Born: 1900-09-11. Died: 1960-06-09.
Lavochkin was named Chief Designer of OKB-301 in 1937. His bureau designed and built thousands of fighters during World War II. He was less successful in getting any of his post-war jet-engined prototypes into production. In any case the bureau had begun to concentrate on development of surface-to-air missiles. Lavochkin developed the S-25 system (SA-1) for the air defense of Moscow – the Soviet Union's first operational surface-to-air missile.
In 1953 SAM activities were spun off to a new design bureau under Grushin, Lavochkin's deputy. OKB-301 was given responsibility for development of the Burya trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. This, like the American Navaho, was considered at the time an obviously better technical solution than the untried intercontinental ballistic missile. Burya was flight tested successfully in 1957-1959 but not put into production due to the superiority of the less-costly invulnerable intercontinental ballistic missiles. Lavochkin died in 1960 at a time when the bureau had basically no projects left on its table. His bureau would be resurrected five years later and given responsibility for planetary unmanned space probes.
In 1951 to 1953 Korolev's design bureau had prepared an experimental trisonic ramjet design, the EKR.The expert commission ifelt that there were still many technical problems to be solved, most of which were better handled by an aircraft designer rather than Korolev. Further, Korolev had to place the highest priority on development of the R-7 ICBM. Therefore a final government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles.
Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 957-409 'On transfer of intercontinental cruise missile work to the Ministry of Aviation Industry' was issued. Korolev had to place the highest priority on development of the R-7 ICBM. Therefore the final government decree authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles. Both missiles would use ramjet engines by Bondaryuk, astronavigation systems by R Chachikyan, inertial navigation systems by G Tolstoysov, and aerodynamics developed by TsAGI (Central Hydrodynamics Institute). Lavochkin's Burya would use rocket booster engines built by Glushko, while Myasishchev's Buran would use Isayev engines. Both missiles were to deliver a nuclear warhead over an 8,500 km range. But the warhead design specified for the Lavochkin missile had a total mass of 2,100 kg, while that for the Myasishchev missile weighed 3,500 kg.
Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On termination of work on the 40 Buran intercontinental cruise missile' was issued. Buran was being prepared for its first flight when Myasishchev's project was cancelled. After successful flight tests of Lavochkin's Burya missile, the Soviet leadership did not see any need for continued development of a parallel ramjet design. Following the cancellation, Myasishchev sought approval for test of an air-launched version.
Korolev speaks privately to Chertok. Kozlov has told him it will be impossible to build an N1 with the 93 tonne payload capability until the fourth flight article. The L3 concept was still the same as in the August decree - 2 cosmonauts aboard the LOK orbiter, one aboard the LK lander. Korolev asks Chertok to take 800 kg out of the weight budget for the L3. Chertok informs him that they are already 500 kg over the August budget. This is still without all the unknowns of the automated lunar landing being solved. Additional Details: here....