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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: V

V- - Revenge weapon (German designation series); or V, volts.
V G Stepanov - First name of Stepanov Design Bureau.
V N Chelomei - First name of Chelomei bureau.
V P Glushko - First name of Glushko bureau.
V(1D) - Alternate designation for S-75.
V/STOL - Vertical or short takeoff and landing aircraft
V-1 - First significant cruise missile. German engineer, Paul Schmidt, working from the design of the Lorin tube, developed and patented a pulsed ramjet engine later modified and used in the V-1 Flying Bomb. After World War II the design was copied and further developed in both the United States and Soviet Union. But in both countries it was quickly superseded by higher performing missiles using turbojets. Status: Retired 1945.
V-1000 - Russian anti-ballistic missile. First Soviet anti-ballistic missile system. Development began in 1956 and the system was tested at Sary Shagan 1960 to 1961. It was clear that enormous development work was needed to achieve an operational anti-ballistic missile system. Therefore work began on the successor A-35 system, although the Americans were led to believe that an operational system was deployed around Moscow. The System A anti-ballistic missile equipped with the V-1000 rocket made the first intercept and destruction in the world using a conventional warhead of an intermediate range ballistic missile warhead coming in at 3 km/s on 4 May 1961. The US did not demonstrate an equivalent capability until 1984. Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1958-10-16. Last Launch: 1962-11-01. Number: 37 . Gross mass: 8,800 kg (19,400 lb). Propellants: Solid.
V-1000-0 - Alternate name for PRD-33.
V-1000-1 - Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage Status: Retired 1973. Thrust: 103.00 kN (23,155 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
V-11A - Alternate designation for R-11A.
V-2 - The V-2 ballistic missile (known to its designers as the A4) was the world's first operational liquid fuel rocket. It represented an enormous quantum leap in technology, financed by Nazi Germany in a huge development program that cost at least $ 2 billion in 1944 dollars. 6,084 V-2 missiles were built, 95% of them by 20,000 slave laborers in the last seven months of World War II at a unit price of $ 17,877. As many as 3,225 were launched in combat, primarily against Antwerp and London, and a further 1,000 to 1,750 were fired in tests and training. Despite the scale of this effort, the inaccurate missile did not change the course of the war and proved to be an enormous waste of resources. The British, Americans, and Russians launched a further 86 captured German V-2's in 1945-1952. Personnel and technology from the V-2 program formed the starting point for post-war rocketry development in America, Russia, and France. The A1, A2, A3, and A5 were steps in the development of the missile. Later versions - the A6 through A12 - were planned to take the Third Reich to the planets. Status: Retired 1952. First Launch: 1943-04-03. Last Launch: 1952-09-19. Number: 1195 . Gross mass: 12,805 kg (28,230 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,008 kg (8,836 lb). Thrust: 264.90 kN (59,552 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
V-2 Battery 444 - V-2 battery 444 was assigned to the northern group of V-2 mobile launchers and began operations on 31 August 1944, with the first successful launch on 2 September 1944. V-2 Gruppe Nord launchers were distributed along the English Channel, in a restricted zone north and south of The Hague, which included Hoek den Holland, Den Haag, and Wassenaar, all used for launches against London. On 28 January 1945 Battery 444 moved to Burgsteinfurt in the southern group of V-2 launchers, and continued operations with launches against Antwerp and Lille. First Launch: 1944-09-06. Last Launch: 1945-03-01. Number: 116 .
V-2 Battery 485 - V-2 batteries 1./485, 2./485 and 3./485 were assigned to the northern group of V-2 mobile launchers around the Hague and began operations on 3 September 1944, with the first successful launch on 8 September 1944. In late October 1944 3./485 was moved to Burgsteinfurt, and conducted operations from the southern group with launches against Antwerp and Lille. All units of battery 485 ended operations in the face of allied advances in the last days of March 1945. First Launch: 1944-09-08. Last Launch: 1945-03-28. Number: 667 .
V-2 Battery 836 - V-2 batteries 1./ 836, 2./836, and 3./836 were part of the southern group of V-2 mobile launchers based in the Ardennes forest and kept a constant barrage against Paris, Lille, and other French towns for three weeks from 10 September 1944. Focus then shifted to the Allied port facilities at Antwerp from 19 October until the end of March 1945. After retreating farther into Germany, on 8 April the battery destroyed its rockets and launching equipment and ceased to exist. First Launch: 1944-09-15. Last Launch: 1945-03-16. Number: 262 .
V-2 Battery SS Abt 500 - V-2 Battery SS Abt 500 was first assigned to the southern group of V-2 mobile launchers and began operations near Breitenfurt on 10 October 1944. Just over a month later it was moved to the northern group near the Hague. It operated from various locations there until forced cease operations and retreat before the Allied advance on 28 March 1945. First Launch: 1944-11-16. Last Launch: 1945-03-27. Number: 188 .
V-2 Gruppe Nord - The northern group of V-2 mobile launchers began operations on 31 August 1944, with the first successful launch on 2 September 1944. Batteries assigned to Gruppe Nord included 444, 1./485, 2./485, and SS Battery 500. V-2 Gruppe Nord launchers were distributed along the English Channel, in a restricted zone north and south of The Hague, which included Hoek den Holland, Den Haag, and Wassenaar, all used for launches against London; Zwolle-Hellendoorn-Enchede, used for launches by SS 500 against Antwerp; and Burgsteinfurt, used for launches against Antwerp and Lille.
V-2 Gruppe Sued - The southern group of V-2 mobile launchers saw a few initial launches by Battery 444 from the Ardennes forest against Paris beginning on 6 September, 1944. 444 moved on to Holland on the 10 September. Thereafter the batteries 1./ 836, 2./836, and 3./836 deployed and kept a constant barrage against Paris, Lille, and other French towns for three weeks. Focus then shifted to the Allied port facilities at Antwerp from 19 October until the end of the war.
V-2 VTOHL - Chinese winged orbital launch vehicle. The V-2 vertical takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage reusable space shuttle was proposed by Beijing Department 11 of the Air Ministry in 1988. The first stage would use liquid oxygen/kerosene engines, while the second would use liquid oxygen/hydrogen engines. Both stages would be winged, and first flight would be no earlier than 2015. Status: Design 1988. Gross mass: 330,000 kg (720,000 lb). Payload: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 2,400.00 kN (539,500 lbf).
V-3 - German gun-launched missile. The V-3 Hochdruckpumpe (aka HDP, 'Fleissiges Lieschen'; 'Tausend Fussler') was a supergun designed by Saar Roechling during World War II. The 140 m long cannon was capable of delivering a 140 kg shell over a 165 km range. Construction began of a bunker for the cannons in September 1943 at Mimoyecques, France. The site was damaged by Allied bombing before it could be put into operation and was finally occupied by the British at the end of August 1944. Two short-length (45 m long) V-3's were built at Antwerp and Luxembourg in support of the Ardennes offensive in December 1944. These were found to be unreliable and only a few shots were fired without known effect. Status: Cancelled 1944. Payload: 140 kg (300 lb).
V-300 - Alternate designation for S-25.
V-400 - Alternate designation for Dal.
V-420 - Alternate designation for Dal-M.
V-500 - Alternate designation for S-300P.
V-500 - Alternate designation for Dal-2.
V-5A - Alternate designation for R-5A.
V-5V - Alternate designation for R-5V.
V-750 - Alternate designation for S-75.
V-750M - Alternate designation for S-75M.
V-753 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the SA-2 Guideline. Installed on the test cruiser Dzerzhinsky 1958-1982. Not adopted for fleet use due to the missile's liquid propellants, but exploited for its unique capability, including ability to intercept targets travelling at up to 2300 kph Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Payload: 130 kg (280 lb).
V-758 - Alternate designation for 22D.
V-825 - Alternate designation for S-225.
V-825 - Alternate designation for PRS-1 5Ya26.
V-825 - NEW Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1967-07-27. Last Launch: 1977-07-28. Number: 5 .
V-825-0 - Rocket stage used on S-225 missile. Status: Retired 1977. Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb).
V-825-1 - Rocket stage used on S-225 missile. Status: Retired 1977. Gross mass: 3,900 kg (8,500 lb).
V-860 - Alternate designation for S-200.
V-860P - Russian surface-to-air missile.
V-860PV - Russian surface-to-air missile. Payload: 217 kg (478 lb).
V-870 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Payload: 217 kg (478 lb).
V-880 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Payload: 217 kg (478 lb).
V-880E - Russian surface-to-air missile. Export version. Payload: 217 kg (478 lb).
V-880M - Russian surface-to-air missile. Fakel-designed missile; not widely exported until 1980s.
V-880N - Russian surface-to-air missile.
VA - Re-entry capsule (Russian abbreviations)
VAB - Vehicle Assembly Building (formerly Vertical Assembly Building)
VAFB - Abbreviation for Vandenberg Air Force Base
Vagner - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2010- Status: Active 2010-on. Born: 1985-10-07.
Valga - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-on. Perhaps operated R-12 missile.
Valier - German Austrian engineer and early advocate of the use of rockets for flight. Opel supported Valier's original rocket car tests as publicity. He dreamed of rocket-propelled transatlantic aircraft and later became Opel's competitor. Valier died in a careless accident in 1932, in his laboratory in Berlin, when working on a rocket combustion chamber. It exploded and a small metal fragment hit his pulmonary artery. Born: 1895-02-09. Died: 1930-05-17.
Valier-Oberth Moon Gun - German gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. In 1926 rocket pioneers Max Valier and Hermann Oberth, members of the VfR (Society for Space Travel), amused themselves by designing a gun that would rectify Verne's technical mistakes and be actually capable of firing a projectile to the moon. Status: Design 1926.
Valkov - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1997-2012. Graduated from Barnaul Higher Military Air School of Pilots, 1994 Russian Air Force. Cosmonaut training completed November 19, 1999. Status: Inactive; Active 1997-2012. Born: 1971-11-11.
Valley Forge - American manufacturer. Valley Forge, USA.
Van Allen - American astrophysicist; his experiment carried aboard the first American satellite established the existence of radiation belts that encircled the Earth; also very active in sounding rocket experiments. Born: 1914-09-07. Died: 2006-08-09.
van den Berg, Lodewijk - Dutch-American physicist payload specialist astronaut 1983-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1983-1985. Born: 1932-03-24. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.01 days.
van Hoften - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1978-1986. Grew up in Burlingame, California. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1986. Born: 1944-06-11. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 14.08 days.
Van Horn - American manager. Program Director for the Atlas Weapon System. Manager of Long Range Planning in the Atlas production program. Later Vice President and Program Director for the Atlas Weapon System. Born: 1931-05-24. Died: 1997-11-12.
Vance - American politician, long career as a senior government official in various Democratic administrations. Born: 1917-03-27. Died: 2002-01-12.
Vandal - Alternate designation for MQM-8G.
Vandal - Alternate designation for XBQM-8F.
Vande Hei - American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1966-11-10.
Vandenberg - Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. First Launch: 1958-12-16. Last Launch: 2014-08-13. Number: 1952 .
Vandenberg 395-A1 - Titan launch silo. First Launch: 1961-09-23. Last Launch: 1964-12-08. Number: 11 .
Vandenberg 395-A2 - Titan launch silo. First Launch: 1963-03-30. Last Launch: 1965-03-05. Number: 4 .
Vandenberg 395-A3 - Titan launch silo. First Launch: 1962-01-21. Last Launch: 1965-01-14. Number: 4 .
Vandenberg 395-B - Titan launch silo. First Launch: 1964-02-17. Last Launch: 1969-05-20. Number: 16 .
Vandenberg 395-C - Titan launch silo. First Launch: 1963-02-16. Last Launch: 1976-06-28. Number: 31 .
Vandenberg 395-D - Titan launch silo. First Launch: 1963-05-13. Last Launch: 1966-04-05. Number: 11 .
Vandenberg 4300C - Sergeant, Scout launch complex. Complex First Launch: 1963-12-17. Last Launch: 1967-01-11. Number: 2 .
Vandenberg 576A1 - Atlas launch complex. Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad, dedicated to ABM target payloads for Nike Zeus at Kwajalein. Upgraded for use as ABRES re-entry vehicle test program pad in 1965, and for BMRS program in 1971. First Launch: 1962-10-26. Last Launch: 1974-09-08. Number: 36 .
Vandenberg 576A2 - Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad. Upgraded for use as ABRES re-entry vehicle test program pad in 1965, and for BMRS program in 1971. First Launch: 1959-09-09. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 14 .
Vandenberg 576A3 - Atlas, AMROC launch complex. Originally an Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad. Upgraded for use as ABRES pad in 1965, and for BMRS program in 1971. First Launch: 1960-01-26. Last Launch: 1989-10-05. Number: 34 .
Vandenberg 576B1 - Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad. Upgraded for use as ABRES pad in 1965. First Launch: 1960-07-22. Last Launch: 1966-06-10. Number: 13 .
Vandenberg 576B2 - Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad. Upgraded for use as ABRES pad in 1965. First Launch: 1960-04-22. Last Launch: 1967-11-07. Number: 27 .
Vandenberg 576B3 - Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad. Upgraded for use as ABRES pad in 1965. First Launch: 1960-09-12. Last Launch: 1967-10-11. Number: 22 .
Vandenberg 576C - Atlas launch complex. Complex First Launch: 1963-07-03. Last Launch: 1963-09-25. Number: 3 .
Vandenberg 576D - Atlas launch complex. Complex First Launch: 1963-03-16. Last Launch: 1964-08-31. Number: 2 .
Vandenberg 576E - Taurus, Pegasus, Atlas, OBV launch complex. Complex First Launch: 1962-08-01. Last Launch: 2011-03-04. Number: 14 .
Vandenberg BOM1 - Bomarc launch complex. Consisted of Bomarc Complex 1 and 2. First Launch: 1966-08-25. Last Launch: 1982-07-14. Number: 87 .
Vandenberg BOM2 -
Vandenberg HP-06 - HP-06 GLCM launcher First Launch: 1985-10-22. Last Launch: 1985-10-22. Number: 1 .
Vandenberg LC-A - Scout, Javelin, Honest John, Black Brant, Astrobee, Asp, Seagull, Journeyman, Dac Roc launch complex. Launch Complex A, Naval Missile Facility, Point Arguello First Launch: 1959-07-14. Last Launch: 1966-03-25. Number: 39 .
Vandenberg LC-B - Viper, Terrier, Hopi, Deacon, Cajun, Astrobee launch complex. Launch Complex B, Naval Missile Facility, Point Arguello First Launch: 1960-02-04. Last Launch: 1963-05-11. Number: 23 .
Vandenberg LE-8 - Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS IRBM pad. Upgraded for use as a launch emplacement in 1961.
Vandenberg LF02 - Minuteman, Peacekeeper launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964, and later again modified to launch the Peacekeeper. First Launch: 1963-04-12. Last Launch: 2003-03-12. Number: 76 .
Vandenberg LF03 - Minuteman, Minotaur launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964, and later again modified to launch the Minotaur. First Launch: 1963-04-30. Last Launch: 2001-07-15. Number: 96 .
Vandenberg LF04 - Minuteman launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964. First Launch: 1962-09-28. Last Launch: 2013-12-17. Number: 91 .
Vandenberg LF05 - Minuteman, Peacekeeper launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964. First Launch: 1962-12-10. Last Launch: 2004-07-21. Number: 60 .
Vandenberg LF06 - Minuteman, Minotaur launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964, and later again modified to launch the Peacekeeper. First Launch: 1963-04-11. Last Launch: 2008-09-24. Number: 85 .
Vandenberg LF07 - Minuteman launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964. First Launch: 1963-05-24. Last Launch: 1987-11-10. Number: 64 .
Vandenberg LF08 - Minuteman, Peacekeeper, Astrid launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964, and later again modified to launch the Peacekeeper. First Launch: 1963-09-26. Last Launch: 1991-06-11. Number: 66 .
Vandenberg LF09 - Minuteman launch complex. First Launch: 1964-06-29. Last Launch: 2013-09-26. Number: 97 .
Vandenberg LF10 - Minuteman launch complex. First Launch: 1987-07-12. Last Launch: 2013-09-22. Number: 23 .
Vandenberg LF21 - Minuteman, Orbus launch complex. First Launch: 1965-08-18. Last Launch: 2004-01-09. Number: 34 .
Vandenberg LF22 - Minuteman launch complex. First Launch: 1965-10-06. Last Launch: 1975-12-17. Number: 18 .
Vandenberg LF23 - Minuteman, OBV launch complex. First Launch: 1966-08-26. Last Launch: 2014-06-22. Number: 11 .
Vandenberg LF24 - Minuteman launch complex. First Launch: 1965-12-16. Last Launch: 2010-06-06. Number: 14 .
Vandenberg LF25 - Minuteman launch complex. First Launch: 1966-02-16. Last Launch: 1976-03-04. Number: 22 .
Vandenberg LF26 - Minuteman launch complex. First Launch: 1966-01-18. Last Launch: 2006-04-07. Number: 66 .
Vandenberg LF7632 - R-17 launch complex. First Launch: 2002-11-14. Last Launch: 2002-11-25. Number: 2 .
Vandenberg OSTF - Titan launch silo. Operational Silo Test Facility First Launch: 1960-12-04. Last Launch: 1960-12-04. Number: 1 .
Vandenberg OSTF1 - Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas Operational Silo Test Facility. Upgraded to a 576 SMS launch pad in 1963. First Launch: 1961-06-07. Last Launch: 1964-08-27. Number: 10 .
Vandenberg OSTF2 - Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas Operational Silo Test Facility. Upgraded to a 576 SMS launch pad in 1963. First Launch: 1962-08-10. Last Launch: 1965-01-08. Number: 7 .
Vandenberg PLC-C - Tomahawk Sandia, Aerobee launch complex. Probe Launch Complex C First Launch: 1971-06-29. Last Launch: 1975-12-12. Number: 6 .
Vandenberg RW30/12 - Runway First Launch: 1994-06-27. Last Launch: 2013-06-28. Number: 21 .
Vandenberg SLC10E - Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a launch emplacement in 1961. First Launch: 1959-06-16. Last Launch: 1962-03-19. Number: 6 .
Vandenberg SLC10W - Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a launch emplacement in 1965. First Launch: 1959-04-16. Last Launch: 1980-07-15. Number: 39 .
Vandenberg SLC1E - Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1967. First Launch: 1959-06-25. Last Launch: 1968-09-18. Number: 45 .
Vandenberg SLC1W - Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1966. First Launch: 1959-01-21. Last Launch: 1971-12-14. Number: 56 .
Vandenberg SLC2E - Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1966. First Launch: 1958-12-16. Last Launch: 1972-03-12. Number: 52 .
Vandenberg SLC2W - Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1966. First Launch: 1959-09-17. Last Launch: 2014-07-02. Number: 93 .
Vandenberg SLC3E - Atlas V, Atlas launch complex. Atlas test facility, originally designated PALC1-2, then LC1-2, and finally upgraded to a Space Launch Facility in 1966. First Launch: 1961-07-12. Last Launch: 2014-08-13. Number: 40 .
Vandenberg SLC3W - Delta, Atlas launch complex. First designated LC1-1 and used to launch Atlas Agena B with Samos payloads. After Samos cancellation, rebuilt in 1963 to support launch of KH-4 Corona spysats atop Thor-Agena. Refurbished in 1973 to accomodate surplus Atlas ICBM's in space launch role. First Launch: 1960-10-11. Last Launch: 1995-03-24. Number: 81 .
Vandenberg SLC4E - Titan, Atlas launch complex. First designated PALC2-4 and used to launch Atlas Agena D with KH-7 spysats. Rebuilt after MOL cancellation in 1970 to handle Titan 3D with KH-9 and KH-11 spysats. Upgraded in 1989-1990 for Titan 4. First Launch: 1964-08-14. Last Launch: 2013-09-29. Number: 69 .
Vandenberg SLC4W - Titan, Atlas launch complex. First designated PALC2-3 and used to launch Atlas Agena D with KH-7 spysats. Rebuilt in 1966 to handle Titan 3B with various military payloads. From 1988 used to launch refurbished surplus Titan 2 ICBM's in space launch role. First Launch: 1963-07-12. Last Launch: 2003-10-18. Number: 93 .
Vandenberg SLC5 - Scout launch complex. Dedicated Scout launch pad, used during the life of that vehicle from 1962 to 1994. First Launch: 1962-04-26. Last Launch: 1994-05-09. Number: 69 .
Vandenberg SLC6 - Delta IV, Athena launch complex. Space Launch Complex First Launch: 1995-08-15. Last Launch: 2013-08-28. Number: 9 .
Vandenberg SLC8 - Minotaur launch complex. Commercial Space Launch Facility, California Spaceport First Launch: 2000-01-27. Last Launch: 2011-08-11. Number: 9 .
Vandenberg SLTF - Titan launch silo. Lift Test Facility. First Launch: 1961-05-03. Last Launch: 1961-05-03. Number: 1 .
Vandenberg TP-01 - SICBM, Peacekeeper launch silo. First Launch: 1983-06-18. Last Launch: 1991-04-18. Number: 10 .
Vandenberg WTR - Launch area for submarine-launched missiles down Western Test Range. First Launch: 1962-10-01. Last Launch: 2013-01-01. Number: 76 .
Vandenberg, Hoyt - Immensely influential American officer, Air Force Chief of Staff in the late 1940's and 1950's during the formative period of rocketry development and the work on intercontinental ballistic missiles. Born: 1899. Died: 1954-04-02.
Vandersee - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1918-06-22. Died: 1975-03-01.
Vangen - American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1993-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1993-1995. Born: 1959-12-12.
Vanguard - Alternate designation for Vanguard Spacecraft.
Vanguard - Alternate designation for Vanguard-1.
Vanguard - American orbital launch vehicle. Vanguard was the 'civilian' vehicle developed by the US Navy to launch America's first satellite as part of the International Geophysical Year. The Army / von Braun Jupiter-C instead launched the first US satellite after Sputnik and Vanguard's public launch failure. The second stage design led to the Able upper stage for Thor/Atlas, and then to the Delta upper stage still in use in the 21st Century. The original version of Vanguard used a Grand Central final stage. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1957-10-23. Last Launch: 1959-09-18. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 10,050 kg (22,150 lb). Payload: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Thrust: 123.90 kN (27,854 lbf).
Vanguard 1 - American technology satellite. An engineering test satellite. Based on orbital position data derived from its transmissions, the shape of the earth was refined. Status: Operational 1957. First Launch: 1957-12-06. Last Launch: 1958-04-29. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Vanguard 2 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. The actual operational satellite that was to be launched by the Vanguard launcher. Status: Operational 1958. First Launch: 1958-05-28. Last Launch: 1959-02-17. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb).
Vanguard 3 - Alternate designation for GCRC.
Vanguard 3 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Radiation, micrometeoroid data. Status: Operational 1959. First Launch: 1959-04-14. Last Launch: 1959-09-18. Number: 4 .
Vanguard Spacecraft - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Vanguard Spacecraft, USA.
Vanguard X-248 - American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Vanguard with X-248 upper stage. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Payload: 20 kg (44 lb). Thrust: 120.00 kN (26,970 lbf).
Vanguard-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1959. Gross mass: 7,661 kg (16,889 lb). Unfuelled mass: 811 kg (1,787 lb). Thrust: 134.79 kN (30,302 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Varagian - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-20.
Variant B - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Version with clustered Nylon-B propellant motors. Gross mass: 22,500 kg (49,600 lb). Payload: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Variant S - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Version with clustered Nylon-S propellant motors. Gross mass: 26,000 kg (57,000 lb). Payload: 850 kg (1,870 lb).
Varlamov - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. Left team after fracturing a vertebra in a diving accident in July 1960. Worked in the Soviet space program as a flight instructor for new cosmonauts within the TsPK. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1961. Born: 1934-08-15. Died: 1980-10-02.
Vasilyev - Russian officer. Commander of GURVO 1964-1967. Chaired the Scientific-Technical Committee of the Strategic Missile Forces 1967-1969. Born: 1921-11-28. Died: 1973-11-12.
Vasyutin - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1976-1986. Status: Deceased; Active 1976-1986. Born: 1952-03-08. Died: 2002-07-20. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 64.91 days.
VAT - Abbreviation for Vehicle acceptance team
VBK Raduga - Reentry capsule used for return experimental materials from the Mir space station. Mounted in the docking port of the Progress M resupply spacecraft, which released the capsule for recovery after deorbiting.
VE - Series of Experimental Vehicles (VE's), each named after precious stones, leading to the MSBS/SSBS solid propellant missiles that made up the French nuclear deterrent. Status: Retired 1965.
VE10 Aigle - The Aigle's simple mission was to allow test of the telemetry equipment that would be used on later instrumented warheads. The first version of the Aigle was a simple fin-stabilized solid rocket propelled by a Stromboli SEPR 737 loaded with 984 kg of 'Plastolite' propellant. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1960-12-17. Last Launch: 1961-03-21. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Payload: 360 kg (790 lb).
VE10A Aigle - The VE10A used an improved, lightened version of the Stromboli booster. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1963-03-05. Last Launch: 1964-11-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb).
VE10A Aigle-1 - Alternate name for SEPR 737.
VE110 - Alternate designation for Agate.
VE121 - Alternate designation for Emeraude VE121.
VE210 - Alternate designation for Rubis.
VE231 - Alternate designation for Saphir VE231.
VE231 - Alternate designation for Saphir.
VE9 - First test rocket in the series leading to French IRBM's. The VE 9 instrumented warhead was boosted twice in 1960 and 1961 by a SEPR 732, motor, 55 cm in diameter. his had been developed as the booster for the SE.4400 Surface-to-Air Missile and was the most powerful French solid propellant motor available at that time. Payload: 360 kg (790 lb).
Veach - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1984-1995. Grew up in Honolulu, Hawaii. Died of cancer. Status: Deceased; Active 1984-1995. Born: 1944-09-18. Died: 1995-10-03. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 18.18 days.
vectorcardiograph - An instrument for taking a graphic record of the magnitude and direction of the electrical potentials of the heart.
VEEGA - Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (Galileo flight path)
Vega - Alternate designation for V-860PV.
Vega - Alternate designation for Vega engine.
Vega - Alternate designation for V-880E.
Vega - Primarily Italian all-solid propellant launch vehicle. After years of furious debate, a $173 million development program began, 52% funded by Italy and 34% by France. As of the first firing of the P80 first stage motor at the end of 2006, first flight had slipped into 2008 from a 2007 original planned date. Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-02-13. Last Launch: 2015-06-23. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 137,000 kg (302,000 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 3,040.00 kN (683,410 lbf).
Vega - Alternate designation for V-870.
Vega 5VK - Russian Venus probe. The Vega 5VK spacecraft was designed for a mission combining a flyby of the planet Venus followed by an encounter with Halley's Comet. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-12-15. Last Launch: 1984-12-21. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
Vega 5VS - Russian Venus probe. Cancelled 1985. Unflown series of Venus probes (which also served as the basis for the Granat satellite). Original plans called for two versions, 5VS and 5VP, both weighing 4850 kg. Status: Cancelled 1985. Gross mass: 4,850 kg (10,690 lb).
Vega engine - Sud solid rocket engine. Belier III first stage. Status: Retired 1973. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Vega SAM - French surface-to-air missile, tested at Hammaguir in early 1961 but not put into production. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 648 kg (1,428 lb).
Vega Statoreacteur - French surface-to-air missile, ramjet sustainer with Stromboli booster. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1961-01-01. Last Launch: 1961-01-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
Vega Statoreacteur-1 - Alternate name for SEPR 734-1.
Vega-Má - Alternate designation for V-880.
Vega-M» - Alternate designation for V-880.
Vega-Mß - Alternate designation for V-880.
Vega-M▀ - Alternate designation for V-880.
Vehicle Evaluation Payload - Alternate designation for VEP technology satellite.
vehicle-launched - Category of missiles.
Vehra - French air-launched rocketplane. Dassault design for an air-launched experimental reusable launch vehicle. It would be launched from Novespace's Airbus 300 zero-G aircraft. The lifting-body design was loosely based on Dassault's work on the NASA-led X-38 Crew Rescue Vehicle program. VEHRA weighed 6.5 t metric tons and carried 19.5 metric tons of kerosene and oxygen propellant. One Russian 400.5 kN-thrust NK-39 engine would power the vehicle, which would be capable of reaching Mach 14. The 11.5 meter long vehicle also contained a small 1.5 x 1.5 x 5 meter payload bay for an expendable upper stage+250 kg satellite. Like THEMIS, VEHRA would explore hypersonic flight and the operational and cost aspects of reusability. Status: Study 2000. Gross mass: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb). Payload: 250 kg (550 lb). Thrust: 400.00 kN (89,920 lbf).
Veiculo Lancador de Microsatelites - Alternate designation for VLM.
Veiculo Lancador de Satelites - Alternate designation for VLS.
Vektor - Code name for Taifun-1 military target satellite.
Vela - Alternate designation for Vela engine.
Vela - American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. The Vela (meaning "watchman" in Spanish) series of spacecraft were designed to monitor world-wide compliance with the 1963 nuclear test ban treaty. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-10-17. Last Launch: 1965-07-20. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 225 kg (496 lb).
Vela engine - WRE solid rocket engine. Aero High second stage. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 118 kg (260 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Velcro - A fastener for quick attachment (and subsequent detachment) of an object to another object, or to a surface. It has two parts, a pad consisting of velvety, loopy pile made of Teflon, and a pad consisting of little hooks resembling a cocklebur, made of polyester. Attachment by pressing the two pads together, detachment by pulling them apart.
Velox - 3u Cubesat by Singapore National Technical University; to have deployed the Velox P3 subsatellite.
Venera - Russian series of spacecraft that explored the planet Venus. Venera spacecraft made the first soft landings on the surface of Venus and returned the first images from the surface.
Venera 1V (V-67) - Russian Venus probe. Venus probe with the announced mission of direct atmospheric studies. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-06-12. Last Launch: 1967-06-17. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,105 kg (2,436 lb).
Venera 1VA - Russian Venus probe. The 1VA probe, the first spacecraft sent towards Venus, consisted of a cylindrical body topped by a dome, totaling 2 meters in height. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-02-04. Last Launch: 1961-02-12. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 644 kg (1,419 lb).
Venera 2V (V-69) - Russian Venus probe. Spacecraft was very similar to Venera 4 / 1V (V-67) although the descent module was of a stronger design. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-01-05. Last Launch: 1969-01-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,128 kg (2,486 lb).
Venera 3MV-1 - Russian Venus probe. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-02-19. Last Launch: 1964-04-02. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb).
Venera 3MV-1A - Russian Venus probe. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-11-11. Last Launch: 1964-02-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb).
Venera 3MV-3 - Russian Venus probe. Venera 3. The mission of this spacecraft was to land on the Venusian surface. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-11-16. Last Launch: 1965-11-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 958 kg (2,112 lb).
Venera 3MV-4 - Russian Venus probe. Carried a TV system and scientific instruments. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-11-12. Last Launch: 1965-11-23. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 960 kg (2,110 lb).
Venera 3V (V-70) - Russian Venus probe. Venus lander intended to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-08-17. Last Launch: 1970-08-22. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb).
Venera 3V (V-72) - Russian Venus probe. Venus atmospheric probe; instrumentation included temperature, pressure, and light sensors as well as radio transmitters. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-03-27. Last Launch: 1972-03-31. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb).
Venera 4V-1 - Russian Venus probe. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-06-08. Last Launch: 1981-11-04. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 5,030 kg (11,080 lb).
Venera 4V-2 - Russian Venus probe. Venera radar mappers which used an 8 cm band side-looking radar to study the surface properties of Venus. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-06-02. Last Launch: 1983-06-07. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
VeneSat - Venezuela's first satellite, a Chinese-built DFH-4 communications satellite with C-band and Ku-band transponders.
Venezuela - Venezuela
Venturestar - American SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. Production reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle using technology developed in X-33 test bed. Status: Cancelled 1999. Gross mass: 991,000 kg (2,184,000 lb). Payload: 26,800 kg (59,000 lb). Thrust: 13,390.00 kN (3,010,190 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Venus - Category of spacecraft.
Venus engine - Sud solid rocket engine. Centaure 2C first stage. Status: Retired 1981. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 66 kg (145 lb). Thrust: 44.00 kN (9,891 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Venus Express - European Venus probe. European Union probe to Venus, with the primary mission of studying the atmosphere and space environment of the planet. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-11-09. Last Launch: 2005-11-09. Number: 1 .
VEP - Japanese technology satellite. Monitored H-2 launch vehicle performance. National name MYOJO. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-02-03. Last Launch: 2001-08-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,391 kg (5,271 lb).
VERAS - French manned spaceplane. Study 1968. A Mach 10 spaceplane demonstrator proposed by Nord Aviation in 1968. Status: Study 1968.
Vergeltungswaffen-1 - Alternate designation for V-1.
Vergeltungswaffen-2 - Alternate designation for V-2.
Verhknaya Salda - Alternate name for Nizhniy Tagil.
Vermont Lunar - 1U Cubesat from Vermont Technical College, testing equipment for a proposed future lunar mission. Testing navigation components to be used in a follow up 3U ion drive CubeSat to the Moon. Successful. First university satellite from New England.
Verne - French writer, one of the founders of the literary genre of science fiction. He described in his novels the possibility of space flight, technically accurate to the extent possible. Born: 1828. Died: 1905-01-01.
Vernon - Test rocket launch location. First Launch: 1951-04-01. Last Launch: 1951-04-01. Number: 1 .
Vernov - Russian scientist. Director of NII-Yash of Moscow State University 1960-1982. Specialized in science experiments. Born: 1910-07-11. Died: 1982-09-26.
Vero P2 - LRBA solid rocket engine. Veronique P2 first stage. Status: Retired 1951. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Vero P6 - LRBA solid rocket engine. Veronique P6 first stage. Status: Retired 1952. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Veronique - Alternate designation for Veronique AGI stage.
Veronique - Alternate designation for Veronique R-1.
Veronique - Alternate designation for Veronique 61 stage.
Veronique - Alternate designation for Veronique 61M stage.
Veronique - After the cancellation of the 'Super V-2' project, the German team at Vernon pursued development of a tenth-scale version, the Project 4213 Veronique (VERnon et electrONIQUE). The 4 metric ton thrust motor, using nitric acid and kerosene, beat the 'pure French' project 4211 Eole design and paved the way leading to the Ariane space booster. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1952-05-20. Last Launch: 1965-02-12. Number: 54 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 278 kg (612 lb). Thrust: 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Turpentine.
Veronique 61 - Alternate designation for Veronique 61 engine.
Veronique 61 - Alternate designation for Veronique 61 stage.
Veronique 61 - French sounding rocket. Development of an improved version of Veronique, with a 50% increase in thrust, began in 1961. The much larger vehicle could reach 315 km with the standard Veronique 60 kg payload. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1964-06-08. Last Launch: 1967-02-24. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 1,932 kg (4,259 lb). Payload: 60 kg (132 lb). Thrust: 60.00 kN (13,488 lbf).
Veronique 61 engine - LRBA Nitric acid/Turpentine rocket engine. Number: 1 . Thrust: 60.00 kN (13,488 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Turpentine.
Veronique 61 stage - Nitric acid/Turpentine propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1967. Gross mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Thrust: 60.00 kN (13,488 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Turpentine.
Veronique 61M - Alternate designation for Veronique 61M stage.
Veronique 61M - French sounding rocket. Lengthened version of Veronique 61 capable of carrying an increased payload of 100 kg. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1966-03-24. Last Launch: 1975-05-31. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 2,050 kg (4,510 lb). Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 60.00 kN (13,488 lbf).
Veronique 61M stage - Nitric acid/Turpentine propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 60.00 kN (13,488 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Turpentine.
Veronique AGI - Alternate designation for Veronique AGI stage.
Veronique AGI - Alternate designation for Veronique AGI engine.
Veronique AGI - French sounding rocket. The Veronique AGI was the rocket originally intended for the International Geophysical Year order. It followed the configuration of the Veronique NA, but had a lower empty weight, a simplified engine using single wall cooling, and used turpentine fuel instead of kerosene. This increased the specific impulse, decreased combustion instabilities, and allowed the version to reach 210 km altitude. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1965-10-22. Last Launch: 1969-02-20. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 1,342 kg (2,958 lb). Payload: 60 kg (132 lb). Thrust: 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf).
Veronique AGI engine - LRBA Nitric acid/Turpentine rocket engine. Number: 1 . Thrust: 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Turpentine.
Veronique AGI stage - Nitric acid/Turpentine rocket stage. 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb). Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 278 kg (612 lb). Thrust: 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Turpentine.
Veronique N - French sounding rocket. 'Veronique Normal ' - Full-scale version of the original Veronique design. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Payload: 60 kg (132 lb). Thrust: 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf).
Veronique NA - French sounding rocket. Lengthened version of the Veronique N, allowing the vehicle to reach the more scientifically-interesting altitude of 135 km. It also used a modified injector for the engine to improve combustion stability. Gross mass: 1,435 kg (3,163 lb). Payload: 60 kg (132 lb). Thrust: 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf).
Veronique P2 - French sounding test vehicle. Test vehicle, powered by two powder rockets, to test the Veronique's unique wire guidance system. Status: Retired 1951. First Launch: 1951-04-01. Last Launch: 1951-04-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf).
Veronique P2-1 - Alternate name for Vero P2.
Veronique P6 - French sounding test vehicle. Test vehicle, powered by six powder rockets, to test the Veronique's unique wire guidance system. Status: Retired 1952. First Launch: 1952-01-25. Last Launch: 1952-01-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf).
Veronique P6-1 - Alternate name for Vero P6.
Veronique R - French sounding test vehicle. 'Veronique Reduce' - test vehicle for the full-size Veronique, with the burn time of the engine limited to 6.5 sec instead of the nominal 32 sec. Tested in France at the Suippes range in 1950 and 1951, then at Cardonnet in early 1952. Status: Retired 1952. First Launch: 1950-08-02. Last Launch: 1952-01-30. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Veronique R-1 - LRBA solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1952. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 385 kg (848 lb). Thrust: 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Vershinin - Russian officer. Commander of Air Force 1957-1969. Born: 1900-06-03. Died: 1973-12-30.
Vertical Takeoff Horizontal Landing - Alternate designation for VTOHL 45t.
Vertical Takeoff Horizontal Landing - Alternate designation for VTOHL 9t.
Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing - Alternate designation for VTOVL 1978.
Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing - Alternate designation for VTOVL.
Vertikal - Alternate designation for R-5A.
Vertikal - Alternate designation for Vertikal' K65UP.
Vertikal - Alternate designation for R-5V.
Vertikal' K65UP - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soviet sounding rocket, based on the R-14 IRBM. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1973-01-01. Last Launch: 1983-01-01. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 90,000 kg (198,000 lb). Thrust: 1,485.00 kN (333,841 lbf).
Vertikal-4 - Alternate designation for Vertikal' K65UP.
Vesselsat - OHB LuxSpace of Luxembourg satllite to provide AIS (ship tracking) services for Orbcomm. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-10-12. Last Launch: 2012-01-09. Number: 2 .
Vesta - French LRBA Nitric acid/Turpentine sounding rocket. In the late 1950's LRBA studied several possible configurations for a 'Super Veronique' sounding rocket, with engines of 80 to 250 kN to carry a payload of 100 kg up to 600 km altitude. In 1962 CNES ordered the Vesta configuration. Static tests in 1964 led to a modest series of launches in 1965-1969. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1965-10-15. Last Launch: 1969-11-08. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 5,700 kg (12,500 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 140.00 kN (31,470 lbf).
Vesta-1 - Nitric acid/Turpentine rocket stage. 140.00 kN (31,473 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,000 kg (11,023 lb). Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 780 kg (1,710 lb). Thrust: 140.00 kN (31,470 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Turpentine.
vestibular - Pertaining to the organs of the inner ear that provide a sense of equilibrium for animals and man.
Vetoshkin - Russian politician. First Deputy Chairman of Military-industrial Commission 1958-1965. Directorate Chief in Ministry of Armaments. Born: 1905-09-25. Died: 1991-07-19.
Vetrino - Base for units deployed with nine Pioner launchers.
Vexin A - SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Europa launch vehicle. First flight 1964. Number: 44 . Unfuelled mass: 175 kg (385 lb). Thrust: 68.60 kN (15,422 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Vexin B - SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Diamant launch vehicle. First flight 1965. Status: Out of production. Number: 16 . Unfuelled mass: 192 kg (423 lb). Thrust: 75.40 kN (16,951 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Vexin C - SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Diamant B launch vehicle. First flight 1970. Status: Out of production. Number: 20 . Unfuelled mass: 252 kg (555 lb). Thrust: 99.10 kN (22,279 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
VfR - Verein fuer Raumschiffahrt.
VHF - Abbreviation for Very High Frequency
VIAM - All-Union Institute for Aviation Materials (Russian abbreviation)
Viasat - Broadband data satellite series for North American service using the FS-1300 bus. Coverage on the first launched included 9 Canadian spot beams owned by Telesat and 63 US beams owned by ViaSat.
Vicecomodoro Marambio Station - Alternate name for Marambio.
Victor - Victor was the first Argentine-built satellite. Measuring 340 x 340 x 450mm, Victor was an experimental vehicle, intended to evaluate in-orbit behavior of low-cost space technologies. Used the MuSat bus.
Victory - American manager, at NACA 1915-1960, credited with maintaining good working relationship with Congress. Born: 1893. Died: 1975-01-01.
Vidrine - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1985. Born: 1943-11-21.
Viebach - German rocket technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. Born: 1907. Died: 1961-01-01.
Viehboeck - Austrian engineer cosmonaut 1989-1991. First Austrian astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1991. Born: 1960-08-24. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.93 days.
Vietnam - Vietnam
Vietnamese AF - Vietnamese AF.
Vik - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1964-08-01. Last Launch: 1965-09-03. Number: 4 .
Viking - Alternate designation for Viking Type 9-1.
Viking - Alternate designation for Viking sounding rocket.
Viking - American Mars lander. First successful soft landings made at two locations on the Martian surface and returned the first images from the surface. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-02-11. Last Launch: 1975-09-09. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 3,399 kg (7,493 lb).
Viking (Sweden) - Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. Viking. Sweden's first satellite, Viking, was originally initiated as a means of providing experience in satellite system development and management. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-02-22. Last Launch: 1986-02-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 538 kg (1,186 lb).
Viking 2 - SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In production. Used on Ariane 1, GSLV space launchers. First flight 1979. Status: In production. Number: 60 . Unfuelled mass: 776 kg (1,710 lb). Thrust: 693.00 kN (155,792 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Viking 2B - SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Ariane 2/3. First flight 1984. Number: 532 . Unfuelled mass: 776 kg (1,710 lb). Thrust: 720.00 kN (161,860 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Viking 4 - SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Ariane 1, GSLV, PSLV. First flight 1979. Number: 23 . Unfuelled mass: 850 kg (1,870 lb). Thrust: 721.00 kN (162,087 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Viking 4B - SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Ariane 4. First flight 1984. Number: 133 . Unfuelled mass: 850 kg (1,870 lb). Thrust: 805.00 kN (180,971 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Viking 5C - SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Used on Ariane 42L, Ariane 44L, Ariane 44LP. First flight 1988. Number: 238 . Unfuelled mass: 776 kg (1,710 lb). Thrust: 752.00 kN (169,056 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Viking Lander - Alternate designation for Viking.
Viking Model I - Alternate designation for Viking sounding rocket.
Viking Model II - Alternate designation for Viking Type 9.
Viking sounding rocket - American sounding rocket. The Viking sounding rocket, originally code-named Neptune, was conceived in 1945 by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as having the same altitude capability as the V-2 but only one third the mass. Martin was given the contract to develop the rocket, and Reaction Motors the engine. The advanced design featured a gimbaled pump-fed engine, a fuel tank integral with the fuselage. All rockets would be static-tested and certified before launch. The first launch was on 3 May 1949. Viking was abandoned in 1954 as too expensive, but Martin's experience on the design led to the first stage of the Vanguard orbital launch vehicle and the Titan ICBM. Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1949-05-03. Last Launch: 1951-08-07. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Payload: 230 kg (500 lb). Thrust: 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf).
Viking Type 9 - American sounding rocket. Increased-diameter version of the basic Viking. Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1952-06-06. Last Launch: 1957-05-01. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf).
Viking Type 9-1 - LOx/Alcohol rocket stage. 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,800 kg (14,991 lb). Status: Retired 1957. Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
Viking-1 - LOx/Alcohol rocket stage. 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf) thrust. Mass 4,500 kg (9,921 lb). Status: Retired 1957. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
Viktorenko - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1997. 489 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Vityaz (Knight). Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1997. Born: 1947-03-29. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 489.06 days.
Villa Reynolds - Villa Reynolds Air Base. Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1973-03-22. Last Launch: 1973-03-28. Number: 2 .
Vilter - German rocket technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946.
Vinasat - First satellite launched by Vietnam. The Vietnam Post and Telecom Corporation communications satellite was equipped with C and Ku band payloads. Used the AS 2100 bus.
Vinci - Snecma, Ottobrunn LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Upper Stages. In development. Advanced expander cycle cryogenic propellant rocket engine with the capability of five in-space restarts. First hot-fire tests 2005. First flight 2010. Status: In development. Thrust: 180.00 kN (40,460 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Vinogradov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1992-on. 546 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Status: Active 1992-on. Born: 1953-08-31. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 546.94 days.
Vinogradov, Aleksandr - Russian scientist. Director of Institute of Chemical and Analytical Chemistry. Specialized in lunar sample analysis. Born: 1895-08-21. Died: 1975-01-01.
Vinzant - American Chief engineer for interfacing the Centaur upper stage with the Titan 4 launch vehicle. Born: 1931-09-01.
Viper - American sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket developed as a follow-on to the Loki-Dart. Status: Active. First Launch: 1968-05-21. Last Launch: 1968-07-01. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 102.00 kN (22,930 lbf).
Viper 3A - American sounding rocket. The Viper 3A/10D Dart was a two stage sounding rocket vehicle consisting of a solid propellant Viper 3A rocket motor as the first stage and a non-propulsive Dart containing the payload as the second stage. Status: Active. First Launch: 1972-09-27. Last Launch: 2009-08-17. Number: 467 .
Viper 3A-1 - Alternate name for Viper-25.
Viper Falcon - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Viper I + 1 x Falcon Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1960-08-13. Last Launch: 1960-08-13. Number: 2 .
Viper/Dart V/1 - Alternate name for Viper-27.
Viper-20 - Multiple-source American solid rocket engine. Viper Viper-Dart first stage. Status: Active. Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Viper-25 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Viper 3A first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 35 kg (77 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Thrust: 25.00 kN (5,620 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Viper-27 - Multiple-source American solid rocket engine. Status: Y. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Viper3 - Alternate designation for Viper 3A.
Viper-Arrow - Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1960-01-01. Last Launch: 1961-02-01. Number: 2 .
Viper-Dart - American sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket that delivered a 1-m diameter inflatable sphere to 90 km to measure winds aloft. Status: Active. First Launch: 1967-08-05. Last Launch: 1984-02-23. Number: 76 .
Viper-Dart-1 - Alternate name for Viper-20.
Virgin Galactic - Virgin Galactic.
Virginia - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Virginia Polytechnic, USA.
Virts - American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. Status: Active 2000-on. Born: 1967-12-01. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 213.45 days.
Visakhapatnam - Visakhapatnam First Launch: 2008-02-26. Last Launch: 2013-01-27. Number: 2 .
Visible astronomy satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Viso - French biologist payload specialist astronaut, cosmonaut, 1985-1998. Doctorate of veterinary medicine from " l'Ecole Veterinaire de Maison-Alfort ", 1975. Worked for CNES in Paris, in coordination of spaceflight activities. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1998. Born: 1951-06-16.
Viste - American Chief Engineer for Atlas III and V Born: 1939-09-24.
VITA - Volunteers In Technical Assistance, Inc., USA
Vitka - Russian engineer. First Deputy Chief Designer 1954-1961 of Glushko design bureau. Specialized in rocket engines. Born: 1901-11-19. Died: 1989-01-10.
Vitruk - Russian officer. Major General, Chief of KIK Space Tracking Network 1956-1959. Served in WW2. Assigned to 4-NII MO military space research institute in 1955. Invalided from the service in August 1962. Born: 1906. Died: 1987-01-01.
VITT - Abbreviation for Vehicle Integration Test Team
Vittori - Italian test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1998-on. Italian Air Force. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1964-10-15. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 35.52 days.
Vityaz (Knight ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-20.
Vityaz (Knight ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-3.
Vityaz (Knight ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-8.
Vityaz (Knight ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-14.
Vityaz (Knight) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-3.
Vityaz (Knight) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-20.
Vityaz (Knight) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-8.
Vityaz (Knight) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-14.
VKA - Military Space Force, Russia.
VKA Myasishchev 1957 - Alternate name for VKA Myasishchev M-48.
VKA Myasishchev M-48 - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Myasishchev's first VKA design was a diminutive single-crew star-shaped spaceplane that could be launched by Korolev's R-7 ICBM. Status: Study 1957. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
VKA series - In 1957, in response to the USAF Dynasoar project, Soviet aviation bureaus were tasked with producing draft project designs for a manned Aero-Space Vehicle (Russian abbreviation VKA). Designs were refined through 1960, at which time the design bureaus were dissolved and incorporated into Chelomei's OKB-52. The engineering work then fed into Chelomei's Raketoplan designs. Status: Design 1960.
VKA-23 Design 1 - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1960. Myasishchev single-pilot winged spacecraft of 1960, sized for launch to orbit by Korolev's Vostok booster. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,380 kg (7,450 lb). Payload: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
VKA-23 Design 2 - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Following the very critical review of the first M-48 spaceplane design by the expert commission, Myasishchev went back to the drawing board. Status: Study 1957. Gross mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Payload: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
VKK - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1998. A Russian concept of the 1990's harking back to Chelomei's Raketoplan of three decades earlier. A manned aircraft would be protected during launch and re-entry by an expendable aeroshell heat shield. Status: Study 1998. Gross mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
VKS - Alternate designation for MVKS.
VKS - Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Military Space Force, Russia.
VKS series - In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. Development continued until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. Status: Cancelled 1990.
VKS-D - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from An-225. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 275,000 kg (606,000 lb). Payload: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
VKS-DM - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from Gerakl / NPO Molniya-1000 heavy-lift aircraft, catamaran layout, twin-fuselage triplane. Release conditions: Suspended load, 450,000 kg, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 450,000 kg (990,000 lb).
VKS-G - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from Kholod Mach 5 mother ship. This was a Mikoyan supersonic cargo aircraft, designed from Spiral 50-50 design. Combined-cycle turbo-ramjet engine. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, Mach 5 at 25 to 30 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 1130 m/s. It was concluded that the extensive development would be required for the combination-cycle engines, resulting in an extended development schedule and high technical risk. The more conservative subsonic-launched MAKS was chosen instead. Status: Study 1988. Payload: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb).
VKS-O - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical takeoff, ballistic re-entry, single-stage-to-orbit, LOx/Kerosene/LH2 tripropellant rocket engine powered, reusable launch vehicle. 550 metric ton and 770 metric ton gross lift-off mass versions considered. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 550,000 kg (1,210,000 lb). Payload: 8,500 kg (18,700 lb).
VKS-R - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled launched, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, LOx/LH2 launch vehicle. 290 metric ton and 550 metric ton versions considered. Studied in tradeoff studies leading to MAKS. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 290,000 kg, Mach 0.5, zero altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 100 m/s. The wheeled sled would get the vehicle up to a velocity where the wings could provide lift, allowing lower-thrust engines to be used than in a vertical-takeoff design. This saved weight, but velocity losses during lifting flight to orbit almost cancelled the advantage, resulting in the approach being unattractive in comparison to pure vertical-launch or air-launch designs. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 290,000 kg (630,000 lb). Payload: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
VKS-R Sled - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Sled studied in tradeoff studies leading to MAKS. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 290,000 kg, Mach 0.5, zero altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 100 m/s. Status: Study. Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Payload: 290,000 kg (630,000 lb). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
VKS-RTO+ZhRD - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Horizontal takeoff, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, launch vehicle. Mixed rocket / ramjet propulsion. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 770,000 kg (1,690,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
VKS-V - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical takeoff, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, LOx/Kerosene/LH2 tripropellant rocket engine powered vehicle. 550 metric ton gross liftoff mass and 1000 metric ton versions studied. Analogous to NASA's Shuttle-2 and RKK Energia's VKS. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 550,000 kg (1,210,000 lb). Payload: 7,500 kg (16,500 lb).
VKS-ZhRD+GPVRD - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Horizontal takeoff, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, launch vehicle. Mixed rocket / scramjet propulsion. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 770,000 kg (1,690,000 lb).
VLA - Abbreviation for Very Large Array
Vladimirskiy - Russian government official. Deputy Minister of Radio-Technical Industries 1954-1979. Began career at KB-1.
VLBA - Abbreviation for Very Long Baseline Array
VLBI - Abbreviation for Very Long Baseline Interferometry
VLF - Abbreviation for Very Low Frequency
VLM - Brazilian satellite launcher using core of VLS only. Planned for launch of microsatellites. First launch 2002 or later. Status: Development ended 1997. Gross mass: 15,900 kg (35,000 lb). Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 262.20 kN (58,945 lbf).
VLM-4 - Alternate name for S-30 engine.
VLS - Brazilian satellite launcher building on successful family of sounding rockets. Status: Active. Gross mass: 49,609 kg (109,369 lb). Payload: 380 kg (830 lb). Thrust: 1,048.90 kN (235,802 lbf).
VLS - - Brazilian satellite launcher building on successful family of sounding rockets.
VLS-1 - Brazilian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-11-02. Last Launch: 2003-08-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 50,700 kg (111,700 lb). Payload: 120 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 1,172.00 kN (263,476 lbf).
VLS-R1 - Brazilian all-solid test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1985-12-01. Last Launch: 1985-12-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust: 300.00 kN (67,440 lbf).
VLS-R2 - Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1989-05-18. Last Launch: 1989-05-18. Number: 1 .
VLT - Abbreviation for Very Large Telescope
VMF - Russian agency. Voenno-Morskoy Flot (Navy), Russia.
VMF RF - Russian Navy (Russian abbreviation)
VMS - Abbreviation for Vertical Motion Simulator
VMSK-4 - Russian pressure suit, operational 1970. The VMSK-4 was a partial pressure immersion suit developed for Soviet Naval Aviation pilots. Status: operational 1970.
VNII - All-Union Scientific-Research Institute (Russian abbreviation)
VNII-30 -
VNIIEM - Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. VNII Elektromekhaniki (Russian abbreviation for All-Union Scientific-Research Institute for Electro-Mechanics), Russia.
VNIIIT - All-Union Scientific-Research Institute for Current Sources (Russian abbreviation)
VNIRS-61 -
VNREDSAT - Remote sensing satellite for the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. Used the Myriade bus.
Voenno-Kosmicheskiye Sili (Military Space Forces) - Alternate designation for VKS.
Voenno-Kosmicheskiye Sili (Military Space Forces) - Alternate name for VKS Space Force.
Voenno-Morskoy Flot SSSR - Alternate name for VMF.
Voenno-Vosdushniye Sili - Alternate name for VVS.
Voevoda - Alternate designation for R-36M2 15A18M.
Vogt - German Chief Designer. Chief aircraft designer with Blohm and Voss during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war. Born: 1894. Died: 1979-01-01.
Voigt - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 in the ground support equipment group. Returned to Germany thereafter.
VOIR - Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar (superseded by VRM)
Volgograd Station - Alternate name for Kapustin Yar.
Volk - Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut 1977-1996. Status: Inactive; Active 1977-1996. Born: 1937-04-12. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 11.80 days.
Volkhov - Alternate designation for S-75M.
Volkhov-M - Alternate designation for V-753.
Volkov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1966-1971. Member of first space station crew, however perished during landing. From 1958 a civilian engineer, Korolev OKB, involved in the development of the Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1971. Born: 1935-11-23. Died: 1971-06-30. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 28.71 days.
Volkov, Aleksandr - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1976-1998. Father of cosmonaut Sergei Volkov. 391 cumulative days in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1976-1998. Born: 1948-04-27. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 391.49 days.
Volkov, Sergey - Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1997-on. 365 cumulative days in space. Son of cosmonaut Aleksandr Volkov. Status: Active 1997-on. Born: 1973-04-01. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 365.94 days.
Volna - Alternate designation for R-29R.
Volna - Russian launch vehicle based on surplus R-29RL submarine launched ballistic missiles. Suborbital and orbital versions. Payload volume 1.3 cu. M. Payload 115 kg to 3000 km or 1250 kg to 200 km altitude suborbital trajectories, or 120 (260 lb) kg to a 200 km orbit. Liftoff mass 34 metric tons. Status: Active. First Launch: 1975-01-01. Last Launch: 2015-10-30. Number: 46 . Gross mass: 35,300 kg (77,800 lb). Payload: 120 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 682.00 kN (153,319 lbf).
Volna - Alternate designation for R-29RL.
Volna - Alternate designation for R-29K.
Volna SLV - Alternate designation for Volna.
Volna-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Thrust: 682.00 kN (153,319 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Volna-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Voloshin - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1969. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1969. Born: 1942-04-24.
Volynkin - Russian officer. Director of Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine 1960-1969. Born: 1907-02-07.
Volynov - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1990. Status: Inactive; Active 1960-1990. Born: 1934-12-18. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 52.30 days.
Vomit Comet - Modified 707 airliner used by NASA for zero-G astronaut training. It would follow a parabolic course, obtaining pseudo-zero-G at the top of the parabola, but then pulling 2G's at the bottom. Dozens of parabolas would be flown on a mission; by the tenth the first participant would usually vomit, followed by most of the others as the mission went on. Even for those unaffected the odor became very unpleasant by the 20th parabola. Attendants had to be very careful that those training in 110-kg spacesuits or on sharp-edged hardware mockups were not injured when, over and over, they would quit floating and be pulled to the deck with 2G's force.
von Braun - German-American chief designer, leader of the 'Rocket Team'; developed the V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and the Saturn rockets that took US to the moon. He made the idea of space travel popular in the 1950's and a reality in the 1960's. Born: 1912-03-23. Died: 1977-06-16.
Von Braun 1948 - German winged orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun's 1948 design for a reusable space launcher was remarkable in its tubby design. This was partly driven by the need for large parachute canisters in the base of the first and second stages, which took up one half of the diameter, with the engines arranged around the periphery. Status: Study 1948. Gross mass: 6,400,000 kg (14,100,000 lb). Payload: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Thrust: 119,300.00 kN (26,819,700 lbf).
Von Braun 1948-1 - Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1948. Gross mass: 5,500,000 kg (12,100,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 700,000 kg (1,540,000 lb). Thrust: 141,286.30 kN (31,762,424 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Von Braun 1948-2 - Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1948. Gross mass: 770,000 kg (1,690,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 70,000 kg (154,000 lb). Thrust: 16,271.10 kN (3,657,889 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Von Braun 1948-3 - Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1948. Gross mass: 105,000 kg (231,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 22,000 kg (48,000 lb). Thrust: 2,033.80 kN (457,216 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Von Braun 1952 - German winged orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun's 1952 design for a reusable space launcher used the same mass and performance calculations done in 1948. However the large parachute canisters were replaced by deployable drag skirts. This allowed the design to be substantially less squat and more elegant than the 1948 version -- but still fatter than the sleek paintings that appeared in print! Status: Study 1952. Gross mass: 6,400,000 kg (14,100,000 lb). Payload: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Thrust: 119,300.00 kN (26,819,700 lbf).
Von Braun 1952-1 - Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1952. Gross mass: 5,500,000 kg (12,100,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 700,000 kg (1,540,000 lb). Thrust: 141,286.30 kN (31,762,424 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Von Braun 1952-2 - Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1952. Gross mass: 770,000 kg (1,690,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 70,000 kg (154,000 lb). Thrust: 16,271.10 kN (3,657,889 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Von Braun 1952-3 - Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1952. Gross mass: 105,000 kg (231,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 22,000 kg (48,000 lb). Thrust: 2,033.80 kN (457,216 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Von Braun 1956 - German winged orbital launch vehicle. In 1956, for the book Exploration of Mars and the Disney television series, the 1952 design was significantly 'down-sized'. The first and second stages were simply reduced to 20% of their former size. A tiny expendable third stage replaced the manned glider. The manned glider itself became a separate payload, that could be replaced by an 'all cargo' module. Status: Study 1956. Gross mass: 1,280,000 kg (2,820,000 lb). Payload: 13,600 kg (29,900 lb). Thrust: 23,900.00 kN (5,372,900 lbf).
Von Braun 1956-1 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1956. Gross mass: 1,100,000 kg (2,400,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 140,000 kg (300,000 lb). Thrust: 28,257.80 kN (6,352,606 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Von Braun 1956-2 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1956. Gross mass: 154,000 kg (339,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Thrust: 3,254.23 kN (731,580 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Von Braun 1956-3 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1956. Gross mass: 12,400 kg (27,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Thrust: 406.77 kN (91,446 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Von Braun Cargo Ship - American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1952. Status: Study 1952. Gross mass: 3,720,000 kg (8,200,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 414,000 kg (912,000 lb). Payload: 395,000 kg (870,000 lb). Thrust: 1,960.00 kN (440,620 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
von Braun concept vehicle - In 1948, with the US Army's V-2 test project winding down, Wernher Von Braun was ensconced in isolated Fort Bliss. He had, unusually, some time on his hands. He occupied himself by writing a novel concerning an expedition to Mars, grounded on accurate engineering estimates. As an appendix to the novel he documented his calculations.
Von Braun Landing Boat - American manned Mars lander. Study 1952. The first design for a manned Mars lander based on engineering analysis. The enormous glider would have a wingspan of 153 m, and land on Mars horizontally either on skis, skids, or wheels on a prepared runway. Status: Study 1952. Gross mass: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb). Payload: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Thrust: 1,960.00 kN (440,620 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Von Braun Lunar Lander - American manned lunar lander. Study 1952. Von Braun's first lunar lander design was an immense spacecraft, larger in earth orbit than a Saturn V booster. Status: Study 1952. Gross mass: 3,964,000 kg (8,739,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 64,500 kg (142,100 lb). Thrust: 1,735.00 kN (390,043 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1952 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1952. Wernher von Braun made the first engineering analysis of a manned mission to Mars in 1948. Status: Study 1952. Gross mass: 37,200,000 kg (82,000,000 lb).
Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1956 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1956. Von Braun's Mars expedition presented in the 1956 book he co-authored with Willy Ley, The Exploration of Mars, was vastly reduced in scope from the 1952 version. Status: Study 1956. Gross mass: 3,400,000 kg (7,400,000 lb).
Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1969 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1969. Von Braun's final vision for a manned expedition to Mars was a robust plan that eliminated much of the risk of other scenarios. Two ships would fly in convoy from earth orbit to Mars and back. Status: Study 1969. Gross mass: 726,000 kg (1,600,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 182,000 kg (401,000 lb). Thrust: 1,733.80 kN (389,774 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
Von Braun Passenger Ship - American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1952. The first design for a manned Mars orbiter based on engineering analysis. 10 passengers would be housed in a 20-m-diameter sphere during the 963 day mission to Mars, in Mars orbit, and back to earth. Status: Study 1952. Gross mass: 3,720,000 kg (8,200,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 57,500 kg (126,700 lb). Thrust: 1,960.00 kN (440,620 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Hydrazine.
Von Braun Rocketplane - German manned rocketplane. Study 1939. On 6 July 1939 Wernher von Braun proposed to the German Reich Air Ministry a "fighter with rocket drive". Status: Study 1939. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Von Braun Station - American manned space station. Study 1945. In the first 1946 summary of his work during World War II, Wernher von Braun prophesied the construction of space stations in orbit. Status: Study 1945.
von Braun, Magnus - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1919-05-10. Died: 2003-06-21.
Von Braun-1 - Notional Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Study 1952. Used on Von Braun launch vehicle. Status: Study 1952. Thrust: 3,057.30 kN (687,308 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Von Braun-2 - Notional Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. A11, Von Braun studies 1943-1952. Status: Study 1952. Thrust: 461.50 kN (103,749 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Von Braun-3 - Notional Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Study 1952. Used on Von Braun launch vehicle. Status: Study 1952. Thrust: 392.30 kN (88,193 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Von Doepp - Russian-German expert in guided missile aero design during WW2. Fluent in Russian. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16. Worked at Wright Field and in California aerospace. Born: 1885-05-08. Died: 1967-10-15.
von Karman - Hungarian-American aerodynamicist, immensely influential, director of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at Caltech from 1930, where he trained a generation of engineers in theoretical aerodynamics and fluid dynamics. Born: 1881. Died: 1963-01-01.
von Radinger - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
von Saurma - German-American rocket engine designer, worked at Huntsville with von Braun. Ranking Prussian aristocrat of the German rocket team. His wife was von Braun's personal secretary.
Vorkuta Sovetskiy - R-12 missile deployment area. First Launch: 1961-06-01. Last Launch: 1961-09-10. Number: 2 .
Vorobyov - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1963-1974. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1974. Born: 1931-02-24. Died: 2010-05-21.
Voronin - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1939-1985 of OKB-124. Specialized in life support systems for spacecraft. Born: 1906-12-21. Died: 1987-01-01.
Voronov - Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1963-1979. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1979. Born: 1930-06-11. Died: 1993-10-31.
Voronov, Nikolai - Russian officer. Commander of Artillery forces 1941-1950. Later became President of Academy of Artillery Sciences. Born: 1899. Died: 1968-02-28.
Vortex - Code name for Chalet military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Voskhod - Russian manned spacecraft. The Voskhods were adaptations of the single place Vostok spacecraft, designed in the heat of the space race to conduct flights with up to three crew, conduct space walks, and fly manned missions of up to three weeks duration ahead of the US Gemini program. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-10-06. Last Launch: 1966-02-22. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb).
Voskhod 1 - First three-crew spaceflight. Altitude record (336 km). First crew to fly without spacesuits. First non-pilot crew (engineer that designed the spacecraft and a physician). Launched: 1964-10-12. Returned: 1964-10-13. Number crew: 3 . Duration: 1.01 days.
Voskhod 11A57 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. The 11A57 took the large third stage originally developed for the 8K78 interplanetary probe projects and applied it to increasing R-7 low earth orbit performance. It was primarily designed to launch the Zenit-4 reconnaissance satellite, but was also used for the Voskhod manned flights and later for a variety of other Zenit series versions. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1963-11-16. Last Launch: 1976-06-29. Number: 299 . Gross mass: 298,400 kg (657,800 lb). Payload: 5,900 kg (13,000 lb). Thrust: 3,999.93 kN (899,220 lbf).
Voskhod 11A57-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1976. Gross mass: 43,400 kg (95,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Thrust: 995.30 kN (223,752 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Voskhod 11A57-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1976. Gross mass: 100,500 kg (221,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Thrust: 941.00 kN (211,545 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Voskhod 11A57-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1976. Gross mass: 24,300 kg (53,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 294.00 kN (66,093 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Voskhod 2 - First space walk. Speed and altitude records. A disaster: astronaut unable to reenter airlock due to spacesuit stiffness; cabin flooded with oxygen; manual reentry, landed in mountains, crew not recovered until next day. Further Voskhod flights cancelled. Launched: 1965-03-18. Returned: 1965-03-19. Number crew: 2 . Duration: 1.08 days.
Voskhod 3 - Manned space flight deferred just 15 days before launch in May 1966. It would have been a world-record 18-day space endurance mission, tasked primarily with testing ballistic missile detection equipment. Never formally cancelled, it just faded away in Brezhnev-era stagnationů Launched: 1966 June. Number crew: 2 .
Voskhod 4 - Planned second long-duration 20 day Voskhod flight. Cancelled in spring 1966 after near-disaster with Voskhod 2 and death of Korolev. Launched: 1967 Autumn. Number crew: 2 .
Voskhod 5 - Planned all-female ten day long-duration flight. Solovyova would have conducted the first female space walk. Cancelled in spring 1966, after death of Korolev, in order to concentrate on Soyuz and Lunar landing programs. Launched: 1966 Late. Number crew: 2 .
Voskhod 6 - Planned Voskhod flight that would include EVA with test of the UPMK 'jet belt'. Cancelled in spring 1966. Launched: 1967 Early. Number crew: 2 .
Voskhod Group - 1964 - Payload specialists and physicians for Voskhod spaceflights. Date: 1964.
Voskhod KDU - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1965. Auxiliary Retrorocket. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 143 kg (315 lb). Unfuelled mass: 56 kg (123 lb). Thrust: 117.00 kN (26,302 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Voskhod Physician Group - 1965 - Requirement: physician for planned Voskhod flight. Date: 1965.
Voskhod PO - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1965. Equipment section. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,025 kg (4,464 lb). Thrust: 15.83 kN (3,558 lbf). Propellants: Nitrous oxide/Amines.
Voskhod SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1965. Reentry capsule. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb).
Voskresenskiy - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1953-1964 of Korolev design bureau. Born: 1913-07-14. Died: 1965-12-15.
Voskresensky - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1964-1964. Medical doctor. Selected as a cosmonaut in early May 1964, but the selection was never confirmed by the government commission. Status: Inactive.
Voss - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1987-2003. US Army Status: Inactive; Active 1987-2003. Born: 1949-03-03. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 202.23 days.
Voss, Janice - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1990-2012. Engineer. Status: Deceased; Active 1990-2012. Born: 1956-10-08. Died: 2012-07-02. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 49.16 days.
Voss, Werner - German-American engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. Born: 1913-06-25. Died: 1993-07-01.
Vostochniy - Vostochniy, Russia's new cosmodrome, was to be constructed at the missile base of Uglegorsk, population 5135, not far from the Svobodniy Cosmodrome. The site would include a modern residential town to accommodate the tens of thousands of workers at the cosmodrome. The space center would be designed to handle the Angara rocket family.
Vostok - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-9.
Vostok - Alternate designation for Vostok 8K72K.
Vostok - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A514.
Vostok - Alternate designation for Voskhod 11A57.
Vostok - Alternate designation for Vostok 8K72.
Vostok - Alternate designation for Vostok 8A92M.
Vostok - World's first manned spacecraft, it was developed into the later Voskhod, and numerous versions of recoverable unmanned satellites for reconnaissance (Zenit), materials, and biological research (Bion). These remained in service into the 21st Century. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-05-15. Last Launch: 2014-07-18. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,455 kg (9,821 lb). Thrust: 15.83 kN (3,558 lbf). Propellants: Nitrous oxide/Amines.
Vostok 1 - First manned spaceflight, one orbit of the earth. Strap attaching service module failed to separate from capsule, leading to wild ride before it burned through during re-entry. Launched: 1961-04-12. Returned: 1961-04-12. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0750 days.
Vostok 10 - Planned ten-day flight, science plus engineering tests of ion flow sensors to be used for orientation of later Soyuz spacecraft. All follow-on Vostok missions cancelled in spring 1964. Launched: 1965 April. Number crew: 1 .
Vostok 11 - Proposed Vostok flight to conduct extra-vehicular activity tests. All follow-on Vostok missions cancelled in spring 1964 and EVA moved to Voskhod 2. Launched: 1965 June. Number crew: 1 .
Vostok 11A510 - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A510.
Vostok 12 - Proposed Vostok flight to conduct extra-vehicular activity tests. The Vostok would be modified by having the ejection seat removed and an airlock built into the spacecraft. All follow-on Vostok missions cancelled in Spring 1964. Launched: 1965 August. Number crew: 1 .
Vostok 13 - Proposed high altitude manned Vostok flight for extended scientific studies. All follow-on Vostok missions cancelled in spring 1964. Launched: 1966 April. Number crew: 1 .
Vostok 2 - Second manned orbital flight. After 17.5 orbits, the spacecraft reentered and the cosmonaut landed safely. First astronaut to experience space sickness. Day-long flight was a huge blow to America, which had not even orbited a man in space yet. Launched: 1961-08-06. Returned: 1961-08-07. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 1.05 days.
Vostok 2 - Alternate designation for Zenit-2 satellite military surveillance satellite.
Vostok 3 - Joint flight with Vostok 4; two Vostok capsules were launched one day apart, coming within a few kilometers of each other. Record flight duration. First simultaneous flight of two manned spacecraft. Launched: 1962-08-11. Returned: 1962-08-15. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 3.93 days.
Vostok 4 - Joint flight with Vostok 3. Problems with life support system, resulted in cabin temperature dropping to 10 deg C. Returned to earth a day early due to communications secret code mix-up. First Ukrainian astronaut. Launched: 1962-08-12. Returned: 1962-08-15. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 2.96 days.
Vostok 4 - Alternate designation for Zenit-4 military surveillance satellite.
Vostok 5 - Joint flight with Vostok 6. Record flight duration. Spacecraft ended up in a lower than planned orbit and quickly decayed - temperatures in the service module reached very high levels and the flight returned early. Launched: 1963-06-14. Returned: 1963-06-19. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 4.96 days.
Vostok 6 - Joint flight with Vostok 5. First woman in space. Tereshkova did not reply during several communications sessions. To this day it is not known if she was paralyzed with fear, or if there was an equipment failure. Launched: 1963-06-16. Returned: 1963-06-19. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 2.95 days.
Vostok 6A - Cancelled female cosmonaut flight. Originally Vostok 5/6 were to be dual female flights. Two capsules would be launched a day apart; each would remain aloft for three days. Changed by leadership to single female flight in March 1963. Launched: 1963 June. Number crew: 1 .
Vostok 7 - Eight day manned flight planned for the last quarter of 1963, then June 1964. All further Vostok flights cancelled in favor of multi-crew Voskhod in February 1964. Launched: 1964 June. Number crew: 1 .
Vostok 8 - Planned ten day manned flight; second high altitude flight into the lower Van Allen radiation belt for radiological-biological studies. All further Vostok flights cancelled in favor of multi-crew Voskhod in February 1964. Launched: 1964 August. Number crew: 1 .
Vostok 8A92 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. The 8A92 was a modernized version of the Vostok booster used for launch of Zenit-2 reconnaissance satellites. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1962-06-01. Last Launch: 1967-05-12. Number: 45 . Gross mass: 281,375 kg (620,325 lb). Payload: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Thrust: 3,996.85 kN (898,528 lbf).
Vostok 8A92-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1967. Gross mass: 43,300 kg (95,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Thrust: 995.30 kN (223,752 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 8A92-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1967. Gross mass: 100,400 kg (221,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Thrust: 940.40 kN (211,410 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 8A92-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1967. Gross mass: 7,775 kg (17,140 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,440 kg (3,170 lb). Thrust: 54.90 kN (12,342 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 8A92M - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Second generation space systems required injection of lighter but higher-altitude Meteor and other satellite payloads into sun-synchronous orbits. The 8A92M version was developed for this purpose. First use was the Meteor launch on 29 June 1977. Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1964-08-28. Last Launch: 1991-08-29. Number: 94 . Gross mass: 282,300 kg (622,300 lb). Payload: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Thrust: 3,996.85 kN (898,528 lbf).
Vostok 8A92M-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1991. Gross mass: 43,300 kg (95,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Thrust: 995.30 kN (223,752 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 8A92M-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1991. Gross mass: 101,000 kg (222,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Thrust: 940.40 kN (211,410 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 8A92M-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1991. Gross mass: 8,100 kg (17,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 54.52 kN (12,257 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 8K72 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. 8K72 Luna launch vehicle, third stage modified with larger forward cylindrical section to accommodate Vostok-sized spacecraft. Used only for launch of first few prototype Vostoks. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1960-05-15. Last Launch: 1960-12-01. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 281,375 kg (620,325 lb). Payload: 4,550 kg (10,030 lb). Thrust: 3,873.74 kN (870,851 lbf).
Vostok 8K72-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 43,300 kg (95,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,710 kg (8,170 lb). Thrust: 970.00 kN (218,060 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 8K72-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 100,400 kg (221,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Thrust: 912.00 kN (205,025 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 8K72-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 7,775 kg (17,140 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,440 kg (3,170 lb). Thrust: 49.42 kN (11,110 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 8K72K - Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-7 ICBM with single-engine third stage, uprated from Luna launch vehicle and with forward fairing to accommodate Vostok/Zenit sized spacecraft. 8K72K, used for Vostok manned spacecraft launches and the first Zenit launch attempt. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1960-12-22. Last Launch: 1964-07-10. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 281,375 kg (620,325 lb). Payload: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Thrust: 3,894.25 kN (875,462 lbf).
Vostok 8K72K-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1964. Gross mass: 43,300 kg (95,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,710 kg (8,170 lb). Thrust: 970.00 kN (218,060 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 8K72K-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1964. Gross mass: 100,400 kg (221,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Thrust: 912.00 kN (205,025 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 8K72K-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1964. Gross mass: 7,775 kg (17,140 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,440 kg (3,170 lb). Thrust: 54.52 kN (12,257 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vostok 9 - Proposed high altitude Vostok flight for extended scientific studies to be flown in 1963-1964; All further Vostok flights cancelled in favor of multi-crew Voskhod in February 1964. Launched: 1964 August. Number crew: 1 .
Vostok PO - Russian manned spacecraft module. Equipment section. Gross mass: 2,270 kg (5,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,995 kg (4,398 lb). Thrust: 15.83 kN (3,558 lbf). Propellants: Nitrous oxide/Amines.
Vostok SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. Reentry capsule. Gross mass: 2,460 kg (5,420 lb).
Vostok-2 - Alternate designation for Vostok-Zh manned spacecraft.
Vostok-L 8K72 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-7 ICBM with single-engine upper stage used for early Soviet unmanned lunar shots. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1958-09-23. Last Launch: 1960-04-16. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 277,000 kg (610,000 lb). Payload: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 3,956.76 kN (889,515 lbf).
Vostok-Zh - Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1961. The Vostok-Zh (or Vostok-7) maneuverable manned satellite was piloted by a single 'cosmonaut assemblyman'. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb).
Votinsk - Russian manufacturer of rockets. Votinsk, Votinsk, Russia.
Votintsev - Russian officer. First Commander of PRO/PKO forces 1967-1985. Commanded ABM and ASAT forces. Born: 1919.
Vought - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Vought, USA.
Vowe - German-American engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. Born: 1904-06-25. Died: 1989-06-07.
Voyager - American outer planets probe. The twin Voyager spacecraft were designed to perform close-up observations of the atmospheres, magnetospheres, rings, and satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-08-20. Last Launch: 1977-09-05. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
Voyager 1973 - American Mars lander. Cancelled 1967. The original Voyager project was an ambitious NASA project to hurl a 3 metric ton spacecraft using a Saturn IB-Centaur booster toward Mars by 1969. Status: Cancelled 1967. Gross mass: 11,700 kg (25,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb).
Vozbrashchaemaya ballisticheskaya kapsula - Alternate designation for Progress M VBK manned spacecraft module.
Vozdushnyy Transport - Vosdushny Transport, Russian journal.
Voznyuk - Russian officer. Commander of Kapustin Yar from 1946 to 1973. Born: 1907. Died: 1976-09-12.
Vozovikov - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1993. Graduated from Higher Military Pilot School, Armavir, 1979. Cosmonaut training 1 October 1990 - 6 March 1992. Drowned during recovery training in the Black Sea. Status: Deceased; Active 1990-1993. Born: 1958-04-17. Died: 1993-07-11.
Vozvrashchaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for Zarya VA.
Vozvrashchaemiy apparat - Alternate designation for TKS VA.
Vozvrashchaemiy apparat - Russian name for LK-1 VA manned spacecraft module.
VPF - Abbreviation for Vertical Processing Facility
VPK - Military-Industrial Commission (Russian abbreviation)
VRM - Venus Radar Mapper (now called Magellan)
VS SNG - Vooruzhennikh Sil SNG (Combined Forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States), Russia
VS-30 - Brazilian sounding rocket. Single stage suborbital launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-04-28. Last Launch: 2015-03-05. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 102.00 kN (22,930 lbf).
VS-30/Orion - Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sonda 3-1 + 1 x Orion Status: Active. First Launch: 2000-08-21. Last Launch: 2015-02-19. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 102.00 kN (22,930 lbf).
VS-40 - Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x S-40TM + 1 x S-44 Status: Retired 1998. First Launch: 1993-04-02. Last Launch: 1998-03-21. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Thrust: 190.00 kN (42,710 lbf).
VS-40M - Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-06-22. Last Launch: 2012-06-22. Number: 1 .
VSAT - Abbreviation for Very Small Aperture Terminal
VSB-30 - Brazilian two stage sounding rocket consisting of 1 x S-31 plus 1 x S-30. It replaced the British Skylark for suborbital flights from Kiruna. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-10-23. Last Launch: 2015-04-27. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 2,657 kg (5,857 lb). Payload: 407 kg (897 lb). Thrust: 102.00 kN (22,930 lbf).
VSNKh - All-Russian Council of the National Economy (Russian abbreviation)
VSOP - Code name for Haruka radio astronomy satellite.
VSUM - Satellite air dropped in Point Arguello WADZ. Used the Orbcomm bus.
VTHL - Abbreviation for Vertical Takeoff Horizontal Landing
VTOHL 45t - American SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical Takeoff Horizontal Landing (winged). Status: Study 1978. Gross mass: 1,158,192 kg (2,553,376 lb). Thrust: 15,369.90 kN (3,455,291 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
VTOHL 9t - American SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical Takeoff Horizontal Landing (winged). Status: Study 1978. Gross mass: 687,503 kg (1,515,684 lb). Thrust: 9,222.00 kN (2,073,188 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
VTOL - Vertical takeoff and landing aircraft .
VTOVL - The concept of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit Vertical Take-Off Vertical Landing (VTOVL) launch vehicle that would reenter and return to its launch site for turnaround and relaunch was first proposed by Philip Bono in the 1960's. The appealing simplicity of the concept has been offset by the technological risk in developing it. The problem with any single-stage-to-orbit concept is that if the empty weight of the final vehicle has been underestimated it will not be able to deliver any payload to orbit, or even reach orbit. Since weight growth of up to 20% is not unknown in aerospace projects, this is a very real threat which has made both NASA and private investors reluctant to invest the billions of dollars it would take to develop a full-scale flight vehicle.
VTOVL 150t - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1978. Gross mass: 4,093,761 kg (9,025,198 lb). Unfuelled mass: 419,154 kg (924,076 lb). Thrust: 63,387.80 kN (14,250,145 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
VTOVL 1978 - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing. Status: Study 1978. Gross mass: 4,093,761 kg (9,025,198 lb). Thrust: 53,846.90 kN (12,105,265 lbf).
VTs - Computation Centre (Russian abbreviation)
VTVL - Abbreviation for Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing
Vulcain - SEP, Ottobrunn LOx/LH2 rocket engine. In production. Powered the cryogenic core stage of Ariane 5. First flight 1996. Upgraded versions developed and proposed for later Ariane 5 versions. Status: In production. Number: 22 . Unfuelled mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 1,075.00 kN (241,669 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Vulcain 2 - SEP, Ottobrunn LOx/LH2 rocket engine. In development. New generator cycle rocket engine for an Ariane 5 core stage upgrade. Thrust increased more than 30% from Vulcain 1. First flight 2002. Status: In development. Number: 9 . Unfuelled mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 1,350.00 kN (303,490 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Vulkan - Super heavy-lift version of Energia with six strap-on boosters, and in-line upper stages and payloads. The concept was put on the back burner when Energia / Buran development begun. Status: Development ended 1976. Gross mass: 3,072,000 kg (6,772,000 lb). Thrust: 49,329.10 kN (11,089,623 lbf).
Vulkan (Volcano ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-16.
Vulkan (Volcano ) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-10.
Vulkan (Volcano) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-10.
Vulkan (Volcano) - Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-16.
Vulkan 0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Original design of Energia strap-ons, for use with Vulkan booster for manned lunar expedition. Ultimately derived from R-56 of 1961. Status: Development ended 1976. Gross mass: 355,000 kg (782,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb). Thrust: 7,891.01 kN (1,773,970 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Vulkan 1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Original version of Energia core as used on Vulkan booster, with in-line upper stages and payloads. Developed 1974-1976; cancelled when Energia / Buran development begun. Status: Development ended 1976. Gross mass: 800,000 kg (1,760,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Thrust: 7,450.00 kN (1,674,820 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Vulkan Blok V - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Upper stage design by KB Saturn for manned lunar expedition, large geosynchronous platform launch. Status: Development ended 1976. Gross mass: 142,000 kg (313,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Thrust: 411.00 kN (92,396 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Vulkan Engineering Group - 1968 - Requirement: engineer to operate Vulkan space welding system Date: 1968.
Vulkan-launched version - Alternate name for LZM.
Vulkan-launched version - Alternate name for LZhM.
VUSat - Microsatellite providing satellite-based Oscar Amateur Radio services to the international community of Amateur Radio Operators (HAMs). Primarily intended for HAM operators in South Asia. One of the transponders was developed by Indian amateurs.
VVS - Russian Air Force (Russian abbreviation)
VVS 1993 - In 1993 the Russian Air Force surveyed more practical methods of achieving a manned space bomber than the cancelled VKS program. These incorporated concepts and technology developed for both the VKS and OK programs. There was no funding to further pursue the program. Status: Cancelled 1994.
Vykhod - Code name for Voskhod manned spacecraft.
Vympel - Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Vympel Central Scientific Production Assoc. , Dubna, Russia
Vysota - Alternate designation for R-29D.
Vysota - Russian intercontinental ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle based on R-29D SLBM. Suborbital; 30-55 min zero G. Payload volume 0.7 cu. m. Payload 115 kg to 5200 km or 1150 kg to 200 km. Liftoff mass 33 metric tons. Status: Retired 1996. First Launch: 1969-03-01. Last Launch: 1996-07-15. Number: 36 . Gross mass: 33,300 kg (73,400 lb). Payload: 120 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 682.00 kN (153,319 lbf).
Vysota - Alternate designation for R-29.
Vysota-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1996. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Thrust: 682.00 kN (153,319 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Vysota-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1996. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Vzletnaya stuplen - Alternate designation for LEK VS.
Vzletnaya stuplen - Russian name (ascent module) for LK Energia VS manned spacecraft module.

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