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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: L

L-1 - Alternate designation for Start-1.
L-1 - Alternate designation for Start.
L1 Launch Windows - The simple constraint on L1 launch dates.
L-1 Linear Aerospike Booster - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. Date: 1970. Thrust: 889.36 kN (199,936 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
L1: The Podsadka Problem - What was the secret configuration of the L1 spacecraft?
L-1011 - Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Lockheed airliner swept wing. Release conditions: Belly-mounted, 36,800 kg, 17.1 m length x 7.9 m span at 925 kph at 11,890 m altitude Status: Active. Gross mass: 156,000 kg (343,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 109,629 kg (241,690 lb). Payload: 36,800 kg (81,100 lb). Thrust: 561.90 kN (126,320 lbf). More at: Air/Kerosene
L1-1960 - Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1960. Circumlunar manned spacecraft proposed by Korolev in January 1960. The L1 would a man on a loop around the moon and back to earth by 1964. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb).
L1-1962 - Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1962. Early design that would lead to Soyuz. A Vostok-Zh manned tug would assemble rocket stages in orbit. It would then return, and a Soyuz L1 would dock with the rocket stack and be propelled toward the moon. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 16,500 kg (36,300 lb).
L-14 - Alternate designation for CZ-4A-3 rocket stage.
L-140 - Alternate designation for CZ-2C-1.
L-140 - Alternate designation for CZ-3-1.
L-140 - Alternate designation for Ariane 1-1 rocket stage.
L-140B - Alternate designation for Ariane 2-1 rocket stage.
L14-YF40 - Alternate name for CZ-4B-3.
L-17 - Alternate designation for Diamant B-1 rocket stage.
L-180 - Alternate name for CZ-2E-1.
L-180 - Alternate name for CZ-4A-1.
L-180 - Alternate name for CZ-3A-1.
L-2 Linear Aerospike Booster - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. Date: 1971. Thrust: 444.63 kN (99,957 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
L2-1963 - Russian lunar rover. Study 1963. The L2 was a project to land a remote-controlled self-propelled rover on the surface of the moon. It was described in a 23 September 1963 letter setting out the space exploration plan for 1965 to 1975. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 23,000 kg (50,000 lb).
L-220 - Alternate designation for Ariane 4-1 rocket stage.
L2-9K-11K-13K - Manufacturer's designation for L2-1963 lunar rover.
L3 - Russian manned lunar expedition. Development begun in 1964. All hardware was test flown, but program cancelled in 1974 due to repeated failures of the project's N1 launch vehicle. Status: Cancelled 1974. Gross mass: 95,000 kg (209,000 lb).
L3-1 - Planned first Soviet manned lunar landing, slated by end 1969 before N1 flight tests began in early 1969. Crew possibly Leonov and Makarov. Launched: 1969-12-07.
L3-1963 - Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1963. Korolev's original design for a manned lunar landing spacecraft was described in September 1963 and was designed to make a direct lunar landing using the earth orbit rendezvous method. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb).
L3-2 - Planned first Soviet manned lunar landing, slated for 1970 before N1 flight tests began in early 1969. Crew possibly Bykovsky and Rukavishnikov. Launched: 1970-04-06.
L-33 - Alternate designation for Ariane 1-2 rocket stage.
L3-3 - Planned first Soviet manned lunar landing, slated for 1970 before N1 flight tests began in early 1969. Crew possibly Popovich and Sevastyanov. Launched: 1970-12-06.
L-33B - Alternate designation for Ariane 2-2 rocket stage.
L-35 - Alternate name for CZ-2C/SD-2.
L-35 - Alternate name for CZ-3-2.
L-35 - Alternate name for CZ-4A-2.
L-35 - Alternate name for CZ-3A-2.
L-35 - Alternate name for CZ-2C-2.
L35-YF24B - Alternate name for CZ-4B-2.
L3M - Russian manned lunar base. Study 1970-1972. Follow-on to the L3, a two N1-launch manned lunar expedition designed and developed in the Soviet Union between 1969 and 1974. Status: Study 1970.
L3M-1970 - Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1970. The first design of the L3M lunar lander had the crew of two accommodated in a Soyuz capsule atop the lander. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 23,000 kg (50,000 lb).
L3M-1972 - Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1972. Revised L3M design of the L3M lunar lander for use with the Block Sr crasher stage. The Soyuz return capsule was completely enclosed in a pressurized 'hangar'. Status: Study 1972. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb).
L3S - Alternate designation for Ariane 1.
L-40 - Alternate designation for Ariane 4-0-4L rocket stage.
L4-1960 - Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1960. Lunar orbiter proposed by Korolev in January 1960. The spacecraft was to take 2 to 3 men to lunar orbit and back to earth by 1965. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb).
L4-1963 - Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1963. The L-4 Manned Lunar Orbiter Research Spacecraft would have taken two to three cosmonauts into lunar orbit for an extended survey and mapping mission. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb).
L480S - ISAS solid rocket engine. Lambda 4T fourth stage. Status: Retired 1974. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Thrust: 7.80 kN (1,754 lbf). More at: Solid
L-4S - Alternate name for Osumi.
L5 - Russian manned lunar rover, as per initial study in 1963. The L-5 Heavy Lunar Self-Propelled Craft would be used for extended manned reconnaissance of the lunar surface. The design was elaborated by Korolev's bureau and others until all such work was cancelled with the demise of the N1 launch vehicle in 1974. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Payload: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
L-5.00H - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1963. Used on Nova GD-H launch vehicle. Status: Study 1963. Thrust: 30,684.00 kN (6,898,037 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
L-5.25H - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1963. Engines for recoverable booster engine package 'half stage' of a 1 1/2 stage arrangement. Used on Nova GD-H launch vehicle. Status: Study 1963. Thrust: 27,350.00 kN (6,148,520 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
L500 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Lambda 4S third stage. Status: Retired 1977. Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 69.00 kN (15,511 lbf). More at: Solid
L5-1967 - Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1967. At a Lunar Soviet meeting in October 1967 preliminary agreement was reached to study a follow-on to the first N1-L3 lunar landings. A new N1 model was to be developed to launch a new 'L5' spacecraft. Status: Study 1967. Gross mass: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
L-6.55 - Notional LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Study 1963. Engines used in recoverable stage of ballistic shape; separation at 3,420 m/s at 93,900 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 parachutes 1340 km downrange. Status: Study 1963. Thrust: 31,010.00 kN (6,971,320 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
L6H - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1963. Operational date would have been June 1976. Used in booster stage (engines only). Used on Nova MM 34 launch vehicle. Status: Study 1963. Thrust: 122,748.00 kN (27,594,848 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
L7 - Alternate name for Ariane 5-2 L7 Astris.
L-7.70 - Notional LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Study 1963. Engines used in recoverable stage; separation at 3,365 m/s at 89,300 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 8 46 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. Status: Study 1963. Thrust: 37,007.00 kN (8,319,504 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
L735 - ISAS solid rocket engine. Lambda 3 first stage. Status: Retired 1977. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,945 kg (6,492 lb). Thrust: 410.00 kN (92,170 lbf). More at: Solid
L735(1/3) - ISAS solid rocket engine. Lambda 4SC second stage. Status: Retired 1977. Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 118.00 kN (26,527 lbf). More at: Solid
L735(1-3) - Alternate designation for L735(1/3).
L735(1-3) - Alternate designation for Lambda 4SC-2 rocket stage.
L-9 - Alternate designation for Ariane 5-2 rocket stage.
L-90 - Alternate designation for CZ-2E-2 rocket stage.
La Sapienza - Italian manufacturer. Universita degli Studi "la Sapienza", Rome, Italy.
La-205 - Alternate designation for 205 missile.
La-205 - Alternate name of S-25 205.
La-205 - Alternate designation for 205.
La-206 - Alternate designation for 206 missile.
La-206 - Alternate name of S-25 206.
La-206 - Alternate designation for 206.
La-207 - Alternate designation for 207 missile.
La-207 - Alternate name of S-25 207.
La-207 - Alternate designation for 207.
La-207A - Alternate designation for 207A.
La-207T - Alternate designation for 207T.
La-208 - Alternate designation for 208 missile.
La-208 - Alternate name of S-25 208.
La-208 - Alternate designation for 208.
La-215 - Alternate designation for 215 missile.
La-215 - Alternate name of S-25 215.
La-215 - Alternate designation for 215.
La-217 - Alternate designation for 217 missile.
La-217 - Alternate name of S-25 217.
La-217 - Alternate designation for 217.
La-217M - Alternate designation for 217M.
La-218 - Alternate designation for 218 missile.
La-218 - Alternate designation for 218.
La-350 - Alternate designation for Burya La-350.
La-350 - Alternate designation for Burya.
Laboratoire de Recherches Ballistiques et Aerodynamiques - Alternate name for LRBA.
Laboratorno-zhiloy modul' - Alternate designation for LZhM manned lunar habitat.
Laboratory Module - Alternate designation for MOL LM manned space station module.
Laboroatorno-zavodskoy modul' - Alternate designation for LZM manned lunar habitat.
LabSat 1 (Micro-Lab-Sat 1) - Technology satellite operated by NASDA, Japan. Launched 2002. First Launch: 2002-12-14. Last Launch: 2002-12-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 68 kg (149 lb).
LACE - American military strategic defense satellite. USA 51. The Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment was part of a dual payload with RME carrying laser defense experiments. SDI Experiments satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for SDIO, USA. Launched 1990. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-02-14. Last Launch: 1990-02-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,430 kg (3,150 lb).
LACE stage - Liquid Air/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Design 1999. Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 147.00 kN (33,046 lbf). More at: Liquid Air/LH2
LACE/LE-5 - Mitsubishi air augmented Liquid Air/LH2 rocket engine. Design 1999. Used on H-2 HIMES launch vehicle. Status: Design 1999. Thrust: 147.10 kN (33,069 lbf). More at: Liquid Air/LH2
Lacklen, Robert J - American personnel manager, at NASA 1945-1964.
LaComb, Maureen Cecil - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1990. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1990. Born: 1956-11-16.
Lacrosse - American tactical ballistic missile. Nuclear-armed short-range ballistic missile briefly deployed by the U.S. Army in the late 1950s. Its rocket motor was the basis for the Doorknob sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1964. Gross mass: 1,040 kg (2,290 lb). Payload: 180 kg (390 lb). Thrust: 110.80 kN (24,909 lbf).
Lacrosse satellite - American military side-looking radar all-weather surveillance radar satellite. Operational, first launch 1988.12.02. Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-12-02. Last Launch: 2005-04-30. Number: 5 .
LADEE - Lunar lander operated by NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Launched 2013. Used Modular Common Spacecraft Bus (MCSB). First Launch: 2013-09-07. Last Launch: 2013-09-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 383 kg (844 lb).
LADEE - NASA Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer mission. It carried an ultraviolet spectrometer, a lunar dust experiment, a neutral mass spectrometer, and a laser communications experiment. Alternate name for MCSB.
Laebe - German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the Doppler tracking group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952.
LAGEOS - American earth geodetic satellite. The LAGEOS satellites were passive vehicles covered with retroreflectors designed to reflect laser beams transmitted from ground stations. Geodesy satellite built by Bendix Corp. (body), Perkin ELmer (reflectors)(#1), ASI (#2) for NASA, ASI, USA. Launched 1976 - 1992. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-05-04. Last Launch: 1992-10-22. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 405 kg (892 lb).
Lagrangian Interplanetary Shuttle Vehicle - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1985. A Lagrangian approach to Mars exploration was proposed in June 1985. This would use the L1 sunward point of equal Earth/Moon/Sun gravity to assemble and refuel a large Interplanetary Shuttle Vehicle spacecraft. Status: Study 1985.
Lagrangian point - Category of spacecraft.
Lagutev, S N - Russian engineer.
LAH - Abbreviation for Lithium aluminum hydride
LAICE - Technology satellite for University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Aerospace Engineering, USA. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus.
LAIMP 1, 2 - Alternate name of IMP D, E (LAIMP 1, 2).
Laliberte, Guy - Canadian space tourist, 2009. Founder of Cirque de Soleil. Status: Inactive; Active 2009-2009. Born: 1959-09-02. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 10.89 days.
Lambda - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Japan's first satellite launcher. The L-4S project simulated the procedures and demonstrated the capabilities required for orbital satellite launch essential to the follow-on Mu project. Status: Retired 1977.
Lambda 2 - Japanese test vehicle. 3-4 stage vehicle series. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1963-08-24. Last Launch: 1963-12-11. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Payload: 180 kg (390 lb). Thrust: 970.00 kN (218,060 lbf).
Lambda 2-2 - Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,400 kg (3,086 lb). Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 110.00 kN (24,720 lbf). More at: Solid
Lambda 3 - Japanese test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x K420 + 1 x Kappa 8 Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-07-11. Last Launch: 1965-03-18. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Thrust: 970.00 kN (218,060 lbf).
Lambda 3-1 - Alternate name for L735.
Lambda 3-2 - Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,800 kg (3,968 lb). Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 110.00 kN (24,720 lbf). More at: Solid
Lambda 3-3 - Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb). Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 110.00 kN (24,720 lbf). More at: Solid
Lambda 3H - Japanese test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x L735(1/3) + 1 x L500 Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1966-03-05. Last Launch: 1977-08-16. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 8,200 kg (18,000 lb). Thrust: 970.00 kN (218,060 lbf).
Lambda 4 - First Japanese orbital launch vehicle. Status: Out of production. Payload: 26 kg (57 lb).
Lambda 4S - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x L735(1/3) + 1 x L500 + 1 x L480S Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1966-09-26. Last Launch: 1970-02-11. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 9,400 kg (20,700 lb). Payload: 26 kg (57 lb). Thrust: 970.00 kN (218,060 lbf).
Lambda 4S-3 - Alternate name for L500.
Lambda 4SC - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x L735(1/3) + 1 x L500 + 1 x L480S Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1971-08-20. Last Launch: 1979-09-20. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 9,400 kg (20,700 lb). Thrust: 970.00 kN (218,060 lbf).
Lambda 4SC-2 - Alternate name for L735(1/3).
Lambda 4T - Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x L735(1/3) + 1 x L500 + 1 x L480S Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1969-09-03. Last Launch: 1969-09-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 9,400 kg (20,700 lb). Thrust: 970.00 kN (218,060 lbf).
Lambda 4T-4 - Alternate name for L480S.
LambdaSat - 1U Cubesat built by the Lambda Team of San Jose, California.
Lambdasat (Λ-sat) - Technology satellite for Lambda Team, Greece. Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2014-07-13. Last Launch: 2014-07-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Lammerhirt - German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the Doppler tracking group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952.
LAMPO - American military target satellite. Radar calibration satellite, USA. Launched 1963. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-08-29. Last Launch: 1963-08-29. Number: 1 .
Lampton, Michael Logan - American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1978-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1992. Born: 1941-03-01.
Lance - Alternate designation for MGM-52C.
Lance - Alternate designation for MGM-52A.
Lance - American short range ballistic missile, which replaced the Little John, Sergeant and Honest John rockets in US Army service in the 1970's. Retired in 1992. Status: Active. First Launch: 1996-08-22. Last Launch: 2009-03-26. Number: 8 .
Lancelin - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1974-06-20. Last Launch: 1974-06-20. Number: 2 .
Lancelot - British missile.
Land Group - Land Group, China
Land, Edwin - American Engineer. Edwin Land was president of the Polaroid Corporation, and a member of the Purcell Panel that assessed space flight capabilities for the U.S. government in 1957-1958.
Land-Based Version - American surface-to-air missile. Land based-version of Terrier surface-to-air missile. Development begun in 1951. Project cancelled in 1956.
Landing Module - Alternate name for Gemini LSSS LM.
Landing Module - Alternate name for Gemini LSRS LM.
Landmapper-BC 1, ..., 10 - Alternate name of Corvus-BC 1, ..., 10 (Landmapper-BC 1, ..., 10).
Landmapper-HD 1, ..., 20 - Alternate name of Corvus-HD 1, ..., 20 (Landmapper-HD 1, ..., 20).
Landsat - Series of US earth resources satellites. Landsat 1 was the first such satellite to survey the earth's land areas using multispectral sensors to catalogue forests, crops, and watersheds. Subsequent generations provided an unrivaled dataset showing changes over decades. For this purpose compatible sensors will be carried as payloads in other satellites into the 21st Century.
Landsat 1-2-3 - American earth land resources satellite. The first 3 Landsat missions were also known as the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) series. Earth Observing satellite built by RCA Astro Space for NASA, USA. Launched 1972 - 1978. Used Nimbus Bus. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-07-23. Last Launch: 1978-03-05. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 910 kg (2,000 lb).
Landsat 4-5 - American earth land resources satellite. Earth Observing satellite built by Fairchild for NASA, NOAA, USA. Launched 1982 - 1984. Used the MMS bus. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-07-16. Last Launch: 1984-03-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb).
Landsat 6 - American earth land resources satellite. Landsat 6 was designed to continue the Landsat program and carried an improved suite of instruments. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-10-05. Last Launch: 1993-10-05. Number: 1 .
Landsat 7 - American earth land resources satellite. Earth Observing satellite built by Lockheed Martin for NASA, USA. Launched 1993 - 1999. Used the TIROS-N Bus bus. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-04-15. Last Launch: 1999-04-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,969 kg (4,340 lb).
Landsat 8, 9 (LDCM) - Earth Observing satellite, USA. Launched 2013. First Launch: 2013-02-11. Last Launch: 2013-02-11. Number: 1 .
LANDSS - American drone. Lightweight Advanced Night/Day Surveillance System, Calere III. DARPA program 1976
Lang - German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 to 1950 as leader of the test stand group. Returned to Bremen, Germany thereafter.
Lange, Hermann E - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1906-10-23. Died: 1997-07-03.
Langley Research Center - Second name of NASA Langley.
LANL - First name of Los Alamos.
Lanphier, Thomas G - American manager, as pilot in WW2, one of the group that shot down Yamamoto in 1943. Secretary of the Air Force, 1949-1950; VP at Convair,1951-1960, at Raytheon from 1962. Born: 1915-11-27. Died: 1987-11-26.
Lantern - Alternate designation for Mesbah technology satellite.
Lantern-2 - Alternate designation for Mesbah-2 civilian store-dump communications satellite.
LANTR Moon Base - American manned lunar base. Study 1997. Liquid oxygen mined from the moon combined with a LOX-Augmented Nuclear Thermal Rocket earth-to-moon shuttle to achieve dramatic reductions in launch requirements for a lunar base. Status: Study 1997.
Laogang - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1960-02-19. Last Launch: 1960-02-19. Number: 1 .
Laos -
LaoSat 1 - Communication satellite built by CAST, Laos. Launched 2015. Used the DFH-4S Bus bus. First Launch: 2015-11-21. Last Launch: 2015-11-21. Number: 1 .
LAPAN - Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional (National Institute for Aeronautics and Space)Space), Indonesia. Indonesian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
LAPAN A2 (LAPAN-ORARI / IO 86 / Indonesia-OSCAR 86) - Earth Observing, amateur communications satellite for LAPAN, Indonesia. Launched 2015. First Launch: 2015-09-28. Last Launch: 2015-09-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 68 kg (149 lb).
LAPAN A3 - Communication, earth observation satellite built by LAPAN for LAPAN, ORARI, Indonesia. Launched 2016. First Launch: 2016-06-22. Last Launch: 2016-06-22. Number: 1 .
LAPAN-ORARI / IO 86 / Indonesia-OSCAR 86 - Alternate name of LAPAN A2 (LAPAN-ORARI / IO 86 / Indonesia-OSCAR 86).
LAPAN-Tubsat / LAPAN A1 - Earth Observing satellite built by TU-Berlin for LAPAN, TU-Berlin, Indonesia. Launched 2007. Used 45 × 45 × 27 cm bus. First Launch: 2007-01-10. Last Launch: 2007-01-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 56 kg (123 lb).
LAPSTAR-300 - WRE solid rocket engine. Aeolus first stage. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf). More at: Solid
LAPSTAR-52 - WRE solid rocket engine. HAD second stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 52 kg (114 lb). More at: Solid
Lapwing - Bristol solid rocket engine. Petrel, Petrel 2 first stage. Status: Retired 1982. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 26 kg (57 lb). Thrust: 4.50 kN (1,012 lbf). More at: Solid
Lapygin, Vladimir Lavrentyevich - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer, then Chief Designer of Pilyugin design bureau. Specialized in guidance and succeeded Pilyugin 1982. Born: 1925-02-04.
LaRC - Third name of NASA Langley.
LARCN - NASA Langley Research Center
LARES - Laser Relativity Satellite, a 390 kg, 0.38 m diameter tungsten sphere covered with 92 laser retroreflectors. Used to probe relativistic effects in the Earth's gravitational field. The satellite had the lowest ballistic coefficient of any satellite ever launched. Italian Vega launch vehicle. Basic research, Geodesy satellite built by Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA for ASI, Italy. Launched 2012. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-02-13. Last Launch: 2012-02-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 390 kg (850 lb).
LARES Support System - Remained attached to the AVUM upper stage. Included extensive instrumentation to monitor the launch vehicle during ascent. It also deployed seven 1U Cubesats from three P-POD deployers Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-02-13. Last Launch: 2012-02-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
LARES-A&H/SS - Vehicle evaluation payload built by TEMIS, OHB CGS for Arianespace, Italy. Launched 2012. First Launch: 2012-02-13. Last Launch: 2012-02-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 960 kg (2,110 lb).
Larets - Russian radar calibration satellite. No information publicly released. TASS claimed this was a radar calibration satellite. Geodesy, calibration satellite built by Institute of Space Device Engineering - Moscow for IPIE, Russia. Launched 2003. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-09-27. Last Launch: 2003-09-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 64 kg (141 lb).
Lark - American surface-to-air missile. Lark missile. Status: Retired 1953. First Launch: 1950-10-25. Last Launch: 1953-07-08. Number: 40 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb).
Larson AFB - Titan I ICBM base.
Larson AFB Site 1 -
Larson AFB Site 2 -
Larson AFB Site 3 -
LART - German winged orbital launch vehicle. MBB/ERNO air breathing horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit proposal from the mid-1980s. Largely similar to the BAe HOTOL. Status: Study 1985.
Las Palmas - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1966-11-12. Last Launch: 1966-11-12. Number: 2 .
LASER (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LAser GEOdynamics Satellite - Alternate designation for LAGEOS earth geodetic satellite.
LASL - Second name of Los Alamos.
LASM - Land Attack Standard Missile, a derivative of the Standard Missile SM-2MR naval air-defense designed to provide surface-to-surface fire support for the US Marine Corps. Status: Cancelled 2002.
Lasso - French air-to-surface missile. Status: Operational 1980. Gross mass: 69 kg (152 lb). Payload: 30 kg (66 lb).
LatinSat - Alternate name for AprizeSat.
Lattes - Astronomy, X-Ray satellite for INPE, Brazil. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Latvia - Latvia
Latysheva, Irina Dmitriyevna - Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1980-1993. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1993. Born: 1953-07-09.
Launch Sites - Missile bases, launch sites
Launch Vehicle Third Stage Motor - Manufacturer's designation of GF-02 Solid rocket engine.
launch window - The postulated opening in a continuum of time or space through which a spacecraft must be launched to achieve a desired encounter, rendezvous, or impact.
Laveykin, Aleksandr Ivanovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1994. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1994. Born: 1951-04-21. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 174.14 days.
Lavochkin - Alternate designation for Tekos.
Lavochkin bureau - Russian manufacturer of aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft, Moscow, Russia.
Lavochkin, Semyon Alekseyevich - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer of OKB-301 1937-1960 Born: 1900-09-11. Died: 1960-06-09.
Lavrov, L I - Russian engineer.
LAW M72 - American 1950's US Army infantry rocket weapon; Army.
Lawrence Livermore Laboratory - Second name of Livermore.
Lawrence Radiation Laboratory - First name of Livermore.
Lawrence, Robert Henry Jr - American pilot astronaut, 1967. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1967. Born: 1935-10-02. Died: 1967-12-08.
Lawrence, Wendy Barrien - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1992-2006. US Navy ocean engineer. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2006. Born: 1959-07-02. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 51.16 days.
Lawyer, Richard Earl - American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1969. Born: 1932-11-08. Died: 2005-11-12.
La-X - Alternate designation for Burya La-350.
La-X - Alternate designation for Burya.
La-X, Objekt 350 - Alternate designation for Burya.
Layner - Russian missile derived from R-29RM SLBM. Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-05-20. Last Launch: 2011-09-29. Number: 4 .
Lazarev, Vasili Grigoriyevich - Russian physician cosmonaut 1964-1985. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch. Status: Deceased; Active 1964-1985. Born: 1928-02-23. Died: 1990-12-31. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 1.98 days.
Lazutkin, Aleksandr Ivanovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1992-2007. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2007. Born: 1957-10-30. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 184.92 days.
LB-40 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 41,000 kg (90,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Thrust: 816.29 kN (183,508 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LBD - Alternate name of Gargoyle RTV-N-2.
LBE - Alternate name of Glomb LBT.
LBJ - Abbreviation for Lyndon Baines Johnson
LBP - Alternate name of Glomb LBT.
LBSAT - Spanish communications technology satellite. UPM/LBSAT 1. Universidad Politecnia de Madrid Satellite; experimental communications, microgravity experiments. Technology satellite for Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Satellite, Spain. Launched 1995. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-07-07. Last Launch: 1995-07-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 47 kg (103 lb).
LBT - Alternate name of Glomb LBT.
LB-X - American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Kelly Space & Technology, San Bernardino, California. Status: Study 2004.
LC- - Abbreviation for Launch Complex
LC1-1 - Alternate name for Vandenberg SLC3W.
LC1-2 - Alternate name for Vandenberg SLC3E.
LCEHV - American drone missile. Low-Cost Expendable Harassement Vehicle. E-75 drone and LMSC drone, USAF program 1977/1978,
LCH4 - Liquid methane has been proposed as a propellant by the Russians.
LCLV - Alternate name of Space Data LCLV.
LCLV - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. As a result of TRW's review of the Truax/Aerojet Sea Dragon, TRW became so interested in the concept that they undertook studies of their own, which resulted in a design that became known as the 'Big Dumb Booster'. They proposed structural approaches that were even more conservative than Aerojet's, e.g., the use of T-180 steel instead of maraging steel, which would result in even heavier and cheaper tankage. TRW finally obtained USAF funding for fabrication of stage sections and demonstration of scaled-up versions of the TRW pump-fed Apollo Lunar Module ascent engine. The design promised low cost access to space using low technology (steel stages built to low tolerances in shipyards, pressure-fed engines, and low cost storable propellants). But yet again neither NASA or USAF showed interest in true cheap access to space. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 4,212,939 kg (9,287,940 lb). Thrust: 51,724.00 kN (11,628,017 lbf).
LCLV-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 3,253,246 kg (7,172,179 lb). Unfuelled mass: 396,013 kg (873,059 lb). Thrust: 56,368.00 kN (12,672,030 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LCLV-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 798,389 kg (1,760,146 lb). Unfuelled mass: 95,092 kg (209,641 lb). Thrust: 9,793.30 kN (2,201,622 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LCLV-3 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 161,304 kg (355,614 lb). Unfuelled mass: 19,518 kg (43,029 lb). Thrust: 2,028.04 kN (455,922 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LCLVs - Various independently-funded launch vehicles have been advocated, designed, and even developed over the years. A lot of these are attempts to build low-cost launch vehicles using simpler technology. Often such projects begin based on a low cost liquid fuel technology but end up just trying to sell various combinations of Castor solid fuel stages. These enterprises often discover there's more to coming up with a reliable launch vehicle than slashing together a bunch of 'off the shelf' rocket motors and lighting the fuse.... On the other hand, if there is ever a breakthrough in less expensive access to space, it will come through one of these entrepreneurial schemes...
LCROSS - Lunar impact probe, designed to detect ice in the lunar polar regions, part of the LRO mission.
LCROSS - Lunar Impact satellite built by Northrop Grumman for NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, USA. Launched 2009. First Launch: 2009-06-18. Last Launch: 2009-06-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 880 kg (1,940 lb).
LCS - American military target satellite. Aluminum sphere used for radar calibration. Radar Calibration satellite built by Rohr Corp. for Lincoln Laboratory, USA. Launched 1965 - 1971. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-05-06. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 34 kg (74 lb).
LCT2 - Experimental communication satellite for NASA, USA. Launched 2006. Used the Orion-38 motor bus. First Launch: 2006-04-15. Last Launch: 2006-04-15. Number: 1 .
LCT2 / AFSS - Alternate name of Demosat (LCT2 / AFSS).
LDCM - Alternate name of Landsat 8, 9 (LDCM).
LDEF - American earth micrometeoroid satellite. Micro gravity (Shuttle retrievable) satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1984. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-04-06. Last Launch: 1984-04-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,625 kg (7,991 lb).
LDREX - Japanese communications technology satellite. Japan's NASDA space agency sponsored the LDREX experimental antenna. Engineering Test satellite built by NEC Toshiba Space Systems for NASDA, Japan. Launched 2000 - 2006. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-12-20. Last Launch: 2006-10-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 140 kg (300 lb).
LDSD - Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator was a balloon launched, Star-48B solid propellant rocket motor boosted, inflatable reentry test vehicle designed for atmospheric entry on Mars. The payload dropped from the balloon at 36.5 km altitude, then the rocket motor boosted it to Mach 4.3 and an altitude of 58 km. On both tests the vehicle performed well but was lost due to parachute failure. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-06-28. Last Launch: 2014-06-28. Number: 1 .
Le Cardonnet - Test rocket launch location. First Launch: 1952-01-25. Last Launch: 1952-01-30. Number: 5 .
LE-3 - Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. MHI(Japan)/Rocketdyne Upper Stage. Pressure-fed. Date: 1970. Thrust: 53.34 kN (11,991 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
LE-5 - Mitsubishi LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Upper stage on the H-1 launch vehicle. First flight 1986. The LE-5A, a simplified, lower cost version, used an expander bleed cycle turbopump. Status: Retired 1992. Gross mass: 10,600 kg (23,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 102.90 kN (23,133 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LE-5 engine - Mitsubishi LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Used on H-1 launch vehicle. First flight 1986. Number: 9 . Unfuelled mass: 245 kg (540 lb). Thrust: 103.00 kN (23,155 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LE-5A - Mitsubishi LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Used on H-2 launch vehicle. First flight 1994. Number: 7 . Unfuelled mass: 242 kg (533 lb). Thrust: 121.50 kN (27,314 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LE-5B - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Lower cost version of H-2 second stage. Status: In production. Gross mass: 19,600 kg (43,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 137.00 kN (30,798 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LE-5B engine - Mitsubishi LOx/LH2 rocket engine. In production. Improved model of the LE-5A for second stage of the H-II rocket; used hydrogen for the cooling of the thrust chamber, then as the gas to drive the turbine. First flight 2001. Status: In production. Date: 1995-2001. Number: 10 . Unfuelled mass: 269 kg (593 lb). Thrust: 137.00 kN (30,798 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LE-5EC - Alternate designation for LE-5A.
LE-5EC - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1999. Gross mass: 16,700 kg (36,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Thrust: 121.50 kN (27,314 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LE-7 - Mitsubishi LOx/LH2 rocket engine for H-2 upper stages. Staged combustion turbopump. No throttle capability. First flight 1994. Number: 7 . Unfuelled mass: 1,714 kg (3,778 lb). Thrust: 1,078.00 kN (242,344 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LE-7 - Alternate designation for H-2-1 rocket stage.
LE-7A - Mitsubishi LOx/LH2 rocket engine. In production. Improved model of the original LE-7 for the first stage of the H-II rocket with a two stage combustion cycle system. First flight 2001. Status: In production. Date: 1995-2001. Number: 10 . Unfuelled mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 1,098.00 kN (246,840 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Leach Spring - Leach Spring First Launch: 1944-12-01. Last Launch: 1944-12-16. Number: 24 .
Leading Systems - American manufacturer. Leading Systems, USA.
LEAP - Alternate designation for SM-3.
LEAP - American anti-ballistic missile. Lightweight Exo- Atmospheric Projectile. SDIO/BMDO project Status: Cancelled 2001.
LEAP - Alternate designation for Standard SM-3. Status: Cancelled 2001.
LEAP lunar flyer - American manned lunar flyer. Study 1961. LEAP was an early 1960's British design for getting disabled astronauts on the lunar surface quickly to lunar orbit for ferrying home. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 292 kg (643 lb). Unfuelled mass: 122 kg (268 lb). Payload: 98 kg (216 lb). Thrust: 2.88 kN (648 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LEAP satellite - Earth science satellite operated by National Cheng Kung University (NCKU), Taiwan (Republic of China). Gross mass: 24 kg (52 lb).
Leasat - Communications satellite leased to U.S. government.
Leasat 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (Syncom-4 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) - Communication satellite built by Hughes for HCI (for US Navy), USA. Launched 1984 - 1990. Used the HS-381 bus. First Launch: 1984-08-30. Last Launch: 1990-01-09. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb).
Leased Satellite - Alternate designation for HS 381 military communications satellite.
Leba - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1963-01-01. Last Launch: 1974-06-06. Number: 134 .
Lebanon -
Lebedev bureau - Russian manufacturer. Number: 2 . Duration: 219.25 days.
Lebedev, Valentin Vitaliyevich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1972-1993. Status: Inactive; Active 1972-1993. Born: 1942-04-14. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 219.25 days.
Ledovskiy, Aleksei - Russian phantom cosmonaut. In 1959 Italian news reported a series of cosmonaut deaths on suborbital flights, among these Ledovskiy. No historical evidence ever emerged of any Soviet suborbital flights. Died: 1957-11-01.
Lee, Mark Charles - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1984-2001. Was married to astronaut Jan Davis, part of first married couple to fly in space together. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-2001. Born: 1952-08-14. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 32.91 days.
Leestma, David Cornell - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1980-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1992. Born: 1949-05-06. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 22.19 days.
LEH Helmet - American space wear, operational 1981. US Space Shuttle crews on operational flights (STS-5 through Mission 51-L) wore no special protective pressure garments. Status: operational 1981.
Lehrer, Tom - American mathematician and satirist, who penned the song "Wernher von Braun," dealing with the relationship of science to ethics. Born: 1928-04-09.
Leibniz-Institut fur Atmospharenphysik eV, Univ. Rostock - Alternate name for IAP.
Leihfeld, Ludwig - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Dept. 61/ Laboratory. Born: 1898-01-08.
LEK - Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1973. Lunar lander for the Vulkan surface base. As in the original LK lunar lander, this would be taken to near zero velocity near the lunar surface by the Vulkan Block V 'lunar crasher' rocket stage. Status: Study 1973. Gross mass: 31,000 kg (68,000 lb).
LEK Lunar Expeditionary Complex - Russian manned lunar base. In 1974 Mishin was fired as head of the Korolev design bureau, the N1 was cancelled, together with the L3 and Zvezda DLB lunar base projects, However Glushko, Mishin's replacement, still considered the establishment of a moon base to be a primary goal for his country. Status: Cancelled 1974. Gross mass: 8,200 kg (18,000 lb).
LEK PS - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Descent stage very similar in appearance to that of Apollo LM, with same function - descent from lunar orbit to landing of crewed module on surface of moon. Landing stage - Carry LEK ascent stage from lunar orbit to lunar surface; act as launching platform for LEK ascent stage. Status: Study 1973. Gross mass: 38,000 kg (83,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LEK SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Descent module was contained within pressurized cabin of LEK ascent stage. Crew may have entered hatch in heat shield. Landing apparatus - Reentry capsule for crew and lunar samples. Status: Study 1973. Gross mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb).
LEK VS - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Ascent stage, carried a crew of three from the lunar surface to trans-earth trajectory. Contained within the pressurized cabin was a Soyuz descent module for reentry by the crew into the earth's atmosphere. Ascent stage - Carry crew and Soyuz descent module from lunar surface to trans-earth trajectory. Provide crew quarters and midcourse corrections during return journey from lunar surface to earth. Status: Study 1973. Gross mass: 18,600 kg (41,000 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LEM - Manufacturer's designation for Apollo LM manned lunar lander.
LEM - Lunar Excursion Module (later changed to LM - lunar module - Apollo)
LEM 1 - Alternate name of LM 1 (LEM 1).
LEM 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 - Alternate name of LM 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 (LEM 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12).
Lem, Heweliusz - Alternate name of BRITE-PL, PL2 (CanX 3C, 3D / Lem, Heweliusz).
LEM-70 - Alternate designation for Minuteman ERCS.
LeMay, Curtis E - American USAF officer, created the Strategic Air Command as a special nuclear-armed force, including its ICBM components, 1947-1965. Born: 1906-11-15. Died: 1990-10-01.
Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional/LAPAN - Alternate name for LAPAN.
Lemur - 3U Cubesat by NanoSatisfi Inc.
Lemur 1 - Technology, earth observation satellite for NanoSatisfi Inc. → Spire, USA. Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2014-06-19. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Lemur-2 - Earth observation satellite for Spire, USA. Launched 2015-2017. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2015-09-28. Last Launch: 2017-06-29. Number: 42 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Lenoir, William Benjamin 'Bill' - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1967-1984. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1984. Born: 1939-03-14. Died: 2010-08-26. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 5.09 days.
Lensch - German expert in rocket engines and athodyds during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Lenticular Vehicles - For a brief period in 1959-1964, NASA and the US Air Force actively considered launching manned flying saucers into space. Although very much in tune with UFO mania and science fiction films of the times, the concept lost out to other aerodynamic concepts.
LEO - Alternate name of CP 9 (LEO).
LEO - Abbreviation for Low Earth Orbit
LeoLink LK-1 - Satellite launcher derived from planned Israeli Shavit-2 launch vehicle, but with rocket motors and major components built in USA to qualify for US contracts. Status: Development ended 2001. Gross mass: 30,500 kg (67,200 lb). Payload: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Thrust: 600.00 kN (134,880 lbf).
LeoLink LK-2 - Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. As Leolink LK-1, but with a Castor-120 motor as the first stage. Status: Development ended 2002. Gross mass: 70,000 kg (154,000 lb). Payload: 1,550 kg (3,410 lb). Thrust: 1,450.00 kN (325,970 lbf).
Leonard, Richard - American engineer. Tooling and plant facilities engineer for the Atlas. Born: 1925-03-01. Died: 2012-11-16.
Leonardo - Alternate name for ISS Leonardo.
Leonov, Aleksei Arkhipovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1982. Cancelled missions included command of first Soviet circumlunar flight in 1969 and first military space station mission in 1973. Status: Inactive; Active 1960-1982. Born: 1934-05-30. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 7.02 days.
Leontenkov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich - Russian engineer. From 1988 Head and Chief Designer of TsKB TM.
Leopard - British test vehicle. Two stage aerodynamic test vehicle consisting of 1 x Rook + 1 x Gosling. Developed from the basic Rook vehicle for tests requiring higher velocities. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1959-10-22. Last Launch: 1962-11-30. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
LeoSat - Communication satellite built by Thales Alenia Space for LeoSat Enterprises, USA. Used the ELiTeBus-1000 bus.
Leostar - American OSC-built satellite bus designed for launch by the company's Pegasus or Taurus launch vehicles, originally designed for the USAF Standard Technology Experiment Program (STEP) technology missions. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-02-24. Last Launch: 2009-02-24. Number: 1 .
Leostar - Hard X-ray observatory with ten-meter mast. Air dropped in Kwajalein Drop Zone. Used SA-200 bus.
Leostar / AstroSat-500 - Astrium medium-size satellite bus.
Leostar-1 - Version of the Leostar bus for the failed NASA Glory climate mission. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-03-04. Last Launch: 2011-03-04. Number: 1 .
LEOStar-2 - ?Civil or defense satellite bus for use in ?LEO orbit and launch by ?Pegasus or Minotaur I, IV or C. Lifetime ??1-5 years and delivery possible ?16-36 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 750W Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-04-30. Last Launch: 2014-07-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
LEOStar-3 - ?Civil or defense satellite bus for use in ?LEO orbit and launch by ?Minotaur IV, or Antares. Lifetime ?7-10 years and delivery possible ?21-36 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 750W Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
LEOStar-3 - Alternate name of SA-200HP/LEOStar-3.
Leping - Leping missile base First Launch: 1995-01-01. Last Launch: 1996-03-13. Number: 5 .
LeRC - Lewis Research Center (NASA)
LEROS-1 - First of a family of liquid propellant rocket engines manufactured by Moog-ISP at Westcott, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom. LEROS engines have been used as primary apogee engines for telecommunications satellites such as the Lockheed Martin A2100 as well as deep space missions such as Juno. The LEROS 1 was developed and qualified in the 1990s by Royal Ordnance, later part of British Aerospace. The LEROS engines are made of niobium alloy, which is traditionally used for liquid rocket engines such as the main engine of the Apollo Lunar Module. More than 70 LEROS 1 series engines have been delivered and have flown successfully as of 2015. More at: MON/N2H4
LEROS-1B - Liquid propellant apogee engine manufactured by Moog. Thrust: 635 N (142 lbf). More at: MON/N2H4
LEROS-1C - Liquid propellant apogee engine manufactured by Moog. Thrust: 460 N (100 lbf). More at: MON/N2H4
LEROS-2B - Liquid propellant apogee engine manufactured by Moog. Thrust: 407 N (91 lbf). More at: MON/N2H4
LEROS-4 - High thrust liquid propellant apogee engine developed by Moog for the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Mars Robotic Exploration Program. Thrust: 1.10 kN (247 lbf). More at: MON/N2H4
Lertes - German Manager. Director of the A 25 Special Unit for V-1 development.
LES - Alternate designation for LPC A-1.
LES - American communications technology satellite. Experimental communication satellite built by Lincoln Laboratory for Lincoln Laboratory, USAF, USA. Launched 1965. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-02-11. Last Launch: 1976-03-15. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 52 kg (114 lb).
LES - Alternate designation for Apollo LES-1 rocket stage.
LES (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Launch escape system
LES 1, 2 - Experimental communication satellite built by Lincoln Laboratory for Lincoln Laboratory, USAF, USA. Launched 1965. First Launch: 1965-02-11. Last Launch: 1965-05-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 31 kg (68 lb).
LES 3 - Experimental communication satellite built by Lincoln Laboratory for Lincoln Laboratory, USAF, USA. Launched 1965. First Launch: 1965-12-21. Last Launch: 1965-12-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 16 kg (35 lb).
LES 5 - Experimental communication satellite built by Lincoln Laboratory for Lincoln Laboratory, USAF, USA. Launched 1967. First Launch: 1967-07-01. Last Launch: 1967-07-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 194 kg (427 lb).
LES 6 - Experimental communication satellite built by Lincoln Laboratory for Lincoln Laboratory, USAF, USA. Launched 1968. First Launch: 1968-09-26. Last Launch: 1968-09-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 163 kg (359 lb).
LES 7 - Experimental communication satellite built by Lincoln Laboratory for Lincoln Laboratory, USAF.
LES 8, 9 - Communication, experimental satellite built by Lincoln Laboratory for Lincoln Laboratory, USAF, USA. Launched 1976. First Launch: 1976-03-15. Last Launch: 1976-03-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 454 kg (1,000 lb).
Les Mureaux - French manufacturer of rockets. Les Mureaux, France.
LESA Lunar Base - American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. LESA (Lunar Exploration System for Apollo) represented the ultimate lunar base concept studied by NASA prior to the cancellation of further Saturn V production in June 1968. Status: Cancelled 1968.
LESA Shelter - American manned lunar habitat. Study 1966. LESA (Lunar Exploration System for Apollo) was an advanced lunar surface shelter. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 9,700 kg (21,300 lb).
Leshchenko, Sergei Mikhailovich - Russian government official. First Deputy Minister of Aviation Industries 1957-1964.
Leslie, Fred Weldon - American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut 1994-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-1995. Born: 1951-12-19. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.91 days.
LEST - Abbreviation for Large Earth-based Solar Telescope
Letno-issledovatel'skiy institut im. M.M. Gromov - Alternate name for LII.
Letunov, Yuri Aleksandrovich - Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1965-1966. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1966. Born: 1926-10-26. Died: 1983-07-30.
Leuhrsen, Hannes Gunther - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter.
Leust, Reimar - German Physicist. Reimar Leust is a German theoretical physicist who held a variety of prestigious academic and advisory council posts before serving as Director General of ESA from 1984-1990. Born: 1923.
LEV - American manned lunar lander. Study 1989. The Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) figured in numerous NASA studies of the 1980's and 1990's. Status: Study 1989. Gross mass: 28,400 kg (62,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). More at: Lox/LH2
Levchenko, Anatoli Semyonovich - Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut 1977-1988. Flew on Mir LII-1. Graduated from Chernigov Higher Air Force School, 1964. Buran test pilot; cosmonaut training December 1978 - July 1980. Later a civil test pilot for the Soviet Air Force Ministry. Died of a brain tumor in Moscow. Status: Deceased; Active 1977-1988. Born: 1941-05-21. Died: 1988-08-06. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.92 days.
Leverton, Irene - American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astronauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. Status: Deceased. Born: 1927-03-03. Died: 2007-07-06.
Levin, Grigoriy Isaakovich - Russian officer, Deputy Chief of Control at Filial 4 of 4 NII MO 1968-1972. Key role in developing first research and operations plans for Soviet Space Forces (Shchit and Osnova). Invalided from military in 1972; then worked at NPO Elas MEP. Born: 1920. Died: 1985-01-01.
Levine, Dave - American engineer. Chief of electrical systems for the Apollo spacecraft. Born: 1926.
Lewis satellite - American earth land resources satellite. Lewis was selected in the NASA SSTI (Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative) program, along with Clark, to demonstrate advanced spacecraft technologies. Earth observing satellite built by TRW for NASA, USA. Launched 1997. Used the T200B bus. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-08-23. Last Launch: 1997-08-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 288 kg (634 lb).
Lewis, Fred Parker Jr - American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1949-03-02.
Lex - French sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1964-04-25. Last Launch: 1967-11-01. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf).
Lex-1 - Alternate name for MT 27.
Ley, Willy - German-American writer. German-American writer, extremely effective popularizer of the idea of space flight - first in Germany and then in the United States. Born: 1906-10-02. Died: 1969-05-24.
LF2 - Liquid Fluorine is the highest performance oxidizer and in the early 1960's it seemed in both American and Russia that a new generation of higher performance engines would emerge. However although test engines were built, fluorine was found to be just too toxic and reactive to be safely used as a propellant.
LF2/Ammonia - LF2/Ammonia propellant. In Russia this combination nearly made it into production in Glushko's RD-301 engines for use in a high-performance upper stage for the Proton booster in the 1970's. However although test engines were built, fluorine was just too toxic and reactive to be safely used as a propellant. Ammonia (NH3) is a colorless liquid with a strong irritating characteristic odor.
LF2/Hydrazine - LF2/Hydrazine propellant. In the United States. In the 1960's the USAF sponsored development of engines by Bell and Rocketdyne using this propellant combination to power high-performance upper stages to replace the Agena and Transtage on the Atlas and Titan launch vehicles. However although test engines were built, fluorine was found to be just too toxic and reactive to be safely used as a propellant.
LF2/Kerosene - LF2/Kerosene propellant. Use of fluorine with kerosene was studied in the 1950's, but performance was less than with other fuels, and no rocket engine reached test stage with this combination.
LF2/LH2 - LF2/LH2 propellant. This was theoretically the highest-performance propellant combination. However although test engines were built in both the United States and Russia, fluorine was found to be just too toxic and reactive to be safely used as a propellant.
LF2/LLi - LF2/LLi propellant. Liquid Lithium was a high energy fuel demonstrated with LF2 in the early 1960's. Lithium had to be heated to 179 deg C to be in a liquid state. However although test engines were built, this combination was found to be just too toxic and reactive to be safely used as a propellant.
LF2/UDMH - LF2/UDMH propellant. No engines using this propellant combination reached the test stage.
LFC/ORS - Larger Format Camera/ Orbital Refueling System payload carried in shuttle bay. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-10-05. Last Launch: 1984-10-05. Number: 1 .
LFSA - List of Frequently Seen Acronyms (!)
LFV Bell - American manned lunar flyer. Study 1965. Bell Aerosystems designed a rocket-propelled Lunar Flying Vehicle (LFV) to aid Apollo astronauts in their exploration of the moon. Status: Study 1965.
LFV North American - American manned lunar flyer. Cancelled 1969. The North American design for a Lunar Flying Vehicle would have taken one astronaut and up to 167 kg of cargo to a distance of 3. 2 to 8.5 km from a lunar landing site in minutes, at a maximum speed of 85 m/s. Status: Cancelled 1969. Gross mass: 618 kg (1,362 lb). Payload: 168 kg (370 lb).
LGA - Abbreviation for Low Gain Antenna
L'Garde - American manufacturer of spacecraft. L'Garde, Inc., USA
LGIT - UM electric rocket engine. Linear Gridless Ion Thruster, a two-stage device designed to incorporate the efficient ionization process of gridded ion thrusters and the high thrust density of Hall thrusters. Thrust: 0.0200 N (0.0040 lbf).
LGM - Abbreviation for Little Green Men
LGM-118A - Alternate designation for Peacekeeper.
LGM-134 - Alternate designation for SICBM.
LGM-25A - Alternate designation for Titan I.
LGM-25A - Alternate designation for Titan 1.
LGM-25C - Alternate designation for Titan II.
LGM-25C - Alternate designation for Titan 2.
LGM-30A - Alternate designation for Minuteman.
LGM-30A - Alternate designation for Minuteman 1A.
LGM-30A/B/F - US DoD designation for Minuteman.
LGM-30B - Alternate designation for Minuteman 1B.
LGM-30C - American intercontinental ballistic missile. Mobile version of Minuteman. Development begun in 1955. Cancelled in 1962.
LGM-30F - Alternate designation for Minuteman 2.
LGM-30G - Alternate designation for Minuteman 3.
LH - Liquid Hydrogen (also LH2 or LHX)
LH2 - Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. The technology was transferred to the Centaur rocket stage program, and by the mid-1960's the United States was flying the Centaur and Saturn upper stages using the fuel. It was adopted for the core of the space shuttle, and Centaur stages still fly today.
LH2 2000/3000 lbf thrust - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Development begun July 1946. Engine R&D, hydrogen production Date: July 1946. Thrust: 13.33 kN (2,997 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LH2-80k - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1959. Used on Nova 4L launch vehicle. Status: Study 1959. Unfuelled mass: 1,438 kg (3,170 lb). Thrust: 355.70 kN (79,965 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
L-I - Alternate designation for LLV L-I manned spacecraft module.
Li Qinglong - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1996-on.Trained together with Wu Jie in Russia in for one year beginning in November 1996. They formed the basis of the Chinese astronaut cadre for the Shenzhou program. Status: Active 1996-on. Born: August 1962.
Li Shichang - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Joined PLA in 1956. He was a PLAAF regiment Deputy Party Commissar when selected. Selected as Chinese astronaut in March 1971. Status: Inactive. Born: 1935.
Li Xun - Chinese Engineer. Metallurgist who developed alloys crucial to China's nuclear, missile, and space programs. Born: 1913-11-20. Died: 1983-03-20.
Liang Shoupan - Chinese Engineer. Chief Designer of Chinese cruise missiles.
Liang Sili - Chinese Engineer. Chief Designer of inertial guidance platforms for Chinese ballistic missiles.
Liberator - American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of HARC, Huntsville, Alabama. Status: Study 2004.
Libertad - Cubesat built and operated by the Universidad Sergio Arboleda, Bogota, Colombia.
Libertad 1 - Technology satellite built by Universidad Sergio Arboleda; Pumpkin, Inc. (bus) for Universidad Sergio Arboleda, Colombia. Launched 2007. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2007-04-17. Last Launch: 2007-04-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Liberty - American manufacturer that sought to privately develop and market low cost commercial orbital launch vehicles in the 1990's. Status: Cancelled 1988. Gross mass: 19,180 kg (42,280 lb). Thrust: 209.00 kN (46,985 lbf).
Liberty 1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Development ended 1988. Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,240 kg (4,930 lb). Thrust: 245.00 kN (55,078 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Liberty 2 - N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Development ended 1988. Gross mass: 2,180 kg (4,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 180 kg (390 lb). Thrust: 17.79 kN (3,999 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Liberty Bell 7 - Alternate name for Mercury MR-4.
Liberty Eagle - American cruise missile of the first World War.
Liberty engine - Liberty LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Development 1994-2006. Pressure-fed engine. Price $ 12,000 in 1995. Used on Scorpius launch vehicle. Status: Development 1994-2006. Thrust: 18.90 kN (4,249 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Liberty-1 - Notional LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Development ended 1988. Pressure-fed engine. Used on Liberty launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1988. Unfuelled mass: 270 kg (590 lb). Thrust: 245.20 kN (55,123 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Liberty-2 - Notional N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Development ended 1988. Pressure-fed engine. Used on Liberty launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1988. Unfuelled mass: 41 kg (90 lb). Thrust: 17.80 kN (4,002 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
Libra - Code name for NOSS-3 military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Libya - Libya
License built Castor II - Alternate designation for H-1-0 rocket stage.
Lichtenberg, Byron Kurt - American engineer payload specialist astronaut 1978-1992. Flew 138 combat missions in Vietnam. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1992. Born: 1948-02-19. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 19.25 days.
Lida - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1997. Base for units deployed with twelve R-12, 27 RT-2PM, and later nine Pioner, launchers.
Lidorenko, Nikolai Stepanovich - Russian engineer. Chief Designer of NII IT. Specialized in power sources for spacecraft, including Sputnik. Born: 1916-04-15.
LIDOS - Geodetic-research satellite built by JHU/APL for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1968. Used Transit-Bus. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1968-08-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 55 kg (121 lb).
Liesegang - German rocket technician; later worked in France as part of the armature group at LRBA from 1947 until retiring in 1974.
Lifting Body Escape Concept - Alternate designation for Northrop LBEC manned rescue spacecraft.
Light stick - Before launch, each astronaut would have a light stick attached to Velcro on their left thigh. This would allow them to see in case they would have to get out of the pitch-dark lower deck in an emergency.
Light Utility Rover - American manned lunar rover. Study 1990. In 1990, Boeing Advanced Civil Space Systems performed an Advanced Civil Space Systems Piloted Rover Technology Assessment Study, which considered both a large pressurized and a small unpressurized rover. Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 990 kg (2,180 lb).
LightSail - Planetary Society's 3U Cubesat with a solar sail deployment experiment. The [cubesat] went into safe mode a few days after launch but rebooted on 30 May 2015. Its solar panels were deployed on 3 June and the solar sail was unfurled on 7 June at 19:47 GMT. The satellite reentered on 14 June.
LightSail A, B - Technology satellite for The Planetary Society, USA. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2015-05-20. Last Launch: 2015-05-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
LII - Russian agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Flight-Research Institute, Russia.
L-II - Alternate designation for LLV L-II manned spacecraft module.
LII Spaceplane - Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. In 1973 LII (the Gromov Experimental Flight Institute at Zhukovsky) designed several alternate spaceplane concepts for air-launch from the An-225 transport. These were similar to the various MAKS concepts. Status: Design 1993.
LII-1 - Alternate name for MAP Group 1 - 1981.
LII-1 - Alternate name of MAP astronaut group, 1980.
LII-1 astronaut group, 1977 - Requirement: test pilot for the Buran program. Date: 1978.
LII-2 - Alternate name for MAP Group 2 - 1983.
LII-2 astronaut group, 1983 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1983.
LII-3 - Alternate name for MAP Group 3 - 1984.
LII-3 astronaut group, 1984 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1984.
LII-4 - Alternate name for MAP Group 4 - 1985.
LII-4 astronaut group, 1985 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1985.
Likhushin, Valentin Yakovlevich - Russian engineer. Director of NII-1 1955-1988. Specialized in advanced engines. Born: 1918-05-29. Died: 1982-12-04.
LILACSAT - Alternate name for Zidingxiang.
LilacSat 1 (Zidingxiang 1, QB50 CN02) - Education, amateur radio communication, technology satellite built by Harbin Institute of Technology for Harbin Institute of Technology, CAMSAT, China. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2017-04-18. Last Launch: 2017-04-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
LilacSat 2 (Zidingxiang 2, CAS 3H) - Education, amateur radio communication, technology satellite built by Harbin Institute of Technology for Harbin Institute of Technology, CAMSAT, China. Launched 2015. First Launch: 2015-09-19. Last Launch: 2015-09-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 11 kg (24 lb).
Lilliput - Manufacturer's designation of KS-50 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
Lilly, Howard Clifton 'Tick' - American test pilot. Flew the XS-1; died in a crash of the D-558-1. Status: Deceased. Born: 1916-08-27. Died: 1948-05-03.
Lilly, William E - American NASA budget manager, 1960-1981. Born: 1921.
LIM-100 - Unidentified American experimental silo-launched interceptor missile, probably the Sprint II concept. Status: Cancelled 1975.
LIM-49A - Alternate designation for Spartan ABM.
LIM-99 - Unidentified American experimental silo-launched interceptor missile, possibly the Sprint ABM. Status: Cancelled 1975.
limb - The outer edge or a portion of the edge of a celestial body such as the Moon, Venus, or the Sun, as seen from a distance.
Lincoln - American manufacturer of spacecraft. MIT Lincoln Laboratory, USA.
Lincoln AFB - Atlas F (SMS 551) ICBM base.
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Lincoln Experimental Satellite - Alternate designation for LES communications technology satellite.
Lind, Don Leslie - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1966-1986. Longest wait for an American for a spaceflight after becoming an astronaut (19 years). Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1986. Born: 1930-05-18. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.01 days.
Lindbergh, Charles A - American pioneering aviator, first pilot to fly solo across the Atlantic in 1927. Appointed to senior government committees on aerospace development. Worked with Guggenheim to support Goddard's rocket development in Roswell in 1930s. Born: 1902-02-04. Died: 1974-08-01.
Lindenberg, Hans - German-American rocket technician from Dresden. Died at Fort Bliss, Texas. Born: 1904-02-01. Died: 1946-02-01.
Lindenmayer, Hans Josef - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Worked in aerodynamics, later returned to Germany. Born: 1912-10-19.
Lindgren, Kjell Norwood - American physician mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1973-01-23. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 141.67 days.
Lindner, Kurt A - German-American engineer. Member of the von Braun's Rocket Team, became director of the Guidance and Control Laboratory of the Research and Development Division at Huntsville. Born: 1914-10-20. Died: 1960-07-05.
Lindsey, Steven Wayne - American test pilot astronaut 1994-2011. Grew up in Temple City, California. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2011. Born: 1960-08-24. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 62.94 days.
Linenger, Jerry Michael - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1992-1998. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-1998. Born: 1955-01-16. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 143.12 days.
Lines of non-extension suit - American pressure suit, tested 1955. Developmental partial pressure suit concept by Arthur S Iberall while at the Rand Corporation. Status: tested 1955.
Ling Qiao - Smart Communications Test Satellite, a joint venture of Tsinghua University and Xinwei Telecom, for tests of multimedia data transmission, in a sun syncronous orbit with 06:30 local time of descending node. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-09-04. Last Launch: 2014-09-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 135 kg (297 lb).
Ling Qiao (LQ) - Communication satellite for Tsinghua University, Beijing Xinwei Telecom Technology Co., China. Launched 2014. First Launch: 2014-09-04. Last Launch: 2014-09-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 135 kg (297 lb).
Ling, Donald P - American engineer, headed Bell Labs and Bellcom, key NASA management contractors during the Apollo project.
LINK (QB50 KR01) - Technology, thermospheric research satellite for KAIST, South Korea. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2017-04-18. Last Launch: 2017-04-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Links - Selection of links to other Internet sites of value...
LinkSat - Technology satellite, 2017.
Linnehan, Richard Michael - American veterinarian mission specialist astronaut 1992-2010. US Army Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2010. Born: 1957-09-19. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 59.50 days.
Linteris, Gregory Thomas - American engineer payload specialist astronaut 1996-1997. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-1997. Born: 1957-10-04. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 19.67 days.
Lipp, James Everett - American engineer, at Douglas, 1935-1948; at Rand from 1948, heading its aerospace division. In 1946 he authored "Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship", a pioneering engineering design of an orbital launch vehicle. In 1948 he provided Appendix D to the report closing out USAF UFO Project Sign, making one of the first calculations of the number of inhabited planets in the universe, but also finding an extraterrestrial origin of UFO's unlikely based on engineering considerations. In the 1950's played a key role in concepts for the first USAF reconnaissance and ferret satellites. Born: 1910-07-03. Died: 1993-08-13.
Lippisch, Alexander Martin - German expert in tailless aircraft during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war. Born: 1894. Died: 1976-01-01.
LIPS - American tether technology satellite. Research satellite for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), USA. Launched 1980-1987. Status: Operational 1980. First Launch: 1980-12-09. Last Launch: 1987-05-15. Number: 3 .
Liquid Air - Liquid air has no advantage as a stored propellant, but in a Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE) relatively freely available atmospheric air is scooped up, liquefied, and burned with a fuel in a conventional rocket engine.
Liquid Air Cycle Engine - Alternate designation for LACE stage rocket stage.
Liquid Air/LH2 - Liquid Air/LH2 propellant. Liquid air has no advantage as a stored propellant, but in a Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE) relatively freely available atmospheric air is scooped up, liquefied, and burned with a fuel in a conventional rocket engine. LACE engines were tested in Japan and the United States, but none reached flight status.
Liquid Air/Lox - Liquid air has no advantage as a stored propellant, but in a Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE) relatively freely available atmospheric air is scooped up, liquefied, and burned with a fuel in a conventional rocket engine. In one variation this is replaced with stored liquid oxygen as the rocket ascends out of the atmosphere.
Liquid Air/Lox/LH2 - Liquid Air/Lox/LH2 propellant. Liquid air has no advantage as a stored propellant, but in a Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE) relatively freely available atmospheric air is scooped up, liquefied, and burned with a fuel in a conventional rocket engine. In this variant, liquid oxygen is used to continue operation of the engine above the atmosphere, allowing the engine to be used in single-stage-to-orbit designs. This approach was used by Rolls Royce in the RB545 engine proposed for the HOTOL spaceplane, but later abandoned for the simpler Air/Lox/LH2 Sabre engine for the proposed Skylon SSTO.
Liquid Rocket Booster - Alternate designation for Shuttle LRB stage rocket stage.
Lira - Code name for Tyulpan and [Tyulpan] military anti-satellite system target satellites.
LISA - Technology Experiments satellite operated by ESA, NASA, Europe, USA.
LISA Pathfinder - European spacecraft tested at the L1 earth-moon Lagrangian point that tested technologies for the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), an ESA gravitational wave observatory planned to be launched in 2034. LISA Pathfinder demonstrated that eLISA mission was feasible. Technology Experiments satellite built by EADS Astrium => Airbus Defence and Space for ESA, Europe. Launched 2015. First Launch: 2015-12-03. Last Launch: 2015-12-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 480 kg (1,050 lb).
Lishui 1-01 - Used the CubeSat (xU) bus. First Launch: 2016-11-09. Last Launch: 2016-11-09. Number: 1 .
Lisun, Mikhail Ivanovich - Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1989. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1989. Born: 1935-09-05. Died: 2012-07-31.
LITE - Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment, carried in shuttle payload bay. Measured the Earth's cloud cover and tracked particles in the atmosphere.
lite de Aplicaciones Cientí - Alternate name for SAC-B.
Literaturnaya Gazeta - Literaturnaya Gazeta, Russian newspaper.
Lithuania - Lithuania
Litsat - Cubesat from the Lithuanian Space Association, Vilnius, Lithuania.
LitSat 1 - Technology, education satellite for Lietuvos Kosmoso Asociacija (Lithuanian Space Association), KTU (Kaunas University of Technology), Lithuania. Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2014-01-09. Last Launch: 2014-01-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Little Carter Bay - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1963-10-28. Last Launch: 1966-04-01. Number: 6 .
Little Carter Bay CB - Little Carter Bay, Bahama Island. First Launch: 1966-04-01. Last Launch: 1966-04-01. Number: 1 .
Little Carter Bay LC - Javelin launch complex.
Little Joe - Little Joe was used to test the Mercury capsule launch escape system. The booster was designed by NASA Langley using existing components. Six to eight solid rocket motors were mounted in an aerodynamic finned fairing built by North American. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 12,700 kg (27,900 lb).
Little Joe 1 - American test vehicle. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1959-08-21. Last Launch: 1961-04-28. Number: 8 .
Little Joe 1 2C - Alternate designation for Little Joe 1.
Little Joe 1 2P - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 2 x Pollux Gross mass: 12,700 kg (27,900 lb). Thrust: 650.00 kN (146,120 lbf).
Little Joe 1 2P-1 - Alternate name for Pollux.
Little Joe 1 4C - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 4 x Castor Gross mass: 12,700 kg (27,900 lb). Thrust: 1,044.00 kN (234,700 lbf).
Little Joe 1 4P - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 4 x Pollux Gross mass: 12,700 kg (27,900 lb). Thrust: 650.00 kN (146,120 lbf).
Little Joe 5A - In April 1959, plans were made for three or four Mercury-Little Joe flights with animal passengers. NASA secretly considered a manned mission but quickly dropped the idea when the dynamic pressures involved were reviewed. Launched: Late 1960. Number crew: 1 .
Little Joe II - American test vehicle. Little Joe II was an enlarged version of the Little Joe concept used in the Mercury program, used to test the Apollo capsule launch escape system. The vehicle was designed by General Dynamics. Six to nine solid rocket motors were mounted in an aerodynamic finned fairing. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1963-08-28. Last Launch: 1966-01-20. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 63,300 kg (139,500 lb).
Little Joe II 0-3-3 - American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Algol 1D motors. Gross mass: 80,300 kg (177,000 lb). Thrust: 3,276.00 kN (736,474 lbf).
Little Joe II 4-2-0 - American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 2 x Algol 1D fired in sequence. Gross mass: 42,700 kg (94,100 lb). Thrust: 1,716.00 kN (385,772 lbf).
Little Joe II 5-2-2 - American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 5 x Recruit + 4 x Algol 1D fired in sequence. Gross mass: 63,300 kg (139,500 lb). Thrust: 2,964.00 kN (666,333 lbf).
Little Joe II 6-1-0 - American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Recruit + 1 x Algol 1D fired in sequence. Gross mass: 26,200 kg (57,700 lb). Thrust: 1,482.00 kN (333,166 lbf).
Little Joe KAM KAN - NAMU late 1940's US Navy anti-aircraft missile.
Little John - American tactical ballistic rocket. The Little John was the smallest nuclear-capable rocket the U.S. Army ever deployed. Studies to develop a lightweight rocket based on the M31/MGR-1 Honest John to give airborne Army units a nuclear capability began in 1953 under the name Honest John Junior. After preliminary studies by Douglas during 1954, the development program - renamed as Little John - was officially started at Redstone Arsenal in June 1955. Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 354 kg (780 lb). Payload: 110 kg (240 lb). Thrust: 240.20 kN (53,999 lbf).
Little Rock AFB - Titan 2 ICBM base.
Little Rock AFB Site 09 -
Little Rock AFB Site 18 -
Litton - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Litton, USA.
Litton Suit - 1958 - Alternate designation for Mark I ELSS space suit.
Lituanica-OSCAR 78 - Alternate name of LituanicaSAT 1 (LO 78, Lituanica-OSCAR 78).
LituanicaSat - Cubesat from Kaunas Tech Univ. in Kaunas, Lithuania.
LituanicaSAT 1 (LO 78, Lituanica-OSCAR 78) - Technology, education satellite for Vilnius University, Lithuania. Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2014-01-09. Last Launch: 2014-01-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
LituanicaSAT 2 (QB50 LT01) - Technology, education satellite built by Vilnius University for Vilnius University, Lithuania. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2017-05-25. Last Launch: 2017-05-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Litvinov, Valentin Yakovlevich - Russian government official. Director of Progress Plant 1944-1962. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1973. Born: 1910. Died: 1983-01-01.
Liu Boming - Chinese pilot taikonaut 1998-on. In the 05/2003 issue of Fliegerrevue, this was one of 12 new names listed as Chinese astronauts in training. Selected in 2008 as prime crew of Shenzhou 7 Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1966-10-29. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 2.85 days.
Liu Chongfu - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Joined PLA in 1960. He was a PLAAF squadron commander when selected. Selected as Chinese astronaut in March 1971. Status: Inactive. Born: 1941.
Liu Wang - Chinese pilot taikonaut 1998-on. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1969-03-25. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.64 days.
Liu Yang - Chinese female pilot taikonaut 2010-on. First Chinese woman in space. Status: Active 2010-on. Born: 1978-10-06. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.64 days.
Liu Zhongyi - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Born in the north east of China and joined the PLA in 1958. He was an PLAAF pilot when selected. Selected as Chinese astronaut in March 1971. Status: Inactive.
Livermore - American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Livermore, USA.
Livermore Light Gas Gun - Alternate designation for SHARP.
Lixing 1 - Science satellite built by CAS (prime) for Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China. Launched 2016. First Launch: 2016-08-15. Last Launch: 2016-08-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 110 kg (240 lb).
LJ - Abbreviation for Little Joe
LK - Russian manned lunar lander. The LK ('Lunniy korabl' - lunar craft) was the Soviet lunar lander - the Russian counterpart of the American LM Lunar Module. Manned Lunar lander test satellite, Russia. Launched 1970 - 1971. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-11-24. Last Launch: 1971-08-12. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 5,560 kg (12,250 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,160 kg (6,960 lb). Thrust: 20.10 kN (4,519 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LK Energia - Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1988. Lunar lander for Energia-launched lunar expedition. The LOK and LK lander would be inserted into lunar orbit by separate Energia launches. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 29,000 kg (63,000 lb).
LK Energia PS - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Descent stage similar in appearance to Apollo LM and LEK stages, but of differing dimensions. Descent from lunar orbit to lunar surface, launch platform for ascent stage. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 20,500 kg (45,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LK Energia VS - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Although similar in appearance to LEK ascent stage, 80% smaller and no descent module for reentry into earth's atmosphere. Ascent from lunar surface to lunar orbit, dock with LOK Energia. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 8,500 kg (18,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,300 kg (9,400 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LK-1 - Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Cancelled 1965. The LK-1 was the spacecraft designed by Chelomei for the original Soviet manned lunar flyby project. The re-entry vehicle and propulsion systems would continue in development for the LK-700 lunar lander and TKS space station resupply vehicle. Status: Cancelled 1965. Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LK-1 engine - IAI solid rocket engine. In production. Lengthened version of Shavit rocket motor. Lower stage used 9:1 nozzle. 23.6:1 nozzle for upper stage use increased Isp to 279 seconds, First flight 1995. Solid propellant rocket stage. Lengthened version of Shavit/RSA-3 rocket motor. For lower stage use with 17.1:1 nozzle. Fitted with 23.6:1 nozzle for upper stage use specific impulse increases to 279 seconds, length to 8.4 m, and empty and gross mass are increased by 135 kg. Status: In production. Number: 4 . Thrust: 774.00 kN (174,002 lbf). More at: Solid
LK-1 PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1965. Calculated masses, specific impulse based on mission requirements and drawing of spacecraft. Equipment-engine section. Status: Cancelled 1965. Gross mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LK-1 VA - Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1965. Total internal volume 8.37 m3. Assumes capsule was similar to TKS VA. Reentry Capsule. Status: Cancelled 1965. Gross mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Payload: 1,880 kg (4,140 lb).
LK-3 - Russian manned lunar lander. Reached mock-up stage, 1972. The LK-3 was Chelomei's preliminary design for a direct-landing alternative to Korolev's L3 manned lunar landing design. Status: Mock-up 1972. Gross mass: 45,000 kg (99,000 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LK-4 - Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Upper stage for orbital insertion of Shavit or Leolink payloads. Status: Development ended 2001. Gross mass: 237 kg (522 lb). Unfuelled mass: 71 kg (156 lb). Thrust: 402 N (90 lbf).
LK-700 - Russian manned lunar lander. Chelomei's direct-landing alternative to Korolev's L3 manned lunar landing design. Developed at a low level 1964 to 1974, reaching mockup and component test stage. Status: Mock-up 1964. Gross mass: 154,000 kg (339,000 lb). Thrust: 131.40 kN (29,540 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LK-700 Block 1 - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Three identical stages of 34,491 kg each clustered around the core. Translunar Injection Stage. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 103,474 kg (228,121 lb). Thrust: 691.30 kN (155,410 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LK-700 Block 11 - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Differed from the lateral Block 1 stages in having an engine unit for orientation of the assembly. Main engine of 23,500 kgf and three engines for soft landing / midcourse maneuvers of 1,670 kgf each. Midcourse man oeuvre/lunar braking stage. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 32,226 kg (71,046 lb). Thrust: 279.58 kN (62,852 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LK-700 Block 111 - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Soft Landing Stage. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LK-700 Block 1V - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Main engine of 13,400 kgf and three engines for soft landing / midcourse maneuvers of 1,670 kgf each. Trans-earth injection / midcourse man oeuvre stage. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 11,670 kg (25,720 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,675 kg (5,897 lb). Thrust: 180.54 kN (40,587 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LK-700 VA - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. VA Re-entry Capsule. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 3,130 kg (6,900 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LKA - Code name for Spiral OS manned spaceplane.
LKR - Russian manned lunar rescue spacecraft. Version of the LK that would act as a reserve spacecraft in a two-launch scenario. The LKR woud allow return of the cosmonaut to lunar orbit in the event of failure of the primary LK lander.
LKS - Russian manned spaceplane. Mock-up stage when cancelled in 1983. The LKS was a Chelomei design for a reusable manned winged spacecraft, similar to the later European Hermes spaceplane. Status: Mock-up 1983. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 23,000 kg (50,000 lb). Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
LL - Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1945. The LL was a transonic aerodynamic test bed authorized by LII in September 1945. Three were built: the LL-1 with a straight wing; LL-2 with a conventional swept wing; and LL-3 with a forward swept wing. Status: Operational 1945. Gross mass: 2,039 kg (4,495 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,139 kg (2,511 lb). Thrust: 14.70 kN (3,305 lbf). More at: Solid
Llewellyn, John Anthony - British-American pilot astronaut, 1967-1968. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1968. Born: 1932-04-22. Died: 2013-07-02.
LLi - High energy fuel demonstrated in with LF2 in the early 1960's. Lithium had to be heated to 179 deg C to be in a liquid state.
LLi+30%LH2 - Combination demonstrated in a tripropellant motor with LF2 in the early 1960's. Lithium had to be heated to 179 deg C to be in a liquid state.
LLL - Lawrence Livermore Laboratory
LLNL - Abbreviation for Lawrence-Livermore National Laboratory
LLRV - Abbreviation for Lunar landing research vehicle
LLTV - Abbreviation for Lunar landing training vehicle
LLV - American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. Many versions of new Lunar Logistic Vehicles (LLV's) using several possible candidate propellants were studied by NASA and its contractors in the mid-1960's for post-Apollo lunar base support. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 41,000 kg (90,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 17,500 kg (38,500 lb). Payload: 13,700 kg (30,200 lb). Thrust: 131.21 kN (29,497 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LLV - Alternate designation for Athena-1.
LLV 2 - Alternate designation for Athena-2.
LLV 3 - Alternate designation for Athena-3.
LLV L-I - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Lunar Orbit Insertion stage for placing LLV into lunar orbit. Propulsion 2 x RL10-A3 with N2O4/MMH thrusters for orientation, midcourse, and ullage. Lunar orbit insertion of Lunar Logistics Vehicle lander and payload. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 10,500 kg (23,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 131.21 kN (29,497 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LLV L-II - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Landing stage for delivery of up to 13,400 kg payload from lunar orbit to lunar surface. Propulsion 2 x RL10-A3 with N2O4/MMH thrusters for orientation, midcourse, and ullage. Delivery of lunar base elements from lunar orbit to lunar surface. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,200 kg (9,200 lb). Thrust: 131.21 kN (29,497 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LLV-1 - Alternate name of Athena-1.
LLVPG - Abbreviation or acronym for Large Launch Vehicle Planning Group
LM - Lunar Module (a.k.a. LEM) (Apollo spacecraft)
LM 1 (LEM 1) - Manned lunar lander test satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1968. First Launch: 1968-01-22. Last Launch: 1968-01-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 14,360 kg (31,650 lb).
LM 100 - Manufacturer's designation for Lunar Prospector lunar orbiter.
LM 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 (LEM 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12) - Manned lunar lander operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1969 - 1972. First Launch: 1969-03-03. Last Launch: 1972-04-16. Number: 8 .
LM 700 - American communications satellite. The LM 700 had its first use in the Iridium system, a commercial communications network comprised of a minimum of 66 LEO spacecraft. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-05-05. Last Launch: 2002-06-20. Number: 97 . Gross mass: 689 kg (1,518 lb).
LM Adapter Surface Station - Alternate designation for Apollo LASS manned lunar habitat.
LM Ascent Propulsion - LM Ascent Propulsion Development Diary - The Lunar Module Ascent Engine had to work - otherwise the crew would be stranded on the moon, and there was no backup. It was difficult to develop, and was qualified for flight only a few months before the first manned mission.
LM Communications - LM Communications Development Diary - The lunar module had to communicate with the CSM, the astronauts on the surface of the moon and Houston - while being nested in the S-IVB stage, in flight around the moon, and on the surface. No wonder there were constant problems and compromises....
LM Crew Station - LM Crew Station Development Diary - How to arrange the LM so that the crew would have good landing visibility, good docking visibility, be able to determine their landing point -- and the decision for the crew to stand, contrary to all prior aerospace practice.
LM Descent Propulsion - LM Descent Propulsion Development Diary - The LM Descent Engine - which had to be throttled in flight to make a soft landing on the moon - had enormous development problems, and it was necessary to have two companies develop competing designs in parallel.
LM ECS - LM ECS Development Diary
LM Electrical - LM Electrical Development Diary - At first the LM was to use fuel cells, like the CSM. But problems during development led to their abandonment and replacement by an 'all battery' LM.
LM Guidance - LM Guidance Development Diary
LM Hatch - LM Hatch Development Diary - Originally the LM was to have two docking ports, at the top and front. But during development it was decided to change the front port to a hatch only, saving weight but making docking very uncomfortable for the crew…
LM Lab - Alternate designation for Apollo LM Lab manned space station.
LM Landing Gear - LM Landing Gear Development Diary - The landing gear had to be designed without knowing what the lunar surface was actually like. How to do this, and the changing configurations and tribulations during development…
LM Langley Light - American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. This early open-cab single-crew Langley lunar lander design used storable propellants, resulting in an all-up mass of 4,372 kg. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 4,372 kg (9,638 lb). Unfuelled mass: 872 kg (1,922 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LM Langley Lighter - American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. This early open-cab Langley design used cryogenic propellants. The cryogenic design was estimated to gross 3,284 kg - to be compared with the 15,000 kg / 2 man LM design that eventually was selected. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 3,284 kg (7,239 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,084 kg (2,389 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb). More at: Lox/LH2
LM Langley Lightest - American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. Extremely light-weight open-cab lunar module design considered in early Langley studies. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 1,460 kg (3,210 lb). Unfuelled mass: 460 kg (1,010 lb). Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). More at: Lox/LH2
LM Mode Debate - LM Mode Debate Diary - How to get to the moon? It may seem strange, but the Saturn V booster and Apollo CSM were under contract before this basic decision was made. There was much controversy, with equally expert committees supporting either of the three methods - earth orbit rendezvous, lunar orbit rendezvous, and direct landing. The final lunar orbital rendezvous decision did not turn out to be the great weight and schedule saver that it was supposed to be...... but, that's 20-20 hindsight....
LM Original Specification - LM Original Specification Development Diary
LM RCS - LM RCS Development Diary - The LM and CSM reaction control system jets were the only item NASA could actually convince the two contractors to use in common.
LM Shelter - Alternate designation for Apollo LM Shelter manned lunar habitat.
LM Simulator - LM Simulator Development Diary
LM Source Selection - LM Source Selection Diary
LM Structural - LM Structural Development Diary - The LM had to be as light as possible but still survive rough launch environments.
LM Taxi - Alternate designation for Apollo LM Taxi manned lunar lander.
LM Television - LM Television Development Diary - Use of television on Apollo naturally was a big issue for management. Here's how the decisions were made.
LM Truck - Alternate designation for Apollo LM Truck lunar logistics spacecraft.
LM Weight - LM Weight Development Diary - The LM was originally to weigh 24,500 pounds. It grew and grew and grew, until it seemed that Apollo could not be launched towards the moon by the Saturn V. It was only the above-specified performance of the Saturn V that allowed the final 32,000 pound spacecraft to make its voyage.
LM-100 - Lockheed Martin small, spin stabilized bus, based on an internal triangular structure (one half LM-700 Iridium structure).
LM-300 - NASA dual-spacecraft lunar gravity mapping mission. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-09-10. Last Launch: 2011-09-10. Number: 2 .
LM-900 - Lockheed Martin three-axis stabilized bus designed to carry remote sensing payloads in LEO orbits.
LMAS - Lockheed Martin Astro Space, USA
LMC - Abbreviation for Large Magellanic Cloud
LM-EW - Lockheed Martin Telecommunications, East Windsor (formerly, USA
LMI - Russian communications satellite. Lockheed Martin Intersputnik's LMI-1 satellite was a joint Russian-American venture. LMI-1 provided communications services to Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin for Lockheed Martin Intersputnik (LMI) > Asia Broadcast Satellite (ABS), Russia. Launched 1999. Used the A2100AX bus. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-09-26. Last Launch: 1999-09-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,740 kg (8,240 lb).
LMLV - Alternate designation for Athena-1.
LMLV 2 - Alternate designation for Athena-2.
LMLV 3 - Alternate designation for Athena-3.
LMLV-1 - Alternate name of Athena-1.
LMPC (AeroCube 9) - Technology satellite for Aerospace Corporation, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb).
LMRST - Low Mass Radio Science Transponder experiment Cubesat from JPL.
LMRSTSat - Technology satellite built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (prime); Pumpkin Inc. (bus) for Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), USA. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2015-10-08. Last Launch: 2015-10-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
LMS - Alternate name for STS-78.
LM-S - Lockheed Martin, Sunnyvale , USA
LMSC - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (now LMMS), USA.
LMT - Lockheed Martin Telecommunications (formerly Astro Space), USA
LM-VF - Lockheed Martin, Valley Forge , USA
LN2 - Liquid N2 (Nitrogen)
LNG - Liquefied natural gas - mainly methane, with traces of sulfur, etc.
LO - Russian manned space station. Study 1984. A later version of the 37K design for civilian experiments, the LO Laboratory Compartment, would be retained in the payload bay of Buran and connected to the orbiter's cockpit area by an access tunnel. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb).
LO (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Liftoff
LO 19 - Alternate name of LUSAT (LO 19, LUSAT-OSCAR 19).
LO 74 - Alternate name of CubeBug 1, 2 (El Capitßn Beto, Manolito) / LUSAT-OSCAR 74 (LO 74).
LO 75 - Alternate name of CAPE 2 (Louisiana-OSCAR 75, LO 75).
LO 78 - Alternate name of LituanicaSAT 1 (LO 78, Lituanica-OSCAR 78).
LO2 - Abbreviation for Liquid oxygen
LO3 - Liquid ozone offered the possibility of higher performance than liquid oxygen. But it combined the dual drawbacks of very high toxicity and very shock sensitive and was found to be too difficult for practical use.
LOADS - Alternate name for Cannonball.
LoADS - American anti-ballistic missile. Low-Altitude Defense System, BTDS, SDIO/BMDO project Status: Cancelled 1978.
LOADS 1 (OV1 16, Cannonball 1) - Air density research satellite operated by USAF, USA. Launched 1968. First Launch: 1968-07-11. Last Launch: 1968-07-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 272 kg (599 lb).
LOADS 2 (OAR 901, Cannonball 2) - Air density research satellite operated by USAF, USA. Launched 1971. First Launch: 1971-08-07. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 364 kg (802 lb).
Lobanov, Nikolai Aleksandrovich - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1968-1977 of NIEI PDS. Specialized in parachutes and succeeded Tkachev. Born: 1909. Died: 1978-01-01.
Lobber - American surface-to-surface missile. In 1955 Convair undertook a small R&D program to develop a resupply missile that would deliver supplies and communications equipment to surrounded or isolated Army field units. Status: Cancelled 1956. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 26.40 kN (5,935 lbf).
Lobedinskiy, Andrei Vladimirovich - Russian physician. First Director of IMBP 1963-1965 An early space medicine pioneer. Born: 1902. Died: 1965-01-03.
Lobster - RO solid rocket engine. Jaguar 1 third stage. Status: Retired 1964. More at: Solid
LOCAAS - American Low-Cost Autonomous Attack System of the 1990's.
Local Scientific Survey Module - Alternate designation for LSSM manned lunar habitat.
LOCAT - American ow-Cost Aerial Target.
Lockhart, Paul Scott 'Paco' - American test pilot astronaut 1996-2005. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2005. Born: 1956-04-28. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 27.64 days.
Lockheed - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Lockheed Martin, Sunnyvale, CA, USA.
Lockheed 1963 Space Station - American manned space station. Study 1963. Lockheed made an unsolicited proposal to NASA in 1963 for an ambitious space station project. The elements would be launched by Saturn I, as would the 'Astrocommuter' shuttle. Status: Study 1963.
Lockheed 1963 Space Tug - American space tug. Study 1963. Lockheed proposed a space tug to service its 1963 space station. Status: Study 1963.
Lockheed EEOED - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. Lockheed's EEOED was a three-crew Discovery-type re-entry vehicle. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,240 kg (2,730 lb). More at: Solid
Lockheed Martin - First name of Valley Forge.
Lockheed Martin - First name of Lockheed.
Lockheed Martin (1995-) - Third name of Martin.
Lockheed Martin (1996-1998) - Fourth name of East Windsor.
Lockheed Martin Astronautics - Fourth name of Lockheed.
Lockheed Martin Electronics & Missiles - American manufacturer. Lockheed Martin Electronics & Missiles, USA.
Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space - Third name of Lockheed.
Lockheed Martin Tactical Defense Systems - American manufacturer. Lockheed Martin Tactical Defense Systems, USA.
Lockheed Martin Vought Systems - Third name of Vought.
Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. - Alternate name for LMSC.
Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (now LMMS) - Fifth name of Lockheed.
Lockheed Project 7969 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Lockheed's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 20 degree semiapex angle cone with a hemispherical tip of 30 cm radius. The pilot was in a sitting position facing rearward. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
Lockheed Propulsion Co - Alternate name for LPC.
Lockheed RTTOCV - Lockheed sled-launched ten-crew winged orbital launch vehicle design of 1963, a result of NASA-funded studies with several contractors on Operations and Logistics for Space Stations. Status: Study 1963.
Lockheed Space Taxi - American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. Lockheed investigated the economics of reusable launch vehicles for crews and light space station cargo during the early 1960s. Lockheed proposed a new reusable 10-man spaceplane as a follow-on to the Apollo CSM. Status: Study 1963.
LODED - American Long Duration Expendable Decoy of the 1980's.
Loertsch - German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA as assistant to Engine Department Head Pilz.
Lofer Mystery Craft - German manned spaceplane. Hardware construction stage, 1945. There exist in US Army postwar files a murky photo of what some think is a large-scale mock-up of the Saenger antipodal bomber, taken in Lofer, Austria after the end of the World War II. Status: Mock-up 1945.
LoFLYTE - American sub-scale research Low-Observable Flight Test Experiment UAV.
Lofti - American communications technology satellite. The Low Frequency Trans-Ionospheric (LOFTI) satellites were produced as a cooperative effort with the Radio Division. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-02-22. Last Launch: 1963-06-15. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 26 kg (57 lb).
LOFTI 1, 2 - Research satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) / US Navy, USA. Launched 1961 - 1962. First Launch: 1961-02-22. Last Launch: 1962-01-24. Number: 2 .
Lofti 2 - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Carried 5 satellites. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-01-24. Last Launch: 1962-01-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 99 kg (218 lb).
LOFTI 2A - Research satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) / US Navy, USA. Launched 1963. First Launch: 1963-06-15. Last Launch: 1963-06-15. Number: 1 .
Logachev, Anatoli Grigoryevich - Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Deputy Chief GUKOS Space Forces for political units 1974-1980. Born: 1922.
LOGACS - Classified payload; not identified as a subsatellite ferret SSF by McDowell.
LOGACS (OPS 5557) - Technology satellite operated by USAF, USA. Launched 1967. First Launch: 1967-05-22. Last Launch: 1967-05-22. Number: 1 .
Logistics spacecraft - Category of spacecraft.
LOI - Lunar Orbit insertion
LOK - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-LOK.
LOK - Lunar orbital spacecraft (Russian abbreviation).
LOK Energia - Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1988. Lunar orbiter for Energia-launched lunar expedition. The LOK and LK lander would be inserted into lunar orbit by separate Energia launches. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb).
LOK Energia PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. The LOK provided a pressurized volume for three crew. Within the cabin was a descent module of the same configuration as Soyuz, but almost 50% larger. Equipment-engine section - Lunar orbit maneuver, trans-orbit propulsion, pressurized crew quarters. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 23,200 kg (51,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,100 kg (13,400 lb). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LOK Energia SA - Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Descent module of Soyuz configuration but 50% larger dimensionally and nearly twice as heavy. Reentry capsule for crew and lunar samples. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb).
LOK Model #1 - Model of LOK carried in N1 test launches. First Launch: 1971-06-26. Last Launch: 1971-06-26. Number: 1 .
LOK PAO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Unique PAO developed for Soyuz lunar orbiter. Powerful sophisticated engine for lunar orbit rendezvous maneuvers and trans-earth injection. Equipment-engine section. Status: Operational 1971. Gross mass: 5,646 kg (12,447 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,494 kg (5,498 lb). Thrust: 4.17 kN (937 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
LOK, T1K - Alternate designation for Soyuz 7K-LOK manned lunar orbiter.
Loki - American GCR unguided solid-propellant barrage anti-aircraft rocket adapted to use as a meteorological sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1985. First Launch: 1959-10-13. Last Launch: 1960-08-25. Number: 38 . Gross mass: 13 kg (28 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Payload: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Thrust: 9.03 kN (2,030 lbf). More at: Solid
Loki Dart - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1985. First Launch: 1956-02-07. Last Launch: 1985-12-30. Number: 1506 .
Loki Dart PWN-8B - American sounding rocket. USAF version of the instrumented Loki-Dart. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1967-06-17. Last Launch: 1967-12-17. Number: 15 .
Loki Dart-1 - Alternate designation for Loki.
Loki Rockoon - American sounding rocket. Balloon-launched Loki with larger fins for stability at high altitudes. The basic Loki was used in this manner on 23 September 1955, measuring cosmic rays. Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1955-09-23. Last Launch: 1957-11-08. Number: 63 . Gross mass: 13 kg (28 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf).
Loki-Wasp - US Navy version of the Loki-Dart sounding rocket.
Loktionov, Yuri Alekseyevich - Russian scientist cosmonaut, 2000-on. Status: Inactive. Born: 1950-12-12.
Lombard Suit - American pressure suit, tested 1958. Developmental partial pressure suit developed by Dr. Lombard of Northrop. Status: tested 1958.
Lomonosov - Alternate name of MVL-300 (Lomonosov).
Lonchakov, Yuri Valentinovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1997-2013. Air Defense Force Status: Inactive; Active 1997-2013. Born: 1965-03-04. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 200.78 days.
Lone Star - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Lone Star, USA.
Long Duration Exposure Facility - Alternate designation for LDEF earth micrometeoroid satellite.
Long March - Alternate designation for CZ.
Long March - The amazing story of rocket development in China is given in the milestones below.
Long March 1 - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1.
Long March 1 - Alternate designation for CZ-1.
Long March 1C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1C.
Long March 1D - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1D.
Long March 1D - Alternate designation for CZ-1D.
Long March 1M - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1M.
Long March 2A - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2.
Long March 2C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2C-III/SD.
Long March 2C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2C.
Long March 2C - Alternate designation for CZ-2C.
Long March 2D - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2D.
Long March 2D - Alternate designation for CZ-2D.
Long March 2E - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2E.
Long March 2E - Alternate designation for CZ-2E.
Long March 2E(A) - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2E(A).
Long March 2F - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2F.
Long March 2F - Alternate designation for CZ-2F.
Long March 3 - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3.
Long March 3 - Alternate designation for CZ-3.
Long March 3A - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3A.
Long March 3A - Alternate designation for CZ-3A.
Long March 3B - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3B.
Long March 3B - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3BE.
Long March 3B - Alternate designation for CZ-3B.
Long March 3B(E) - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3B(A).
Long March 3C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3C.
Long March 4A - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 4.
Long March 4A - Alternate designation for CZ-4A.
Long March 4B - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 4B.
Long March 4B - Alternate designation for CZ-4B.
Long March 4C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 4C.
Long March 4C - Alternate designation for CZ-4C.
Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type A - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-522/HO.
Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type B - Alternate designation for CZ-5B.
Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type C - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-540/HO.
Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type D - Alternate designation for CZ-5.
Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type D - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-504.
Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type E - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-522.
Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type F - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-540.
Long March Next Generation Light Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for CZ-6.
Long March Next Generation Light Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-200.
Long Rod - Calibration satellite; AKA Navspasur Rod. Part of Surcal series.
Long Rod - Calibration satellite built by deHaviland Canada for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), USA. Launched 1965. First Launch: 1965-08-13. Last Launch: 1965-08-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb).
Long Tank Augmented Thrust Thor - Alternate designation for Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
Long Tank Thor - Alternate designation for Thor Delta L.
Long Tank Thor - Alternate designation for Thor Delta N.
Long Tank Thor - Alternate designation for Thor Delta M.
Long Tank Thor - Alternate designation for Delta 0100.
Long Tank Thor - Alternate designation for Delta Thor LT rocket stage.
Long Tom - Australian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Long Tom (cluster of three Mayfly motors) + 1 x Mayfly second stage. Originally developed to as an inexpensive rocket for the development of Woomera Range instrumentation in preparation for the British Black Knight orbital launch vehicle program. Thereafter used as a sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1957-10-01. Last Launch: 1966-11-10. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 190.00 kN (42,710 lbf).
Long Tom-1 - Alternate name for Mayfly-600.
Long Tom-2 - Alternate name for Mayfly-300.
Longbow Hellfire - Alternate name of Hellfire AGM-114L.
Longhurst, Peter Hervey - British engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1986. Bachelor of science in electrical engineering from the Royal Navy Engineering College, Plymouth, 1966. Commander, Royal Navy. Later became a farmer in Somerset, England. Status: Deceased; Active 1984-1986. Born: 1943-03-08. Died: 2010-05-25.
Loon - American short range cruise missile, a copy of the German V-1 (Fieseler Fi 103). Status: Retired. Gross mass: 2,278 kg (5,022 lb). Payload: 940 kg (2,070 lb).
Lopez Falcon, Jose Armando - Cuban pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1980. Graduated from Carlos Ullo military pilot school, 1967. Graduated from Gagarin Military Academy, Monino. Cuban Air Force Captain and pilot. Continued service as a pilot in the Cuban Air Force. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1980. Born: 1950-02-08.
Lopez-Alegria, Michael Eladio 'LA' - Spanish-American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1992-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2012. Born: 1958-05-30. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 257.95 days.
Lopota, Vitali Aleksandrovich - Chechen engineer. General Designer of TsNII-RTK from 1991 to 2007. General Designer of RKK Energia from 2007 Born: 1950-09-28.
LOR - Lunar orbit rendezvous. Refers to the technique of manned lunar landing that involves detaching a small lunar lander from the earth return capsule. This lands on the surface, then returns to lunar orbit, with the crew transferring back to the mother ship for the return to earth. Purportedly this saved total launch mass, allowing a manned lunar landing to be accomplished in a single booster launch.
Loral - Space Systems/Loral, USA
Loral/Ori - Loral Orion Inc., USA
Loral/Sky - Loral Skynet, Bedminster, UK
Lorenzoni, Andrea - Italian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1986. Colonel, Italian Air Force. Payload specialist for the Italian TSS-Project. International Space Station Program manager for Node 2, Italian Space Agency (ASI). Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1986. Born: 1946-08-08.
Loria, Christopher Joseph 'Gus' - American test pilot astronaut, 1996-2005. US Marine Corps. Grew up in Belmont, Massachusetts. Flew 42 combat missions over Iraq. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2005. Born: 1960-07-09.
Lorikeet - Australian test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Dorado + 1 x Lupus Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1973-10-01. Last Launch: 1976-08-11. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Lorikeet Mk 2 - Australian two-stage solid propellant upper atmospheric research rocket, consisting of Dorado 1A and Lupus 3A rocket motors. Built at the Maribrynong Explosives Factory; developed in the early 1970s as a replacement for the Kookaburra and Cockatoo rockets. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1974-01-01. Last Launch: 1976-06-30. Number: 3 .
LORL - American manned space station. Study 1962. Large Orbiting Research Laboratory was a term applied to a number of NASA and USAF designs of the 1960's intended to succeed MORL. Typically these were rotating stations orbited in a single Saturn V launch. Status: Study 1962.
LORS - Abbreviation for Lunar optical rendezvous system
Los Alamos - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Los Alamos, USA.
Losat - American military strategic defense satellite. Test flight of DOD sensors; Low Altitude Satellite Experiment. SDI Experiments satellite built by Ball Aerospace for SDIO, USA. Launched 1991. Used Quickstar Bus. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-07-04. Last Launch: 1991-07-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 75 kg (165 lb).
LOSAT/KEM MGM-166 - Lockheed Martin mobile surface-to-surface missile.
Lotarev - Ukrainian manufacturer of jet engines.
Lothaller, Clemens - Austrian engineer cosmonaut 1989-1991. Doctorate degree from University of Vienna, 1987. One of five Austrian candidates in 1992 ESA selection. Made short list twice, but not selected in 1992 and 1998. Later had his own medical practice. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1991. Born: 1963-05-08.
Lotos (14F145) - ELINT satellite built by TsSKB-Progress (bus), KB Arsenal (payload), Russia. Launched 2014. Used Yantar bus. First Launch: 2014-12-25. Last Launch: 2014-12-25. Number: 1 .
Lotos-S - Electronic intelligence satellite, built by TsSKB-Progress, Samara and KB Arsenal, Saint Petersburg, using the same Yantar-4KS1 bus as the Resurs-DK optical remote sensing satellites.
LOTRAN - American manned lunar rover. Study 1989. The LOTRAN (LOcal TRANsportation) two-crew rover was the unpressurized lunar rover intended for local base operations in NASA's 90-Day-Study moon base concept of 1989. Status: Study 1989.
Louise - Picosatellite developed by the Artemis team of women undergraduates at Santa Clara University, using the JAK bus.
Louise - Alternate name of Artemis Picosats (Thelma, Louise, JAK).
Louisiana - American manufacturer. Louisiana, Louisiana, USA.
Louisiana-OSCAR 75 - Alternate name of CAPE 2 (Louisiana-OSCAR 75, LO 75).
Lounge, John Michael - American geophysicist mission specialist astronaut 1980-1991. Grew up in Burlington, Colorado. Flew 99 combat missions in Vietnam. Status: Deceased; Active 1980-1991. Born: 1946-06-28. Died: 2011-03-01. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 20.10 days.
Lousma, Jack Robert - American pilot astronaut 1966-1983. Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1983. Born: 1936-02-29. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 67.47 days.
Love, Michael V - American test pilot. Flew on X-24B, killed during a routine chase flight in an F-4 from Edwards AFB, due to a malfunction of the ejection seat. Status: Deceased. Born: 1938-09-26. Died: 1976-03-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.77 days.
Love, Stanley Glen - American astronomer mission specialist astronaut 1998-2011. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2011. Born: 1965-06-08. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.77 days.
Lovelace, Alan M - American materials scientist. Father of the commercial Atlas. Without his vision, leadership, and prestige the commercial Atlas would never have happened. Born: 1929-09-04.
Lovell, A C Bernard - British physicist. Established the Jodrell Bank radio observatory, used during the cold war to support NASA satellites and receive Soviet probe signals. Born: 1913-08-31. Died: 2012-08-06.
Lovell, James Arthur Jr 'Shaky' - American test pilot astronaut 1962-1973. Member of first crew to rendezvous in space, and first to orbit the moon. Altitude (401,056 km) record. Status: Inactive; Active 1962-1973. Born: 1928-03-25. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 29.79 days.
low cost - Category of launch vehicles.
Low Cost Cargo Vehicle - American orbital launch vehicle. This variant of the Shuttle C was envisioned for delivery of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to orbit. Status: Design 1990.
Low Cost Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for LCLV-2.
Low Cost Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for LCLV-3.
Low Cost Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for LCLV-1.
Low Cost Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for LCLV.
Low Power Hydrazine Arcjet - Alternate designation for MR-508 Hydrazine rocket engine.
Low, George David - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1984-1996. Son of former NASA administrator George M Low. Status: Deceased; Active 1984-1996. Born: 1956-02-19. Died: 2008-03-15. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 29.75 days.
Low, George M - Austrian-American engineer, at NASA 1950-1976. He occupied key manned spaceflight leadership positions at NASA during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and early Shuttle programs. Born: 1926. Died: 1984-01-01.
Lowell, Percival - American astronomer; predicted the existence of the planet Pluto; enamored with the prospect of life on Mars and theorized that its canals were the product of intelligent life; great influence on public thinking. Born: 1855. Died: 1916-01-01.
Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment - Alternate designation for LACE military strategic defense satellite.
Lowry AFB - Titan I ICBM base.
Lowry AFB Site 3 -
LOX - Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidizer for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required.
Lox/Alcohol - Lox/Alcohol propellant. This propellant combination was used for the German V-2 rocket, and the first derivative rocket engines in the United States, Soviet Union, and China. Improved specific impulse was achieved by increasing the alcohol concentration in the post-war engines. But after better-performance rocket-grade kerosene was developed by Rocketdyne in the REAP program of 1953, use of alcohol was abandoned. And liquid oxygen, being moderately cryogenic, was not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required.
Lox/Ammonia - Lox/Ammonia propellant. This relatively benign propellant combination was used in the XLR-99 rocket motor that powered the X-15 manned rocketplane in the 1960's.
Lox/Beryllium+Pentaborane in Hydrazine 30%/70% - Lox/Beryllium+Pentaborane in Hydrazine 30%/70% propellant. The concept of using beryllium and pentaborane in fuels for both rockets and advanced aircraft (the American B-70 bomber, for example) was popular in the early 1960's. However while performance was improved by as much as 50%, the engine exhaust was toxic. No such engines ever reached production.
Lox/C3H8 - Lox/C3H8 propellant. C3H8 liquid propane was proposed as a more 'environmentally friendly' rocket fuel in Russia in the 1990's, and was tested in place of kerosene in some test engines, but no such engine reached production.
Lox/Gasoline - Lox/Gasoline propellant. Gasoline of various grades were used as fuel in the earliest rocket engines of Goddard and others. Once appropriate blends of kerosene were developed in the United States and Soviet Union, that became the hydrocarbon fuel of choice.
Lox/Hydrazine - Lox/Hydrazine propellant. Motors were tested with this propellant combination in the 1950's, but hydrazine (N2H4) was quickly replaced by UDMH.
Lox/Hydyne - Lox/Hydyne propellant. Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidizer for large space launchers.Hydyne was a propellant blend pushed rather vigorously by the Redstone arsenal in the late 1950's, but it found little application. Hydyne was a 60 per cent, by weight, mixture of UDMH and 40 weight percent diethyltrianine (DETA).
Lox/Kerosene - Lox/Kerosene propellant. Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidizer for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene.
Lox/Kerosene/LH2 - Lox/Kerosene/LH2 propellant. Tripropellant motors use high-density kerosene for the boost phase, then low-density, high-performance liquid hydrogen for the later stages of ascent. However the propellants are stored in separate tanks. The fuel density indicated is the average for the MAKS design, which burned 17,850 kg LH2 and 18,698 Kerosene to reach orbit using 175,758 kg of liquid oxygen oxidizer.
Lox/LCH4 - Lox/LCH4 propellant. Liquid methane, or liquid natural gas, was originally proposed in the 1960's as an an alternate to hydrogen to power the spacecraft for long-duration manned Mars expeditions. It provided longer and easier storage and higher density than hydrogen. In the 1980's, it was proposed that spacecraft returning from Mars could extract methane fuel from the Martian atmosphere using Brayton-cycle processors. This made Lox/Methane a standard for NASA's deep space manned spacecraft shuttle follow-on concepts. Development began of engines intended for use in reaction control systems and satellite maneuvering systems after 2000. In the 1990's, liquid methane was proposed as a launch vehicle fuel by the Russians, to be applied to conversions of various existing launch vehicles, as well as the clean-sheet-of-paper Riksha design. NASA dropped Lox/Methane from its Orion manned capsule once Mars plans crumbled; and the Russian booster designs never found any funding. Development of the engines continued in the United States for proposed manned spacecraft and spaceplanes.
Lox/LH2 - Lox/LH2 propellant.to be used on production space launch vehicles. Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidizer for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. The technology was transferred to the Centaur rocket stage program, and by the mid-1960's the United States was flying the Centaur and Saturn upper stages using the fuel. It was later adopted for the core of the US space shuttle, the European Ariane 5, and the Chinese CZ-5 launch vehicles. It is used in upper stages flown on American, European, Indian, and Chinese boosters. Although extensively developed in Russia, it never reached production for any Russian space launchers.
Lox/LNG - Liquid oxygen and liquid natural gas have been proposed as a cleaner propellant combination than the standard liquid oxygen/kerosene.
Lox/Sintin - Lox/Sintin propellant. Sintin - described as a 'synthetic kerosene' of unknown composition - was introduced in the Soviet Union in the 1980's. It increased specific impulse from 1-2% when used in engines using conventional kerosene, and was evidently denser. It use was discontinued after the breakup of the Soviet Union.
Lox/Solid - Lox/Solid propellant. used in a hybrid rockets. Mixed liquid/solid propulsion systems offer the potential for the storability of a solid rocket, the safety and throttleability of a liquid rocket, and lower cost than either. Believers experimented throughout the last half of the 20th Century, but it only after the year 2000 that such systems went into production. Solid fuel for hybrids are in the form of a rubbery matrix. HTPB is most commonly used.
Lox/UDMH - Lox/UDMH propellant. This propellant combination, with higher performance than either Lox/Kerosene or N2O4/UDMH, was developed by Glushko in Russia in the 1950's. However the use of toxic UDMH was unacceptable to rocket designer Korolev, while the use of cryogenic liquid oxygen was unacceptable to the Soviet military. Glushko's plans for use of the propellant in larger boosters had to be in abandoned, and it was used instead for in small upper stages for the Kosmos launch vehicle series.
Lozino-Lozinskiy, Gleb Yevgenyevich - Russian Chief Designer of spaceplanes, headed NPO Molniya 1976-2001. Developed the Buran space shuttle and MAKS spaceplane. Earlier had headed the Spiral spaceplane project at MiG 1965-1976. Born: 1909-12-25. Died: 2001-11-28.
LP - Lithium perchlorate
LPC - LPC Global.
LPC A-1 - American solid rocket engine. Apollo LES first stage. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 690.00 kN (155,110 lbf). More at: Solid
LPC-415 - Boeing solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1983. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). More at: Solid
LPCE - Alternate designation for TR-106 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
LPI - Lunar and Planetary Institute, a NASA-funded institute in Houston, Texas, devoted to studying the solar system and promoting space exploration to the public.
LPO - Abbreviation for La Palma Observatory
LPU - Lunar landing unit (Russian abbreviation). Landing gear of the LK manned lunar lander that provided launch stand for ascent from lunar surface.
LPV - Abbreviation for Long Period Variable
LQSat - Chinese commercial experimental remote sensing satellite. First Launch: 2015-10-07. Last Launch: 2015-10-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 54 kg (119 lb).
LR- - Liquid rocket (US DoD designation series)
LR10 - Reaction Motors rocket engine. Viking RTV-N-12.
LR101 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine family. Verniers for Thor and Delta boosters.
LR101-11 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. In Production. Verniers for RS-27 powerplant, used on Delta boosters 1974-1992. Status: In Production. Thrust: 5.30 kN (1,191 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
LR101-NA-7 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Upper Stage Target Engine Systems. Pressure-fed. Derived from Atlas vernier. Date: 1976. Thrust: 5.15 kN (1,157 lbf). More at: N2O4/MMH
LR103 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR105 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine family. Atlas Sustainer.
LR105-3 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of Production. Early version of Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 375.00 kN (84,303 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
LR105-5 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Atlas E, F. Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Separate turbopumps for each booster engine. First flight 1960. Date: 1958. Number: 289 . Thrust: 386.40 kN (86,866 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
LR105-7 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Atlas space launchers. Out of production. Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Evolved from MA-2 ICBM system. First flight 1963. Status: Out of production. Date: 1960. Number: 50 . Thrust: 386.40 kN (86,866 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
LR107 - Hughes liquid rocket engine.
LR109 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR10-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR10 rocket engine.
LR111 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR115 - DoD Designation of RL-10A-1 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
LR117 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR119 - DoD Designation of RL-10A-3 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
LR12 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR121 - Rocketdyne liquid rocket engine. NF-104A .
LR123 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR125 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR127 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR129 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Engine developed for boost/glide aerospace craft; later modified into unsuccessful competitor for Space Shuttle main engine. More at: Lox/LH2
LR13 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine family. B-29 ATO. Development begun June 1948. Ceramic chamber and nozzle.
LR14 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR16 - Aerojet rocket engine.
LR17 - Curtiss-Wright LOx/Gasoline rocket engine. Assisted take-off power for XB-45. Single thrust chamber, both regeneratively cooled and film-cooled with water, spark plug ignition, turbine-pump fed. Unfuelled mass: 268 kg (590 lb). Thrust: 17.60 kN (3,957 lbf). More at: Lox/Gasoline
LR18 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR19 - Curtiss-Wright LOx/Gasoline rocket engine. Experimental unit for either missiles or piloted aircraft. Single thrust chamber, regeneratively cooled and film cooled with water-alcohol mixture. Unfuelled mass: 268 kg (590 lb). Thrust: 44.10 kN (9,914 lbf). More at: Lox/Gasoline
LR2 - Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine.
LR21 - Curtiss-Wright LOx/Gasoline rocket engine. Turbine pump-fed, single thrust chamber unit intended for cancelled missile application. Engine designed to fit into the envelope dimensions of the German V-2! Unfuelled mass: 147 kg (324 lb). Thrust: 266.83 kN (59,986 lbf). More at: Lox/Gasoline
LR22 - Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine.
LR25 - Alternate designation for XLR25-CW-1.
LR26 - Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine.
LR27 - Curtiss-Wright liquid rocket engine. planned for XF-91; cancelled.
LR28 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR29 - Curtiss-Wright liquid rocket engine. cancelled project.
LR2-RM-6 - Fairchild liquid rocket engine. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 2.80 kN (629 lbf). More at: Solid
LR30 - Reaction Motors LOx/Ammonia rocket engine. D-558-3. Capable rocket engine planned for use in D-558-3 and X-15. Cancelled in favor of XLR-99. Date: 1952-1957. Thrust: 222.60 kN (50,042 lbf). More at: Lox/Ammonia
LR31 - Kellogg liquid rocket engine. cancelled project.
LR32 - Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine. XH-15 blade-tip engine .
LR33 - Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine. cancelled project. Engine development halted, component work continued.
LR34 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR35 - Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine. Hiroc RTV-A-2. Engine development halted, component work continued.
LR36 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR37 - Curtiss-Wright LOx/Gasoline rocket engine. Small experimental engine for ram-rocket tests. Single thrust chamber, regeneratively cooled with gasoline, film cooling also used, spark plug ignition. Test article only built. Thrust: 225 N (50 lbf). More at: Lox/Gasoline
LR38 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR39 - Reaction Motors LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Small experimental engine. Single thrust chamber, water cooled, equipped only with spark plug ignition system and propellant flow valves. Test article only built. Unfuelled mass: 0.66 kg (1.45 lb). Thrust: 225 N (50 lbf). More at: Lox/Alcohol
LR4 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR40 - Reaction Motors H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. F8U-1 supercruise engine, 1957. Engine exploded during an early ground test, killing two company mechanics. This accident caused Reaction Motors to pull out of the project. Thrust: 35.69 kN (8,023 lbf). More at: H2O2/Kerosene
LR41 - North American liquid rocket engine.
LR42 - North American liquid rocket engine.
LR44 - Thiokol liquid rocket engine. Sparrow AAM-N-6, White Lance GAM-79.
LR45 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine family. B-47C ATO. Development begun August 1948.
LR46 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR47 - Kellogg liquid rocket engine. RATO rocket planned for cancelled B-47C (B-56).
LR48 - Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine.
LR49 - Aerojet rocket engine.
LR50-GE-1 - DoD Designation of X-405 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
LR51 - Aerojet rocket engine.
LR52-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of AJ10-118 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
LR53 engine series - Series of early Aerojet storable propellant engines developed originally for JATO purposes.
LR54 - Rocketdyne H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. After the failure of the Reaction Motors XLR-40 for use in the F8U-1 fighter, Vought elected to continue the project using the XLR-54 . Project never reached flight status Thrust: 26.40 kN (5,935 lbf). More at: H2O2/Kerosene
LR55 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR56 - Aerojet storable liquid engine. F8U-3F. Aerojet was considered as the supplier for a liquid rocket superperformance engine for the F8U-3. It is not known to have reached test stage.
LR57 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR58 - Thiokol liquid rocket engine. Bullpup AGM-12B, Bulldog AGM-83.
LR58-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR58 rocket engine.
LR59-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of 45LR-35000 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
LR6 - Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine. Lark SAM-N-2, CTV-N-9.
LR60 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR61 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR62 - Thiokol liquid rocket engine. Bullpup AGM-12C/E.
LR62-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR62 rocket engine.
LR64 - Alternate designation for P4-1 Booster.
LR64 - DoD Designation of P4-1 Sustainer and [P4-1 Sustainer] LOx-Kerosene rocket engines.
LR64 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. AQM-37 Target System Sustainer.
LR65 - Bell rocket engine for the X-9 Shrike, an experimental prototype of the Rascal air-to-ground missile.
LR66-AJ-2 - DoD Designation of AJ10-196 rocket engine.
LR67 - Bell rocket engine. Rascal GAM-63. Harry Meyers made a major contribution to the development of Bell's Rascal engines. The engine was made of aluminum, using the "spaghetti tube" concept of brazed tubes for thrust chamber cooling.
LR67-B-1 - DoD Designation of LR67 rocket engine.
LR69 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR73 - Aerojet storable liquid engine.
LR73-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of LR73 rocket engine.
LR75 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR77 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR79 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine family. Designed for booster applications. Originally evolved in the Navaho program into the most powerful available Lox/Kerosene engine available in the United States at the dawn of the space age. Its descendants and derivatives powered Atlas, Titan, Thor, Saturn I, British Blue Streak, Japanese H2 launch vehicles into the 21st Century.
LR79-7 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. First flight 1957. Status: Out of production.. Date: 1955. Number: 268 . Thrust: 758.70 kN (170,563 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
LR79--NA-7 - DoD Designation of LR79-7 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
LR81-B-1 - DoD Designation of Bell 8048 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
LR83-NA-1 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Development ended 1958. Planned production version of the engine for the booster of the Navaho G-38 intercontinental cruise missile. Status: Development ended 1958. Thrust: 683.00 kN (153,544 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
LR85 - American liquid rocket engine. Buck Duck GAM-71.
LR87 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine family for the Titan booster stage. The Aerojet LR87 was the only engine known in the world that was operated (with modifications) using all three major propellant combinations: kerosene RP-1 and liquid oxygen; storable hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide; and liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.
LR87 Alumizine - Aerojet N2O4/Alumizine rocket engine. 1960's USAF development effort for a Titan storable engine using a metallized fuel (for greater impulse density) and gelled propellants (to facilitate in-space starts after a period of coasting). Status: Out of Production. More at: N2O4/Alumizine
LR87 LH2 - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Development ended 1961. Version of the Titan engine, and first large LOx/LH2 engine fired in the world. 52 static tests. But NASA selected Rocketdyne instead to develop the J-2 engine for Saturn from scratch. Status: Development ended 1961. Thrust: 667.00 kN (149,947 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
LR87-11 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Out of production. Powered Titan 3 and 4 first stages. Replaced the -9 model, first flown 1968. First flight 1964. Status: Out of production. Number: 534 . Thrust: 1,218.80 kN (273,997 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
LR87-11 AJ23-138 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Version of LR-87-11 tuned for launch pad ignition when used on Titan 3B. First flight 1966. Date: 1968. Thrust: 1,008.31 kN (226,677 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
LR87-3 - Aerojet LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Titan 1 booster engine. Surplus Flight Engines were available for various uses in the 1960's. First flight 1959. Status: First flight 1959. Number: 140 . Thrust: 733.90 kN (164,987 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
LR87-5 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Out of Production. Used on Titan 2 launch vehicle. Engines refurbished for space launcher versions from decommissioned missiles between 1974-1982. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 1,096.80 kN (246,570 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
LR87-7 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Study 1961. Version of LR-87-5 used on Gemini Titan 2 launch vehicle. Proposed for unflown Titan 3L2, Titan 3L4 boosters. First flight 1962. Status: First flight 1962.. Number: 212 . Thrust: 1,086.10 kN (244,165 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
LR87-9 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Variant of LR-87 used on early versions of Titan III B,C First flight 1966. Date: 1970. Thrust: 956.10 kN (214,940 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
LR87plus - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Study 1965. Nominal improved LR87 in booster studies. Used on Martin Astrorocket launch vehicle. Status: Study 1965. Thrust: 1,634.40 kN (367,428 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
LR89-5 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Atlas E, F. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Separate turbopumps for each booster engine. First flight 1960. Date: 1958. Number: 504 . Thrust: 822.50 kN (184,905 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
LR89-7 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Atlas space launchers. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. Evolved from MA-2 ICBM system. First flight 1963. Status: Out of production. Date: 1960. Number: 198 . Thrust: 948.00 kN (213,118 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
LR8-RM-5 - Reaction Motors. Advanced version of the LR-11, 4 chambers. Engine in the X-1E was modified in 1958 to increase chamber pressure to 20 atm and burn Hydyne fuel. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 26.67 kN (5,996 lbf). More at: Lox/Alcohol
LR91 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine family. Titan Stage 2. Scaled down version of stage 1 engine featuring fixed single chamber.
LR91-11 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Out of production. Second stage engine for Titan 3 and 4. First flight 1968. Status: Out of production. Number: 267 . Thrust: 467.00 kN (104,985 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
LR91-3 - Aerojet LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Development begun 1957. Titan 1 Stage 2 major production version. Proposed for second stage of Juno V-A, Super-Jupiter in 1959. Flown 1959-1965. Status: Flown 1959-1965.. Number: 70 . Thrust: 355.90 kN (80,010 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
LR91-5 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Titan 2 ICBM Stage 2. Out of Production. Scaled down version of stage 1 engine featuring fixed single chamber. Gas generator cycle. First flight 1962. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962. Thrust: 444.80 kN (99,995 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
LR91-7 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Version used on Stage 2 of Gemini Titan 2 Launch Vehicle. Proposed for unflown Titan 3L2, Titan 3L4 boosters. First flight 1962. Status: First flight 1962.. Number: 106 . Thrust: 444.80 kN (99,995 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
LR91-9 - Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Titan III B, C, D. Out of Production. Version used in earlier versions of Titan 3 upper stages. First flight 1965. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1968. Thrust: 448.61 kN (100,850 lbf). More at: N2O4/Aerozine-50
LR93 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR95 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR97 - American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available.
LR99 - Alternate designation for XLR99.
LRALT - American air-launched target rocket built by Coleman Aerospace. Air-launched anti-ballistic missile target composed of two surplus SR19 states in tandem. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-05-03. Last Launch: 2009-07-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf).
LRALT-2 - Alternate name for SR19.
LRB - Abbreviation for Liquid Rocket Booster
LRBA - French manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. LRBA, France.
LRC - Langley Research Center (NASA)
LRCSW - American air-to-surface missile. Canceled, Long-Range Conventional Stand-off Weapon
LRE - Japanese earth geodetic satellite. The 87 kg Laser Ranging Experiment was a passive mirror ball of diameter 51 cm and carried 24 glass sheets and 126 prisms on its surface. Geodesy satellite for NASDA, Japan. Launched 2001. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-08-29. Last Launch: 2001-08-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 87 kg (191 lb).
LRL - Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (later LLL and LLNL)
LRO - The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter was a NASA spacecraft that comprehensively mapped the lunar surface at a resolution of up to 0.5 m and determined the extent of water ice for possible use by future manned bases. Lunar lander built by Goddard Space Flight Center for NASA, USA. Launched 2009. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-06-18. Last Launch: 2009-06-18. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
LRS - L'Association Libanaise pour Etudes des Engins Spaciaux
LRV - Lunar roving vehicle (Rover)
LS 400 - Manufacturer's designation for Globalstar communications satellite.
LS-1300 - Designation for FS-1300 bus after acquisition of Ford Aerospace by Lockheed.
LS-400 - Satellite bus built by Space Systems Loral (ex Ford), USA.
LS-A - Japanese test vehicle. Early suborbital test version of the Lambda rocket series. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1963-08-10. Last Launch: 1965-11-22. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 60.00 kN (13,488 lbf).
LS-A Booster - Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. LS-A first stage. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 60.00 kN (13,488 lbf). More at: Solid
LS-A engine - Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. LS-A second stage. Status: Retired 1965. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf). More at: Solid
LS-A-1 - Alternate name for LS-A Booster.
LS-A-2 - Alternate name for LS-A engine.
LSAM - American manned lunar lander. Lunar lander proposed by NASA in 2005 for their planned return to the moon by 2018. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 32,600 kg (71,800 lb). Thrust: 66.60 kN (14,972 lbf). More at: Lox/LCH4
LS-C - Japanese Mitsubishi solid rocket test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x LS-C Booster + 1 x LS-C Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1968-09-19. Last Launch: 1974-02-09. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb).
LS-C-1 - Alternate name for LS-C-2.5.
LS-C-2 - Alternate name for LS-C-4.
LS-C-2.5 - Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. LS-C first stage. Status: Retired 1974. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). More at: Solid
LSC-3 - Japanese test vehicle. Early suborbital test version of the Lambda rocket series.
LS-C-4 - Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. LS-C second stage. Status: Retired 1974. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). More at: Solid
LSR - Abbreviation for Local Standard of Rest
LSRS - Abbreviation for Lunar Surface Rescue Spacecraft
LSS Site Survey Payload - American lunar rover. Study 1963. The BellComm Lunar Logistic System unmanned Site Survey Payload was outlined in a January 1963 study. The 2 x 2 vehicle had articulated wheels, a 1.5 m diameter folded chassis. and a range of 260 km. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 630 kg (1,380 lb).
LSSM - Alternate designation for LSAM.
LSSM - American manned lunar rover. Study 1968. The Bendix Local Science Survey Module was a forerunner of the Lunar Rover. The LSSM was a small size vehicle used to support a local manned survey. It was proposed for delivery with an LM Shelter. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Payload: 320 kg (700 lb).
LST - Large Space Telescope (satellite)
L-Star 1, 2 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for Asia Broadcasting and Communications Network (ABCN). Used the SSL-1300 bus.
LSTSAT 1 - Alternate name of NicaSat 1 (LSTSAT 1).
LSU - Abbreviation for Life Support Umbilical
LSV - American manned lunar rover. Study 1971. The Lunar Sortie Vehicle (LSV), was a North American Rockwell design of 1971, conceived as a railroad train without the rails. Status: Study 1971.
LTA - Abbreviation for Lunar test article
LTA 2R, 10R - Instrumented dynamic simualtion payload satellite, USA. Launched 1967. First Launch: 1967-11-09. Last Launch: 1967-11-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb).
LTA B - Mass Model satellite, USA. Launched 1968. First Launch: 1968-12-21. Last Launch: 1968-12-21. Number: 1 .
LTP - Abbreviation for Lunar Transient Phenomenon
LTV - Alternate designation for OTV.
LTV - Second name of Vought.
LTV-A-1 - Alternate name of Buzz Bomb LTV-A-1.
LTV-N-2 - Alternate name of Buzz Bomb LTV-A-1.
LTV-N-4 - American Naval Ordnance Test Station solid-propellant test vehicle to support development of ramjet-powered missiles. Flew in 1949 and was 4.5 m long. Status: Cancelled 1949.
Lu Xiangxiao - Chinese PLAAF pilot, astronaut in the first Chinese training group of 1971-1972. Status: Inactive. Born: 1936.
Lu, Edward Tsang - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1994-2007. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2007. Born: 1963-07-01. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 205.97 days.
Luch - Russian military communications satellite. Communication, data relay satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1985 - 1994. Used KAUR-4 bus. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-10-25. Last Launch: 1995-10-11. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 2,170 kg (4,780 lb).
Luch (Olimp-K) - Communications / ELINT satellite built by ISS Reshetnev for FSB, Russia. Launched 2014. Used the Ekspress-1000 bus. First Launch: 2014-09-27. Last Launch: 2014-09-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Luch 4 - Alternate name of Yenisey A1 (Luch 4).
Luch 5A, 5V - Communications / Relay satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (ex NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM), Russia. Launched 2011 - 2014. Used the Ekspress-1000A (3-Axis stabilized, 2 solar arrays) bus. Launched 2011-2014. First Launch: 2011-12-11. Last Launch: 2014-04-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,148 kg (2,530 lb).
Luch 5B - Communications / Relay satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (ex NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM), Russia. Launched 2012. Used the Ekspress-1000AM (3-Axis stabilized, 2 solar arrays) bus. First Launch: 2012-11-02. Last Launch: 2012-11-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb).
Luch-2 (Gelios, 14F30) - Communication, data relay satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1995. Used KAUR-4 bus. First Launch: 1995-10-11. Last Launch: 1995-10-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb).
Lucid, Shannon Matilda Wells - American biochemist mission specialist astronaut 1978-2012. Biochemist, first American woman to make a long-duration space station mission. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-2012. Born: 1943-01-14. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 223.12 days.
Lucky Seven - American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Acceleration Engineering, Bath, Michigan. Status: Study 2004.
Lucky-7 - Technology, Earth observation satellite for SkyFox Labs, Czech Republic. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Lucy (Discovery 13) - Multiple asteroid fly-by satellite built by Lockheed Martin for NASA, USA.
Ludmila - Russian phantom cosmonaut, claimed by Judica-Cordiglia brothers to have died in space in 1961 - or 1963. Died: 1961-05-23.
Luedecke, Alvin R - American manager. Air force nuclear weapons and propulsion liaison positions, 1949-1958. General Manager AEC 1958-1964; Deputy Director JPL 1964-1967. Born: 1910-10-01. Died: 1998-08-09.
Luehrsen, Hannes - German-American architect. Member of von Braun's team at Peenemuende and in US; designed the buildings, roads, and infrastructure at Peenemuende and at Huntsville. Born: 1907-03-13. Died: 1986-01-01.
Luftwaffe - German agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Luftwaffe, Germany.
Lukyanyuk, Vasili Yuriyevich - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1989-2003. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-2003. Born: 1958-09-22.
Luliang - The Tiantuo-3 constellation was from the National University of Defense Technology in Hunan. Its primary satellite, the 20 kg, Luliang-1, was developed in collaboration with the municipal government of Luliang city. Status: Operational 2015.
Luliang 1 - Alternate name of TT 3 (Luliang 1).
Luna - Alternate designation for 3R10.
Luna - Alternate designation for 3R9.
Luna - Alternate designation for Frog 5.
Luna - Alternate designation for Vostok-L 8K72.
Luna - Soviet lunar probe series. Lunas were the first manmade objects to attain of escape velocity; to impact on the moon; to photograph the far side of the moon; to soft land on the moon; to retrieve and return lunar surface samples to the earth; and to deploy a lunar rover on the moon's surface.
Luna 25 - Alternate name of Luna-Glob (Luna 25).
Luna 8K72 - Alternate designation for Vostok-L 8K72.
Luna 8K72-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 43,400 kg (95,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Thrust: 990.00 kN (222,560 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Luna 8K72-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 95,300 kg (210,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,900 kg (15,200 lb). Thrust: 936.50 kN (210,534 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Luna 8K72-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1960. Gross mass: 8,100 kg (17,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,120 kg (2,460 lb). Thrust: 49.00 kN (11,015 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Luna E-1 - Russian lunar impact probe. The first spacecraft to achieve escape velocity and the first to reach the Moon. The spacecraft was sphere-shaped. Five antennae extended from one hemisphere. Status: Operational 1958. First Launch: 1958-09-23. Last Launch: 1959-01-02. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 361 kg (795 lb).
Luna E-1A - Russian lunar impact probe. First probe to impact lunar surface. Delivered a pennant to the surface of the Moon and conducted research during flight to the Moon. Status: Operational 1959. First Launch: 1959-06-18. Last Launch: 1959-09-12. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 387 kg (853 lb).
Luna E-2A - Lunar fly-by satellite, Russia. Launched 1959. First Launch: 1959-10-04. Last Launch: 1959-10-04. Number: 1 .
Luna E-3 - Russian lunar flyby probe. The E-3 was designed to loop around the moon and photograph the Moon's far side. Status: Operational 1959. First Launch: 1959-10-04. Last Launch: 1960-04-16. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 279 kg (615 lb).
Luna E-6 - Russian lunar lander. E-6 probes were designed by Korolev's OKB-1 with the objective of making the first soft landing on the moon and beaming back pictures of the surface. Lunar soft lander, Russia. Launched 1963 - 1966. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-01-04. Last Launch: 1966-01-31. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 1,422 kg (3,134 lb).
Luna E-6LF - Russian lunar orbiter. Photographed lunar surface and orbital space environment in preparation for manned missions. Lunar lander, Russia. Launched 1966. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-08-24. Last Launch: 1966-10-22. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,629 kg (3,591 lb).
Luna E-6LS - Russian lunar orbiter. The E-6LS was a radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. Lunar lander, Russia. Launched 1967 - 1968. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-05-16. Last Launch: 1968-04-07. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
Luna E-6M - Russian lunar lander. Luna 13. Modernized version of the E-6 with the ALS lander mass increased from 84 kg to 150 kg. Lunar soft lander, Russia. Launched 1966. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-12-21. Last Launch: 1966-12-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
Luna E-6S - Russian lunar orbiter. Lunar lander, Russia. Launched 1966. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-03-01. Last Launch: 1966-03-31. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,597 kg (3,520 lb).
LUNA ISS Module - Earth observation, technology satellite for UrtheCast, NanoRacks, USA.
Luna missile - Russian tactical ballistic rocket. Status: Active.
Luna tactical rocket series - Series of Russian tactical ballistic rockets, fielded in the early 1960's with ranges under 60 km.
Luna Ye-8 - Russian lunar rover. Lunar lander and rover satellite, Russia. Launched 1969 - 1973. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-02-19. Last Launch: 1973-01-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 5,590 kg (12,320 lb).
Luna Ye-8-5 - Russian lunar lander. Unmanned lunar soil sample return mission. Lunar lander and sample return satellite, Russia. Launched 1969 - 1972. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-06-14. Last Launch: 1976-08-09. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb).
Luna Ye-8-5M - Russian lunar lander. 4 launches, 1974.10.28 (Luna 23) to 1976.08.09 (Luna 24 Return Vehicle). Lunar sample return. Conduct of further scientific investigation of the moon and circumlunar space. Status: Operational 1974. Gross mass: 5,302 kg (11,688 lb).
Luna Ye-8-LS - Russian lunar orbiter. Lunar surface mapping. Lunar lander, Russia. Launched 1971 - 1974. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-09-28. Last Launch: 1974-05-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 5,820 kg (12,830 lb).
Luna-Glob - Lunar orbiter, lander and impactors satellite built by NPO Lavochkin, USSR. Gross mass: 2,320 kg (5,110 lb).
Luna-Glob (Luna 25) - Lunar lander built by NPO Lavochkin, Russia. Gross mass: 1,550 kg (3,410 lb).
LunaH-Map - Satellite for NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. Gross mass: 14 kg (30 lb).
Luna-M - Alternate designation for R-65.
Luna-M - Alternate designation for R-75.
Luna-M - Alternate designation for R-70.
Luna-M tactical rocket series - Series of improved Russian tactical ballistic rockets, replacing the Luna series in Soviet Army service.
Lunar A - Lunar orbiter with two penetrators satellite operated by ISAS, Japan. Gross mass: 520 kg (1,140 lb).
Lunar Application of a Spent S-IVB Stage - Alternate designation for Apollo LASS S-IVB lunar logistics spacecraft.
Lunar Bases - The Lunar Base never seemed to be a high priority to space visionaries, who were mainly interested in getting on to Mars. It was usually seen as a proving ground for Mars vehicle technology, or as a place to mine propellant for use in a larger space infrastructure.
Lunar Bus - American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. The lunar 'bus'; was an early NASA Apollo logistics vehicle study. Status: Study 1962.
Lunar Crashers - Category of spacecraft.
Lunar Escape Ambulance and close orbit Pickup - Alternate designation for LEAP lunar flyer manned lunar flyer.
Lunar Evolution Base 1989 - American manned lunar base. Study 1989. In August 1989 NASA's Office of Exploration completed a two-year, NASA-wide plan for future manned space exploration. Status: Study 1989.
Lunar Excursion Module - Code name for Apollo LM manned lunar lander.
Lunar Excursion Vehicle - Alternate designation for LEV manned lunar lander.
Lunar Exploration Program 1968 - American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. In January 1968, BellComm, NASA's Apollo project management advisor, proposed a four-phase program for exploration of the lunar surface using Apollo and Apollo-derived hardware. Status: Cancelled 1968.
Lunar Exploration System for Apollo - Alternate designation for LESA Shelter.
Lunar Exploration System for Apollo - Alternate designation for LESA Lunar Base manned lunar base.
Lunar Flyby - Category of spacecraft.
Lunar Flyers - Lunar flyers would use rocket power to get crew or cargo quickly from one point on the lunar surface to another. The larger versions could act as rescue vehicles to get crew members to lunar orbit for pick-up and return to earth. Their horrendous fuel requirements meant that they were mainly considered for one-use rescue missions - for example to return a crew from a disabled lunar rover, beyond walking distance back to their lander. Some Apollo variants proposed using leftover propellant from the Lunar Module descent stage to fuel such flyers.
Lunar Flying Vehicle - Alternate designation for LFV Bell.
Lunar Flying Vehicle - Alternate designation for LFV North American and [LFV North American] manned lunar flyers.
Lunar Habitats - Lunar habitats were usually for early lunar exploration or as modules for fixed-location base buildup. Mobile habitats were the more logical solution for extended exploration (see Lunar Rovers).
Lunar L1 - The Russian program to fly Soviet cosmonauts around the moon in the late 1960's.
Lunar L3 - The Soviet program to land a man on the moon and return him safely to earth.
Lunar lander test vehicle - Category of spacecraft.
Lunar Lander Test Vehicle - Manufacturer's designation for Apollo LLRV manned lunar lander test vehicle.
Lunar Landers - Lunar lander design started with the British Interplanetary Society's concept of 1939, followed by Von Braun's 3964 metric ton monster of 1953. It then settled down to more reasonably-sized variants. Landers came in three main types: two stage versions, with the first stage being a lunar crasher that would brake the spacecraft until just above the lunar surface, then separate, allowing the second stage to land on the surface; two stage versions consisting of a descent stage that went all the way to the surface, and an ascent stage that would take the crew from the surface to lunar orbit or on an earth-return trajectory; and single stage versions, using liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen propellants.
Lunar Landing Research Facility - Alternate designation for Apollo LLRF manned lunar lander test vehicle.
Lunar Landing Research Vehicle - Code name for Apollo LLRV manned lunar lander test vehicle.
Lunar Landing Vehicle - Alternate designation for LLV lunar logistics spacecraft.
Lunar Leaper - American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. One of the many bizarre modes for lunar transportation proposed in the early 1960's. Status: Study 1964.
Lunar Logistic System 13.7 kW - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This NASA Lunar Logistic System lunar rover design of March 1963 had 4 wheels, rigidly mounted, and a range of 450 km with a crew of 2 on a 30 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 9.72 cubic meters. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 4,870 kg (10,730 lb).
Lunar Logistic System 6 kW - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This NASA Lunar Logistic System lunar rover design of March 1963 had 4 wheel unit, each wheel 1.3 m in diameter and 20 cm wide. It had a range of 370 km with a crew of 2 on a 7 day traverse. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,270 kg (5,000 lb).
Lunar Logistic System series - NASA-sponsored industry studies in 1963-1964 to define the best solution for a lunar rover for astronauts to get around the lunar surface.
Lunar logistics spacecraft - Category of spacecraft.
Lunar Logistics Vehicle - Manufacturer's designation for LLV lunar logistics spacecraft.
Lunar Mapping and Survey System - Alternate designation for Apollo LMSS manned space station.
Lunar Mobile System - Alternate name for Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle 3 Wheel.
Lunar Module - Alternate designation for Apollo LM manned lunar lander.
Lunar Module Adapter Laboratory - Alternate designation for Apollo LMAL manned space station.
Lunar module Test Article - Alternate designation for Apollo LTA technology satellite.
Lunar Orbit Insertion Module - Alternate designation for Gemini LSRS LOIM manned spacecraft module.
Lunar Orbit OPS - Russian manned lunar orbiter. In Chelomei's 1968 draft project for the UR-700, he proposed that versions of the Almaz OPS be placed in lunar orbit to conduct detailed reconnaissance of the surface using manned assistance. Status: Design 1968. Gross mass: 37,000 kg (81,000 lb).
Lunar Orbit Station - American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1984. A variety of lunar orbital way-stations, based on space station components, were studied by NASA in the 1980's. Status: Study 1984.
Lunar Orbiter - American lunar orbiter. Photography of the moon's surface from selenocentric orbit. The Lunar Orbiter series took photos of lunar surface from selenocentric orbit. Lunar lander built by Boeing for NASA, USA. Launched 1966 - 1967. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-08-10. Last Launch: 1967-08-01. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 388 kg (855 lb).
Lunar Orbiters - Manned lunar orbiters and orbiting stations were rarely designed for this purpose alone, but usually used in a lunar-orbit rendezvous lunar landing scenario together with a separate lunar lander. They were more powerful than circumlunar manned spacecraft in that they required substantial propellant to brake into and get out of lunar orbit.
Lunar Outpost - American manned lunar base. Study 1989. Status: Study 1989.
Lunar Payload Module - Alternate designation for Apollo LPM lunar logistics spacecraft.
Lunar Polar Rover - American manned lunar rover. Study 1999. Pressurized rover concept for a hypothetical lunar polar mission. Status: Study 1999. Gross mass: 6,080 kg (13,400 lb).
Lunar Prospector - American lunar orbiter. Lunar lander built by Lockheed Martin for NASA, USA. Launched 1998. Used the LM-100 bus. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-01-07. Last Launch: 1998-01-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 295 kg (650 lb). Unfuelled mass: 125 kg (275 lb).
Lunar Reconnaissance Module - Alternate designation for Apollo LRM manned lunar orbiter.
Lunar Rovers - Lunar rovers were studied in a dizzying variety of sizes and shapes by NASA in the 1960's - including crawlers, trains, hoppers, and even worms. Two rovers designed for manned use actually traveled the lunar surface in the 1970's - the American two-man Lunar Rover, and the Soviet Lunokhod, which traveled the moon in robotic mode but was originally designed as emergency cosmonaut transportation.
Lunar Roving Vehicle - Alternate designation for Apollo LRV manned lunar rover.
Lunar Sortie Vehicle - Alternate designation for LSV manned lunar rover.
Lunar Surface Access Module - Alternate designation for LSAM manned lunar lander.
Lunar Transfer Vehicle - Alternate designation for OTV space tug.
Lunar Worm - American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The Aeronutronic Division of Philco Corp. proposed the unique Lunar Worm Planetary Roving Vehicle Concept in 1966. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb).
Lunar-Flashlight - Satellite for NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. Gross mass: 14 kg (30 lb).
Lunar-IceCube - Satellite for Morehead State University, USA. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. Gross mass: 14 kg (30 lb).
Lundin, Bruce T - American engineer, at NASA 1943-1977, heading propulsion development efforts at Lewis, notably the Centaur engine. Born: 1919-12-28. Died: 2006-01-24.
Lundquist, Gustav E - American test pilot, flew the X-1 rocketplane. Status: Inactive.
Lunex - US Air Force manned lunar base. Studied 1958-1961. The final lunar expedition plan of 1961 was for a 21-airman underground Air Force base on the moon by 1968 at a total cost of $ 7.5 billion. Status: Study 1958.
Lunex Lunar Lander - American manned lunar lander. Studied 1958-1961. The largest single development objective for the Lunex program was to provide a spacecraft capable of transporting men and equipment to the lunar surface and returning them to a selected earth base. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 61,000 kg (134,000 lb).
Lunney, Glynn S - American engineer, at NASA 1958-1985. Worked on projects Mercury and Apollo, managed Apollo-Soyuz project, managed development of the space shuttle. Born: 1936-11-27.
Lunniy ekspeditionniy korabl' - Alternate designation for LEK manned lunar lander.
Lunniy korabl - Alternate designation for LK Energia manned lunar lander.
Lunniy orbital'niy korabl' - Alternate designation for LOK Energia manned lunar orbiter.
Lunokhod - Alternate designation for Luna Ye-8 lunar rover.
Lunokhod LEK - Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1973. Lunar rover for the Vulkan Lunar Expedition. The rover provided pressurized quarters for 2 crew, allowing trips up to 200 km from the lunar base at a top speed of 5 km/hr. Status: Study 1973. Gross mass: 8,200 kg (18,000 lb).
Lunox - American manned lunar base. Study 1993. The NASA/JSC LUNOX proposal of 1993 tried to reduce the cost of maintaining a First Lunar Outpost by producing liquid oxygen propellant for the return to Earth from lunar soil. Status: Study 1993.
Luojia 1 - Earth observation satellite for Wuhan University, China. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus.
Lupus - WRE solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1976. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). More at: Solid
LuSat - Amateur radio satellite in Oscar series. Carried CCD camera.
LUSAT (LO 19, LUSAT-OSCAR 19) - Amateur radio communication satellite operated by AMSAT Argentina, Argentina. Launched 1990. Used the AMSAT-NA Microsat bus. First Launch: 1990-01-22. Last Launch: 1990-01-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 14 kg (30 lb).
LUSAT-OSCAR 19 - Alternate name of LUSAT (LO 19, LUSAT-OSCAR 19).
LUSAT-OSCAR 74 - Alternate name of CubeBug 1, 2 (El Capitßn Beto, Manolito) / LUSAT-OSCAR 74 (LO 74).
Lusser, Robert - German Engineer. Engineer, expert in guided missiles, worked with Klemm, Messerschmitt, Heinkel, and then was head of development at the Fieselerwerke during World War II. Born: 1899. Died: 1969-01-01.
Luster, Project - Sounding Rocket experiment to capture interplanetary particles .
Lutin - French tactical ballistic missile. Status: Active. Gross mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Payload: 4.10 kg (9.00 lb).
Lutsk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1992. Probably an R-12 missile base.
Lutz, Otto - German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Luxembourg - Luxembourg
LV (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Launch Vehicle
LV-109 - Alternate designation for Millennium Express.
LV-2 - American target vehicle using two first stages of Triden C-4. Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-01-31. Last Launch: 2014-06-22. Number: 5 .
LV-3A - Alternate designation for Atlas Agena A.
LV-3A - Alternate designation for Atlas Agena B.
LV-3A - Alternate name of Atlas LV-3A / Agena B.
LV-3A - Alternate designation for Atlas Agena D.
LV-3B - Alternate designation for Atlas LV-3B.
LV-3B - Alternate designation for Atlas LV-3B / Mercury.
LV-3C - Alternate designation for Atlas SLV-3C Centaur.
LV-3C - Alternate name of Atlas Centaur LV-3C.
LV-3C - Alternate designation for Atlas Centaur.
LVI - Launch shroud for dual TKS capsules (Russian abbreviation)
Lvov - Base for units deployed with two R-1 missile launchers.
LVS - Abbreviation for Launch vehicle systems
LVSO - Abbreviation for Launch Vehicle Systems Office
Lyakhov, Vladimir Afanasiyevich - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1967-1994. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1994. Born: 1941-07-20. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 333.32 days.
Lyapin bureau - Alternate name for Vympel.
Lybid 1 - Communications satellite built by MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA) (payload), ISS Reshetnev (bus) for Ukrkosmos. Used the Ekspress-1000NT bus. Gross mass: 1,845 kg (4,067 lb).
Lydon, Malcolm Webb - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1986. Born: 1946-06-03.
Lyman continuum - The ultraviolet region of the spectrum of the hydrogen atom immediately adjacent to the Lyman line spectrum with wavelengths shorter than 912 Å.
Lynx - NAWC solid rocket engine. Terrier Lynx second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). More at: Solid
Lysenko, Aleksandr Ivanovich - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1977. Flying Research Institute named for Gromov of GKOOP. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program by the Gromov Flight Test Center, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. Died in the crash of a MiG-23 with Mamontov. Status: Deceased. Born: 1945. Died: 1977-06-03.
Lyulev - Russian manufacturer of missiles, Yekaterinburg, Russia.
Lyulka bureau - Russian manufacturer of ramjet engines.
Lyulka, Arkhip Mikhailovich - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1946-1981 of OKB-165. Specialized in cryogenic engines for the N1. Born: 1908-03-23. Died: 1984-06-02.
LZhM - Russian manned lunar habitat. Study 1973. Laboratory-living module. Three story lunar surface residence and laboratory for Vulkan-launched Lunar Expedition. Status: Study 1973. Gross mass: 21,500 kg (47,300 lb). Payload: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
LZM - Russian manned lunar habitat. Study 1973. Laboratory-Factory Module for the Vulkan surface base. Status: Study 1973. Gross mass: 15,500 kg (34,100 lb). Payload: 6,070 kg (13,380 lb).
LZS - Functional test model of the LK manned lunar lander (Russian abbreviation)

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