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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: O

O Connor, Bryan Daniel 'OC' - American test pilot astronaut 1980-1991. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1991. Born: 1946-09-06. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 15.97 days.
O Dell, Charles Robert - American astronomer, NASA project scientist for the Hubble Space Telescope, 1972-1983. Born: 1937.
O Keefe, Sean - American manager, NASA Administrator 2001-2005, advocate of nuclear power use in spacecraft. Reorganized the ISS program to cover overruns, was administrator when the crew of the Columbia perished, and began work on a post-shuttle program.
O Leary, Brian Todd - American scientist astronaut, 1967-1968. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1968. Born: 1940-01-27. Died: 2011-07-28.
O/C - 3U Optical Cubesat sponsored by NRO and built by Cal Poly as targets for space surveillance calibration.
O/C 4 - Alternate name of OptiCube 4 (O/C 4).
O/OREOS - 3U Cubesat by NASA-Ames with life science experiments to study microbes in free fall and the effects of ultraviolet light on organic materials.
O/OREOS - Life sciences satellite built by Stanford University for NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Launched 2010. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2010-11-20. Last Launch: 2010-11-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
O3B - Series of communications satellites for the O3b (Other 3 billion), providing Ka-band communications with steerable antennas for broadband internet capacity in the developing world. Used the ELiTeBus.
O3b 1, ..., 12 - Communication satellite built by Thales Alenia Space for O3b Neworks Ltd., UK. Launched 2013 - 2014. Used the ELiTeBus-1000 bus. First Launch: 2013-06-25. Last Launch: 2014-12-18. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
O3b 13, ..., 20 - Communication satellite built by Thales Alenia Space for O3b Neworks Ltd., UK (Channel Islands). Used the ELiTeBus-1000 bus. Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
OAM - Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Monopropellant final stage providing precise orbital injection. Pressure-fed, indefinite number of restarts. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 714 kg (1,574 lb). Unfuelled mass: 360 kg (790 lb). Thrust: 882 N (198 lbf).
OAMS - Orbit attitude and maneuvering system
OAO - American visible astronomy satellite. Astronomy, UV satellite built by Grumman Aerospace Corp. for NASA, USA. Launched 1966. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-04-08. Last Launch: 1972-08-21. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,027 kg (4,468 lb).
OAO 2 (Stargazer) - Astronomy, UV satellite built by Grumman Aerospace Corp. for NASA, USA. Launched 1968. First Launch: 1968-12-07. Last Launch: 1968-12-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,012 kg (4,435 lb).
OAO 3 (Copernicus) - Astronomy, UV, X-ray satellite built by Grumman Aerospace Corp. for NASA, USA. Launched 1972. First Launch: 1972-08-21. Last Launch: 1972-08-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,204 kg (4,858 lb).
OAO B (Goddard) - Astronomy, UV satellite built by Grumman Aerospace Corp. for NASA, USA. Launched 1970. First Launch: 1970-11-30. Last Launch: 1970-11-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,121 kg (4,676 lb).
OAO Klimov / OKB im.. Klimov - Alternate name for Klimov.
OAR 901 - Alternate name of LOADS 2 (OAR 901, Cannonball 2).
OAR 907 - Alternate name of RTDS (OAR 907, Musketball).
OART - Abbreviation for Office of Advanced Research and Technology
OAST - NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology payload mounted in the shuttle bay, testing a variety of new technologies. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-08-30. Last Launch: 1994-03-04. Number: 2 .
OAST Flyer - Alternate name of Spartan 206 (OAST Flyer).
OAST-Flyer - American technology satellite. GPS receiver, amateur radio tests; examined effect of solar radiation on satellite explosive devices; deployed from STS 72 1/14/96; retrieved 1/16/96. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-01-11. Last Launch: 1996-01-11. Number: 1 .
OB - Habitation block (Russian abbreviation)
Obachi - Location used for release and launch of balloon-launched Kappa sounding rockets in 1961. First Launch: 1961-06-18. Last Launch: 1961-06-18. Number: 1 .
Oberg Corner -
Oberth sounding rocket - German sounding rocket. Rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth agreed to build and fly a liquid propellant rocket to publicize the Fritz Lang film Frau im Mond. Oberth's design was too ambitious and the rocket was never completed in time for the film's premiere. But the engine developed for it would be further refined and used in the Mirak rocket, flown in 1931-1933. Status: Cancelled 1929.
Oberth, Hermann Julius - Father of German Spaceflight. His 1923 book outlined the mathematic principles of rocketry and space travel, providing the basis for the space craze in Germany, leading to the V-2 and von Braun's rocket team. Born: 1894-06-25. Died: 1989-01-01.
Object 350 - Alternate designation for Burya La-350.
Object 350 - Alternate designation for Burya.
Objekt 350 - Alternate designation for Burya.
Oblik - Code name for Zenit-8 military surveillance satellite.
Oblik-Dummy - Alternate name of Zenit-8-Dummy (Oblik-Dummy, 17F116ML).
OBV - Alternate designation for GBI.
Obzor - Russian earth resources radar satellite. Study 1992. The Arsenal Design Bureau proposed converting its military ocean reconnaissance spacecraft bus (EORSAT) into a civil remote sensing platform. Status: Study 1992. First Launch: 1994-08-02. Last Launch: 1994-08-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb).
Obzor-R - Earth Observation, cosmic rays satellite built by TsSKB-Progress for Roskosmos.
occultation - The disappearance of a celestial body behind another body of equal or larger apparent size, such as the occultation of the Sun by the Moon as viewed by an Earth observer during a solar eclipse. Also, the covering of the image of a celestial body by a disc whose size is equal to or larger than the size of the image.
Oceansat - Remote sensing satellite with an 8-band ocean color monitor, a radar scatterometer and a radio occultation atmospheric sounder. Earth Observing satellite for ISRO, India. Launched 2009. Used IRS-1 Bus. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-09-23. Last Launch: 2009-09-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Oceansat 1 - Alternate name of IRS P4 (Oceansat 1).
Oceansat 3, 3A - Earth Observing satellite for ISRO, India. Used IRS-1 Bus.
Ochoa, Ellen Lauri - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1990-2003. Engineer. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2003. Born: 1958-05-10. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 40.82 days.
Ockels, Wubbo Johannes - Dutch physicist payload specialist astronaut 1978-1994. First Dutch astronaut. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1994. Born: 1946-03-28. Died: 2014-05-18. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.03 days.
OCO - Orbiting Carbon Observatory. Launched 2009.02.24, Earth Science satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for NASA, USA. Launched 2009 - 2014. Used the LEOStar-2 bus. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-02-24. Last Launch: 2014-07-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 407 kg (897 lb).
OCO 3 - Earth Science satellite operated by NASA, USA.
OCSD A, B, C (AeroCube 7A, 7B, 7C / IOCPS A, B, C) - Technology satellite for Aerospace Corporation, USA. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (1.5U) bus. First Launch: 2015-10-08. Last Launch: 2015-10-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb).
OCSE - American technology satellite. Optical Calibration Sphere Experiment, a 3.5m diameter inflatable sphere built by L'Garde Inc. for calibrating the lasers at the AFRL Starfire Optical Range. Experimental satellite built by L'Garde Inc. for U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, USA. Launched 2000. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2000-01-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
OCST - Abbreviation for Office of Commercial Space Transportation
Oculus-ASR (Nanosat 6) - Technology satellite for Michigan Technological University Aerospace Enterprise, USA. Gross mass: 70 kg (154 lb).
OD- - Optical telescope (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
ODERACS - American military target satellite. Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres were small, low-earth orbiting calibration targets for ground based radar and optical systems. The primary objective was to calibrate the Haystack Long Range Imaging Radar and validate the Johnson Space Center's Orbital Debris Analysis System. Radar calibration satellite operated by NASA Goddard, USA. Launched 1992 - 1995. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-12-02. Last Launch: 1995-02-03. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 4,200 kg (9,200 lb).
Odin - Swedish infrared astronomy satellite. Odin was a Swedish dual disciplinary (astrophysics and atmospheric science) spacecraft. The 250 kg, 340 W spacecraft had a pointing accuracy of 15 arc sec and a data storage capacity of 100 MB. Science, astronomy and aeronomy satellite for SSC, Sweden. Launched 2001. Used Freja-C bus, 4 solar arrays, sunshade, 3-axis stabilzed. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-02-20. Last Launch: 2001-02-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 250 kg (550 lb).
Odintsov, Mikhail Petrovich - Russian officer. Director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre 1963. Hated by the cosmonauts and relieved of duty after criticizing the performance of Tereshkova. Born: 1921.
Odishaw, Hubert 'Hugh' - American scientist, executive director of the US National Committee for the International Geophysical Year, 1954-1965 Born: 1916-10-13. Died: 1984-03-01.
Odle, Randy Thomas - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1986. Born: 1951-09-08.
Odyssey - Odyssey Worldwide Services, American commercial communications satellite network. Operations were planned in 1997 to begin by the end of 1998. However in the event the entire enterprise was cancelled when the dot-com / MEO satellite bubble burst. Communicationsatellite built by TRW for Odyssey Telecommunications International. Used TRW AB940 bus. Status: Cancelled 1997. Gross mass: 1,917 kg (4,226 lb).
Odyssye/Aquarius - Alternate name for Apollo 13.
Oefelein, William Anthony 'Bill' - American test pilot astronaut 1998-2007. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2007. Born: 1965-03-29. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.86 days.
Oerlikon - Swiss manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Oerlikon, Switzerland.
Oerlikon 54 - Swiss surface-to-air missile. Pioneering Swiss surface-to-air missile. Development leading to this missile began as early as 1947. Status: Operational 1952. Gross mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Payload: 40 kg (88 lb). Thrust: 9.80 kN (2,203 lbf).
Oerlikon 54RSC - Alternate name of Oerlikon 54.
Oerlikon Aerospace Inc. - Second name of Oerlikon.
Oerlikon GTA - Swiss surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 249 kg (548 lb). Payload: 20 kg (44 lb).
Oerlikon-Contraves - First name of Oerlikon.
Oersted - Science satellite built by CRI (now Terma A/S) for Terma A/S for Danish Space Research Institute and Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark. Launched 1999. First Launch: 1999-02-23. Last Launch: 1999-02-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 62 kg (136 lb).
OEX Target - American technology satellite. Shuttle autopilot software test target. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-11-27. Last Launch: 1985-11-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 16 kg (35 lb).
OEX-Target - Rendezvous target satellite for NASA, USA. Launched 1985. First Launch: 1985-11-27. Last Launch: 1985-11-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 16 kg (35 lb).
OF2 - Oxygen difluoride was a candidate high performance propellant of the late 1950's that was less cryogenic then fluorine. It is also not so corrosive or reactive as fluorine; however, it will react with most substances under proper conditions. Due to safety concerns it was never adopted in a production engine.
Ofeq - Israeli indigenous satellite series. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function of first Ofeqs: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field. Later models provided military optical and electronic reconnaissance services.
Ofeq 11 - Earth Observing satellite built by IAI for Tsahal, Israel. Launched 2016. Used OPSAT-3000 Bus. First Launch: 2016-09-13. Last Launch: 2016-09-13. Number: 1 .
Ofeq 1-2 - Israeli technology satellite. Ofeq, meaning 'Horizon', was a technology demonstration satellite developed by IAI (Israel Aircraft Industries) for ISA (Israel Space Agency). Technology satellite built by IAI, MBT for ISA, Israel. Launched 1988 - 1990. Used Ofeq-1 Bus. Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-09-19. Last Launch: 1990-04-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 157 kg (346 lb).
Ofeq 3 - Israeli military surveillance satellite. Ofeq 3 was Israel's second-generation imaging surveillance satellite. Reconnaissance, optical satellite built by IAI for Tsahal, Israel. Launched 1995 - 1998. Used OPSAT-1000 Bus. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-04-05. Last Launch: 2006-04-25. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 189 kg (416 lb).
Ofeq 5 - Israeli military surveillance satellite. Ofeq-5 was said to be about 33% heavier than its predecessors. Reconnaissance, optical satellite built by IAI for Tsahal, Israel. Launched 2002-2010. Used OPSAT-2000 Bus. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-05-28. Last Launch: 2010-06-22. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
Ofeq 8, 10 (TECSAR 1, 2 / TechSAR 1, 2) - Earth Observing (Radar) satellite built by IAI for Tsahal, Israel. Launched 2008 - 2014. Used TECSAR Bus. First Launch: 2008-01-21. Last Launch: 2014-04-09. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 260 kg (570 lb).
Offutt AFB - Atlas D (SMS 566) ICBM base.
Offutt AFB Missile Annex 1 -
Offutt AFB Missile Annex 2 -
Offutt AFB Missile Annex 3 -
OFO - American biology satellite. The Frog Otolith Experiment Package (FOEP) contained all apparatus necessary to assure survival of two frogs. Life Science satellite for NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Launched 1970. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-11-09. Last Launch: 1970-11-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 133 kg (293 lb).
OG2 - Alternate name of Orbcomm FM101, ..., FM119 (OG2).
OGCh - Russian military orbital bombing system. Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) test satellite, Russia. Launched 1966 - 1971. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-12-16. Last Launch: 1971-08-08. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
Oghab - Iranian unguided solid propellant artillery rocket, licensed production of Chinese Type 83. Entered service in 1986. Status: Active. Payload: 300 kg (660 lb).
OGMS-SA / QB50 FR04 - Technology satellite for Université Paris-Est Créteil (UPEC), France. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
OGO - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Research satellite built by TRW for NASA, USA. Launched 1964 - 1969. Used 3-axis stabilized box-shaped satellite bus. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-09-05. Last Launch: 1969-06-05. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 588 kg (1,296 lb).
Ogthoff, Leopold - German expert in guided missiles during World War II.
OHB - OHB System GmbH, Bremen, Germany
OHB System GmbH - First name of Bremen.
OHO 1 - Communication satellite built by Thales Alenia Space (payload), Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) (bus) for OverHorizon. Used the Star-2.3 Bus bus. Gross mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb).
Ohsumi - Japanese technology satellite. Small engineering test satellites lofted by Japan's first indigenous launch vehicle. Technology satellite operated by ISAS, Japan. Launched 1966 - 1970. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-09-26. Last Launch: 1969-09-22. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 25 kg (55 lb).
Ohzora - Alternate name of Exos C (Ohzora).
OICETS - Code name for Kirari communications satellite.
OICETS (Kirari) - Research, Laser communication satellite operated by NASDA → JAXA, Japan. Launched 2005. First Launch: 2005-08-23. Last Launch: 2005-08-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 570 kg (1,250 lb).
OIS - Alternate name for Star 27.
OIS - Orbital military station (Russian abbreviation)
OK - Winged manned space shuttle, originally conceived in 1972 to succeed the Soyuz and Progress spacecraft to shuttle supplies and crews to the MKBS-2 military space base. Development was assigned to Chelomei's OKB-52, and it was originally to be launched by the N1-MOK as part of a reusable space system. When the N1 and MKBS-2 were cancelled in 1974, development continued as the LKS, but it was now to be boosted by an upgraded Chelomei Proton launch vehicle. This in turn was cancelled in 1983, and Glushko at OKB-1 designed a successor OK for launch on the Zenit vehicle. Development was then handed over to the Molniya bureau, which was developing the duplicative MAKS system for the Soviet Air Force. Molniya studied several OK-M designs, which were apparently dropped in favor of MAKS. Status: Study 1972.
Oka - Alternate name of Tochka 9K79.
Oka - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Tactical ballistic missile. SS-21 is Tochka SRBM mounted on a ZIL-375 transporter, while SS-23 is the same missile on an 8-wheeled TEL. Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1977-09-01. Last Launch: 1987-01-01. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Payload: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
Oka - Alternate designation for 9K714B.
Oka-T - Microgravity research satellite built by RKK Energiya for RAKA. Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb).
OKB - Special or Experimental Design Bureau; or Orbital spacecraft (Russian abbreviations)
OKB Dushkin - Second name of Dushkin.
OKB Fakel - Second name of Stechkin bureau.
OKB Zarya - Third name of Sevruk Design Bureau.
OKB-1 - Second name of Korolev bureau.
OKB-1 Filial 3 - First name of Kozlov bureau.
OKB-10 - First name of Reshetnev bureau.
OKB-11 GKAT - First name of Tikhomirov Design Bureau.
OKB-117 - Second name of Izotov bureau.
OKB-134 - Alternate designation for Vympel.
OKB-154 - Second name of Kosberg bureau.
OKB-155 - First name of MiG Design Bureau.
OKB-16 - First name of Nudelman bureau.
OKB-165 - Second name of Lyulka bureau.
OKB-2 - Second name of Isayev bureau.
OKB-23 - Alternate designation for Myasishchev bureau.
OKB-23 - First name of Myasishchev bureau.
OKB-236 -
OKB-256 - First name of Tsybin bureau.
OKB-276 - Second name of Kuznetsov bureau.
OKB-3 -
OKB-3 of NII-88 - Second name of Sevruk Design Bureau.
OKB-30 - Russian agency. OKB-30, Russia.
OKB-300 Turayevo Branch - Alternate name of Stepanov bureau.
OKB-300 Turayevo Branch - Second name of Stepanov Bureau.
OKB-301 - First name of Lavochkin bureau.
OKB-4 - First name of Bisnovat Design Bureau.
OKB-456 - Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Variant using a Glushko nuclear engine heating ammonia as a propellant. Gross mass: 84,400 kg (186,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,600 kg (18,900 lb). Payload: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 1,373.00 kN (308,662 lbf). More at: Nuclear/Ammonia
OKB-456 - Second name of Glushko bureau.
OKB-52 - Second name of Chelomei bureau.
OKB-586 - First name of Yuzhnoye Design Bureau.
OKB-670 - Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Variant using a Bondaryuk nuclear engine heating mixed alcohol and ammonia as a propellant. Gross mass: 96,000 kg (211,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,800 kg (19,400 lb). Payload: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Thrust: 1,667.00 kN (374,756 lbf). More at: Nuclear/Ammonia+Alcohol
OKB-670 - Second name of Bondaryuk bureau.
Okean - Naval radar satellite network.
Okean (Ocean ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-4.
Okean (Ocean ) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-8.
Okean (Ocean) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-4.
Okean (Ocean) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-8.
Okean (Ocean) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-10-1.
Okean-3 - Manufacturer's designation for Okean-O earth resources radar satellite.
Okean-E - Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. First prototype of Okean series. Development of methods for obtaining operational information on the Pacific Ocean. Ocean Observation satellite built by KB Yuzhnoye, Russia. Launched 1979 - 1980. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-02-12. Last Launch: 1980-01-23. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb).
Okean-O - Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. Ocean Observation satellite built by KB Yuzhnoye for NKAU, RKA, Russia. Launched 1999. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-07-17. Last Launch: 1999-07-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6,360 kg (14,020 lb).
Okean-O1 - Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. Third generation Soviet oceanographic research satellite, equipped with a side-looking radar, radiometer, and multi-spectral scanner. Ocean Observation satellite built by KB Yuzhnoye, Russia. Launched 1986 - 1995. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-07-28. Last Launch: 2004-12-24. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb).
Okean-OE - Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. Ocean Observation satellite built by KB Yuzhnoye, Russia. Launched 1983 - 1984. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-09-28. Last Launch: 1984-09-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb).
Okhapkin, Sergei Osipovich - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1952-1976 of Korolev design bureau. Led work on the N1 and was Mishin's First Deputy. Born: 1910. Died: 1980-03-01.
Okhotsimskiy, Dmitri Yevgenyevich - Russian scientist. Scientist at OPM MIAN. Conducted research work on an early ICBM. Born: 1921-02-26.
Okhotsk - Sounding rocket launch location; offshore point used for launch of SLBM's from submarines. First Launch: 1981-01-01. Last Launch: 2014-05-08. Number: 36 .
OKIK - Major Command and Tracking Centre (Russian abbreviation)
Okina - The Okina relay satellite was released from Kaguya into a 115 km x 2,399 km lunar orbit at 00:36 GMT on 9 October 2007.
Okina - Alternate name of RSat (SELENE Relay Satellite, RStar, Okina).
OK-M - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. 1980's design for a spaceplane, smaller than Buran, to replace Soyuz and Progress spacecraft for space station crew rotation/replenishment tasks. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,200 kg (29,100 lb). Payload: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
OK-M1 - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M1 manned spaceplane was designed by NPO Molniya as a follow-on to the OK-M of NPO Energia. The OK-M1 was an integrated part of a unique launch vehicle, the MMKS reusable multi-module space system. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 31,800 kg (70,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 29,300 kg (64,500 lb). Payload: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Thrust: 39.20 kN (8,813 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
OK-M2 - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M2 was a manned spaceplane, a straight delta wing joined to a broad fuselage with an upturned nose. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 27,300 kg (60,100 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 79.40 kN (17,850 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
Oko - Russian military early warning satellite. Work on the Soviet Union's first infrared ICBM launch detection satellite began in 1967 as the USK - space system to observe rocket launches. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-09-19. Last Launch: 2010-09-30. Number: 86 .
OKPKI-5 - Alternate name for MAP Group 5 - 1989.
OKPKI-5 astronaut group, 1989 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1989.
Oktant - Alternate name for Yantar-4K1.
Oktant, Kobalt-M - Code name for Yantar-4K1 military surveillance satellite.
Oleg - Alternate designation for Spektr manned space station.
Oleinik, Ivan Ivanovich - Ukrainian officer. Colonel-General. Commander of Plesetsk Cosmodrome 1985-1991. From 1992 served in Ministry of Defense of the Ukraine. Born: 1937.
Olejuik, Robert - German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot.
Olimp-K - Alternate name of Luch (Olimp-K).
Olivas, John Daniel 'Danny' - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1998-2010. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2010. Born: 1965-05-25. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 27.71 days.
Olleh 1 - Alternate name of Koreasat 6 (Olleh 1).
OLPP - Abbreviation for Office of Lunar and Planetary Programs
Olsen, Gregory Hammond 'Greg' - American scientist cosmonaut 2005. Space tourist Status: Inactive; Active 2005-2005. Born: 1945-04-20. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.89 days.
Olthof, Henk - Dutch physicist at ESA. From 1977-1986, responsible for the secretariat of the Astronomy Working Group. Thereafter, served as the head of space station and platforms for scientific users at the European Space Research and Technology Centre. Born: 1944.
OlympicSat - Chinese technology satellite. One launch, 2004.04.18, Naxing 1. It was announced in July 2001 would China will launch two small satellites on one rocket. The first would be an engineering test satellite developed by Tsinghua University. Status: Operational 2004. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Olympus - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-19.
Olympus - Alternate name of Soyuz TMA-09M.
Olympus - European communications technology satellite. This communications technology demonstration satellite tested direct television broadcast beams and was also equipped with conventional communications transponders. Communication, experimental satellite built by British Aerospace BAe (prime); Alenia Spazio, Marconi Space and Alcatel-Bell (payloads) for ESA, International. Launched 1989. Used L-Sat Bus. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-07-12. Last Launch: 1989-07-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,595 kg (5,720 lb).
Oman - Oman
Omar ASM-N-6 - Eastman Kodak 1950's US Navy air-to-surface missile.
OMB - Abbreviation for Office of Management and Budget
OME - Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Study 1972. Engine used in Shuttle Orbiter Orbital Maneuvering System pods, for orbit insertion, maneuvering, and re-entry initiation. First flight 1981. Status: First flight 1981. Unfuelled mass: 118 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 26.70 kN (6,002 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Omega - Russian technology satellite. Early Cosmos satellite, evidently using the Yuzhnoye DS satellite bus. Payload developed by the VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Technology satellite, Russia. Launched 1963. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-04-13. Last Launch: 1963-12-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 347 kg (765 lb).
Omelchenko, Svetlana Oktyabrevna - Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1951-08-20.
Omid - Iranian technology satellite.ranian technology satellite. First Iranian-built, Iranian-launched satellite. Technology satellite for Iran National Space Administration (INSA), Iran. Launched 2008-2009. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-08-16. Last Launch: 2009-02-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 27 kg (59 lb).
OmniEarth 1, ..., 18 - Earth Observation satellite built by Dynetics Incorporated (bus), Harris Corporation, Ball Aerospace (instruments) for OmniEarth LLC. Used TerraSense bus.
OMOTENASHI - Lunar flyby satellite for JAXA, University of Tokyo, Japan. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. Gross mass: 14 kg (30 lb).
OMS - Abbreviation for Orbital Maneuvering System
OMSF - Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA
Omsk - Base for units deployed with launchers for the R-9 ICBM. First Launch: 1965-07-01. Last Launch: 1972-03-14. Number: 4 .
OMV - American space tug. Cancelled 1987. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) was an important component in NASA's future Space Station plans in the 1980s. Status: Cancelled 1987.
OMV Variable Thrust Engine - TRW N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 6.80 kg (14.90 lb). Thrust: 578 N (129 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Ona, John Bernhardt - American engineer. Headed Atlas missile final checkout; later Chief of Reliability Engineering for the Centaur. Born: 1925-03-01. Died: 2004-06-24.
One stage Orbital Space Truck - Alternate designation for OOST.
One stage Orbital Space Truck - Alternate designation for OOST ISI.
Onega - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle proposed for the 'Kliper' manned spaceplane in 2004. The 'Onega' was a hitherto-unrevealed massive improvement of the reliable Soyuz. It would deliver double the payload to a space station orbit, and could be available by 2010 if funding was made available. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
ONERA - French manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales, France.
OneWeb 1, ..., 900 - Communication satellite built by Airbus Defence and Space, Toulouse (#1-#10); TBD (#11 onwards) for OneWeb Ltd.. Gross mass: 150 kg (330 lb).
Ongaro, Franco - Italian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1990-1993. Status: Inactive. Born: 1958-01-18.
Oniks - Alternate name of P-800.
Onishchenko, Leonid Vasilyevich - Russian officer. From 1983 served in KIK space tracking units. Earlier developed a range of automated control systems for satellites, notably the Interkosmos and Glonass series. Born: 1930.
Onishi, Takuya - Japanese pilot mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1975. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 115.10 days.
Onizuka, Ellison Shoji - American test engineer mission specialist astronaut 1978-1986. Died in Challenger accident. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1986. Born: 1946-06-24. Died: 1986-01-28. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 3.07 days.
ONR - American agency overseeing development of rockets. Office of Naval Research, USA.
ONR-Titan - American manufacturer. ONR-Titan, USA.
Onufrienko, Yuri Ivanovich - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1989-2004. After leaving cosmonaut corps in April 2004, assigned as Deputy Chief for the First Administration of RGNII TsPK. Call sign: Skif (Skif - Roman-age tribe). 389 cumulative days in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-2004. Born: 1961-02-06. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 389.62 days.
Onyx - Alternate name of Lacrosse satellite.
Onyx - Code name replacing Lacrosse for the radar imaging spacecraft built by Lockheed Martin.
OOS - Orbit-to-orbit stage (see IUS)
OOSA - Office of Outer Space Affairs (United Nations office)
OOST - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Bono's earliest design for an expendable single-stage-to-orbit LH2/LOx booster. The baseline version used conventional engines. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 8,527,400 kg (18,799,600 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 103,660.80 kN (23,303,875 lbf).
OOST ISI - American SSTO orbital launch vehicle. Alternate version of OOST using Improved Specific Impulse approach: many engines feeding into single large nozzle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 5,670,400 kg (12,501,000 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 68,496.90 kN (15,398,716 lbf).
OOST ISI stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 5,125,000 kg (11,298,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 292,000 kg (643,000 lb). Thrust: 85,386.00 kN (19,195,536 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
OOST stage - Bono's earliest design for an expendable single-stage-to-orbit LH2/LOx booster. The baseline version used conventional engines. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 7,982,000 kg (17,597,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 431,000 kg (950,000 lb). Thrust: 123,191.00 kN (27,694,438 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
OP - Russian manned space station. Study 1962. Korolev's next attempt to win military support for development of the N-I was his fantastic 'Orbitalniy Poyas' (OP -Orbital Belt) scheme of 20 April 1962. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb).
OPAL - American technology satellite. Stanford University Orbiting Picosat Automated Launcher. Experimental satellite for Stanford University, USA. Launched 2000. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2000-01-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 13 kg (28 lb).
OPd-56-39-22D - French test vehicle. Original designation of the Antares test vehicle. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1959-05-02. Last Launch: 1960-09-30. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 200.00 kN (44,960 lbf).
OPd-56-39-22D-2 - Alternate name for Neptune engine.
OPd-56-39-22D-3 - Alternate name for SEPR 685-4.
Opel, Fritz von - German automobile manufacturer and rocketry enthusiast. Grandson of founder of Opel, after graduation, put in charge of testing and publicity. Funded Valier's tests of rocket engines in ground and air vehicles. Born: 1899-05-04. Died: 1971-04-08.
OPEN - Technology satellite for University of North Dakota, USA. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Open Cockpit Lunar Landers - Alternate designation for Rocket Chair.
Operational TIROS - Alternate name of TIROS 9 / ESSA 1, ..., 9 (Operational TIROS).
OPF - Abbreviation for Orbiter Processing Facility
OPI Methane Engine - Orion Propulsion LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Reaction control thruster for future manned spacecraft. Developed from 2001; tested 2005. Status: Developed 2001-. Date: 2001-. Thrust: 445 N (100 lbf). More at: Lox/LCH4
Opimz, Rudolph - German expert in rocket planes during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
Opitz, Rudolf - German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot.
OPM - Department of Applied Mathematics (Russian abbreviation)
Opportunity - Alternate name of Mars Exploration Rover A, B (MER A, B / Spirit / Opportunity).
Opportunity - Alternate designation for MER mars lander.
OPS - Designation for series of classified US government missions.
OPS - Manufacturer's designation for Almaz OPS and [Almaz OPS] manned space station.
OPS (Russian abbreviation) - Orbital Piloted Station (Russian abbreviation)
OPS + TKS - Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1976. Designation give to combined TKS+OPS Almaz station. Status: Cancelled 1976.
OPS 5345 - Alternate name of SGLS 1 (OPS 5345).
OPS 5557 - Alternate name of LOGACS (OPS 5557).
OPS-2 - Manufacturer's designation for Almaz OPS-2 manned space station.
OpSat (SHALOM) - Reconnaissance, optical satellite built by IAI for Italian Defense Ministry. Used OPSAT-3000 Bus. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
OpSIS - Reconnaissance, optical satellite built by CGS SpA for ASI, Italian Defense Ministry. Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
OPS-SAT - Technology satellite built by GOMSpace for ESA, Europe. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
Optical 5 - Alternate name for JB-11.
Optical 6 - Alternate name for JB-12.
Optical 7 - Alternate name for JB-13.
Optical Calibration Sphere Experiment - Alternate name for OCSE.
Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite - Alternate designation for Kirari communications satellite.
Optical-1 - Alternate name for JB-3.
Optical-2 - Alternate name for JB-6.
Optical-3 - Alternate name for JB-10.
Optical-4 - Alternate name for JB-9.
OPTICUBE - 3U Optical Cubesat sponsored by NRO and built by Cal Poly as targets for space surveillance calibration.
OptiCube 1, 2, 3 (O/C 1, 2, 3) - Calibration satellite built by Cal Poly Picosatellite Project (PolySat) for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office, US Air Force Starfire Optical Range, USA. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2015-05-20. Last Launch: 2015-05-20. Number: 3 .
OptiCube 4 (O/C 4) - Calibration satellite built by Cal Poly Picosatellite Project (PolySat) for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office, US Air Force Starfire Optical Range, USA. Launched 2016. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2016-11-11. Last Launch: 2016-11-11. Number: 1 .
OptiSAR Optical 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 - Earth observation satellite built by SSTL for UrtheCast, Canada.
OptiSAR Radar 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 - Earth observation satellite built by SSTL for UrtheCast, Canada. Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
OPTOS - 3U Cubesat from INTA of Spain.
OPTOS - Technology satellite for INTA, Spain. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2013-11-21. Last Launch: 2013-11-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb).
Optus - Optus Communications, Australia; and designation of series of Australian communications satellites launched by Optus.
Optus 10 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for Singtel Optus, Australia. Launched 2014. Used the SSL-1300LL bus. First Launch: 2014-09-11. Last Launch: 2014-09-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,270 kg (7,200 lb).
Optus and Defence C1 - Alternate name of Optus C1 (Optus and Defence C1).
Optus B1, B2, B3 - Communication satellite built by Hughes for Optus Communications Pty., Ltd., Australia. Launched 1992 - 1994. Used the HS-601 bus. First Launch: 1992-08-13. Last Launch: 1994-08-27. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 2,858 kg (6,300 lb).
Optus C1 (Optus and Defence C1) - Communication satellite built by Mitsubishi Electric (prime), Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) (bus) for Singtel Optus, Australian Department of Defence, Australia. Launched 2003. Used the SSL-1300. Launched 2003. First Launch: 2003-06-11. Last Launch: 2003-06-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,725 kg (10,416 lb).
Optus D1 - Communication satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for Optus Networks, Pty., Australia. Launched 2006. Used the Star-2.4 Bus bus. First Launch: 2006-10-13. Last Launch: 2006-10-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,299 kg (5,068 lb).
Optus D2, D3 - Communication satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for Optus Networks, Pty., Australia. Launched 2007 - 2009. Used the Star-2.4 Bus bus. First Launch: 2007-10-05. Last Launch: 2009-08-21. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,401 kg (5,293 lb).
Optus-MFS - Launch Vehicle evaluation payload built by CAST, China. Launched 1990. First Launch: 1990-07-16. Last Launch: 1990-07-16. Number: 1 .
OPUSat - 1U Cubesat from Osaka Prefectural University. Technology mission.
OPUSAT (CosMoz) - Technology satellite for Osaka Prefecture University (OPU), Japan. Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2014-02-27. Last Launch: 2014-02-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
OQ-11 - Simmonds Aerocessories post-war USAF target drone; small 12ft. target.
OQ-12 - Radioplane post-war USAF target drone; small 12ft. target.
OQ-13 - Alternate name of OQ-14.
OQ-14 - Radioplane post-war USAF target drone; improved OQ-3; as Navy TDD-3; Model RP-8.
OQ-15 - American post-war USAF target drone; small 12ft. target.
OQ-16 - Frankfort post-war USAF target drone; small 12ft. target; as Navy TD3D.
OQ-17 - Radioplane post-war USAF target drone; small 12ft. target; as Navy TD4D/KDR; Model RP-18.
OQ-18 - American post-war USAF target drone; larger 15ft. target.
OQ-19 - Alternate name of MQM-33.
OQ-19D - Alternate name of MQM-33B.
OQ-2 - Alternate name of OQ-14.
OQ-3 - Alternate name of OQ-14.
OQ-4 - Brunswick-Balke-Collender post-war USAF target drone; small 12ft. target.
OQ-5 - American post-war USAF target drone; small 12ft. target.
OQ-6 - Radioplane post-war USAF target drone; high speed target.
OQ-7 - Alternate name of OQ-14.
OR - US Army Ordnance Research and Development Division Sub-Office (Rocket)
Orb - Alternate name for Cygnus.
Orba (X 2) - Technology satellite for Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), U.K.. Launched 1970. First Launch: 1970-09-02. Last Launch: 1970-09-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 14 kg (30 lb).
Orbcomm - Experimental spacecraft. Used the CDS bus. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Air dropped in Mayport DZ.
Orbcomm - Orbital Communications Corp, Dulles, USA. Orbcomm was a commercial venture to provide global messaging services using a constellation of 26 low-Earth orbiting satellites. Communication (Data) satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for Orbcomm, USA. Launched 1995 - 1999. Used the MicroStar bus. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-07-17. Last Launch: 2008-06-19. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
Orbcomm FM101, ..., FM119 (OG2) - Communication satellite built by Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) (prime), MicroSat Systems (bus), Argon ST (payload) for Orbcomm, USA. Launched 2012 - 2015. Used the SN-100A bus bus. First Launch: 2012-10-08. Last Launch: 2015-12-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 172 kg (379 lb).
Orbcomm FM29 - Alternate name of Orbcomm-CDS 3 (Orbcomm J1, Orbcomm FM29).
Orbcomm FM37 - FM41 (Orbcomm Q1 - Q6, Orbcomm Quick Launch) - Communication satellite built by OHB-System (prime), PO Polyot (bus), Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) (payload) for Orbcomm, USA. Launched 2008. Used the Sterkh Bus bus. First Launch: 2008-06-19. Last Launch: 2008-06-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 115 kg (253 lb).
Orbcomm J1 - Alternate name of Orbcomm-CDS 3 (Orbcomm J1, Orbcomm FM29).
Orbcomm Q1 - Q6 - Alternate name of Orbcomm FM37 - FM41 (Orbcomm Q1 - Q6, Orbcomm Quick Launch).
Orbcomm Quick Launch - Alternate name of Orbcomm FM37 - FM41 (Orbcomm Q1 - Q6, Orbcomm Quick Launch).
Orbcomm-CDS 3 (Orbcomm J1, Orbcomm FM29) - Experimental communication satellite built by OHB-System (prime), PO Polyot (bus), Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) (payload) for Orbcomm, USA. Launched 2008. Used the Sterkh Bus bus. First Launch: 2008-06-19. Last Launch: 2008-06-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb).
Orbcomm-OG2 Mass Simulator 1, 2 - Ballast satellite, USA. Launched 2014 - 2015. First Launch: 2014-07-14. Last Launch: 2015-12-22. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 142 kg (313 lb).
Orbcomm-X, -CDS 1, 2 (OXP, VSUME) - Experimental communication satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for Orbcomm, USA. Launched 1991. First Launch: 1991-07-17. Last Launch: 1991-07-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
Orbimage - American agency. Orbital Imaging Corp, Dulles, USA.
Orbiscal - American earth ionosphere satellite. Investigate effects of ionosphere on radio signals. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1968-08-16. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 37 kg (81 lb).
Orbiscal 1 (P68-1) - Experimental satellite operated by USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1968. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1968-08-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 30 kg (66 lb).
orbital - Category of launch vehicles.
Orbital Block - Alternate designation for R-56 Block O rocket stage.
Orbital Boost Vehicle - Alternate designation for GBI.
Orbital Escape System - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. Status: Study 1966.
Orbital Express Astro - American rendezvous technology satellite. Astro. The active satellite of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Orbital Express program. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-03-09. Last Launch: 2007-03-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,090 kg (2,400 lb).
Orbital Launch Site - Category of launch sites.
orbital launch vehicle - Category of launch vehicles.
Orbital Maneuvering System Pods - Alternate designation for Shuttle Orbiter OMS rocket stage.
Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle - Manufacturer's designation for OMV space tug.
Orbital Re-entry Experiment Vehicle - Alternate designation for OREX re-entry vehicle technology satellite.
Orbital Scanner - Alternate name of OrbScan (Orbital Scanner).
Orbital Scanner - American navigation technology satellite. Study 1969. Status: Study 1969.
Orbital Sciences Corp - Third name of Germantown.
Orbital Sciences Corp. - Alternate name for OSC.
Orbital star - Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-01-06. Last Launch: 2014-01-06. Number: 1 .
Orbital Star - Alternate designation for the Star bus.
Orbital Technologies Corporation - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Orbital Technologies Corporation, USA.
Orbital Test Satellite - Alternate designation for OTS communications technology satellite.
Orbital Transfer Vehicle - Manufacturer's designation for OTV space tug.
Orbital Vehicle - Indian manned spacecraft. Design of an Indian manned spacecraft began in October 2006. Dependent on a full funding decision at the end of 2008, planned first flight of the two-man capsule atop a GSLV-II booster was 2015. This initial design was succeeded by a much larger design to be lofted by the GSLV-III launch vehicle. Status: Study 2008. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Orbital Vehicle 2008 - Alternate designation for Orbital Vehicle.
Orbital Vehicle 2015 - Alternate designation for Indian Manned Spacecraft.
Orbital Workshop - American manned space station. Study 1965. The Orbital Workshop (OWS) was a 1960's NASA program to create an embryonic space station in orbit using the spent S-IVB rocket stage of a Saturn IB. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 30,500 kg (67,200 lb).
Orbital-G - Orbital Sciences Corp., Germantown , USA
Orbital-M - Orbital Sciences Corp., McLean, USA
Orbitalnky Poyas - Orbital Belt - Alternate designation for OP manned space station.
Orbitec Methane Engine - Orbital Technologies Corporation LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Reaction control thruster. Tested 2005. Used vortex-cooled combustion process to eliminate combustion chamber heating. Status: Developed 2005-. Date: 2005-. Thrust: 133 N (29 lbf). More at: Lox/LCH4
Orbiter Docking System - Alternate name for EAL/ODS.
Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme UV Spectrometer - Alternate designation for ORFEUS ultraviolet astronomy satellite.
Orbiting Astronomical Observatory - Alternate designation for OAO visible astronomy satellite.
Orbiting Frog Otolith - Alternate designation for OFO biology satellite.
Orbiting Geophysical Laborator - Alternate name for OGO.
Orbiting Geophysical Laboratory - Alternate designation for OGO earth magnetosphere satellite.
Orbiting Picosat Launcher - Alternate name for OPAL.
Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio - Alternate designation for Oscar amateur radio communications satellite.
Orbiting Work Shop - Alternate designation for Skylab OWS manned space station module.
OrbScan (Orbital Scanner) - Technology satellite built by Honeywell for NASA.
Orbus - Alternate designation for GbI BV-Plus.
Orbus 1 - CSD solid rocket engine. Starbird fourth stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Thrust: 88.00 kN (19,783 lbf). More at: Solid
Orbus 21 - Manufacturer's designation of SRM-1 Solid rocket engine.
Orbus 21D - Alternate designation for IUS-1 rocket stage.
Orbus 6 - Manufacturer's designation of SRM-2 Solid rocket engine.
Orbview - American civilian surveillance satellite. Earth observing satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for OrbImage => GeoEye, USA. Launched 2003. Used the LEOStar bus. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-09-21. Last Launch: 2003-06-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 368 kg (811 lb).
OrbView 1 (MicroLab 1) - Earth observing satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for OrbImage (for NASA), USA. Launched 1995. Used the MicroStar (double) bus. First Launch: 1995-04-03. Last Launch: 1995-04-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 68 kg (149 lb).
OrbView 4 - Earth observing satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for OrbImage, USA. Launched 2001. Used the LEOStar-2 bus. First Launch: 2001-09-21. Last Launch: 2001-09-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 368 kg (811 lb).
Orbview-2 - American civilian surveillance satellite. The SeaStar satellite carries the SeaWiFS instrument which was designed to monitor the color of the world's oceans. Earth observing satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for OrbImage (for NASA) => GeoEye, USA. Launched 1997. Used the PegaStar bus. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-08-01. Last Launch: 1997-08-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 309 kg (681 lb).
ORD - US Army Ordnance Dept. HQ, White Sands Proving Ground
ORDCIT - Army Ordnance / California Institute of Technology. Originally part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory .
Ordzhonikidze - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1981, probably operating R-12 launchers. The division then moved to Barnaul. The base was used for deployment of two R-1/R-2 launchers in the 1950's.
Orel - In the late 1990's the Russian space industry undertook the Orel program to evaluate technology for future launch vehicles. The goals included evaluation of possible concepts for a future Russian launcher, reusable launch vehicle key technology research and analysis of "X-vehicle" flight demonstrators for technology validation. Status: Study 1999.
Orel V2 - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This preferred near-term configuration was a semi-reusable vertical takeoff/horizontal landing two stage launch vehicle. It would use a flyback booster, expendable second stage, and a small manned spaceplane. This was preferred to the Orel V3, which was essentially the earlier MMKS/OK-M1 system with a flyback booster, expendable core tank, and small spaceplane with recoverable main engines. Status: Study 1997. Gross mass: 550,000 kg (1,210,000 lb). Payload: 10,900 kg (24,000 lb). Thrust: 8,090.00 kN (1,818,700 lbf).
Orel V4 - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff, horizontal landing two stage to orbit concept. Abandoned in favor of Orel V6. Status: Study 1997. Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Orel V5 - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertically launched two stage to orbit concept consisting of horizontal landing booster, vertical landing orbiter. Abandoned in favor of Orel V6. Status: Study 1997. Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Orel V6 - Fully reusable vertical takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit launch vehicle. The preferred long-term alternative of the Russian Orel launch vehicle study of the 1990's. Status: Study 1997. Gross mass: 930,000 kg (2,050,000 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 12,000.00 kN (2,697,000 lbf).
Orel V7 RSSLV-2 - Russian VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff / vertical landing single stage to orbit. Concept abandoned in favor of Orel V6 by 1998 due to engine reliability concerns. Version with LOx/LH2 propellants. Status: Study 1997. Gross mass: 1,045,000 kg (2,303,000 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Orel V7 RSSLV-3 - Russian VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff / vertical landing single stage to orbit. Concept abandoned in favor of Orel V6 by 1998 due to engine reliability concerns. Tripropellant LOx/Kerosene (RG-1)/LH2 version. Status: Study 1997. Gross mass: 1,058,000 kg (2,332,000 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Oreol - Code name for DS-U2-GKA earth magnetosphere satellite.
Oreol 1, 2 (Aureole 1, 2 / DS-U2-GKA / ARCAD 1, 2) - Science, Magnetosphere satellite built by Yuzhnoye, Russia. Launched 1971 - 1973. First Launch: 1971-12-27. Last Launch: 1973-12-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 348 kg (767 lb).
Oreol 3 (Aureole 3, AUOS-Z-M-A-IK, ARCAD 3) - Science, Magnetosphere satellite built by Yuzhnoye, Russia. Launched 1981. Used AUOS-Z bus. First Launch: 1981-09-21. Last Launch: 1981-09-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,030 kg (2,270 lb).
Oreol-3 - Alternate designation for AUOS technology satellite.
OreSat - Technology satellite for Portland State University, USA. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Oreste - ATEF solid rocket engine. Monica I third stage. Status: Retired 1957. Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb). More at: Solid
OREX - Japanese re-entry vehicle technology satellite. NASDA ballistic capsule used to test materials and acquire data related to atmospheric re-entry for use in design of Japanese HOPE spaceplane. Launch vehicle H-2. Reentry technology satellite for NASDA, Japan. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-02-03. Last Launch: 1994-02-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb).
ORFEUS - American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. ORFEUS was a German astronomical satellite. It was deployed by the shuttle remote manipulating system arm and retrieved after six days of free flight. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-11-19. Last Launch: 1996-11-19. Number: 1 .
ORFEUS-SPAS 1, 2 - UV Astronomy, retrievable satellite satellite built by Daimler Chrysler Aerospace for DARA, NASA, Germany. Launched 1993 - 1996. First Launch: 1993-09-12. Last Launch: 1996-11-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb).
Orient Express - Alternate designation for X-30.
Oriflamme - French design for a scramjet-powered horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single stage to orbit vehicle. Status: Study 1990.
OrigamiSat 1 - Technology satellite for Tokyo Institute of Technology (TITech), Japan. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Original Nineteen - Alternate name for NASA Group 5 - 1966.
Original Nineteen - Alternate name of NASA-5 astronaut group, 1966.
Original Seven - Alternate name for NASA Group 1 - 1959.
Original Seven - Alternate name of NASA-1 astronaut group, 1959.
Orihime - Alternate name for ETS-7 Target.
Oriole - Astrotech solid rocket engine. Terrier Oriole second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). More at: Solid
Oriole AAM-N-4 RV-N-16 - Martin 1950's US Navy research test vehicle.
Oriole IV - American sounding rocket. 4 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Terrier Mk 70 + 1 x Oriole + 1 x Nihka. Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-02-07. Last Launch: 2015-11-30. Number: 3 .
Orion - Alternate designation for Hawk.
Orion - Code name for Zenit-4MT military surveillance satellite.
Orion - American manned spacecraft. In development. NASA's Crew Excursion Vehicle for the 21st Century. Built by Lockheed Martin. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-12-05. Last Launch: 2014-12-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 21,500 kg (47,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11,750 kg (25,900 lb). Thrust: 33.40 kN (7,509 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Orion - Alternate designation for Improved Orion-1 rocket stage.
Orion (CEV( MPCV) - Manned spacecraft built by Lockheed Martin for NASA.
Orion (MPCV) - Manned spacecraft built by Lockheed Martin (prime, capsule); EADS Astrium => Airbus Defence and Space (service module) for NASA, ESA.
Orion (Orion ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 36.
Orion (Orion) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 36.
Orion (SQUIRT 5) - Technology satellite for Stanford University, USA.
Orion 1 / Telstar 11 - Communication satellite built by Matra Marconi for Orion Network Systems => Loral Skynet, USA. Launched 1994. Used the Eurostar-2000 bus. First Launch: 1994-11-29. Last Launch: 1994-11-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,361 kg (5,205 lb).
Orion 2 / Telstar 12 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for Loral Skynet (formerly Orion Network Systems) => Telesat, USA. Launched 1999. Used the SSL-1300E bus. First Launch: 1999-10-19. Last Launch: 1999-10-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,814 kg (8,408 lb).
Orion 3 - Communication satellite built by Hughes for Orion Network Systems, USA. Launched 1999. Used the HS-601HP bus. First Launch: 1999-05-05. Last Launch: 1999-05-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,300 kg (9,400 lb).
Orion 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 - ELINT satellite for USAF, USA. Launched 1995 - 2016. First Launch: 1995-05-14. Last Launch: 2016-06-11. Number: 7 .
Orion 38 - Manufacturer's designation of Pegasus-3 Solid rocket engine.
Orion 50 - Hercules solid rocket engine family.
Orion 50 - Manufacturer's designation of Pegasus-2 Solid rocket engine.
Orion 50S - Manufacturer's designation of Pegasus-1 Solid rocket engine.
Orion 50SG - Alternate name for Orion 50SXLG.
Orion 50SXL - Alternate name for Pegasus XL-1.
Orion 50SXLG - Hercules solid rocket engine. Status: Active. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). More at: Solid
Orion CEV - The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was NASA's manned spacecraft for the 21st Century, a throwback to the Apollo capsule, a shuttle replacement with an uncertain future. Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 23,153 kg (51,043 lb). Thrust: 66.60 kN (14,972 lbf). More at: Lox/LCH4
Orion CM - American manned spacecraft module. Orion re-entry vehicle (crew module). A 25% scale-up of the Apollo capsule of the 1960's. Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 9,742 kg (21,477 lb). Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). More at: Gox/GCH4
Orion engine - Aerojet dual-thrust (boost-sustain) solid rocket engine, originally designed for the Hawk surface-to-air missile. Surplus motors were used in sounding rockets. Status: Active. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Unfuelled mass: 111 kg (244 lb). Thrust: 13.00 kN (2,922 lbf). More at: Solid
Orion Hot Rod - American nuclear pulse test vehicle. The modified test article for Project Orion had a total mass of 105 kg. The outer shell and upper shock absorber of the original design were deleted and a parachute recovery system added. Gross mass: 105 kg (231 lb).
Orion LAS - American manned spacecraft module. Orion launch abort system; consists of launch escape tower, adapter cone, and boost protective cover. Provides emergency crew escape during early boost phase of ascent to orbit. Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 6,176 kg (13,615 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,696 kg (8,148 lb). Thrust: 2,253.00 kN (506,494 lbf). More at: Solid
Orion Mars - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1968. Nuclear pulse spacecraft for manned mission to Mars. Status: Study 1968.
Orion Nuclear Pulse Vehicle - Nuclear-pulse drive launch vehicle seriously developed by General Atomics in the United States from 1955-1965. The design allowed vast payloads of hundreds of tons to be hurled to the planets. By 1958 the Orion team saw themselves in direct competition with Von Braun's chemical rockets. They hoped to a land a huge manned expedition on Mars by 1964 and tour the moons of Saturn by 1970. However politically NASA would not argue for the exception to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty necessary to allow firing of nuclear explosions in space.
Orion OLV - American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Nuclear-pulse drive launch vehicle seriously developed by General Atomics in the United States from 1955-1965. The design allowed vast payloads of hundreds of tons to be hurled to the planets. By 1958 the Orion team saw themselves in direct competition with Von Braun's chemical rockets. They hoped to a land a huge manned expedition on Mars by 1964 and tour the moons of Saturn by 1970. However politically NASA would not argue for the exception to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty necessary to allow firing of nuclear explosions in space. Status: Cancelled 1965.
Orion Planetary - American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The baseline planetary version of Orion would have launched from the earth's surface. It would have been bullet-shaped, 41 m in diameter and about 50 m high. Status: Design 1960. Gross mass: 10,000,000 kg (22,000,000 lb).
Orion Propulsion - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Orion Propulsion, USA.
Orion SA - American manned spacecraft module. Orion spacecraft adapter. Transition section between Service Module and Ares booster. Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 581 kg (1,280 lb).
Orion Satellite Systems - Orion Satellite Systems, USA. Domestic communications satellite network.
Orion Saturn V - American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The final iteration of the Orion design was a nuclear pulse propulsion module launched into earth orbit by a Saturn V. The 100 metric ton unit would have had a diameter of 10 m to match that of the booster. This would limit specific impulse to 1800 to 2500 seconds, still two to three times that of a nuclear thermal system. Status: Design 1965. Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Payload: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb).
Orion SM - American manned spacecraft module. Orion service module. Masses estimated based on delta-V released by NASA. Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 9,819 kg (21,647 lb). Unfuelled mass: 69 kg (152 lb). Thrust: 33.40 kN (7,509 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Orion sounding rocket - American sounding rocket. The Orion was a single stage, unguided, fin stabilized rocket system which used a surplus US Army Hawk surface-to-air-missile rocket motor having a dual thrust propellant grain. Three fins on the aft end of the motor were canted to roll the vehicle at four revolutions per second at burnout for stability. Improved performance could be obtained by using a Nike booster stage. Payload 38 kg to 88 km or 68 kg to 71 km. Status: Retired 2008. First Launch: 1974-05-29. Last Launch: 2008-06-27. Number: 69 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 7.00 kN (1,574 lbf).
Orion Starship - Ablative - American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The ablative version of Dyson's starship would be smaller and faster then the heat sink version. It would have a mass of 100,000 tons unloaded and be equipped with 300,000 one megaton bombs. Status: Design 1968. Gross mass: 500,000,000 kg (1,100,000,000 lb).
Orion Starship - Heat Sink - American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The heat sink version of Dyson's starship would have a pusher plate made of copper. This would require 5 million metric tons of exposed surface to absorb and then reradiate 1 megaton of bomb energy. The plate would have to be 20 km in diameter. Status: Design 1967. Gross mass: 40,000,000,000 kg (88,000,000,000 lb).
Orion Test Article - American nuclear pulse test vehicle. The original test article for Project Orion had a total mass of 133 kg including its bullet-shaped outer shell. Gross mass: 133 kg (293 lb).
Orion-1 - Argentinian single stage sounding rocket. Technology test vehicle, used to verify rocket motor and technologies for Orion-2 sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1965-10-01. Last Launch: 1966-07-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Payload: 10 kg (22 lb).
Orion-1 engine - IIAE solid rocket engine. IIAE Orion first stage. Status: Retired 1966. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 55 kg (121 lb). More at: Solid
Orion-2 - Argentinian sounding rocket. Single-stage solid-propellant sounding rocket first launched in 1965. The rocket could reach a top speed of 548 m/s. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1966-05-19. Last Launch: 1971-12-19. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Payload: 25 kg (55 lb).
Orion-2 engine - IIAE solid rocket engine. IIAE Orion second stage. Status: Retired 1973. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 115 kg (253 lb). Unfuelled mass: 30 kg (66 lb). More at: Solid
Orizont - Romanian manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Aeronautics and Cosmonautics Romanian Association. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. Status: Study 2004. Gross mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb).
Orizuru - Alternate name for Debut.
Orlan - Alternate designation for Feitian.
Orlan - Russian space suit. The Orlan spacesuit was used for Russian EVA's on Salyut, Mir, and the International Space Station. It was designed by the Zvezda OKB, and derived from the Kretchet suit intended for use on the lunar surface. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1998-11-20. Last Launch: 1998-11-20. Number: 1 .
Orlana - Name of one Galileo Navsat.
Orlando - American manufacturer. Martin Orlando, Orlando, FL, USA.
Orlets - Sixth-generation reconnaissance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft is deorbited.
Orlets - Code name for Yantar-6K military surveillance satellite.
Orlets-1 - Alternate designation for Yantar-4K1 military surveillance satellite.
Orlets-1 - Russian military surveillance satellite. Multi-purpose satellite, designed for both close-look and survey missions, equipped with a panoramic camera, equipped with 8 film return capsules. Reconnaissance, photo (film return) satellite operated by GRU, Russia. Launched 1989 - 2006. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-07-18. Last Launch: 2006-09-14. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb).
Orlets-2 - Russian military surveillance satellite. Reconnaissance, photo (film return) satellite operated by GRU, Russia. Launched 1994 - 2000. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-10-22. Last Launch: 2000-09-25. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb).
ORM- - Rocket motor (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
ORS - Prototype optical surveillance satellite developed under the USAF Operationally Responsive Space program. Derived from Tacsat 3 Tacsat ORS bus. Objective was to deploy small satellites to support military operations on short notice.
ORS 1 - Imaging satellite built by Goodrich Corporation, ISR Systems Division (prime); ATK Space Systems (ex Swales) (bus) for USAF, USA. Launched 2011. First Launch: 2011-06-30. Last Launch: 2011-06-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 450 kg (990 lb).
ORS 2 - Radar imaging satellite built by Northrop Grumman Space Systems (bus); Sierra Nevada Corp. (payload) for USAF.
ORS 5 (SensorSat) - Space surveillance satellite built by Lincoln Laboratory for USAF. Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb).
ORS 6 (COWVR) - Meteorology, Experimental satellite built by Northrop Grumman Space Systems (bus); NASA JPL (payload) for USAF, USA. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
ORS Mk.2 (ERS) - Experimental satellite built by TRW Systems Group for USAF, USA. Launched 1966. First Launch: 1966-06-09. Last Launch: 1966-08-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
ORS Mk.3 (ERS) - Experimental satellite built by TRW Systems Group for USAF, USA. Launched 1965 - 1967. First Launch: 1965-07-20. Last Launch: 1967-04-28. Number: 2 .
ORS Tech - Cubesat; 3U technology demonstration satellites for USAF Operationally Responsive Space office developed by APL.
ORS Tech 1, 2 (MBD 1, 2) - Technology satellite for Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), USA. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2013-11-20. Last Launch: 2013-11-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
ORS2 - Alternate name of ORS-Squared (ORS2).
ORS-3 - The ORS-3 Minotaur final stage carried an experimental launch tracking system and a drag device to reduce the amount of time it spent in orbit. Imaging satellite operated by USAF, USA. Launched 2013. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-11-20. Last Launch: 2013-11-20. Number: 1 .
ORSES - 3U Cubesat ORS Enabler Satellite, a tactical communications satellite for the USAF Operationally Responsive Space office and the US Space and Missile Defense Command.
ORSES - Technology satellite operated by ORS Office, US Army SMDC, USA. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2013-11-20. Last Launch: 2013-11-20. Number: 1 .
ORS-Squared (ORS2) - Technology satellite built by COSMIAC for Operationally Responsive Space. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
Orsted - Danish earth magnetosphere satellite. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-02-23. Last Launch: 1999-02-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 62 kg (136 lb).
ORUC - Version of the Spacelab Pallet that carries various technology and scientific instruments.
Oryel (Eagle ) - Alternate name for Vostok 2.
Oryel (Eagle) - Alternate designation for Vostok 2.
Oryol V3 - Alternate designation for OK-M1 manned spaceplane.
OS - Russian manned space station. Study 1960. In 1960 Korolev proposed a military orbital station (OS), with a crew of 3 to 5, orbiting at 350 to 400 km altitude. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb).
OS-1 (1965) - Russian manned space station. Reached mock-up stage, 1965. Status: Mock-up 1965. Gross mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb).
OS-1 (1969) - Russian manned space station. Study 1969. By 1969 the giant OS-1 space station had evolved to this configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb).
OS-1 Lunar - Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1969. A version of the OS-1 station was proposed for use in lunar orbit. No other details beyond this sketch. Status: Study 1969.
OS-1962 - Russian manned space station. Study 1962. On 10 March 1962 Korolev approved the technical project "Complex docking of spacecraft in earth orbit - Soyuz". This contained the original Soyuz L1 circumlunar design. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 13,500 kg (29,700 lb).
Osa - Russian surface-to-air missile. The Osa concept was for a completely self-contained anti-aircraft missile system, which contained the search radar, missile guidance, and missile launchers all on one vehicle. Development was difficult, and it was over ten years from the beginning of work before the missile entered service. Status: Operational 1972. Gross mass: 126 kg (277 lb). Payload: 19 kg (41 lb).
Osa Saman - Russian drone missile. Version of Osa used as a target drone. Status: Operational 1975.
Osa-AK - Russian surface-to-air missile. In 1971-1974 a modernised version of Osa was developed with improved reliability. Status: Operational 1975. Payload: 15 kg (33 lb).
Osa-AKM - Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of Osa with improved anti-helicopter capability. Status: Operational 1980. Gross mass: 170 kg (370 lb). Payload: 40 kg (88 lb).
Osaki Launch Complex - Alternate name of Tanegashima N.
Osa-M - Russian surface-to-air missile. Development of the basic Osa system to provide a short-range surface-to-air missile for larger ships. Status: Operational 1967. Gross mass: 126 kg (277 lb). Payload: 15 kg (33 lb).
OSC - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Orbital Sciences Corporation, USA.
OSC - First name of McLean.
Oscar - Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio, USA. Amateur radio satellite network. For over a half of a century a series of OSCAR satellites have been launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-12-12. Last Launch: 2009-12-15. Number: 28 .
OSCAR 1, 2 - Amateur radio communication satellite for Project OSCAR, USA. Launched 1961-1962. First Launch: 1961-12-12. Last Launch: 1962-06-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
OSCAR 16 - Alternate name of PACSAT (AMSAT-OSCAR, OSCAR 16, AO 16).
OSCAR 27 - Alternate name of Eyesat 1 (AMRAD-OSCAR, AO 27, OSCAR 27).
OSCAR 3 - Amateur radio communication satellite for Project OSCAR, USA. Launched 1965. First Launch: 1965-03-09. Last Launch: 1965-03-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 14 kg (30 lb).
OSCAR 4 - Amateur radio communication satellite for TRW Radio Club of Redondo Beach, California, USA. Launched 1965. First Launch: 1965-12-21. Last Launch: 1965-12-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 8.00 kg (17.60 lb).
OSCAR 88 - Alternate name of Nayif 1 (FUNcube 5, EO 88, OSCAR 88).
Osi, Albert - German expert in rockets during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
OSIRIS-3U - Life sciences satellite for The Pennsylvania State University Department of Electrical Engineering, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus.
OSIRIS-Rex - Asteroid sample return spacecraft. The probe was rendezvous with asteroid (101955) Bennu in August 2018 and return a sample of it to Earth in 2023. Comet sample return satellite built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver for University of Arizona for NASA, USA. Launched 2016. First Launch: 2016-09-08. Last Launch: 2016-09-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,528 kg (3,368 lb).
OSK- - Optical orientation periscope (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
OSL - Solar Observatory satellite operated by NASA, USA. Gross mass: 3,364 kg (7,416 lb).
Osnabrueck - First Launch: 1931-04-15. Last Launch: 1931-04-15. Number: 1 .
OSNSAT - Technology, education satellite built by Open Space Network (prime); Interorbital Systems (IOS) (bus) for Open Space Network, USA. Launched 2016. First Launch: 2016-12-09. Last Launch: 2016-12-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
OSO - American solar satellite. The Orbiting Solar Observatories, developed for NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, were designed primarily as stabilized platforms for solar-oriented scientific instruments. Solar observatory satellite built by Ball Aerospace for NASA, USA. Launched 1962 - 1969. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-03-07. Last Launch: 1975-06-21. Number: 9 .
OSO 7 - Solar observatory satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1971. First Launch: 1971-09-29. Last Launch: 1971-09-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 635 kg (1,399 lb).
OSO 8 - Solar observatory satellite built by Hughes for NASA, USA. Launched 1975. First Launch: 1975-06-21. Last Launch: 1975-06-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,066 kg (2,350 lb).
OSOAVIAKHIM - Russian manned balloon. Flown 1934. Status: Operational 1934.
OSP-2 Peacekeeper SLV - Alternate name of Minotaur-4 Orion-38 (Minotaur-IV Orion-38, OSP-2 Peacekeeper SLV).
OSP-2 Peacekeeper SLV - Alternate name of Minotaur-6 (Minotaur-VI, OSP-2 Peacekeeper SLV).
OSP-2 Peacekeeper TLV - Alternate name of Minotaur-3 (Minotaur-III, OSP-2 Peacekeeper TLV).
OSP-SLV - Alternate name of Minotaur-1 HAPS (Minotaur-I HAPS, OSP-SLV).
OSP-TLV - Alternate name of Minotaur-2+ (Minotaur-II+, OSP-TLV).
OSS - Office of Space Science (OSS) experiment package carried on the STS-3 space shuttle. The payload measured (1) plasma, waves, and fields; (2) polarization in solar X-ray bursts; (3) solar flux in the wavelength range 120-400 nanometers; (4) electrical charging properties of the Orbiter vehicle; (5) thermal properties of the canister experiment; (6) optical properties of the Shuttle-induced atmosphere; and (7) micrometeorite impacts. Status: Operational 1981.
OSS-1 - Alternate name for STS-3.
OSSA - Abbreviation for Office of Space Sciences and Applications
OSSE - Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (on CGRO)
OSSI - Cubesat developed by a Korean artist.
OSSI 1 - Technology satellite for OSSI, South Korea. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2013-04-19. Last Launch: 2013-04-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
OST - Abbreviation for Quality Assurance System
OSTA - Office of Space and Terrestrial Application payload, carried on the early space shuttle missions on the SLP platform. The instruments were designed to perform remote sensing of the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land resources. During its time in orbit, the Shuttle assumed an earth-viewing orientation to accommodate the experiments of the OSTA payload.
OSTA-1 - Alternate name for STS-2.
OSTA-3 - Alternate name for STS-41-G.
Ostashev, Yevgeni Ilyich - Russian officer. First Directorate Chief of Baikonur 1956-1960. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe. Born: 1924-03-22. Died: 1960-10-24.
OSTM - Alternate name of Jason 2, 3 (OSTM).
Ostrander, Don Richard - American USAF officer, director of NASA launch vehicle programs and Saturn project, 1959-1961; vice commander USAF BMD 1961-1965. He left NASA after von Braun threatened to resign over Ostrander's demands that unproven USAF-developed Centaur electronics be used in the Saturn I booster in place of those designed by Walter Haeusserman of the von Braun team. Born: 1914. Died: 1972-10-26.
Osumi - Japanese technology satellite. Ohsumi 5. Engineering test for the launching of scientific satellites. Injection point 29.7 N, 145.8 E. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-02-11. Last Launch: 1970-02-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
Oswald, Stephen Scot - American test pilot astronaut 1985-2000. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2000. Born: 1951-06-30. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 33.94 days.
OTA - Office of Technology Assessment; or Optical Telescope Assembly (on Hubble Space Telescope)
OTB - Technology satellite for SSTL, UK. Used the SSTL-150 bus. Gross mass: 150 kg (330 lb).
OTDA - Abbreviation for Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition
OTHB - Abbreviation for Over The Horizon Backscatter
OTK - Special Technical Commission (Russian abbreviation)
OTO Melera - Italian manufacturer. OTO Melera, Italy.
Otomat - Italian anti-ship missile. Coastal defense, antiship weapon. On 85 ships in 10 countries. Status: Operational 1974. Gross mass: 768 kg (1,693 lb). Payload: 210 kg (460 lb). Thrust: 68.60 kN (15,422 lbf).
Otomat Mk 2 - Alternate name of Otomat.
Otovyannaya - Alternate name for Yasnaya/Oloynyaya.
OTR - Alternate name for Overberg.
OTR- - Mobile rocket (Russian abbreviation)
OTR-21 - Alternate designation for 9K714B.
OTR-21 - Alternate designation for Tochka-U.
OTR-21 - Alternate designation for Tochka.
OTR-22 - Alternate designation for 9K76B.
OTR-22 - Alternate designation for 9K76.
OTR-23 - Alternate name of Tochka 9K79.
OTR-23 - Alternate designation for Oka.
Otrag - Orbital Transport-und-Raketen Aktiengesellschaft, Germany. Manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. $200 million was spent from 1975-1987 by Lutz Kayser in a serious attempt to develop a low-cost satellite launcher using clusters of mass-produced pressure-fed liquid propellant modules. The project was finally squelched by the German government under pressure from the Soviet and French. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1977-05-18. Last Launch: 1983-09-19. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 1,170.00 kN (263,020 lbf).
Otrag CPRU - N2O4/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Clustered to form Otrag launch vehicles. Pressure-fed, using cheapest possible propellants. Status: Retired 1983. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 26.96 kN (6,061 lbf). More at: N2O4/Kerosene
OTRAG Libya - Alternate name for Tawiwa launch site.
OTRAG Zaire - Alternate name for Kapani Tonneo launch site.
OTS - European Orbital Test Satellite using the ECS/OTS bus.
OTS - European communications technology satellite. Study 1978. Communications experiments satellite of the European Space Agency. Status: Study 1978. Gross mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb).
OTS 1, 2 - Communication satellite built by British Aerospace for ESA, International. Launched 1977 - 1978. Used OTS Bus. First Launch: 1977-09-13. Last Launch: 1978-05-11. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb).
Otsek komponentov dozapravki - Alternate designation for Progress OKD.
Otsek komponentov dozapravki - Russian name (component module) for Progress M OKD manned spacecraft module.
Ottobrunn - German manufacturer of rocket engines. Ottobrunn, Germany.
Ottobrunn 300N - Ottobrunn LOx/LH2 rocket engine. 300 N. Upper stages. Developed 2000.- highest value ever achieved in Europe for an engine of such small size. Status: Developed 2000. Thrust: 300.00 kN (67,440 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
OTV - Alternate name for X-37.
OTV - American space tug. Studied 1985-1989. The Orbital Transfer Vehicle was reusable space tug, powered by LOx/LH2 engines and equipped with an aerobrake allowing it to be returned for refueling and reuse at an orbiting space station. Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 37,550 kg (82,780 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,990 kg (8,790 lb). More at: Lox/LH2
OUFTI 1 - Technology satellite built by UniversitT de LiFge; Pumpkin, Inc. (bus) for UniversitT de LiFge, Belgium. Launched 2016. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2016-04-25. Last Launch: 2016-04-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Ouna - The Ouna (VRAD) subsatellite was released from Kaguya into a 127 km x 795 km lunar orbit at 04:28 GMT on 12 October 2007.
Ouna - Alternate name of VRAD (SELENE VLBI Radio Satellite, VStar, Ouna).
Outer planets - Category of spacecraft.
Outernet 1, 2, 3 - Communications, technology satellite built by ClydeSpace for Outernet Inc.. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
outgassing - The emanation of gas from a material. This process is usually enhanced in vacuum.
Outlaw MQM-170 - Griffon Aerospace mobile surface-launched drone.
Outpost - American manned space station. Study 1958. In 1958, the year after Sputnik 1, Krafft Ehricke, then with General Dynamics' Convair Division, designed a four-man space station known as Outpost. Status: Study 1958.
Outpost on the Moon - American manned lunar base. Study 1987. Former astronaut Sally Ride was asked to head a task force to formulate a new NASA strategic plan in August 1986. Status: Study 1987.
Outpost Tavern - This low-rent bar was the astronaut hangout in Houston. It was just a shack with an unpaved parking lot, filthy inside, but covered with astronaut photos and a place that preserved their privacy. The owner died in 1995, before seeing the place semi-immortalized as a backdrop in the films Space Cowboys and Rocketman. The place was "improved" under new management, but retained its filthy interior and decor.
Outrider RQ-6 - American unmanned air vehicle based on the Hellfox design.
OUTSat - Technology satellite for Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), USA. Launched 2012. First Launch: 2012-09-13. Last Launch: 2012-09-13. Number: 1 .
Ouyang Ziyuan - Chinese geochemist. Leading Chinese authority on extraterrestrial material.
OV - American Orbiting Vehicle series of satellites; launched by the US Air Force for diverse objectives.
OV-099 - Manufacturer's designation for Challenger manned spaceplane.
OV1 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Experimental satellite built by Convair for USAF, USA. Launched 1965 - 1969. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-01-21. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 27 . Gross mass: 555 kg (1,223 lb). Payload: 36 kg (79 lb).
OV1 16 - Alternate name of LOADS 1 (OV1 16, Cannonball 1).
OV1 8 - Alternate name of PasComSat (OV1 8).
OV-101 - Manufacturer's designation for Enterprise manned spaceplane.
OV-102 - Manufacturer's designation for Columbia manned spaceplane.
OV-103 - Manufacturer's designation for Discovery manned spaceplane.
OV-104 - Manufacturer's designation for Atlantis manned spaceplane.
OV-105 - Manufacturer's designation for Endeavour manned spaceplane.
OV1P - Experimental satellite built by Convair for USAF, USA. Launched 1969 - 1971. First Launch: 1969-03-18. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 2 .
OV2 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. OV2 satellites were built for the USAF Office of Aerospace Research, and flew as secondary payloads on Titan IIIC test flights. Experimental satellite built by Northrop Systems Laboratories for USAF, USA. Launched 1965 - 1968. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-10-15. Last Launch: 1968-09-26. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 189 kg (416 lb).
OV3 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. The OV3 GUS General Utility Satellite were built for the Air Force as part of the OV3 satellite series. Experimental satellite built by Aerojet (#1 - 4); AFCRL (#5 - 6) for USAF, USA. Launched 1966 - 1967. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-04-22. Last Launch: 1967-12-05. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb).
OV4 - American technology satellite. Whispering gallery experiments. Experimental satellite built by Raytheon for USAF, USA. Launched 1966. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-11-03. Last Launch: 1966-11-03. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 109 kg (240 lb).
OV4 3 - Experimental satellite built by Martin Marietta for USAF, USA. Launched 1966. Used the Transtage bus. First Launch: 1966-11-03. Last Launch: 1966-11-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 9,680 kg (21,340 lb).
OV5 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. OV5 was a version of the USAF Environmental Research Satellites dedicated to radiation research and VLF plasma wave detection. Experimental satellite built by TRW Systems Group (#1 - 5, 8); AFRCL (#6, 7); Northrop (#9) for USAF, USA. Launched 1967 - 1969. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-04-28. Last Launch: 1969-05-23. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb).
Oval (AUOS-Z-R-O #1) - Science satellite built by Yuzhnoye, Russia. Launched 1977. Used AUOS-Z bus. First Launch: 1977-03-29. Last Launch: 1977-03-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,056 kg (2,328 lb).
Ovchinin, Aleksei Nikolaevich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, 70th Seregina Special Flight Test Regiment RGNIITsPK Status: Active 2006-on. Born: 1971-09-28. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 172.16 days.
Overberg - The Overberg Test Range (OTR) was developed by the Houwteq organization in the 1980's as part of South Africa's ballistic missile and R5b space program. It was located at the southernmost tip of Africa on the south-eastern coast of the Western Cape at Latitude 34 deg 35 min S and Longitude 20 deg 19 min E. The facility had a total area of 43,000 hectares. First Launch: 1989-07-06. Last Launch: 1990-11-19. Number: 2 .
Overhage, Carl FJ - American physicist, director of Lincoln Laboratories 1957-1964. Born: 1910-04-02. Died: 1995-08-07.
Overmyer, Robert Franklyn - American test pilot astronaut 1966-1986. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1986. Born: 1936-07-14. Died: 1996-03-23. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 12.10 days.
Overseer MQM-58 - Aerojet General mobile surface-launched drone.
Overview 1 - Earth observation satellite built by SpaceVR (payload); Pumpkin Inc. (bus) for SpaceVR, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
Ovod - Alternate name of Kh-59.
Ovod-M - Alternate name of Kh-59M.
Owl - American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1967.05.18 (Transit 16) to 1967.09.25 (Transit 17). Status: Operational 1967. Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb).
Owl 1, 2 - Research satellite built by Rice University for NASA. Gross mass: 70 kg (154 lb).
OWN - Orbital Workshop (Skylab space station) .
OWS - Orbital Workshop
oxidizer - A substance that combines with another to produce heat and, in a rocket, hot gases of combustion thrust.
OXM - Abbreviation for Oxamide
OXP - Alternate name of Orbcomm-X, -CDS 1, 2 (OXP, VSUME).
Ozon (Ozone ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-12.
Ozon (Ozone) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-12.

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