Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: O

O Connor - American test pilot astronaut 1980-1991. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1991. Born: 1946-09-06. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 15.97 days.
O Dell - American astronomer, NASA project scientist for the Hubble Space Telescope, 1972-1983. Born: 1937.
O Keefe - American manager, NASA Administrator 2001-2005, advocate of nuclear power use in spacecraft. Reorganized the ISS program to cover overruns, was administrator when the crew of the Columbia perished, and began work on a post-shuttle program.
O Leary - American scientist astronaut, 1967-1968. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1968. Born: 1940-01-27. Died: 2011-07-28.
O/C - 3U Optical Cubesat sponsored by NRO and built by Cal Poly as targets for space surveillance calibration.
O/OREOS - 3U Cubesat by NASA-Ames with life science experiments to study microbes in free fall and the effects of ultraviolet light on organic materials.
O3B - Series of communications satellites for the O3b (Other 3 billion), providing Ka-band communications with steerable antennas for broadband internet capacity in the developing world. Used the ELiTeBus.
OAM - Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Monopropellant final stage providing precise orbital injection. Pressure-fed, indefinite number of restarts. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 714 kg (1,574 lb). Unfuelled mass: 360 kg (790 lb). Thrust: 882 N (198 lbf).
OAMS - Orbit attitude and maneuvering system
OAO - American visible astronomy satellite. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-04-08. Last Launch: 1972-08-21. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,027 kg (4,468 lb).
OAO Klimov / OKB im.. Klimov - Alternate name for Klimov.
OART - Abbreviation for Office of Advanced Research and Technology
OAST - NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology payload mounted in the shuttle bay, testing a variety of new technologies. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-08-30. Last Launch: 1994-03-04. Number: 2 .
OAST-Flyer - American technology satellite. GPS receiver, amateur radio tests; examined effect of solar radiation on satellite explosive devices; deployed from STS 72 1/14/96; retrieved 1/16/96. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-01-11. Last Launch: 1996-01-11. Number: 1 .
OB - Habitation block (Russian abbreviation)
Obachi - Location used for release and launch of balloon-launched Kappa sounding rockets in 1961. First Launch: 1961-06-18. Last Launch: 1961-06-18. Number: 1 .
Oberg Corner -
Oberth - Alternate designation for Oberth sounding rocket.
Oberth - Father of German Spaceflight. His 1923 book outlined the mathematic principles of rocketry and space travel, providing the basis for the space craze in Germany, leading to the V-2 and von Braun's rocket team. Born: 1894-06-25. Died: 1989-01-01.
Oberth sounding rocket - German sounding rocket. Rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth agreed to build and fly a liquid propellant rocket to publicize the Fritz Lang film Frau im Mond. Oberth's design was too ambitious and the rocket was never completed in time for the film's premiere. But the engine developed for it would be further refined and used in the Mirak rocket, flown in 1931-1933. Status: Cancelled 1929.
Object 350 - Alternate designation for Burya La-350.
Object 350 - Alternate designation for Burya.
Objekt 350 - Alternate designation for Burya.
Objekt 350 - Alternate name for Burya Air Vehicle.
Oblik - Code name for Zenit-8 military surveillance satellite.
OBV - Alternate designation for GBI.
Obzor - Russian earth resources radar satellite. Study 1992. The Arsenal Design Bureau proposed converting its military ocean reconnaissance spacecraft bus (EORSAT) into a civil remote sensing platform. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb).
occultation - The disappearance of a celestial body behind another body of equal or larger apparent size, such as the occultation of the Sun by the Moon as viewed by an Earth observer during a solar eclipse. Also, the covering of the image of a celestial body by a disc whose size is equal to or larger than the size of the image.
Oceansat - Remote sensing satellite with an 8-band ocean color monitor, a radar scatterometer and a radio occultation atmospheric sounder. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-09-23. Last Launch: 2009-09-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Ochoa - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1990-2003. Engineer. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2003. Born: 1958-05-10. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 40.82 days.
Ockels - Dutch physicist payload specialist astronaut 1978-1994. First Dutch astronaut. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1994. Born: 1946-03-28. Died: 2014-05-18. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.03 days.
OCO - Orbiting Carbon Observatory. Launched 2009.02.24, Status: Operational 2009. Gross mass: 407 kg (897 lb).
OCSE - American technology satellite. Optical Calibration Sphere Experiment, a 3.5m diameter inflatable sphere built by L'Garde Inc. for calibrating the lasers at the AFRL Starfire Optical Range. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2000-01-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
OCST - Abbreviation for Office of Commercial Space Transportation
OD- - Optical telescope (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
ODERACS - American military target satellite. Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres were small, low-earth orbiting calibration targets for ground based radar and optical systems. The primary objective was to calibrate the Haystack Long Range Imaging Radar and validate the Johnson Space Center's Orbital Debris Analysis System. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-12-02. Last Launch: 1995-02-03. Number: 20 .
Odin - Swedish infrared astronomy satellite. Odin was a Swedish dual disciplinary (astrophysics and atmospheric science) spacecraft. The 250 kg, 340 W spacecraft had a pointing accuracy of 15 arc sec and a data storage capacity of 100 MB. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-02-20. Last Launch: 2001-02-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 250 kg (550 lb).
Odintsov - Russian officer. Director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre 1963. Hated by the cosmonauts and relieved of duty after criticizing the performance of Tereshkova. Born: 1921.
Odishaw - American scientist, executive director of the US National Committee for the International Geophysical Year, 1954-1965 Born: 1916-10-13. Died: 1984-03-01.
Odle - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1986. Born: 1951-09-08.
Odyssey - Odyssey Worldwide Services, American commercial communications satellite network. Operations were planned in 1997 to begin by the end of 1998. However in the event the entire enterprise was cancelled when the dot-com / MEO satellite bubble burst. Status: Cancelled 1997.
Odyssye/Aquarius - Alternate name for Apollo 13.
Oefelein - American test pilot astronaut 1998-2007. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2007. Born: 1965-03-29. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.86 days.
Oerlikon - Swiss manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Oerlikon, Switzerland.
Oerlikon Aerospace Inc. - Second name of Oerlikon.
Oerlikon-Contraves - First name of Oerlikon.
OEX Target - American technology satellite. Shuttle autopilot software test target. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-11-27. Last Launch: 1985-11-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 16 kg (35 lb).
OF2 - Oxygen difluoride was a candidate high performance propellant of the late 1950's that was less cryogenic then fluorine. It is also not so corrosive or reactive as fluorine; however, it will react with most substances under proper conditions. Due to safety concerns it was never adopted in a production engine.
Ofeq - Israeli indigenous satellite series. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function of first Ofeqs: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field. Later models provided military optical and electronic reconnaissance services.
Ofeq 1-2 - Israeli technology satellite. Ofeq, meaning 'Horizon', was a technology demonstration satellite developed by IAI (Israel Aircraft Industries) for ISA (Israel Space Agency). Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-09-19. Last Launch: 1990-04-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 157 kg (346 lb).
Ofeq 3 - Israeli military surveillance satellite. Ofeq 3 was Israel's second-generation imaging surveillance satellite. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-04-05. Last Launch: 2006-04-25. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 189 kg (416 lb).
Ofeq 5 - Israeli military surveillance satellite. Ofeq-5 was said to be about 33% heavier than its predecessors. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-05-28. Last Launch: 2010-06-22. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
Offutt AFB - Atlas D (SMS 566) ICBM base.
Offutt AFB Missile Annex 1 -
Offutt AFB Missile Annex 2 -
Offutt AFB Missile Annex 3 -
OFO - American biology satellite. The Frog Otolith Experiment Package (FOEP) contained all apparatus necessary to assure survival of two frogs. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-11-09. Last Launch: 1970-11-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 133 kg (293 lb).
OGCh - Russian military orbital bombing system. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-12-16. Last Launch: 1971-08-08. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
Oghab - Iranian unguided solid propellant artillery rocket, licensed production of Chinese Type 83. Entered service in 1986. Status: Active. Payload: 300 kg (660 lb).
OGO - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-09-05. Last Launch: 1969-06-05. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 588 kg (1,296 lb).
Ogthoff - German expert in guided missiles during World War II.
OHB - OHB System GmbH, Bremen, Germany
OHB System GmbH - First name of Bremen.
Ohsumi - Japanese technology satellite. Small engineering test satellites lofted by Japan's first indigenous launch vehicle. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-09-26. Last Launch: 1969-09-22. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 25 kg (55 lb).
OICETS - Code name for Kirari communications satellite.
OIS - Alternate name for OIS (definition).
OIS - Alternate name for Star 27.
OIS - Orbital military station (Russian abbreviation)
OK - Winged manned space shuttle, originally conceived in 1972 to succeed the Soyuz and Progress spacecraft to shuttle supplies and crews to the MKBS-2 military space base. Development was assigned to Chelomei's OKB-52, and it was originally to be launched by the N1-MOK as part of a reusable space system. When the N1 and MKBS-2 were cancelled in 1974, development continued as the LKS, but it was now to be boosted by an upgraded Chelomei Proton launch vehicle. This in turn was cancelled in 1983, and Glushko at OKB-1 designed a successor OK for launch on the Zenit vehicle. Development was then handed over to the Molniya bureau, which was developing the duplicative MAKS system for the Soviet Air Force. Molniya studied several OK-M designs, which were apparently dropped in favor of MAKS. Status: Study 1972.
Oka - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Tactical ballistic missile. SS-21 is Tochka SRBM mounted on a ZIL-375 transporter, while SS-23 is the same missile on an 8-wheeled TEL. Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1977-09-01. Last Launch: 1987-01-01. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Payload: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
Oka - Alternate designation for 9K714B.
OKB - Special or Experimental Design Bureau; or Orbital spacecraft (Russian abbreviations)
OKB Dushkin - Second name of Dushkin.
OKB Fakel - Second name of Stechkin bureau.
OKB Zarya - Third name of Sevruk Design Bureau.
OKB-1 - Second name of Korolev bureau.
OKB-1 Filial 3 - First name of Kozlov bureau.
OKB-10 - First name of Reshetnev bureau.
OKB-11 GKAT - First name of Tikhomirov Design Bureau.
OKB-117 - Second name of Izotov bureau.
OKB-134 - Alternate designation for GosMKB Vympel.
OKB-134 - First name of Lyapin Design Bureau.
OKB-154 - Second name of Kosberg bureau.
OKB-155 - First name of MiG Design Bureau.
OKB-16 - First name of Nudelman bureau.
OKB-165 - Second name of Lyulka bureau.
OKB-2 - Second name of Isayev bureau.
OKB-23 - Alternate designation for Myasishchev bureau.
OKB-23 - First name of Myasishchevbureau.
OKB-236 -
OKB-256 - First name of Tsybin bureau.
OKB-276 - Second name of Kuznetsov bureau.
OKB-3 -
OKB-3 of NII-88 - Second name of Sevruk Design Bureau.
OKB-30 - Russian agency. OKB-30, Russia.
OKB-300 Turayevo Branch - Second name of Stepanov Design Bureau.
OKB-301 - First name of Lavochkin bureau.
OKB-4 - First name of Bisnovat Design Bureau.
OKB-456 - Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Variant using a Glushko nuclear engine heating ammonia as a propellant. Gross mass: 84,400 kg (186,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,600 kg (18,900 lb). Payload: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 1,373.00 kN (308,662 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/Ammonia.
OKB-456 - Second name of Glushko bureau.
OKB-52 - Second name of Chelomei bureau.
OKB-586 - First name of Yuzhnoye Design Bureau.
OKB-670 - Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Variant using a Bondaryuk nuclear engine heating mixed alcohol and ammonia as a propellant. Gross mass: 96,000 kg (211,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,800 kg (19,400 lb). Payload: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Thrust: 1,667.00 kN (374,756 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/Ammonia+Alcohol.
OKB-670 - Second name of Bondaryuk bureau.
Okean - Naval radar satellite network.
Okean (Ocean ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-4.
Okean (Ocean ) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-8.
Okean (Ocean) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-4.
Okean (Ocean) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-8.
Okean (Ocean) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-10-1.
Okean-3 - Manufacturer's designation for Okean-O earth resources radar satellite.
Okean-E - Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. First prototype of Okean series. Development of methods for obtaining operational information on the Pacific Ocean. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-02-12. Last Launch: 1980-01-23. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb).
Okean-O - Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-07-17. Last Launch: 1999-07-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6,360 kg (14,020 lb).
Okean-O1 - Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. Third generation Soviet oceanographic research satellite, equipped with a side-looking radar, radiometer, and multi-spectral scanner. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-07-28. Last Launch: 2004-12-24. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb).
Okean-OE - Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-09-28. Last Launch: 1984-09-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb).
Okhapkin - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1952-1976 of Korolev design bureau. Led work on the N1 and was Mishin's First Deputy. Born: 1910. Died: 1980-03-01.
Okhotsimskiy - Russian scientist. Scientist at OPM MIAN. Conducted research work on an early ICBM. Born: 1921-02-26.
Okhotsk - Sounding rocket launch location; offshore point used for launch of SLBM's from submarines. First Launch: 1981-01-01. Last Launch: 2014-05-08. Number: 36 .
OKIK - Major Command and Tracking Centre (Russian abbreviation)
Okina - The Okina relay satellite was released from Kaguya into a 115 km x 2,399 km lunar orbit at 00:36 GMT on 9 October 2007.
OK-M - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. 1980's design for a spaceplane, smaller than Buran, to replace Soyuz and Progress spacecraft for space station crew rotation/replenishment tasks. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,200 kg (29,100 lb). Payload: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
OK-M1 - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M1 manned spaceplane was designed by NPO Molniya as a follow-on to the OK-M of NPO Energia. The OK-M1 was an integrated part of a unique launch vehicle, the MMKS reusable multi-module space system. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 31,800 kg (70,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 29,300 kg (64,500 lb). Payload: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Thrust: 39.20 kN (8,813 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
OK-M2 - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M2 was a manned spaceplane, a straight delta wing joined to a broad fuselage with an upturned nose. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 27,300 kg (60,100 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 79.40 kN (17,850 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Oko - Russian military early warning satellite. ussian military early warning satellite. Work on the Soviet Union's first infrared ICBM launch detection satellite began in 1967 as the USK - space system to observe rocket launches. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-09-19. Last Launch: 2010-09-30. Number: 86 .
OKPKI-5 - Alternate name for MAP Group 5 - 1989.
Oktant - Alternate name for Yantar-4K1.
Oktant, Kobalt-M - Code name for Yantar-4K1 military surveillance satellite.
Oleg - Alternate designation for Spektr manned space station.
Oleinik - Ukrainian officer. Colonel-General. Commander of Plesetsk Cosmodrome 1985-1991. From 1992 served in Ministry of Defense of the Ukraine. Born: 1937.
Olejuik - German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot.
Olivas - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1998-2010. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2010. Born: 1965-05-25. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 27.71 days.
OLPP - Abbreviation for Office of Lunar and Planetary Programs
Olsen - American scientist cosmonaut 2005. Space tourist Status: Inactive; Active 2005-2005. Born: 1945-04-20. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.89 days.
Olthof - Dutch physicist at ESA. From 1977-1986, responsible for the secretariat of the Astronomy Working Group. Thereafter, served as the head of space station and platforms for scientific users at the European Space Research and Technology Centre. Born: 1944.
OlympicSat - Chinese technology satellite. One launch, 2004.04.18, Naxing 1. It was announced in July 2001 would China will launch two small satellites on one rocket. The first would be an engineering test satellite developed by Tsinghua University. Status: Operational 2004. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Olympus - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-19.
Olympus - European communications technology satellite. This communications technology demonstration satellite tested direct television broadcast beams and was also equipped with conventional communications transponders. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-07-12. Last Launch: 1989-07-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,595 kg (5,720 lb).
Oman - Oman
OMB - Abbreviation for Office of Management and Budget
OME - Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Study 1972. Engine used in Shuttle Orbiter Orbital Maneuvering System pods, for orbit insertion, maneuvering, and re-entry initiation. First flight 1981. Status: First flight 1981. Unfuelled mass: 118 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 26.70 kN (6,002 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Omega - Russian technology satellite. Early Cosmos satellite, evidently using the Yuzhnoye DS satellite bus. Payload developed by the VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-04-13. Last Launch: 1963-12-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 347 kg (765 lb).
Omelchenko - Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1951-08-20.
Omid - Iranian technology satellite.ranian technology satellite. First Iranian-built, Iranian-launched satellite. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-08-16. Last Launch: 2009-02-02. Number: 2 .
OMS - Abbreviation for Orbital Maneuvering System
OMSF - Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA
Omsk - Base for units deployed with launchers for the R-9 ICBM. First Launch: 1965-07-01. Last Launch: 1972-03-14. Number: 4 .
OMV - American space tug. Cancelled 1987. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) was an important component in NASA's future Space Station plans in the 1980s. Status: Cancelled 1987.
OMV Variable Thrust Engine - TRW N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 6.80 kg (14.90 lb). Thrust: 578 N (129 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Ona - American engineer. Headed Atlas missile final checkout; later Chief of Reliability Engineering for the Centaur. Born: 1925-03-01. Died: 2004-06-24.
One stage Orbital Space Truck - Alternate designation for OOST.
One stage Orbital Space Truck - Alternate designation for OOST ISI.
Onega - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle proposed for the 'Kliper' manned spaceplane in 2004. The 'Onega' was a hitherto-unrevealed massive improvement of the reliable Soyuz. It would deliver double the payload to a space station orbit, and could be available by 2010 if funding was made available. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
ONERA - French manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales, France.
Ongaro - Italian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1990-1993. Status: Inactive. Born: 1958-01-18.
Onishchenko - Russian officer. From 1983 served in KIK space tracking units. Earlier developed a range of automated control systems for satellites, notably the Interkosmos and Glonass series. Born: 1930.
Onishi - Japanese pilot mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1975.
Onizuka - American test engineer mission specialist astronaut 1978-1986. Died in Challenger accident. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1986. Born: 1946-06-24. Died: 1986-01-28. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 3.07 days.
ONR - American agency overseeing development of rockets. Office of Naval Research, USA.
ONR-Titan - American manufacturer. ONR-Titan, USA.
Onufrienko - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1989-2004. After leaving cosmonaut corps in April 2004, assigned as Deputy Chief for the First Administration of RGNII TsPK. Call sign: Skif (Skif - Roman-age tribe). Status: Inactive; Active 1989-2004. Born: 1961-02-06. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 389.62 days.
Onyx - Alternate designation for Lacrosse (satellite).
Onyx - Code name replacing Lacrosse for the radar imaging spacecraft built by Lockheed Martin.
OOS - Orbit-to-orbit stage (see IUS)
OOSA - Office of Outer Space Affairs (United Nations office)
OOST - Alternate designation for OOST stage.
OOST - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Bono's earliest design for an expendable single-stage-to-orbit LH2/LOx booster. The baseline version used conventional engines. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 8,527,400 kg (18,799,600 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 103,660.80 kN (23,303,875 lbf).
OOST ISI - Alternate designation for OOST ISI stage.
OOST ISI - American SSTO orbital launch vehicle. Alternate version of OOST using Improved Specific Impulse approach: many engines feeding into single large nozzle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 5,670,400 kg (12,501,000 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 68,496.90 kN (15,398,716 lbf).
OOST ISI stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 5,125,000 kg (11,298,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 292,000 kg (643,000 lb). Thrust: 85,386.00 kN (19,195,536 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
OOST stage - Bono's earliest design for an expendable single-stage-to-orbit LH2/LOx booster. The baseline version used conventional engines. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 7,982,000 kg (17,597,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 431,000 kg (950,000 lb). Thrust: 123,191.00 kN (27,694,438 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
OP - Russian manned space station. Study 1962. Korolev's next attempt to win military support for development of the N-I was his fantastic 'Orbitalniy Poyas' (OP -Orbital Belt) scheme of 20 April 1962. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb).
OPAL - American technology satellite. Stanford University Orbiting Picosat Automated Launcher. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2000-01-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 13 kg (28 lb).
OPd-56-39-22D - French test vehicle. Original designation of the Antares test vehicle. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1959-05-02. Last Launch: 1960-09-30. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 200.00 kN (44,960 lbf).
OPd-56-39-22D-2 - Alternate name for Neptune engine.
OPd-56-39-22D-3 - Alternate name for SEPR 685-4.
Opel - German automobile manufacturer and rocketry enthusiast. Grandson of founder of Opel, after graduation, put in charge of testing and publicity. Funded Valier's tests of rocket engines in ground and air vehicles. Born: 1899-05-04. Died: 1971-04-08.
Open Cockpit Lunar Landers - Alternate designation for Rocket Chair.
OPF - Abbreviation for Orbiter Processing Facility
OPI Methane Engine - Orion Propulsion LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Reaction control thruster for future manned spacecraft. Developed from 2001; tested 2005. Status: Developed 2001-. Date: 2001-. Thrust: 445 N (100 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
Opimz - German expert in rocket planes during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
Opitz - German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot.
OPM - Department of Applied Mathematics (Russian abbreviation)
Opportunity - Alternate designation for MER mars lander.
OPS - Alternate designation for OPS (Russian abbreviation).
OPS - Manufacturer's designation for Almaz OPS and [Almaz OPS] manned space station.
OPS - Designation for series of classified US government missions.
OPS (Russian abbreviation) - Orbital Piloted Station (Russian abbreviation)
OPS + TKS - Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1976. Designation give to combined TKS+OPS Almaz station. Status: Cancelled 1976.
OPS-2 - Manufacturer's designation for Almaz OPS-2 manned space station.
Optical 5 - Alternate name for JB-11.
Optical 6 - Alternate name for JB-12.
Optical 7 - Alternate name for JB-13.
Optical Calibration Sphere Experiment - Alternate name for OCSE.
Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite - Alternate designation for Kirari communications satellite.
Optical-1 - Alternate name for JB-3.
Optical-2 - Alternate name for JB-6.
Optical-3 - Alternate name for JB-10.
Optical-4 - Alternate name for JB-9.
OPTICUBE - 3U Optical Cubesat sponsored by NRO and built by Cal Poly as targets for space surveillance calibration.
OPTOS - 3U Cubesat from INTA of Spain.
Optus - Optus Communications, Australia; and designation of series of Australian communications satellites launched by Optus.
OPUSat - 1U Cubesat from Osaka Prefectural University. Technology mission.
OR - US Army Ordnance Research and Development Division Sub-Office (Rocket)
Orb - Alternate name for Cygnus.
Orbcomm - Orbital Communications Corp, Dulles, USA. Orbcomm was a commercial venture to provide global messaging services using a constellation of 26 low-Earth orbiting satellites. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-07-17. Last Launch: 2008-06-19. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
Orbcomm - Experimental spacecraft. Used the CDS bus. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). Air dropped in Mayport DZ.
Orbimage - American agency. Orbital Imaging Corp, Dulles, USA.
Orbiscal - American earth ionosphere satellite. Investigate effects of ionosphere on radio signals. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1968-08-16. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 37 kg (81 lb).
orbital - Category of launch vehicles.
Orbital Block - Alternate designation for R-56 Block O rocket stage.
Orbital Boost Vehicle - Alternate designation for GBI.
Orbital Escape System - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. Status: Study 1966.
Orbital Express Astro - American rendezvous technology satellite. Astro. The active satellite of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Orbital Express program. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-03-09. Last Launch: 2007-03-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,090 kg (2,400 lb).
Orbital Launch Site - Category of launch sites.
orbital launch vehicle - Category of launch vehicles.
Orbital Maneuvering System Pods - Alternate designation for Shuttle Orbiter OMS rocket stage.
Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle - Manufacturer's designation for OMV space tug.
Orbital Re-entry Experiment Vehicle - Alternate designation for OREX re-entry vehicle technology satellite.
Orbital Scanner - American navigation technology satellite. Study 1969. Status: Study 1969.
Orbital Sciences Corp - Third name of Germantown.
Orbital Sciences Corp. - Alternate name for OSC.
Orbital Star - Alternate designation for the Star bus.
Orbital star - Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-01-06. Last Launch: 2014-01-06. Number: 1 .
Orbital Technologies Corporation - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Orbital Technologies Corporation, USA.
Orbital Test Satellite - Alternate designation for OTS communications technology satellite.
Orbital Transfer Vehicle - Manufacturer's designation for OTV space tug.
Orbital Vehicle - Indian manned spacecraft. Design of an Indian manned spacecraft began in October 2006. Dependent on a full funding decision at the end of 2008, planned first flight of the two-man capsule atop a GSLV-II booster was 2015. This initial design was succeeded by a much larger design to be lofted by the GSLV-III launch vehicle. Status: Study 2008. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Orbital Vehicle 2008 - Alternate designation for Orbital Vehicle.
Orbital Vehicle 2015 - Alternate designation for Indian Manned Spacecraft.
Orbital Workshop - American manned space station. Study 1965. The Orbital Workshop (OWS) was a 1960's NASA program to create an embryonic space station in orbit using the spent S-IVB rocket stage of a Saturn IB. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 30,500 kg (67,200 lb).
Orbital-G - Orbital Sciences Corp., Germantown , USA
Orbital-M - Orbital Sciences Corp., McLean, USA
Orbitalnky Poyas - Orbital Belt - Alternate designation for OP manned space station.
Orbitec Methane Engine - Orbital Technologies Corporation LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Reaction control thruster. Tested 2005. Used vortex-cooled combustion process to eliminate combustion chamber heating. Status: Developed 2005-. Date: 2005-. Thrust: 133 N (29 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
Orbiter Docking System - Alternate name for EAL/ODS.
Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme UV Spectrometer - Alternate designation for ORFEUS ultraviolet astronomy satellite.
Orbiting Astronomical Observatory - Alternate designation for OAO visible astronomy satellite.
Orbiting Frog Otolith - Alternate designation for OFO biology satellite.
Orbiting Geophysical Laborator - Alternate name for OGO.
Orbiting Geophysical Laboratory - Alternate designation for OGO earth magnetosphere satellite.
Orbiting Picosat Launcher - Alternate name for OPAL.
Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio - Alternate designation for Oscar amateur radio communications satellite.
Orbiting Work Shop - Alternate designation for Skylab OWS manned space station module.
Orbus - Alternate designation for GbI BV-Plus.
Orbus 1 - CSD solid rocket engine. Starbird fourth stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Thrust: 88.00 kN (19,783 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Orbus 21 - Manufacturer's designation of SRM-1 Solid rocket engine.
Orbus 21D - Alternate designation for IUS-1 rocket stage.
Orbus 6 - Manufacturer's designation of SRM-2 Solid rocket engine.
Orbview - American civilian surveillance satellite. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-09-21. Last Launch: 2003-06-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 368 kg (811 lb).
Orbview-2 - American civilian surveillance satellite. The SeaStar satellite carries the SeaWiFS instrument which was designed to monitor the color of the world's oceans. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-08-01. Last Launch: 1997-08-01. Number: 1 .
ORD - US Army Ordnance Dept. HQ, White Sands Proving Ground
ORDCIT - Army Ordnance / California Institute of Technology. Originally part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory .
Ordzhonikidze - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1981, probably operating R-12 launchers. The division then moved to Barnaul. The base was used for deployment of two R-1/R-2 launchers in the 1950's.
Orel - In the late 1990's the Russian space industry undertook the Orel program to evaluate technology for future launch vehicles. The goals included evaluation of possible concepts for a future Russian launcher, reusable launch vehicle key technology research and analysis of "X-vehicle" flight demonstrators for technology validation. Status: Study 1999.
Orel V2 - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This preferred near-term configuration was a semi-reusable vertical takeoff/horizontal landing two stage launch vehicle. It would use a flyback booster, expendable second stage, and a small manned spaceplane. This was preferred to the Orel V3, which was essentially the earlier MMKS/OK-M1 system with a flyback booster, expendable core tank, and small spaceplane with recoverable main engines. Status: Study 1997. Gross mass: 550,000 kg (1,210,000 lb). Payload: 10,900 kg (24,000 lb). Thrust: 8,090.00 kN (1,818,700 lbf).
Orel V4 - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff, horizontal landing two stage to orbit concept. Abandoned in favor of Orel V6. Status: Study 1997. Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Orel V5 - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertically launched two stage to orbit concept consisting of horizontal landing booster, vertical landing orbiter. Abandoned in favor of Orel V6. Status: Study 1997. Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Orel V6 - Fully reusable vertical takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit launch vehicle. The preferred long-term alternative of the Russian Orel launch vehicle study of the 1990's. Status: Study 1997. Gross mass: 930,000 kg (2,050,000 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 12,000.00 kN (2,697,000 lbf).
Orel V7 RSSLV-2 - Russian VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff / vertical landing single stage to orbit. Concept abandoned in favor of Orel V6 by 1998 due to engine reliability concerns. Version with LOx/LH2 propellants. Status: Study 1997. Gross mass: 1,045,000 kg (2,303,000 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Orel V7 RSSLV-3 - Russian VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff / vertical landing single stage to orbit. Concept abandoned in favor of Orel V6 by 1998 due to engine reliability concerns. Tripropellant LOx/Kerosene (RG-1)/LH2 version. Status: Study 1997. Gross mass: 1,058,000 kg (2,332,000 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Oreol - Code name for DS-U2-GKA earth magnetosphere satellite.
Oreol-3 - Alternate designation for AUOS technology satellite.
Oreste - ATEF solid rocket engine. Monica I third stage. Status: Retired 1957. Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Propellants: Solid.
OREX - Japanese re-entry vehicle technology satellite. NASDA ballistic capsule used to test materials and acquire data related to atmospheric re-entry for use in design of Japanese HOPE spaceplane. Launch vehicle H-2. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-02-03. Last Launch: 1994-02-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb).
ORFEUS - American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. ORFEUS was a German astronomical satellite. It was deployed by the shuttle remote manipulating system arm and retrieved after six days of free flight. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-11-19. Last Launch: 1996-11-19. Number: 1 .
Orient Express - Alternate designation for X-30.
Oriflamme - French design for a scramjet-powered horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single stage to orbit vehicle. Status: Study 1990.
Original Nineteen - Alternate name for NASA Group 5 - 1966.
Original Seven - Alternate name for NASA Group 1 - 1959.
Orihime - Alternate name for ETS-7 Target.
Oriole - Astrotech solid rocket engine. Terrier Oriole second stage. Status: Active. Propellants: Solid.
Oriole IV - Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-02-07. Last Launch: 2015-01-28. Number: 2 .
Orion - Alternate designation for Orion Satellite Systems.
Orion - Alternate designation for Orion CEV.
Orion - Alternate designation for Orion engine.
Orion - Alternate designation for Hawk.
Orion - American manned spacecraft. In development. NASA's Crew Excursion Vehicle for the 21st Century Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-12-05. Last Launch: 2014-12-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 21,500 kg (47,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11,750 kg (25,900 lb). Thrust: 33.40 kN (7,509 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Orion - Alternate designation for Improved Orion-1 rocket stage.
Orion - Code name for Zenit-4MT military surveillance satellite.
Orion (Orion ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 36.
Orion (Orion) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 36.
Orion 38 - Manufacturer's designation of Pegasus-3 Solid rocket engine.
Orion 50 - Manufacturer's designation of Pegasus-2 Solid rocket engine.
Orion 50 - Hercules solid rocket engine family.
Orion 50S - Manufacturer's designation of Pegasus-1 Solid rocket engine.
Orion 50SG - Alternate name for Orion 50SXLG.
Orion 50SXL - Alternate name for Pegasus XL-1.
Orion 50SXLG - Hercules solid rocket engine. Status: Active. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Orion CEV - The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was NASA's manned spacecraft for the 21st Century, a throwback to the Apollo capsule, a shuttle replacement with an uncertain future. Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 23,153 kg (51,043 lb). Thrust: 66.60 kN (14,972 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
Orion CM - American manned spacecraft module. Orion re-entry vehicle (crew module). A 25% scale-up of the Apollo capsule of the 1960's. Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 9,742 kg (21,477 lb). Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). Propellants: Gox/GCH4.
Orion engine - Aerojet dual-thrust (boost-sustain) solid rocket engine, originally designed for the Hawk surface-to-air missile. Surplus motors were used in sounding rockets. Status: Active. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Unfuelled mass: 111 kg (244 lb). Thrust: 13.00 kN (2,922 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Orion Hot Rod - American nuclear pulse test vehicle. The modified test article for Project Orion had a total mass of 105 kg. The outer shell and upper shock absorber of the original design were deleted and a parachute recovery system added. Gross mass: 105 kg (231 lb).
Orion LAS - American manned spacecraft module. Orion launch abort system; consists of launch escape tower, adapter cone, and boost protective cover. Provides emergency crew escape during early boost phase of ascent to orbit. Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 6,176 kg (13,615 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,696 kg (8,148 lb). Thrust: 2,253.00 kN (506,494 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Orion Mars - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1968. Nuclear pulse spacecraft for manned mission to Mars. Status: Study 1968.
Orion Nuclear Pulse Vehicle - Nuclear-pulse drive launch vehicle seriously developed by General Atomics in the United States from 1955-1965. The design allowed vast payloads of hundreds of tons to be hurled to the planets. By 1958 the Orion team saw themselves in direct competition with Von Braun's chemical rockets. They hoped to a land a huge manned expedition on Mars by 1964 and tour the moons of Saturn by 1970. However politically NASA would not argue for the exception to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty necessary to allow firing of nuclear explosions in space.
Orion OLV - American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Nuclear-pulse drive launch vehicle seriously developed by General Atomics in the United States from 1955-1965. The design allowed vast payloads of hundreds of tons to be hurled to the planets. By 1958 the Orion team saw themselves in direct competition with Von Braun's chemical rockets. They hoped to a land a huge manned expedition on Mars by 1964 and tour the moons of Saturn by 1970. However politically NASA would not argue for the exception to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty necessary to allow firing of nuclear explosions in space. Status: Cancelled 1965.
Orion Planetary - American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The baseline planetary version of Orion would have launched from the earth's surface. It would have been bullet-shaped, 41 m in diameter and about 50 m high. Status: Design 1960. Gross mass: 10,000,000 kg (22,000,000 lb).
Orion Propulsion - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Orion Propulsion, USA.
Orion SA - American manned spacecraft module. Orion spacecraft adapter. Transition section between Service Module and Ares booster. Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 581 kg (1,280 lb).
Orion Satellite Systems - Orion Satellite Systems, USA. Domestic communications satellite network.
Orion Saturn V - American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The final iteration of the Orion design was a nuclear pulse propulsion module launched into earth orbit by a Saturn V. The 100 metric ton unit would have had a diameter of 10 m to match that of the booster. This would limit specific impulse to 1800 to 2500 seconds, still two to three times that of a nuclear thermal system. Status: Design 1965. Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Payload: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb).
Orion SM - American manned spacecraft module. Orion service module. Masses estimated based on delta-V released by NASA. Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 9,819 kg (21,647 lb). Unfuelled mass: 69 kg (152 lb). Thrust: 33.40 kN (7,509 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Orion sounding rocket - American sounding rocket. The Orion was a single stage, unguided, fin stabilized rocket system which used a surplus US Army Hawk surface-to-air-missile rocket motor having a dual thrust propellant grain. Three fins on the aft end of the motor were canted to roll the vehicle at four revolutions per second at burnout for stability. Improved performance could be obtained by using a Nike booster stage. Payload 38 kg to 88 km or 68 kg to 71 km. Status: Retired 2008. First Launch: 1974-05-29. Last Launch: 2008-06-27. Number: 69 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 7.00 kN (1,574 lbf).
Orion Starship - Ablative - American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The ablative version of Dyson's starship would be smaller and faster then the heat sink version. It would have a mass of 100,000 tons unloaded and be equipped with 300,000 one megaton bombs. Status: Design 1968. Gross mass: 500,000,000 kg (1,100,000,000 lb).
Orion Starship - Heat Sink - American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The heat sink version of Dyson's starship would have a pusher plate made of copper. This would require 5 million metric tons of exposed surface to absorb and then reradiate 1 megaton of bomb energy. The plate would have to be 20 km in diameter. Status: Design 1967. Gross mass: 40,000,000,000 kg (88,000,000,000 lb).
Orion Test Article - American nuclear pulse test vehicle. The original test article for Project Orion had a total mass of 133 kg including its bullet-shaped outer shell. Gross mass: 133 kg (293 lb).
Orion-1 - Alternate designation for Orion-1 engine.
Orion-1 - Argentinian sounding rocket. Technology test vehicle, used to verify rocket motor and technologies for Orion-2 sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1965-10-01. Last Launch: 1966-07-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Payload: 10 kg (22 lb).
Orion-1 engine - IIAE solid rocket engine. IIAE Orion first stage. Status: Retired 1966. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 55 kg (121 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Orion-2 - Alternate designation for Orion-2 engine.
Orion-2 - Argentinian sounding rocket. Single-stage solid-propellant sounding rocket first launched in 1965. The rocket could reach a top speed of 548 m/s. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1966-05-19. Last Launch: 1971-12-19. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Payload: 25 kg (55 lb).
Orion-2 engine - IIAE solid rocket engine. IIAE Orion second stage. Status: Retired 1973. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 115 kg (253 lb). Unfuelled mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Orizont - Romanian manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Aeronautics and Cosmonautics Romanian Association. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. Status: Study 2004. Gross mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb).
Orizuru - Alternate name for Debut.
Orlan - Alternate designation for Feitian.
Orlan - Russian space suit. The Orlan spacesuit was used for Russian EVA's on Salyut, Mir, and the International Space Station. It was designed by the Zvezda OKB, and derived from the Kretchet suit intended for use on the lunar surface. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1998-11-20. Last Launch: 1998-11-20. Number: 1 .
Orlana - Name of one Galileo Navsat.
Orlando - American manufacturer. Martin Orlando, Orlando, FL, USA.
Orlets - Sixth-generation reconnaissance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft is deorbited.
Orlets - Code name for Yantar-6K military surveillance satellite.
Orlets-1 - Russian military surveillance satellite. Multi-purpose satellite, designed for both close-look and survey missions, equipped with a panoramic camera, equipped with 8 film return capsules. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-07-18. Last Launch: 2006-09-14. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb).
Orlets-1 - Alternate designation for Yantar-4K1 military surveillance satellite.
Orlets-2 - Russian military surveillance satellite. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-10-22. Last Launch: 2000-09-25. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb).
ORM- - Rocket motor (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
ORS - Prototype optical surveillance satellite developed under the USAF Operationally Responsive Space program. Derived from Tacsat 3 Tacsat ORS bus. Objective was to deploy small satellites to support military operations on short notice.
ORS Tech - Cubesat; 3U technology demonstration satellites for USAF Operationally Responsive Space office developed by APL.
ORS-3 - The ORS-3 Minotaur final stage carried an experimental launch tracking system and a drag device to reduce the amount of time it spent in orbit. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-11-20. Last Launch: 2013-11-20. Number: 1 .
ORSES - 3U Cubesat ORS Enabler Satellite, a tactical communications satellite for the USAF Operationally Responsive Space office and the US Space and Missile Defense Command.
Orsted - Danish earth magnetosphere satellite. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-02-23. Last Launch: 1999-02-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 62 kg (136 lb).
ORUC - Version of the Spacelab Pallet that carries various technology and scientific instruments.
Oryel (Eagle ) - Alternate name for Vostok 2.
Oryel (Eagle) - Alternate designation for Vostok 2.
Oryol V3 - Alternate designation for OK-M1 manned spaceplane.
OS - Russian manned space station. Study 1960. In 1960 Korolev proposed a military orbital station (OS), with a crew of 3 to 5, orbiting at 350 to 400 km altitude. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb).
OS-1 (1965) - Russian manned space station. Reached mock-up stage, 1965. Status: Mock-up 1965. Gross mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb).
OS-1 (1969) - Russian manned space station. Study 1969. By 1969 the giant OS-1 space station had evolved to this configuration. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb).
OS-1 Lunar - Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1969. A version of the OS-1 station was proposed for use in lunar orbit. No other details beyond this sketch. Status: Study 1969.
OS-1962 - Russian manned space station. Study 1962. On 10 March 1962 Korolev approved the technical project "Complex docking of spacecraft in earth orbit - Soyuz". This contained the original Soyuz L1 circumlunar design. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 13,500 kg (29,700 lb).
OSC - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Orbital Sciences Corporation, USA.
OSC - First name of McLean.
Oscar - Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio, USA. Amateur radio satellite network. For over a half of a century a series of OSCAR satellites have been launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-12-12. Last Launch: 2009-12-15. Number: 28 .
Osi - German expert in rockets during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
OSK- - Optical orientation periscope (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
Osnabrueck - First Launch: 1931-04-15. Last Launch: 1931-04-15. Number: 1 .
OSO - American solar satellite. The Orbiting Solar Observatories, developed for NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, were designed primarily as stabilized platforms for solar-oriented scientific instruments. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-03-07. Last Launch: 1975-06-21. Number: 9 .
OSOAVIAKHIM - Russian manned balloon. Flown 1934. Status: Operational 1934.
OSS - Office of Space Science (OSS) experiment package carried on the STS-3 space shuttle. The payload measured (1) plasma, waves, and fields; (2) polarization in solar X-ray bursts; (3) solar flux in the wavelength range 120-400 nanometers; (4) electrical charging properties of the Orbiter vehicle; (5) thermal properties of the canister experiment; (6) optical properties of the Shuttle-induced atmosphere; and (7) micrometeorite impacts. Status: Operational 1981.
OSS-1 - Alternate name for STS-3.
OSSA - Abbreviation for Office of Space Sciences and Applications
OSSE - Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (on CGRO)
OSSI - Cubesat developed by a Korean artist.
OST - Abbreviation for Quality Assurance System
OSTA - Office of Space and Terrestrial Application payload, carried on the early space shuttle missions on the SLP platform. The instruments were designed to perform remote sensing of the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land resources. During its time in orbit, the Shuttle assumed an earth-viewing orientation to accommodate the experiments of the OSTA payload.
OSTA-1 - Alternate name for STS-2.
OSTA-3 - Alternate name for STS-41-G.
Ostashev - Russian officer. First Directorate Chief of Baikonur 1956-1960. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe. Born: 1924-03-22. Died: 1960-10-24.
Ostrander - American USAF officer, director of NASA launch vehicle programs and Saturn project, 1959-1961; vice commander USAF BMD 1961-1965. He left NASA after von Braun threatened to resign over Ostrander's demands that unproven USAF-developed Centaur electronics be used in the Saturn I booster in place of those designed by Walter Haeusserman of the von Braun team. Born: 1914. Died: 1972-10-26.
Osumi - Japanese technology satellite. Ohsumi 5. Engineering test for the launching of scientific satellites. Injection point 29.7 N, 145.8 E. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-02-11. Last Launch: 1970-02-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
Oswald - American test pilot astronaut 1985-2000. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2000. Born: 1951-06-30. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 33.94 days.
OTA - Office of Technology Assessment; or Optical Telescope Assembly (on Hubble Space Telescope)
OTDA - Abbreviation for Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition
OTHB - Abbreviation for Over The Horizon Backscatter
OTK - Special Technical Commission (Russian abbreviation)
OTO Melera - Italian manufacturer. OTO Melera, Italy.
Otovyannaya - Alternate name for Yasnaya/Oloynyaya.
OTR - Alternate name for Overberg.
OTR- - Mobile rocket (Russian abbreviation)
OTR-21 - Alternate designation for 9K714B.
OTR-21 - Alternate designation for Tochka.
OTR-21 - Alternate designation for Tochka-U.
OTR-22 - Alternate designation for 9K76B.
OTR-22 - Alternate designation for 9K76.
OTR-23 - Alternate designation for Oka.
Otrag - Alternate designation for Otrag CPRU.
Otrag - Orbital Transport-und-Raketen Aktiengesellschaft, Germany. Manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. $200 million was spent from 1975-1987 by Lutz Kayser in a serious attempt to develop a low-cost satellite launcher using clusters of mass-produced pressure-fed liquid propellant modules. The project was finally squelched by the German government under pressure from the Soviet and French. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1977-05-18. Last Launch: 1983-09-19. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 1,170.00 kN (263,020 lbf).
Otrag CPRU - N2O4/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Clustered to form Otrag launch vehicles. Pressure-fed, using cheapest possible propellants. Status: Retired 1983. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 26.96 kN (6,061 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Kerosene.
OTRAG Libya - Alternate name for Tawiwa launch site.
OTRAG Zaire - Alternate name for Kapani Tonneo launch site.
OTS - European communications technology satellite. Study 1978. Communications experiments satellite of the European Space Agency. Status: Study 1978. Gross mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb).
OTS - European Orbital Test Satellite using the ECS/OTS bus.
Otsek komponentov dozapravki - Alternate designation for Progress OKD.
Otsek komponentov dozapravki - Russian name (component module) for Progress M OKD manned spacecraft module.
Ottobrunn - German manufacturer of rocket engines. Ottobrunn, Germany.
Ottobrunn 300N - Ottobrunn LOx/LH2 rocket engine. 300 N. Upper stages. Developed 2000.- highest value ever achieved in Europe for an engine of such small size. Status: Developed 2000. Thrust: 300.00 kN (67,440 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
OTV - American space tug. Studied 1985-1989. The Orbital Transfer Vehicle was reusable space tug, powered by LOx/LH2 engines and equipped with an aerobrake allowing it to be returned for refueling and reuse at an orbiting space station. Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 37,550 kg (82,780 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,990 kg (8,790 lb). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
OTV - Alternate name for X-37.
Ouna - The Ouna (VRAD) subsatellite was released from Kaguya into a 127 km x 795 km lunar orbit at 04:28 GMT on 12 October 2007.
Outer planets - Category of spacecraft.
outgassing - The emanation of gas from a material. This process is usually enhanced in vacuum.
Outpost - American manned space station. Study 1958. In 1958, the year after Sputnik 1, Krafft Ehricke, then with General Dynamics' Convair Division, designed a four-man space station known as Outpost. Status: Study 1958.
Outpost on the Moon - American manned lunar base. Study 1987. Former astronaut Sally Ride was asked to head a task force to formulate a new NASA strategic plan in August 1986. Status: Study 1987.
Outpost Tavern - This low-rent bar was the astronaut hangout in Houston. It was just a shack with an unpaved parking lot, filthy inside, but covered with astronaut photos and a place that preserved their privacy. The owner died in 1995, before seeing the place semi-immortalized as a backdrop in the films Space Cowboys and Rocketman. The place was "improved" under new management, but retained its filthy interior and decor.
Ouyang Ziyuan - Chinese geochemist. Leading Chinese authority on extraterrestrial material.
OV - Abbreviation for Orbital Vehicle
OV-099 - Manufacturer's designation for Challenger manned spaceplane.
OV1 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-01-21. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 27 . Gross mass: 555 kg (1,223 lb). Payload: 36 kg (79 lb).
OV-101 - Manufacturer's designation for Enterprise manned spaceplane.
OV-102 - Manufacturer's designation for Columbia manned spaceplane.
OV-103 - Manufacturer's designation for Discovery manned spaceplane.
OV-104 - Manufacturer's designation for Atlantis manned spaceplane.
OV-105 - Manufacturer's designation for Endeavour manned spaceplane.
OV2 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. OV2 satellites were built for the USAF Office of Aerospace Research, and flew as secondary payloads on Titan IIIC test flights. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-10-15. Last Launch: 1968-09-26. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 189 kg (416 lb).
OV3 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. The OV3 GUS General Utility Satellite were built for the Air Force as part of the OV3 satellite series. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-04-22. Last Launch: 1967-12-05. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb).
OV4 - American technology satellite. Whispering gallery experiments. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-11-03. Last Launch: 1966-11-03. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 109 kg (240 lb).
OV5 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. OV5 was a version of the USAF Environmental Research Satellites dedicated to radiation research and VLF plasma wave detection. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-04-28. Last Launch: 1969-05-23. Number: 8 .
Ovchinin - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, 70th Seregina Special Flight Test Regiment RGNIITsPK Status: Active 2006-on. Born: 1971-09-28.
Overberg - The Overberg Test Range (OTR) was developed by the Houwteq organization in the 1980's as part of South Africa's ballistic missile and R5b space program. It was located at the southernmost tip of Africa on the south-eastern coast of the Western Cape at Latitude 34 deg 35 min S and Longitude 20 deg 19 min E. The facility had a total area of 43,000 hectares. First Launch: 1989-07-06. Last Launch: 1990-11-19. Number: 2 .
Overhage - American physicist, director of Lincoln Laboratories 1957-1964. Born: 1910-04-02. Died: 1995-08-07.
Overmyer - American test pilot astronaut 1966-1986. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1986. Born: 1936-07-14. Died: 1996-03-23. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 12.10 days.
Owl - American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1967.05.18 (Transit 16) to 1967.09.25 (Transit 17). Status: Operational 1967. Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb).
OWN - Orbital Workshop (Skylab space station) .
OWS - Orbital Workshop
oxidizer - A substance that combines with another to produce heat and, in a rocket, hot gases of combustion thrust.
OXM - Abbreviation for Oxamide
Ozon (Ozone ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-12.
Ozon (Ozone) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-12.

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