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Lavochkin bureau
Russian manufacturer of aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft, Moscow, Russia.

AKA: Lavochkin;OKB-301. Location: Moscow.

OKB-301 was founded in 1937 as OKB-301. Under Chief Designer Lavochkin the bureau built thousands of fighters during World War II. It was less successful in getting any of its post-war jet-engined prototypes into production. In any case the bureau had begun to concentrate on development of surface-to-air missiles. The development began with a copy of the German Wasserfall, the R-101. Lavochkin subsequently developed the S-25 system (SA-1) for the air defense of Moscow - the Soviet Union's first operational surface-to-air missile.

In 1953 SAM activities were spun off to a new design bureau under Grushin, Lavochkin's deputy. OKB-301 was given responsibility for development of the Burya trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. This, like the American Navaho, was considered at the time an obviously better technical solution than the untried intercontinental ballistic missile. Burya was flight tested successfully in 1957-1959 but not put into production due to the superiority of the less-costly invulnerable intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Lavochkin died in 1960 at a time when the bureau had basically no projects left on its table. The bureau was dissolved and its staff and facilities taken over by Chelomei's OKB-52 in December 1962. However following the overthrow of Khrushchev, Chelomei's patron, Korolev managed to have the bureau resurrected in 1965 with the objective of handling further development of automated lunar and interplanetary probes. Under the supervision of Chief Designer Babakin, the bureau developed the unmanned spacecraft that returned soil from the moon, placed the Lunokhod rover on the lunar surface, and landed probes on the surfaces of Mars and Venus. Later the bureau expanded its scope to develop third generation Soviet communications and reconnaissance satellites.



Country: Russia. Spacecraft: Navigator bus, Venera 3MV-1A, Venera 3MV-1, Venera 3MV-4, Venera 3MV-3, Venera 1V (V-67), Venera 2V (V-69), Mars 5NM, Luna Ye-8, Mars M-69, Luna Ye-8-5, Venera 3V (V-70), Mars M-71, Luna Ye-8-LS, DLB Beacon Lander, Venera 3V (V-72), Prognoz, Oko, Mars M-73, Luna Ye-8-5M, Venera 4V-1, Prognoz SPRN, Mars 5M, Astron, Venera 4V-2, Vega 5VK, Vega 5VS, Fobos 1F, Granat, Zerkalo, Ekol, Nord satellite, Tekos, Geostar-MSS, Tyulpan Comsat, Prognoz-M, Mars M1, Arkon-1, Kupon, IRDT, Monitor. Launch Vehicles: R-117, Dal, Burya La-350, Dal-2, Dal-M.

1900 September 11 - .
  • Birth of Semyon Alekseyevich Lavochkin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lavochkin bureau. Russian chief designer. Chief Designer of OKB-301 1937-1960.

1997 January 10 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Oko launch abort - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Oko launch aborted at moment of engine ignition. Spacecraft was intended to cover Oko constellation planes 8/9 - 209 degree longitude of ascending node..

1997 April 9 - . 08:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2340 - . Payload: Oko #77. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 24761 . COSPAR: 1997-015A. Apogee: 37,201 km (23,115 mi). Perigee: 3,164 km (1,966 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Covered Oko constellation planes 8/9 - 217 degree longitude of ascending node..

1997 May 14 - . 00:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2342 - . Payload: Oko #78. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 24800 . COSPAR: 1997-022A. Apogee: 37,820 km (23,500 mi). Perigee: 2,584 km (1,605 mi). Inclination: 66.7000 deg. Period: 718.80 min. Covered Oko constellation planes 6/7 - 129 degree longitude of ascending node..

1997 June 6 - . 16:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/17S40.
  • Cosmos 2344 - . Payload: Arkon-1 s/n 1. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Arkon-1. USAF Sat Cat: 24827 . COSPAR: 1997-028A. Apogee: 2,739 km (1,701 mi). Perigee: 1,502 km (933 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 130.00 min. First launch in a new series of electro-optical military reconnaisance satellites. .

1997 August 14 - . 20:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2345 - . Payload: SPRN No. 8. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1999-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 24894 . COSPAR: 1997-041A. Apogee: 36,504 km (22,682 mi). Perigee: 35,134 km (21,831 mi). Inclination: 2.6000 deg. Period: 1,437.80 min.

    Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 23 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 142.44 deg E drifting at 0.028 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 66.03W drifting at 0.329E degrees per day.


1997 November 12 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Kupon - . Payload: Kupon K95K. Nation: Russia. Agency: TsBank. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: Kupon. Completed Operations Date: 1998-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 25045 . COSPAR: 1997-070A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,435.50 min.

    Geosynchronous. Kupon is the first communications satellite for the Russian banking system, and the first commercial communications satellite sold by the Lavochkin, who have in the past been more commonly associated with planetary probes and early warning satellites. Kupon, owned by the Russian Federation Central Bank (and possibly Global Information Systems of Moscow), relays financial data for the Bankir network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 55 deg E in 1997-1998 As of 1 September 2001 located at 86.25 deg E drifting at 0.142 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 78.29E drifting at 0.156E degrees per day.


1998 April 29 - . 04:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2350 - . Payload: SPRN Generation 2 No. 4. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1998-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 25315 . COSPAR: 1998-025A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 2.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Geostationary at 73.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1998 As of 3 September 2001 located at 72.67 deg E drifting at 0.041 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 70.07E drifting at 0.036W degrees per day..

1998 May 7 - . 08:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2351 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 25327 . COSPAR: 1998-027A. Apogee: 37,513 km (23,309 mi). Perigee: 2,806 km (1,743 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 717.10 min.

1999 December 27 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2368 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 26042 . COSPAR: 1999-073A. Apogee: 38,751 km (24,078 mi). Perigee: 1,603 km (996 mi). Inclination: 63.2000 deg. Period: 717.80 min.

    Early warning satellite, carrying a large telescope to monitor missile launches. The payload and fourth stage were placed in an initial 229 km x 523 km x 62.8 deg orbit; the fourth stage (Block-2BL) fired over South America on the first orbit and delivered the payload to its 12-hour final orbit.


2000 February 8 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • IRDT - . Mass: 110 kg (240 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Technology. Type: Re-entry test vehicle. Spacecraft Bus: Rescue. Spacecraft: IRDT. COSPAR: 2000-009x. Apogee: 613 km (381 mi). Perigee: 580 km (361 mi). Inclination: 64.8545 deg. Period: 96.53 min.

    After four orbits around the Earth the test vehicle was powered by the launcherís upper stage to re-enter the atmosphere for a landing about 1800 km northwest of the launch site. The heat shield was inflated and the IRDT separated from the upper stage. It then passed through the upper atmospheric layers that imposed the highest dynamic pressure, heat flux and acceleration loads onto the system. The IRDT landed inside the predicted area at 54 deg E and 51 deg N near the Kazakhstan border. Unfortunately, a tear occurred in the inflatable shield during descent resulting in a higher velocity and a heavier than expected impact on landing, resulting in some damage to the lower part of the IRDT. The IRDT was collected by helicopter so that the memory unit of the sensor package, with all recorded data, could be analysed. An initial data check confirmed that all experiments in the sensor package worked perfectly.

  • Dummy satellite - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Starsem. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 26086 . COSPAR: 2000-009A. Apogee: 613 km (381 mi). Perigee: 580 km (361 mi). Inclination: 64.8545 deg. Period: 96.53 min. .

2001 August 24 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2379 - . Payload: SPRN No. 9. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. USAF Sat Cat: 26892 . COSPAR: 2001-037A. Apogee: 35,810 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 1.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Launch delayed from August 23. Early-warning geosynchronous satellite. The Proton upper stage entered a geostationary transfer orbit after its first burn at 2152 GMT. A second burn was at 0310 GMT put the payload into its operational orbit. It was to provide early warning of missiles launched from the United States with the help of a heat-sensing array of detectors. According to the Moscow Kommersant newspaper, these early warning geosynchronous satellites belong to the US-KMO group, also known as Prognoz fleet, while the highly elliptical complement belongs to the US-KS group, also known as Oko fleet, both supplemented by about eight ground-based radars. As of 6 September 2001 located at 80.17 deg E drifting at 0.031 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 23.84W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.


2002 April 1 - . 22:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2388 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2011-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 27409 . COSPAR: 2002-017A. Apogee: 39,178 km (24,344 mi). Perigee: 519 km (322 mi). Inclination: 62.9300 deg.

    The Blok-I upper stage and Oko satellite were placed in a 231 x 490 km x 62.8 deg parking orbit. Following the stage burn the Lavochkin US-KS (Oko) elliptical orbit early warning satellite built by Lavochkin was not tracked immediately, but later was reported to be in the correct standard orbit.


2002 December 24 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2393 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2013-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 27613 . COSPAR: 2002-059A. Apogee: 39,722 km (24,682 mi). Perigee: 542 km (336 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 716.00 min. Launch delayed from September, then October 22..

2003 April 24 - . 04:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2397 - . Payload: US-KMO (Prognoz 2). Mass: 2,155 kg (4,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. USAF Sat Cat: 27775 . COSPAR: 2003-015A. Apogee: 35,928 km (22,324 mi). Perigee: 35,886 km (22,298 mi). Inclination: 2.2000 deg. Period: 1,442.30 min. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 60.65W drifting at 0.723E degrees per day..

2004 February 18 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-1T - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 2016-04-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 28163 . COSPAR: 2004-005A. Apogee: 39,708 km (24,673 mi). Perigee: 650 km (400 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Launched during a nationwide military exercise. Original name Cosmos 2405..

2005 June 21 - . 19:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-496. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Cosmos 1 - . Payload: Solnechny Parus. Mass: 103 kg (227 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Planetary Society. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus.

    Launched from SSBN Borisoglebsk. First orbital flight attempt of converted SLBM. Payload was solar sail demonstrator. Delayed from late 2001; March 20 and October 2002; late March, August 28 and October, 2003; February, March, April 6, May 20 and 31, 2005.


2006 July 21 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2422 - . Mass: 1,750 kg (3,850 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 29260 . COSPAR: 2006-030A. Apogee: 39,741 km (24,693 mi). Perigee: 616 km (382 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Missile early warning satellite.

2007 October 23 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2430 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 32268 . COSPAR: 2007-049A. Apogee: 39,175 km (24,342 mi). Perigee: 520 km (320 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 704.50 min. Missile early warning satellite.


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