (810 lb).
ATS-3 - American communications technology satellite. ATS 3. The goals for ATS-3 included investigations of spin stabilization techniques and VHF and C-band communications experiments. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-11-05. Last Launch: 1967-11-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 365 kg (804 lb).
ATS-4 - American communications technology satellite. ATS 4. A launch vehicle failure stranded ATS-4 in a much lower than planned orbit, making the satellite nearly useless. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-08-10. Last Launch: 1968-08-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 391 kg (862 lb).
ATS-5 - American communications technology satellite. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-08-12. Last Launch: 1969-08-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 821 kg (1,809 lb).
ATS-6 - American communications technology satellite. ATS 6. In addition to its technology experiments, ATS-6 became the world's first educational satellite. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-05-30. Last Launch: 1974-05-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb).
ATSB - Astronautic Technology (M) Sdn Bhd.
ATT - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. American Telephone and Telegraph, USA.
ATV - Alternate designation for ATV (abbreviaion).
ATV - Alternate designation for Detko ATV.
ATV - European logistics spacecraft and space tug. The Automated Transfer Vehicle was first proposed in the mid-1980s as a way to transport unmanned cargo to a Space Station. Operational in that role. Studies for a manned version with a re-entry capsule conducted, but no funding for development. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-03-09. Last Launch: 2014-07-29. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 19,357 kg (42,674 lb). Unfuelled mass: 16,494 kg (36,363 lb). Payload: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb).
ATV - Alternate designation for Aerospike Test Vehicle manned spacecraft.
ATV (abbreviaion) - Abbreviation for Agena target vehicle
ATV ICC - European space tug. Study 1985. The Integrated Cargo Carrier was located at the forward end of the ATV. It represented 60% of the total ATV volume and carried all of the cargo for resupplying the Station. Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 10,994 kg (24,237 lb). Payload: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb).
ATV SM - European space tug. Study 1985. The unpressurized ATV Service Module included propulsion systems, electrical power (including solar arrays), computers, communications and most of the avionics. Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 8,363 kg (18,437 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb).
ATV test vehicle - Indian Advanced Technology Vehicle consisting of a solid propellant booster first stage and a scramjet second stage. The booster burned for 120 seconds to take the scramjet to an altitude of 46km and a speed of Mach 6, at which point the scramjet would ignite. Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-03-03. Last Launch: 2010-03-03. Number: 1 .
Atwood - Chief Engineer at North American Aviation, 1948-1971. Supervised development of Navaho, X-15, XB-70, Apollo, and Space Shuttle. Fought indifference of the CEO to spaceflight, made the company preeminent in rocket engines, manned spacecraft. Born: 1904-10-26. Died: 1999-03-05.
AU - Abbreviation for Astronomical Unit
Aubakirov - Kazakh pilot cosmonaut 1991. First Kazakh astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1991-1991. Born: 1946-07-17. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.93 days.
AubieSat - Auburn University, Alabama 1U Cubesat. First CubeSat from Auburn University. Successful.
Auburn - First Launch: 1926-03-16. Last Launch: 1930-12-30. Number: 5 .
Aufderhaar - American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1948-08-20.
Augustine - American engineer. Chairman and CEO of the Martin Marietta Corporation in the 1980s. Born: 1935-07-27.
Aulehner - German Engineer. Worked at Peenemuende and at the Zentralwerk. Born: 1918.
Aunon - American physician mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1976-04-09.
AUOS - Ukrainian spacecraft bus. Standardized bus for low earth orbit scientific studies and testing of new systems and components of satellite under space flight conditions. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-06-19. Last Launch: 2009-01-30. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
Aur Atoll - Alternate name for Bigen Island.
AURA - Alternate designation for AURA (abbreviaion).
Aura - American earth atmosphere satellite. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura was a NASA mission to study the Earth's ozone, air quality and climate. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-07-15. Last Launch: 2004-07-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,967 kg (6,541 lb). Payload: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
AURA (abbreviaion) - Acronym for Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy
Aureole - Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras.
Aureole - Alternate designation for DS-U2-GKA earth magnetosphere satellite.
Aurora - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Investigated aurora borealis. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-06-29. Last Launch: 1967-06-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 21 kg (46 lb).
Aurora - RCA Alas communications satellite; positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 143 deg W in 1982-1991; 105 deg W in 1992-2007. Used the AS 3000 bus.
Aurora 7 - Alternate name for Mercury MA-7.
Aurora X-Prize - American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Fundamental Technology Systems, Orlando, Florida. Status: Study 2004.
Aurorae - Aurora, polar ionosphere investigations. Used ESRO satellite bus.
Aurore - SNECMA sounding rocket. Basic single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1964-07-01. Last Launch: 1967-05-11. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Thrust: 10.50 kN (2,360 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Aurore-1 - Alternate name for Aurore.
AUS 51 - Manufacturer's designation of RSA-3-3 Solid rocket engine.
Ausroc - Australian low cost orbital launch vehicle. Proposed southern hemisphere launcher. Status: Design 1998.
Aussat - Australian communications satellite agency,and designation for Australian domestic communications satellite series launched by Aussat.
Aussenstation - German manned space station. Study 1951. H. H. Koelle's Aussenstation was a large circular structure consisting of 36 separate 5-m spheres arranged around a central hub, the whole structure rotating to provide an artificial gravity environment. Status: Study 1951.
Austin - American manufacturer of spacecraft. University of Texas at Austin, USA.
Australia - Australia
Australia - First name of DSTO.
Australis - Australis-Oscar 5 was launched piggyback with ITOS-1 (TIROS-M weather satellite. Weight 17.7 kg (9 kg of which was battery mass). Box shaped 304 x 431 x 152 mm. 2 meter monopole and 10 meter dipole antennas.
Austria - Austria
Austrian AF - Austrian AF.
Austrian Army - Austrian Army.
Austrian Commercial Group - 1989 - Requirement: Austrian cosmonaut for commercially funded mission to Mir station. Date: 1989.
Austromir - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-13 Austromir.
Auto Landing Flight Experiment - Alternate designation for Alflex spaceplane.
Auto Landing Pre-Experimental Aircraft - Alternate designation for Alpex spaceplane.
Automated Transfer Vehicle - Manufacturer's designation for ATV space station logistics spacecraft.
Avco - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Avco, USA.
Avco Corporation - Alternate name for Avco.
Avco Project 7969 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. AVCO's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 690 kg, 2. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
AVCS - Advanced vidicon camera system .
Avdeyev - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1987-2003. 747 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO Status: Inactive; Active 1987-2003. Born: 1956. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 747.59 days.
Avduyevskiy - Russian scientist. First Deputy Director of TsNIIMash 1973-1987. Scientist at NII-1 1953-1973. Born: 1920-07-28.
Avibras - Brazilian manufacturer of rocket engines. Avibras, Brazil.
AVL - Designation for series of classified USAF satellites.
AVUM - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. The AVUM propulsion module was composed of a UDMH/NTO bipropellant main engine with a re-ignition capability and a cold gas attitude control system, based on two clusters of three thrusters, each having a 50 N thrust. Status: In production. Gross mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Unfuelled mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 2.45 kN (551 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
AW&ST - Aviation Week and Space Technology (a.k.a. AvLeak)
AX-1C - American space suit, tested 1965. Full pressure, Apollo Block II prototype suit for both IVA/EVA by the David Clark Company. Not put into production. Status: tested 1965.
AX-5 - American space suit, tested 1985. The AX-5 high pressure, zero prebreathe hard suit was developed at NASA Ames Research Center in the 1980s. It achieved mobility through a constant volume, using a hard metal/composite rigid exoskeleton design. Status: tested 1985.
AX5L - American space suit, tested 1964. NASA Apollo suit prototype, rated for intravehicular activity only. Status: tested 1964.
AXAF - Abbreviation for Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility
AXAF - Manufacturer's designation for Chandra x-ray astronomy satellite.
AX-Series - American space suit, tested 1964-68. Between 1964 and 1968 two hard suit assemblies were developed at NASA-ARC, identified as the AX-1 (Ames Experimental) and AX-2. These suits were the first to demonstrate multiple bearing technology. Status: tested 1964. Gross mass: 23 kg (50 lb).
Axster - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1899-11-03. Died: 1991-05-25.
Axthelm - German Officer. Major general of the Flak Troops. Born: 1907.
Ayame - Japanese communications technology satellite. Experimental Communications Satellite (ECS). Communications and propagation experiments of satellite-communication systems. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-02-06. Last Launch: 1980-02-22. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 260 kg (570 lb).
Aymakhanov - Kazakh pilot cosmonaut, 2002-on. Status: Active 2002-on. Born: 1967-01-01.
Azerbaijan - In Soviet times, Lakian cosmonaut Musa Khiramanovich Manarov, born in Baku, spent over 541 days in space. Space activities are currently operated within Azerbaijan by the Azerbaijan National Aerospace Agency (ANASA). Their activities have mainly involved work with UN agencies to utilize space imagery for land resources mapping and disaster monitoring.
Azerspace - Communications satellite series operated by Azercosmos for the Azerbaijan Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies.
AZUR - German earth magnetosphere satellite. German Research Satellite A; examined Van Allen belts, solar particles, aurora. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-11-08. Last Launch: 1969-11-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 71 kg (156 lb).

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