Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: T

T- - Aircraft designation (T-38 - trainer-38); also technical experiments prefix
t/Space - t/Space.
T-1 - Alternate designation for R-5M.
T-1 - Alternate designation for T-1 pressure suit.
T-1 - Original conceptual design for ICBM. Final design was R-7 due to unachievability of mass ratio for this single stage design. Data from chart at Russian Space Agency HQ. Status: Study 1953. Gross mass: 190,000 kg (410,000 lb). Payload: 11,000 kg (24,000 lb). Thrust: 2.64 kN (593 lbf).
T-1 - Alternate designation for R-5.
T-1 pressure suit - American pressure suit, operational 1948. David Clark Company developed Dr. Henry's original capstan partial pressure suit. Status: operational 1948.
T-140 - Pratt and Whitney electric rocket engine. 3 kW Hall thruster
T1K - Alternate name for Soyuz 7K-LOK.
T-220 - Pratt and Whitney / Keldysh Research Center electric rocket engine. Development began in 1997 of this 10 kW Hall thruster Program concluded in 2000 following a 1000 hour erosion characterization.
T2K - Alternate designation for LK manned lunar lander.
T-38 - Jet trainer used by NASA astronauts to maintain flight proficiency and to shuttle themselves around the country.
T-4 - Mach 3 rocket carrier. Sukhoi experimental interceptor - delta wing with forward canards. A modification to be used as first stage in Sukhoi proposal for Spiral manned spaceplane project. Maximum release conditions: 25,000 kg at 3,000 kph at 20,000 m altitude Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 114,400 kg (252,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 55,600 kg (122,500 lb). Payload: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Thrust: 633.50 kN (142,416 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
T-40 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Double Cajun T40 second stage. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Thrust: 13.30 kN (2,990 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
T-55 - Thiokol JATO solid rocket engine. HJ Nike Nike Recruit T55 fifth stage. Status: Retired 1963. Unfuelled mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Thrust: 21.00 kN (4,720 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
T-5E - Alternate designation for R-70.
T-7 - Chinese sounding rocket. China's first sounding rocket and first indigenously-built sounding rocket, launched from 1960-1965. The basic vehicle consisted of a single liquid propellant stage. This was later augmented with solid propellant booster stages. Later versions dispensed with the liquid propellant stage. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1960-09-01. Last Launch: 1969-01-01. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,138 kg (2,508 lb). Payload: 25 kg (55 lb).
T-7 booster - SIMED/Shanghai solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Propellants: Solid.
T-7 LRE - SIMED/Shanghai solid rocket engine. T-7/GF-01A first stage. Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Propellants: Solid.
T-7/GF-01A - Chinese sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of T-7A + GF-01A Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1968-08-08. Last Launch: 1968-08-20. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
T-7/GF-01A-1 - Alternate name for T-7 LRE.
T-7A - Chinese sounding rocket. Boosted version of China's first indigenously-built sounding rocket. Included solid propellant booster. The upper stage and payload were recovered by parachute and reused. Launches began in 1965. Consisted of a solid propellant booster mated to the basic liquid propellant T-7. Flown from 1965 to the end of the 1960's. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1963-12-01. Last Launch: 1969-07-01. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Payload: 170 kg (370 lb). Thrust: 46.00 kN (10,341 lbf).
T-7A Booster - Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. T-7 sounding rocket. Out of Production. China's first flight solid rocket. First flight 1965. Polysulfide binder with aluminum binder fuel in case of high strength steel with a graphite throat insert. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962-1966. Gross mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Unfuelled mass: 33 kg (72 lb). Thrust: 46.00 kN (10,341 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
T-7A-S - Chinese sounding rocket. 2 stage vehicle Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-07-19. Last Launch: 1965-06-05. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
T-7A-S2 - Chinese sounding rocket. 2 stage vehicle Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1966-07-14. Last Launch: 1966-07-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).
T-7A-S2-0 - Alternate name for T-7 booster.
T-7A-S2-0 - Alternate name for T-7A Booster.
T-7B - Alternate designation for R-11M.
T-7M - Chinese sounding rocket. 2 stage test vehicle for T-7. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1960-02-19. Last Launch: 1960-02-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 2.00 kN (450 lbf).
TA - Abbreviation for Triacetine
Tabakov - Russian government official. Director of NII-229 1958-1963. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1981. Born: 1912. Died: 1993-01-01.
Tabletsat Aurora - Technology demonstrator with an imaging payload by SPUTNIX with a panchromatic ground resolution of 15 m and 47 km swath width. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-06-19. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 25 kg (55 lb).
Tabriz - What has been identified by Sean O'Connor as Iran's first IRBM field is located 10 kilometers southwest of Tabriz. As of 2008 site consisted of the silo field, an administrative and support area, missile storage bunkers, and an unoccupied HQ-2 surface-to-air missile site. The latter was used as a staging area for mobile Shahab missile transport-erector launchers. The two silos seemed to include blast vents, indicating a hot-launch design.
TAC - Abbreviation for Tactical Air Command
Taccino - Italian physician payload specialist astronaut, 1990-1993. Professor. Selected by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) as one of the five Italian astronaut candidates for a European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut selection. Status: Inactive. Born: 1955-02-19.
Tachys - RapidEye AG of Brandenburg launched a constellation of five environmental monitoring satellites, each with a mass of 152 kg including 12 kg of propellant. The satellites had a resolution of 6 meters. Used the SSTL-150 bus.
Tacite - French sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket using a single Stromboli SEPR 739-2 stage with 'Plastoline' propellant. Stabilization was by four fins and a nitrogen cold-gas spin thrusters. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1965-06-15. Last Launch: 1968-10-15. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Payload: 285 kg (628 lb). Thrust: 170.00 kN (38,210 lbf).
TACS - Abbreviation for Thruster Attitude Control System
TACSAT - American communications technology satellite. TACSAT was designed to experimentally test and develop tactical communications concepts for all US military services. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-02-09. Last Launch: 1969-02-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 730 kg (1,600 lb).
Tacsat ORS - American military surveillance satellite. The Tactical Satellite / Operationally Responsive Satellite program's objective was to demonstrate techniques to dramatically shorten the development time for small satellites. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-12-16. Last Launch: 2011-09-27. Number: 4 .
tactical ballistic - Category of missiles.
tactical cruise - Category of missiles.
Taean -
Taepo Dong 2-2 - Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 570.00 kN (128,141 lbf) thrust. Mass 25,600 kg (56,438 lb). Status: Active. Gross mass: 25,600 kg (56,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Thrust: 570.00 kN (128,140 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Taepodong 1 - Alternate designation for Paektusan 1.
Taepodong 1-1 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1998. Gross mass: 25,649 kg (56,546 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,733 kg (8,229 lb). Thrust: 577.34 kN (129,791 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Taepodong 1-2 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Included 100 kg spin table for spin-up of third stage prior to release. Burn time is 33.7 seconds at full thrust, 142.3 seconds at half thrust. Status: Retired 1998. Gross mass: 7,505 kg (16,545 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,456 kg (3,209 lb). Thrust: 144.33 kN (32,448 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Taepodong 1-3 - Solid propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1998. Gross mass: 252 kg (555 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Thrust: 18.33 kN (4,121 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Taepodong 2 - Alternate designation for Unha-1.
Taepodong 2-1 - Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 1000.00 kN (224,809 lbf) thrust. Mass 60,000 kg (132,277 lb). Status: Active. Gross mass: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 1,000.00 kN (224,800 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Taepodong 3 - Alternate designation for Taepodong 1-3.
Taepodong 3 - Alternate designation for Unha-3.
Taifun - German surface-to-air barrage rocket, tested during World War II, but never operational. Copied in the USA as the Loki and in the USSR as the R-103. The name translates as 'Typhoon'. Status: Cancelled 1945. Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Payload: 1.25 kg (2.75 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf).
Taifun - Alternate designation for 3M65.
Taifun-1 - Ukrainian military target satellite. From 1969 KB Yuzhnoye built the Lira targets for exercise and test of PVO air defense and space tracking systems. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-06-18. Last Launch: 1994-09-27. Number: 25 .
Taifun-1Yu - Ukrainian military target satellite. The Taifun-1Yu, a modification of the basic design with smooth calibration surfaces, was to be in service by 1980. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-12-05. Last Launch: 1996-04-24. Number: 13 .
Taifun-2 - Ukrainian military target satellite. In 1969 KB Yuzhnoye introduced targets for exercise and test of PVO air defense and space tracking systems. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-04-28. Last Launch: 1995-03-02. Number: 31 .
Taifun-3 - Russian military target satellite. Specifications for a third generation Taifun-3 system were developed in 1980 with flight trials to have started in 1984. Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-12-23. Last Launch: 1989-12-27. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Taikonaut - Person trained for spaceflight in China.
Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-2.
Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula) - Alternate name for Soyuz 38.
Taiwan - Taiwan
Taiwan - First name of NSPO.
Taiwan-NSPO - Taiwan-NSPO.
Taiyuan - Taiyuan Space Center. China's launch site for launch of polar orbiting satellites, also known as Wuzhai. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) is situated in Kelan County, the northwest part of Shanxi Province, 280 km by road from Taiyuan City. First Launch: 1979-01-01. Last Launch: 2014-08-19. Number: 90 .
Taiyuan LC1 - CZ launch complex. Pad 1
Taiyuan LC16 -
Taiyuan LC2 -
Taiyuan LC9 -
Tajikistan - Tajikistan
TAL - Alternate name for TAL (abbreviation).
TAL - Transatlantic Abort Landing (Shuttle abort plan)
TAL-100 - TsNIIMash electric/xenon rocket engine. Development. Hall effect thruster with anode layer. Export version of D-100-I thruster developed under NASA/BMDO contract. Taken to engineering model stage. Status: Development. Thrust: 0.0340 N (0.0070 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
TAL-38 - TsNIIMash electric/xenon rocket engine. Development. Hall effect thruster with anode layer. Export version of D-38, developed under NASA contract for satellite station-keeping and attitude control. Taken to engineering model stage. Status: Development. Thrust: 0.0080 N (0.0017 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
Tall Afar - Tall Afar Air Base.
Talos - Alternate designation for RIM-8C.
Talos - Alternate designation for RGM-8J.
Talos - Alternate designation for RIM-8F.
Talos - Alternate designation for RIM-8A.
Talos - Alternate designation for RIM-8E.
Talos - Alternate designation for RIM-8D.
Talos - Alternate designation for RIM-8B.
Talos - American Navy long-range ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. In service 1959-1979. Surplus boost motors later used in sounding rockets and test vehicles. Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1952-10-28. Last Launch: 1952-10-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,167 kg (6,982 lb). Thrust: 89.20 kN (20,053 lbf).
Talos AAW - Alternate designation for RIM-8G.
Talos ARM - Alternate designation for RGM-8H.
Talos Castor - American sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket consisting of 1 x Talos booster + 1 x Castor Status: Active. First Launch: 1976-11-19. Last Launch: 2013-09-19. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 8,200 kg (18,000 lb).
Talos Mk 11 Mod 2 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Talos motor fitted with a conical adapter for mating to the second stage. Solid propellant rocket stage. The Talos motor was fitted with a conical adapter for mating to the second stage. Differential drag forces caused separation. Four fins were arranged at the aft end in a cruciform configuration and drove the vehicle to approximately one revolution per second burnout roll rate. Talos first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 516.00 kN (116,001 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Talos Sergeant Hydac - American sounding rocket. Three stage sounding rocket consisting of 1 x Talos booster + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Hydac Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1976-11-15. Last Launch: 1988-03-07. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 6,100 kg (13,400 lb).
Talos Sergeant Hydac-3 - Alternate name for Hydac.
Talos Terrier - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos booster + 1 x Terrier. Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1987-05-14. Last Launch: 1987-05-14. Number: 4 .
Talos Terrier Oriole - Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-09-22. Last Launch: 2012-09-22. Number: 1 .
Talos-1 - Alternate name for Talos Mk 11 Mod 2.
TAL-WSF - TsNIIMash electric/xenon rocket engine. Hall effect thruster with anode layer. Export version of D-55 thruster developed under NASA/BMDO contract for flight test under RHETT-II program. Used for WSF satellite orbital altitude maintenance. Status: Development. Thrust: 0.0120 N (0.0020 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
Tamayo Mendez - Cuban pilot cosmonaut 1978-1980. First Cuban astronaut. First person of African descent to fly in space. Graduated from Air Force Academy Pilot, Cuban Air Force. Director of the Organization for Civil Defense in Cuba. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1980. Born: 1942-01-29. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.86 days.
Taming the Fire - The story of the making of the 1972 Soviet film that took viewers inside the life of Sergei Korolev and the Baikonur cosmonaut -- they thought!
Tamouz - Alternate designation for Al Aabed.
Tamouz - Iraqi space launch vehicle/ICBM based on clustering of Scud tactical missiles. Canadian rocket scientist Gerald Bull was allegedly killed by Israeli agents not for his work on the supergun, but rather for his much more damaging assistance to the Iraqis in doing the dynamic calculations for the Tamouz. Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1989-12-05. Last Launch: 1989-12-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 37,695 kg (83,103 lb). Thrust: 406.40 kN (91,362 lbf).
Tamouz - Alternate designation for Al Abid.
Tamyr (Tamyr - Russian peninsula) - Alternate name for Soyuz 26.
Tan Ce - Delayed from June, July 20. Used the CAST2000 bus.
Tandem - Alternate name for TerraSar-X.
Tandem Double Deacon - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Deacon + 2 x Deacon Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1956-01-26. Last Launch: 1956-06-22. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 54.00 kN (12,139 lbf).
Tanegashima - Tanegashima Space Center. Japan's main launch site for he larger N and H launch vehicles. In use for sounding rockets from 1967 and orbital launches from 1975.
Tanegashima N - J, Delta launch complex. N Launch Complex First Launch: 1975-09-09. Last Launch: 1996-02-11. Number: 25 .
Tanegashima Q - Mu launch complex. Q Launch Complex First Launch: 1974-09-02. Last Launch: 1975-02-05. Number: 2 .
Tanegashima T - TR-1, S, MT-135, Lambda launch complex. Takesaki Launch Site First Launch: 1967-01-01. Last Launch: 1998-11-18. Number: 93 .
Tanegashima Y - H-2 launch complex. Yoshinobu Launch Complex, Osaki Site. First Launch: 1994-02-03. Last Launch: 2014-05-24. Number: 31 .
Tanegashima Y2 - Yoshinobu Launch Complex, Osaki Site. H-2 launch complex. Completed in 2000, for H-IIIB launches. First Launch: 2009-09-10. Last Launch: 2013-08-03. Number: 4 .
Tang Hongbo - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 2010-on. Status: Active 2010-on.
Tango - Tango subsatellite separated from the main Prisma satellite Mango on 11 August 2010 at 17:51 GMT to begin formation flying experiments.
Tani - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1996-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2012. Born: 1961-02-01. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 131.75 days.
Tani, I - Japanese Professor. Japanese airplane technical designer. Died: 1943-01-01.
Tanner - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1992-2008. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2008. Born: 1950-01-21. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 43.55 days.
Tannhaeuser - German manager. Member of the German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Secretary who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Secretary in Dept. 61/Shop 55. Born: 1919-01-05.
Tansei - Japanese technology satellite. Series of spacecraft of varying configurations built for engineering tests of scientific satellite equipment. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-02-16. Last Launch: 1985-01-07. Number: 5 .
TANSUO - Remote Sensing Technology. Used the CAST1000 bus.
Tansuo-1 - Code name for Shiyan civilian surveillance satellite.
TAOS - American military strategic defense satellite. USA 101. TAOS was a technology demonstration satellite whose purpose was to demonstrate autonomous space navigation systems to reduce satellite ground support needs. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-03-13. Last Launch: 1994-03-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 502 kg (1,106 lb).
Taran - Russian anti-ballistic missile. Anti-ballistic missile design that was part of the basic capability of the UR-100. Studied in 1962-1964 but abandoned. Status: Cancelled 1964. Gross mass: 41,410 kg (91,290 lb). Thrust: 785.00 kN (176,475 lbf).
TARANIS - French study of vertical takeoff / horizontal landing, two stage to orbit launch vehicle with expendable orbiter fuel tanks. Status: Study 1990.
Tarelkin - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2003-on. Status: Inactive; active 2003-2015. Born: 1974-12-29.
target - Category of missiles.
Target Marker - Attached to Hayabusa-2 Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-12-03. Last Launch: 2014-12-03. Number: 5 .
Tarkhany - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-21.
Tartagal - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1966-11-11. Last Launch: 1966-11-16. Number: 16 .
TAS - Alternate designation for Technology Applications and Science Experiment.
TAS - Heavy Automated Station (Russian abbreviation)
TASS - Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (Soviet news agency) (Russian abbreviation)
Tater - American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Terrier + 1 x Recruit Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1973-08-15. Last Launch: 1976-04-25. Number: 23 .
Tatishchevo - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Base for units deployed with 110 light ICBM silos (UR-100/UR-100N) and later ten RT-23 mobile ICBM launchers. A single live launch was known to have been made from here in 1987, reaching 1000 km altitude. First Launch: 1978-01-01. Last Launch: 1987-06-05. Number: 14 .
Tattletale - Code name for GRAB military naval signals reconnaissance satellite.
Tatyana - Space physics research satellite built by students from Moscow State University. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-09-17. Last Launch: 2009-09-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 90 kg (198 lb).
Tatyana - Alternate name for Universitetskiy.
TAU - Thousand Astronomical Unit (mission)
Taurage - Base for units deployed with R-12 missile.
Taurus - Alternate designation for Taurus engine.
Taurus - Alternate designation for Taurus RGM-59.
Taurus - American all-solid pad-launched launch vehicle using Pegasus upper stages and Castor-120 first stage. Later developed into a series of target missiles for anti-ballistic missile system tests. Addition of a liquid propellant first stage using 40-year old surplus engines from the Russian N1 moon program resulted in a vehicle for robotic resupply of the International Space Station. Status: Active. First Launch: 1989-12-21. Last Launch: 1989-12-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 73,030 kg (161,000 lb). Payload: 1,363 kg (3,004 lb). Thrust: 1,286.40 kN (289,194 lbf).
Taurus 1110 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 2000-03-12. Last Launch: 2000-03-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 73,000 kg (160,000 lb). Payload: 1,320 kg (2,910 lb). Thrust: 1,320.00 kN (296,740 lbf).
Taurus 2110 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-12-21. Last Launch: 2001-09-21. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 73,000 kg (160,000 lb). Payload: 1,380 kg (3,040 lb). Thrust: 1,380.00 kN (310,230 lbf).
Taurus 2210 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-02-10. Last Launch: 1998-02-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 73,000 kg (160,000 lb). Payload: 1,380 kg (3,040 lb). Thrust: 1,380.00 kN (310,230 lbf).
Taurus 3110 - American all-solid propellant orbital launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 2009-02-24. Last Launch: 2011-03-04. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 73,000 kg (160,000 lb). Thrust: 1,380.00 kN (310,230 lbf).
Taurus 3210 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-05-20. Last Launch: 2004-05-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 73,000 kg (160,000 lb). Thrust: 1,380.00 kN (310,230 lbf).
Taurus engine - Hercules solid rocket engine. Status: Active. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,363 kg (3,004 lb). Unfuelled mass: 602 kg (1,327 lb). Thrust: 457.00 kN (102,737 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Taurus II - Alternate designation for Antares 110.
Taurus Nike Tomahawk - Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Taurus (Honest John motor) + 1 x Nike + 1 x Tomahawk. Payload 32 kg to 700 km or 125 kg to 400 km. Status: Retired 1991. First Launch: 1983-09-01. Last Launch: 1991-12-06. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Thrust: 457.00 kN (102,737 lbf).
Taurus Nike Tomahawk-1 - Alternate name for Taurus engine.
Taurus Orion - American sounding rocket. 2 stage vehicle composed of 1 x Taurus (Honest John motor) + 1 x Orion. Payload 68 kg to 260 km or 227 kg to 140 km. Status: Active. First Launch: 1977-07-19. Last Launch: 2002-02-21. Number: 66 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 457.00 kN (102,737 lbf).
Taurus Orion-2 - Alternate name for Orion engine.
Taurus RGM-59 - American tactical ballistic missile to provide US Navy ships with a long range surface-to-surface capability. Development began 1961; cancelled 1965. Status: Cancelled 1969.
Taurus SSM-N-4 - Interim long-range cruise missile considered by the US Navy in 1946-1948, an unmanned version of the AJ-1 Savage carrier-based bomber. Status: Cancelled 1948.
Taurus Systems GmbH - German manufacturer. Taurus Systems GmbH, Germany.
Taurus Tomahawk - American sounding rocket. NASA two stage sounding rocket. Payload 27 kg to 590 km or 59 kg to 490 km. Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1978-10-31. Last Launch: 1987-03-21. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 1,611 kg (3,551 lb). Payload: 27 kg (59 lb). Thrust: 457.00 kN (102,737 lbf).
Taurus Tomahawk Nike - Alternate designation for Taurus Nike Tomahawk.
Taurus XL 3110 - Alternate designation for Taurus 3110.
Taurus-0 - Alternate name for Peacekeeper 1.
Taurus-1 - Alternate name for Pegasus-1.
Taurus-Lite - Alternate designation for Orion 50SXLG.
Taurus-Lite - Alternate designation for Orion 50SG rocket stage.
Taurus-Lite - Alternate designation for GBI.
Tausend Fussler - Alternate designation for V-3.
TAV - American winged single-crew rocketplane. USAF program of the 1980's that reached the test hardware stage and was leading to a single-stage-to-orbit, rocket-powered, winged manned vehicle. Halted in favour of the X-30 National Aerospace Plane, and then the similar X-33. Status: Cancelled 1986.
TAVE - American technology satellite. Thor Agena Vibration Experiment Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-09-29. Last Launch: 1962-09-29. Number: 1 .
Tawiwa - Libyan rocket test range, 600 km south of Tripoli. Site of tests of Otrag's low cost launch vehicle from 1981 to 1982, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude. First Launch: 1981-03-01. Last Launch: 1982-12-09. Number: 14 .
Taylor - American test pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1969. Born: 1930-11-27. Died: 1970-09-04.
Taylor, Brian - British Astrophysicist. Brian Taylor joined ESA (then ESRO) in 1967 as a staff scientist. In 1971, he became head of the high energy astrophysics division and in 1984, he became head of the astrophysics division. Born: 1940.
TCA - Abbreviation for Thrust chamber assembly
TCI - American agency. Telcom, Indonesia, USA.
TCS - Abbreviation for Thermal Control System
TD-174 - Manufacturer's designation of LR44 rocket engine.
TD-187 - Manufacturer's designation of LR58 rocket engine.
TD-1A - European technology satellite. Sixth satellite of ESRO. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-03-12. Last Launch: 1972-03-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 472 kg (1,040 lb).
TD-2 - CMIK Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Thrust: 1,000.00 kN (224,800 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
TD-232 - Manufacturer's designation of LR62 rocket engine.
TDA - Alternate name for Atlas Target Docking Adapter.
TDA - Abbreviation for Target docking adapter
TDF - France Telecom's direct broadcasting communications satellite network
TDI - Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate
TdM - Telecommunicaciones de Mexico, Mexico
TDRS - American military communications satellite. Satellite communications network, for use by Shuttle and US military satellites. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-04-04. Last Launch: 1995-07-13. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 2,240 kg (4,930 lb).
TDRSS - Abbreviation or acronym for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System
TDS - TechDemoSat-1 by Surrey Satellite Technology carrying technology payloads from various UK universities. Used the SSTL-150 bus.
TDU - Retrofire Engine Unit (Russian abbreviation)
TDU-1 - Manufacturer's designation of S5.4 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
TE-307 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Paiute Apache second stage. Status: Retired 1980. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 21.00 kN (4,720 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TE-388 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Nike Iroquois second stage. Status: Retired 1979. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 43 kg (94 lb). Thrust: 24.40 kN (5,485 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TE-416 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1995. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Thrust: 53.00 kN (11,914 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TE-473 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Sandhawk Tomahawk first stage. Status: Retired 1977. Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Unfuelled mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 90.00 kN (20,232 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TEA - Abbreviation for Torque Equilibrium Attitude
TEAMS - Time-of-flight/energy/angle mass spectrograph to study electrons and ions. Instrument mounted in shuttle bay. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-05-19. Last Launch: 1996-05-19. Number: 1 .
TechEdSat - 3U Cubesat of San Jose State University, the University of Idaho, and NASA Ames. Tested Exo-Brake passive de-orbit system.
Technical University of Berlin Satellite - Alternate designation for Tubsat communications technology satellite.
Technion - Israeli manufacturer of spacecraft. Technion Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
Technische Universitat Berlin - Alternate name for TUB.
Technology - Category of spacecraft.
Technology Applications and Science Experiment - Technology Applications and Science experiment, mounted in space shuttle bay, from NASA-Goddard's Hitchhiker-M program. TAS-01 used a number of GAS cans with science experiments, including the second flight of the Shuttle Laser Altimeter and an instrument to measure the absolute bolometric flux of the Sun. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-08-07. Last Launch: 1997-08-07. Number: 1 .
Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability - Alternate designation for TAOS military strategic defense satellite.
Technology satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Techstar - Manufacturer's designation for GFO earth resources radar satellite.
Tecsar - Israeli military surveillance radar satellite. Israeli military radar/optical surveillance satellite using synthetic aperture x-band radar, with estimated 10 cm radar and 1 m optical ground resolution. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-01-21. Last Launch: 2014-04-09. Number: 3 .
Teflon - Teflon was introduced in the late 1990's as the solid fuel heated electrically to provide a completely solid-state rocket system for spacecraft orientation with no moving parts.
TEGDN - Abbreviation or acronym for Triethylene glycol dinitrate
Teichmann - German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Teikovo - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present, operating a peak of 90 light ICBM (UR-100/UR-100N) silos. By 1993 the number of operational silos had declined to 26. First Launch: 1963-06-28. Last Launch: 1987-01-01. Number: 34 .
Teikyosat - Microsatellite from Teikyo University. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-02-27. Last Launch: 2014-02-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
TEKh - Nanosatellite delivered by Progress M-52 to the International Space Station. 30 cm long, it was released from during a spacewalk on 28 March 2005. Used the Nanosputnik bus.
Teknologia - Russian materials science satellite. Study 1990. In 1990 KB Salyut proposed an unmanned derivative of the TKS to conduct zero-gravity materials production experiments. Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
Tekos - Russian materials science satellite. In 1991 Lavochkin NPO proposed this recoverable earth orbital spacecraft design, derived from their Venera planetary spacecraft, for materials and microgravity research missions. Status: Design 1991. Gross mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb).
TELE - Television, business communications satellite network for Nordic countries. High power telecommunications satellites provided both direct TV broadcasting and data communications.
Tele Mex - Brazilian agency. Tele Mex, Brazil.
Telebras - Brazilian agency. Telebras, Brazil.
Telecom - Communications satellite network
Telecommunications Satellite Corp of Japan - Alternate name for TSCJ.
Telecommunications Satellite Inc. (Tempo Satellite Inc) - Alternate name for TCI.
Teledesic - The Teledesic Corporation system was announced in 1994, and was to have provided global communication links via a constellation of 288 LEO spacecraft. However by the time the first satellite was launched in 1998, the medium-earth orbit satellite bubble had burst and the project was abandoned. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-02-26. Last Launch: 1998-02-26. Number: 1 .
Teledyne Ryan - American manufacturer. Teledyne Ryan, USA.
Teleglobe - Teleglobe.
Telenor - Norwegian agency. Telenor, Oslo, Norway.
Telesat - Alternate designation for Anik.
Telesat - Designation of series of communications satellites launched by Telesat Canada.
Telesat Mobile Inc. - Alternate name for TMI.
Telesp. - Nuova Telespazio, Italy
Telespazio - Italian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Telespazio, Italy.
Telespazio Micro Satellite - Alternate designation for Temisat communications technology satellite.
Television Infrared Observation Satellite - Alternate designation for TIROS earth weather satellite.
Tele-X - Satellite series providing television and business communications for Nordic countries for NSAB.
Telkom - PT Telkom, Jakarta, Indonesia
Teller - Hungarian-American physicist, American Father of the H-Bomb. A dedicated cold warrior. Founded Livermore laboratory, convinced Reagan to proceed with 'Star Wars' using nuclear-bomb-pumped x-ray laser. Born: 1908-01-15. Died: 2003-09-09.
Tellura - Russian earth land resources satellite. Study 1990. In 1990 KB Salyut proposed an unmanned derivative of the TKS manned ferry to conduct earth resources experiments. Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
Telstar - Alternate designation for Telstar series.
Telstar - American communications satellite. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-07-10. Last Launch: 1963-05-07. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 78 kg (171 lb).
Telstar series - Network of communications satellites, operated by AT&T Skynet, later Loral Skynet, Bedminster.
TE-M-184-3 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 25 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-186-2 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 40 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-195 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 10 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-236 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 12 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-236-3 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 12A Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-251 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 20 Spherical Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-344-15 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 5C/CB Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-344-16 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 5C Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-345-11/12 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 13C Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-364-1 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-364-11 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37G Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-364-14 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37N Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-364-15 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37S Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-364-18 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37C Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-364-19 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37F Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-364-2 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37B Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-364-3 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37D Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-364-4 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37E Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-375 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 13D Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-385 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 13E Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-442 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 26 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-442-1 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 26B Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-442-2 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 26C Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-444 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 13F Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-456-2 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 15 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-458 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 13 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-479 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 17 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-500 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 5 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-516 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 13A Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-521-5 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 17A Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-541-3 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 6 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-542-3 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 6A Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-604 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 24 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-604-2 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 24A Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-604-3 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 24B Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-604-4 - Alternate designation for Star 24C.
TE-M-604-4 - Manufacturer's designation of Altair 3B Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-616 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 27 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-616-1 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 27A Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-616-4 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 27B Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-616-5 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 27C Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-616-8 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 27D Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-616-9 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 27E Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-640 - Manufacturer's designation of Altair 3 solid rocket engine.
TE-M-640-1 - Manufacturer's designation of Altair 3 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-640-3 - Manufacturer's designation of Altair 3A Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-700-18 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 30C Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-700-19 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 30E Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-700-2 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 30 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-700-20 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 30BP Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-700-4 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 30A Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-700-5 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 30B Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-711-17 - Alternate designation for PAM-S rocket stage.
TE-M-711-17 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 48B s Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-711-18 - Alternate designation for PAM-D rocket stage.
TE-M-711-18 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 48B l Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-711-3 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 48 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-711-8 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 48 8 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-714-1 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37X Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-714-16/17 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37XFP Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-714-2 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37Y Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-714-6 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37XF Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-714-8 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37XF 8 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-731 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 62 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-762 - Alternate designation for Antares 3.
TE-M-762 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 31 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-763 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 13B Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-775-1 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 75 Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-783 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 37FM Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-790-1 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 6B Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-799 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 48B Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-799-1 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 48A s Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-863-1 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 5A Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-940-1 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 48V Solid rocket engine.
TE-M-963 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 63F Solid rocket engine.
Temco - American manufacturer. Temco, USA.
Temisat - Italian communications technology satellite. Temisat's primary mission was demonstration of a data relay system. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-08-31. Last Launch: 1993-08-31. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 42 kg (92 lb).
Temp - Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1961-01-01. Last Launch: 1963-07-01. Number: 7 .
Temp-2S - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. World's first operational mobile ICBM. Deployed in great secrecy in 1976-1987 contrary to the terms of the SALT-2 Treaty. Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1972-03-14. Last Launch: 1976-01-01. Number: 35 . Gross mass: 44,200 kg (97,400 lb). Payload: 540 kg (1,190 lb).
Temp-2S-1 - Alternate name for RD RT-21 (1).
Temp-2S-3 - Alternate name for RD RT-21-3.
Tempo - Direct Broadcasting satellite series for DirecTV.
Temp-S - The Temp-S was the first solid propellant tactical guided missile deployed in the USSR. It was designed by A D Nadiradze at NII-1 and formed the basis of subsequent designs leading to current modern Russian ICBM's. Status: Retired. First Launch: 1964-03-14. Last Launch: 1964-07-18. Number: 5 .
Temp-S - Alternate designation for 9K76.
Temp-S tactical missile series -
Temp-S.2M - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Temp-S.2M was the first strategic rocket designed by A D Nadiradze at NII-1. The design was abandoned when weight growth made it too heavy for the planned mobile transport. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 37,000 kg (81,000 lb).
Tempsat - American military target satellite. Surveillance Calibration; black 14 inch diameter. sphere. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-08-13. Last Launch: 1969-09-30. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb).
Temp-SM - Alternate designation for 9K76B.
Tennessee - Tennessee.
Tepper - American meteorologist, served in key earth observation posts at NASA 1959-1979. Born: 1916. Died: 2009-04-18.
Terek (Terek - river in the Caucasus) - Alternate name for Soyuz 37.
Terek (Terek - river in the Caucasus) - Alternate name for Soyuz 24.
Tereshkova - Russian cosmonaut 1962-1997. First woman in space, aboard Vostok 6. But the flight was propaganda and future spaceflight opportunities did not develop. Was married to cosmonaut Andrian Nikolayev. Later a leading Communist politician. Status: Inactive; Active 1962-1997. Born: 1937-03-06. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 2.95 days.
Terilen - Code name for Yantar-4KS1 military surveillance satellite.
TERLS - Alternate name for Thumba.
Terra - American earth land resources satellite. NASA's Terra satellite (originally known as Earth Observing System EOS AM-1) was the first spacecraft in the EOS program. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-12-18. Last Launch: 1999-12-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,854 kg (10,701 lb).
Terra-3 - Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1984. OKB Vympel was the systems integrator for ground-based laser systems. Status: Study 1984.
Terrapin - American test vehicle. Terrapin sounding rockets were two-stage vehicles launched from Wallops Island. The Terrapin sounding rocket was developed by Republic Aviation under a National Security Agency contract for a University of Maryland project that allowed graduate students to study the upper atmosphere. The two-stage rocket used a Deacon motor with a slow-burn grain for the lower stage, and a TSI upper stage. The upper stage was equipped with low-drag swept stabilizing fins. Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1956-09-21. Last Launch: 1957-01-01. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 101 kg (222 lb). Payload: 3.50 kg (7.70 lb). Thrust: 15.00 kN (3,372 lbf).
TerraSAR-X - German civilian surveillance radar satellite. Scientific / commercial surveillance satellite, equipped with an X-band synthetic aperture radar with 1 meter resolution Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-06-15. Last Launch: 2010-06-21. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,346 kg (2,967 lb). Payload: 394 kg (868 lb).
Terrestar - Mobile satellite services series for Terrestar (acquired by Echostar in 2012).
Terrier - Standard US Navy solid propellant two-stage extended-range surface-to-air missile. Developed in the 1950's, in service until replaced by the Standard ER in the 1980's. Modified Terrier missiles were used as sounding rockets, sometimes supplemented with upper stages. Status: Active. First Launch: 1952-11-07. Last Launch: 2011-09-08. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,392 kg (3,068 lb). Payload: 110 kg (240 lb). Thrust: 22.50 kN (5,058 lbf).
Terrier 12-0 - Alternate name for Terrier Mk12 Mod 0.
Terrier 3 - Alternate designation for RIM-2C.
Terrier 3A - Alternate designation for RIM-2D.
Terrier ASAS - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Terrier ASAS-2. Status: Active. First Launch: 2005-06-28. Last Launch: 2005-06-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).
Terrier ASAS-2 - Solid propellant rocket stage. Second stage of Terrier ASAS sounding rocket. Status: Active. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 7.00 kN (1,574 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Terrier Asp - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Asp Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1959-09-30. Last Launch: 1959-09-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 258.00 kN (58,000 lbf).
Terrier Asp IV - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Asp IV Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1962-03-14. Last Launch: 1962-12-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
Terrier ASROC Cajun - American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x ASROC + 1 x Cajun Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1959-05-01. Last Launch: 1959-08-12. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 258.00 kN (58,000 lbf).
Terrier ASROC Cajun-2 - Alternate name for ASROC.
Terrier BT-3 - Alternate designation for RIM-2C.
Terrier BT-3A - Alternate designation for RIM-2D.
Terrier BW-0 - Alternate designation for RIM-2A.
Terrier BW-1 - Alternate designation for RIM-2B.
Terrier HT-3 - Alternate designation for RIM-2F.
Terrier Hydac - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1964-10-15. Last Launch: 1966-03-01. Number: 3 .
Terrier Improved Malemute - Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-03-27. Last Launch: 2015-08-12. Number: 12 .
Terrier Improved Orion - Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Improved Orion Status: Active. First Launch: 1994-04-05. Last Launch: 2015-06-25. Number: 72 . Gross mass: 1,315 kg (2,899 lb).
Terrier LEAP - American anti-ballistic missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier Mk 70 + 1 x Mk 30 + 1 x ASAS Status: Retired 1995. First Launch: 1992-09-24. Last Launch: 1995-03-28. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 258.00 kN (58,000 lbf).
Terrier Lynx - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Lynx Status: Active. First Launch: 2000-12-19. Last Launch: 2014-10-12. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 258.00 kN (58,000 lbf).
Terrier Lynx-2 - Alternate name for Lynx.
Terrier Malemute - American sounding rocket. The Terrier-Malemute launch vehicle was a high performance two-stage vehicle used for payloads weighing less than 180 kg, generally used for relatively lightweight plasma physics payloads. Payload 90 kg to 650 km or 180 kg to 420 km. Status: Active. First Launch: 1974-11-11. Last Launch: 2004-08-15. Number: 46 . Gross mass: 1,568 kg (3,456 lb). Thrust: 258.00 kN (58,000 lbf).
Terrier Malemute-2 - Alternate name for TU-758.
Terrier Mk 70 Oriole - American sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 2005-11-02. Last Launch: 2012-03-27. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Terrier Mk 70 Oriole-1 - Alternate name for TX-664-4.
Terrier Mk 70 Orion - American sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 2001-10-30. Last Launch: 2013-07-04. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).
Terrier Mk12 Mod 0 - Naval Prop Plant solid rocket engine. The Terrier MK 12 Mod 1 rocket motor was typically equipped with four 0.22 square meter fin panels arranged in a cruciform configuration. Solid propellant rocket stage. The Terrier MK 12 Mod 1 rocket motor was typically equipped with four 0.22 square meter fin panels arranged in a cruciform configuration. Status: B. Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Unfuelled mass: 322 kg (709 lb). Thrust: 257.50 kN (57,888 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Terrier Mk12 Mod 1 - Hercules solid rocket engine. SM-1ER first stage. Status: B. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Unfuelled mass: 322 kg (709 lb). Thrust: 257.50 kN (57,888 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Terrier Nike - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Nike. Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1974-01-01. Last Launch: 1974-01-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
Terrier Oriole - American sounding rocket. SPACEHAB's Astrotech Space Operations developed the Oriole sounding rocket in the late 1990s to provide launch services for commercial and scientific payloads. Oriole was both the first privately developed sounding rocket in the United States and the first new U.S. sounding rocket in 25 years. Status: Active. First Launch: 2000-07-07. Last Launch: 2015-02-24. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 258.00 kN (58,000 lbf).
Terrier Oriole Mk 70 - Alternate designation for Terrier Mk 70 Oriole.
Terrier Oriole-2 - Alternate name for Oriole.
Terrier Orion - American two-stage, spin-stabilized sounding rocket. It used a Terrier Mk 12 Mod 1 engine for its first stage and an improved Orion motor for its second stage. The Terrier-Orion could loft payloads weighing up to 290 kilograms to altitudes up to 190 kilometers. Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-05-23. Last Launch: 2015-10-20. Number: 33 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 258.00 kN (58,000 lbf).
Terrier Orion Improved - Alternate designation for Terrier Improved Orion.
Terrier Orion Mk 70 - Alternate designation for Terrier Mk 70 Orion.
Terrier Recruit - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Recruit. Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1970-05-01. Last Launch: 1974-04-08. Number: 20 .
Terrier Sandhawk - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Sandhawk Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1967-09-21. Last Launch: 1977-09-12. Number: 29 . Payload: 91 kg (200 lb). Thrust: 258.00 kN (58,000 lbf).
Terrier Sounding Rocket - American surface-to-air missile. Modified single stage Navy Terrier missiles with cameras were used as sounding rockets. They were launched to an altitude of 140 km from Wallops Island, providing a 1,600 km composite photograph of a frontal cloud formation. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 258.00 kN (58,000 lbf).
Terrier Terrier Oriole - American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Terrier + 1 x Oriole. Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-05-01. Last Launch: 2013-10-04. Number: 2 .
Terrier Tomahawk - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Tomahawk Status: Retired 1980. First Launch: 1964-07-08. Last Launch: 1980-12-12. Number: 37 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 258.00 kN (58,000 lbf).
Terrier Viper I - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Viper I Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1962-02-19. Last Launch: 1963-11-27. Number: 3 .
Terrier/551 - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x NOTS 551 Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1965-10-20. Last Launch: 1966-08-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 258.00 kN (58,000 lbf).
Terrier/551-2 - Alternate name for NOTS Mod 551-B.
TERRIERS - American earth ionosphere satellite. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-05-18. Last Launch: 1999-05-18. Number: 1 .
TES - Alternate designation for TES (abbreviation).
TES - Indian military surveillance satellite. TES was an imaging satellite equipped with cameras and instruments to test military reconnaissance satellite technology. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-10-22. Last Launch: 2001-10-22. Number: 1 .
TES (abbreviation) - Thermal Emission Spectrometer (on Mars Observer)
Tessmann - Austrian-German engineer, leading engine test at Peenemuende from 1936. In 1943 evacuated to Koelpinsee; designed V-2 mobile launcher and planned Zement facility at Ebensee. In US from 1945, worked as von Braun's Deputy Director for Testing. Born: 1912-08-15. Died: 1998-12-19.
Test and Training Satellite - Alternate designation for TETR.
Test and Training Satellite - Alternate designation for TTS tracking network technology satellite.
Test Pilot (Scaled Composites) - Pilots for SpaceShipOne, the first private manned spacecraft (with two additional seats for passengers)
test vehicle - Category of missiles.
TET - DLR Technologieerprobungsträger 1, as part of their On-Orbit Verification Program. Tested new space components; carried an imaging payload. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-07-22. Last Launch: 2012-07-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 120 kg (260 lb).
Tether Physics and Survivability - Alternate designation for TiPS tether technology satellite.
Tether technology satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Tethered Satellite System - Alternate designation for TSS tether technology satellite.
Tethers - American agency. Tethers, USA.
TETR - American tracking network technology satellite. Test satellite for NASA's Manned Space Flight Network. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-08-27. Last Launch: 1971-09-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb).
TETS - Abbreviation for Thursday Evening Tanking Society
TEX - TEX (Transceiver EXperiment) carried a variable power transmitter used to study ionospheric effects on RF transmissions. Data was used to determine minimum spacecraft power levels for transmission to ground receivers. Used the Stacksat P87-2 bus.
Texas Instruments - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Texas Instruments, USA.
TFNG - Alternate name for NASA Group 8 - 1978.
TFX - American pressure suit, tested 1965. Prototype bladder type partial pressure suit with a separate Anti-G suit valve. APL program with Navy and ILC Dover. Status: tested 1965.
TG-1 -
TGKS - Topographic / Geodetic Space System (Russian abbreviation)
TGR - Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1963. Two new directions were pursued in the Soviet Union for space optical reconnaissance systems in the mid-1960's: automated systems with television transmission of pictures, and manned systems. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
TGU - Third Chief Directorate (Russian abbreviation)
TGV Rockets - American manufacturer of spacecraft. TGV Rockets, USA.
THAAD - American anti-ballistic missile. Theatre High-Altitude Air Defense. SDIO/BMDO project. Single stage vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1995-04-21. Last Launch: 2015-11-01. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Thagard - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1978-1996. First American to fly aboard a Russian spacecraft. Grew up in Jacksonville, Florida. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1996. Born: 1943-07-03. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 140.56 days.
Thaicom - Thai commercial communications satellite network operated by the Shinawatra Satellite Public Company.
Thaicom - Communications satellite series for Shinawat using the FS-1300 bus.
Thailand - Thailand
Thai-Paht - Thailand's first microsatellite built by Thai Microsatellite Company and MUT through a technology transfer program with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Carried store and forward and Earth observation payloads. Used the SSTL-70 bus.
Thalau - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Thales Alenia Space - Alternate designation for Alenia.
Thales Alenia Space - Third name of Alenia.
ThalesáAleniaáSpace - Alternate name for Alenia.
Thangavelu - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Thangavelu, USA.
The Ballad of Dan McCann - Poem: Rockets shake the earth, the needle rises...
The Boeing Co. - American manufacturer. The Boeing Co. , USA
The Celestial Empire - Poem: the Great Ocean, two shores, two realms...
The Foundations of the Space Age - The life and work of Tsiolkovskiy, by Vladimir V. Lytkin, Tsiolkovskiy Museum, Kaluga.
The Green Arrow - British manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Flight Exploration of London, England. Status: Study 2004. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
The Hard Road to Space - One third of manned spaceflights suffer major problems that threaten completion of the mission and the life of the astronauts. Five crews - 2% of missions - have perished in their spacecraft....SPACEFLIGHT IS NOT 'ROUTINE'.
The Navigators - Poem: Give the museum your hourglass...
The Nedelin Catastrophe - James Oberg's classic account of the greatest disaster in space history.
The Road to Sputnik - The real story of the race to space
The Space Explorers - A curious marriage of pre-war German filmmaking and 1950's low-rent kiddie show syndicated quickies…
The Space Tourist - American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital flying saucer concept of Discraft Corporation of Portland, Oregon. Status: Study 2004.
The Spirit of Liberty - American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of American Astronautics Corporation, Oceanside, California. Status: Study 2004. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 88.20 kN (19,828 lbf).
The Stars My Destination - Poem: Gully Foyle is my name...
The Titanium Monument - Poem: On a sun-singed steppe, Sergei stood, said -...
The Woman from the Krasny Perekop Textile Mill - Poem: traditionalists always fear women who fly...
The Wrong Stuff - A Catalogue of Launch Vehicle Failures - The hard road to space…
The Year in Review - 2004 - It's got to get worse before it can get better...
The Year in Space - 2005 - It got better...
The Year in Space - 2006 - Space rebounds!
Thelma - Picosatellite developed by the Artemis team of women undergraduates at Santa Clara University, using the JAK bus.
Themis - Alternate designation for Themis launch vehicle.
Themis - American earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launched, 2007.02.17. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-02-17. Last Launch: 2007-02-17. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 126 kg (277 lb). Unfuelled mass: 77 kg (169 lb). Payload: 26 kg (57 lb).
Themis launch vehicle - French winged orbital launch vehicle. Themis was a planned ESA booster stage demonstrator, to validate integrated propellant tank technology necessary for a reusable Ariane 5 successor. The demonstrator engine would be derived from the Vulcain of the Ariane 5. Estimated cost was up to 2.5 billion dollars. THEMIS would carry 33 metric tons of propellant, enough to reach Mach 11. Expendable boosters might permit orbital flight. Status: Design 1998. Gross mass: 55,000 kg (121,000 lb). Thrust: 800.00 kN (179,840 lbf).
Theodore - ATEF solid rocket engine. Monica I second stage. Status: Retired 1957. Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Theos - Thai surveillance satellite, based on EADS Astrium bus used for ROCSAT-2.
Thiel - German manufacturer of rocket engines. Thiel, Germany.
Thiel, Adolf - German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Died at Palos Verdes Estates, California. Born: 1915-02-12. Died: 2001-06-02.
Thiel, Walter - German engineer, talented designer at Peenemuende, in charge of development of the engine for the V-2. Killed in the air raid in August 1943, a setback to the project. Born: 1910-03-03. Died: 1943-08-17.
Thiele - German physicist mission specialist astronaut 1987-2005. DARA. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-2005. Born: 1953-09-02. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 11.24 days.
Thijs - Name of one Galileo Navsat.
Thiokol - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Thiokol Corporation, Ogden, UT, USA.
Thiokol 156 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Developed to 1966. Status: Developed to 1966. Gross mass: 385,554 kg (850,001 lb). Unfuelled mass: 68,038 kg (149,998 lb). Thrust: 14,746.10 kN (3,315,055 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Thiokol 156 inch - Alternate name for Thiokol 156.
Thiokol Chemical (1929) - First name of Thiokol.
Thiokol Chemical Copr (1929) - Alternate name for Thiokol.
Thiokol Corporation (1989) - Third name of Thiokol.
Third Research Academy - Chinese manufacturer. Third Research Academy, China.
Thirsk - Canadian physician mission specialist astronaut 1983-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 1983-2012. Born: 1953-08-17. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 204.77 days.
Thomas - American materials scientist mission specialist astronaut 1990-2007. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2007. Born: 1955-05-06. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 43.34 days.
Thomas, Andrew - Australian-American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1992-2010. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2010. Born: 1951-12-18. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 177.38 days.
Thompson - American test pilot astronaut, 1962-1965. Flew lifting bodies, X-15, assigned as X-20 spaceplane astronaut. Status: Deceased; Active 1962-1965. Born: 1926-05-04. Died: 1993-08-06.
Thompson, David - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1985. Retired from the USAF in 1987. Later President Spectrum Technology, Los Angeles. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1987. Born: 1956-01-14.
Thompson, Floyd - American engineer, at NASA 1927-1968, chief of flight research and then headed Langley. Born: 1898-11-25. Died: 1976-07-10.
Thompson, J R - American engineer, at NASA 1963-1991, deputy administrator 1989-1991; headed development test of the J-2 and SSME engines at NASA.
Thor - American liquid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile, developed by Douglas in 1956-1958. 60 deployed to Britain in 1958-1962. The basis for a family of Thor and Delta space launch vehicles, remaining in production into the 2010's. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 666.00 kN (149,722 lbf).
Thor Able - American orbital launch vehicle. Thor with Able stage derived from Vanguard second stage. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1958-04-24. Last Launch: 1958-07-23. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 51,608 kg (113,776 lb). Payload: 120 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Thor Able I - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 1/AJ10-41 + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1958-08-17. Last Launch: 1958-11-08. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 52,000 kg (114,000 lb). Payload: 50 kg (110 lb). Thrust: 710.00 kN (159,610 lbf).
Thor Able II - American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 2/AJ10-42 Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1959-01-23. Last Launch: 1960-04-01. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 52,000 kg (114,000 lb). Thrust: 668.00 kN (150,172 lbf).
Thor Able II M1 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 2/AJ10-42 + 1 x Altair Gross mass: 52,000 kg (114,000 lb). Thrust: 668.00 kN (150,172 lbf).
Thor Able III - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 3/AJ10 + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1959-08-07. Last Launch: 1959-08-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 52,000 kg (114,000 lb). Thrust: 668.00 kN (150,172 lbf).
Thor Able IV - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x AJ10 + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1960-03-11. Last Launch: 1960-03-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 52,000 kg (114,000 lb). Thrust: 668.00 kN (150,172 lbf).
Thor Ablestar - American orbital launch vehicle. As Thor Able but with enlarged Ablestar second stage with 2 1/2 x greater burn time. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1960-04-13. Last Launch: 1965-08-13. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 53,000 kg (116,000 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Thor Able-Star - Alternate designation for Thor Ablestar.
Thor Ablestar 2 - American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Able-Star/AJ10-104D Gross mass: 53,000 kg (116,000 lb). Thrust: 756.00 kN (169,955 lbf).
Thor Agena A - American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Agena A Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1959-01-21. Last Launch: 1960-09-13. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 53,130 kg (117,130 lb). Payload: 250 kg (550 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Thor Agena B - American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x Agena B Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1960-10-26. Last Launch: 1963-01-16. Number: 40 . Gross mass: 56,507 kg (124,576 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Thor Agena B SLV-2 - Alternate designation for Thor SLV-2 Agena B.
Thor Agena B SLV-2A/B - Alternate designation for Thor SLV-2A Agena B.
Thor Agena D - American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x Agena D Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1962-06-28. Last Launch: 1963-07-19. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 56,507 kg (124,576 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Thor Agena D SLV-2 - Alternate designation for Thor SLV-2 Agena D.
Thor Agena D SLV-2A/D - Alternate designation for Thor SLV-2A Agena D.
Thor Burner - American orbital launch vehicle. Thor DM-18A with 'Burner' upper stage solid rocket packages used for launch of classified payloads. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 51,810 kg (114,220 lb). Payload: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Thor Burner 1 - American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x FW4S Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1965-05-20. Last Launch: 1966-03-31. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust: 668.00 kN (150,172 lbf).
Thor Burner 2 - American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Star 37B Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1966-09-16. Last Launch: 1971-06-08. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust: 750.00 kN (168,600 lbf).
Thor Burner 2A - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Star 37B + 1 x Star 26B Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1971-10-14. Last Launch: 1976-02-19. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust: 750.00 kN (168,600 lbf).
Thor Comsat - The Thor communication satellites are orbited by Telenor of Norway and provide television services to Scandinavia. Thor 1 satellite was originally orbited by British Satellite Broadcasting as Marcopolo 2. It was purchased on orbit in 1992 from BSB.
Thor Delta - American orbital launch vehicle. Commercial name for the military's Thor-Delta. The name of the Delta second stage eventually was applied to subsequent commercial follow-ons. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1960-05-13. Last Launch: 1962-09-18. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 54,050 kg (119,150 lb). Payload: 226 kg (498 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Thor Delta A - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x AJ10-118 + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1962-10-02. Last Launch: 1962-10-27. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 50,756 kg (111,897 lb). Payload: 250 kg (550 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Thor Delta B - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x AJ10-118A + 1 x Altair Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1962-12-13. Last Launch: 1964-03-19. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 51,285 kg (113,064 lb). Payload: 370 kg (810 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Thor Delta C - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Delta D + 1 x Altair 2 Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1963-11-27. Last Launch: 1967-03-08. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 52,000 kg (114,000 lb). Payload: 81 kg (178 lb). Thrust: 756.00 kN (169,955 lbf).
Thor Delta C1 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Delta D + 1 x FW4D Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1966-05-25. Last Launch: 1969-01-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 52,000 kg (114,000 lb). Payload: 81 kg (178 lb). Thrust: 756.00 kN (169,955 lbf).
Thor Delta D - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor + 1 x Thor DSV-2C + 1 x Delta D + 1 x Altair 2 Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-08-19. Last Launch: 1965-04-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 63,966 kg (141,020 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 1,571.00 kN (353,174 lbf).
Thor Delta E - American orbital launch vehicle. Thor augmented with 3 x Castor 2 motors with Delta E and Altair 2 upper stage. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1965-11-06. Last Launch: 1967-04-20. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 69,023 kg (152,169 lb). Payload: 540 kg (1,190 lb). Thrust: 1,452.90 kN (326,625 lbf).
Thor Delta E1 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor + 1 x Thor DSV-2C + 1 x Delta E + 1 x FW4D Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1966-07-01. Last Launch: 1971-04-01. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 68,000 kg (149,000 lb). Payload: 540 kg (1,190 lb). Thrust: 1,450.00 kN (325,970 lbf).
Thor Delta G - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor + 1 x Thor DSV-2C + 1 x Delta E Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1966-12-14. Last Launch: 1967-09-07. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 55,451 kg (122,248 lb). Thrust: 765.10 kN (172,001 lbf).
Thor Delta J - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor + 1 x Thor DSV-2C + 1 x Delta E + 1 x Star 37D Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1968-07-04. Last Launch: 1968-07-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 69,497 kg (153,214 lb). Payload: 260 kg (570 lb). Thrust: 1,452.90 kN (326,625 lbf).
Thor Delta L - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1B + 1 x Delta E + 1 x FW4D Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1969-08-27. Last Launch: 1972-01-31. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 89,935 kg (198,272 lb). Payload: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 1,452.90 kN (326,625 lbf).
Thor Delta M - American orbital launch vehicle. Long Tank Thor augmented with 3 Castor 2 boosters and Delta E / Burner 2 (Star 37D) upper stages. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1968-09-19. Last Launch: 1971-02-03. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 103,681 kg (228,577 lb). Payload: 355 kg (782 lb). Thrust: 2,140.70 kN (481,249 lbf).
Thor Delta M6 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1C + 1 x Delta E + 1 x Star 37D Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1971-03-13. Last Launch: 1971-03-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 103,700 kg (228,600 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 2,411.00 kN (542,014 lbf).
Thor Delta N - American orbital launch vehicle. Long Tank Thor augmented with 3 Castor 2 boosters and Delta E upper stage. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1972-03-12. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 90,000 kg (198,000 lb). Thrust: 1,590.00 kN (357,440 lbf).
Thor Delta N6 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1C + 1 x Delta E Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1970-01-23. Last Launch: 1971-10-21. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 102,900 kg (226,800 lb). Thrust: 2,411.00 kN (542,014 lbf).
Thor DM-18 - American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle adapted from Thor IRBM with no upper stage. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1957-01-26. Last Launch: 1958-08-06. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 49,340 kg (108,770 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Thor DM-18A - American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1958-11-05. Last Launch: 1962-06-19. Number: 50 . Gross mass: 48,900 kg (107,800 lb). Thrust: 668.00 kN (150,172 lbf).
Thor DM-18C - American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1960-01-14. Last Launch: 1960-02-29. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 48,500 kg (106,900 lb). Thrust: 734.00 kN (165,009 lbf).
Thor DM-19 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1980. Gross mass: 49,340 kg (108,770 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,125 kg (6,889 lb). Thrust: 758.71 kN (170,565 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Thor DM-21 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 48,354 kg (106,602 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,948 kg (6,499 lb). Thrust: 760.64 kN (170,999 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Thor DSV-2D - American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1962-01-15. Last Launch: 1962-07-18. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust: 743.00 kN (167,033 lbf).
Thor DSV-2E - American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1962-05-02. Last Launch: 1962-11-01. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 49,300 kg (108,600 lb). Thrust: 668.00 kN (150,172 lbf).
Thor DSV-2F - American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1963-09-18. Last Launch: 1964-12-09. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust: 668.00 kN (150,172 lbf).
Thor DSV-2G - American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x AJ10-118 Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-03-24. Last Launch: 1965-02-23. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 55,000 kg (121,000 lb). Thrust: 668.00 kN (150,172 lbf).
Thor DSV-2J - American anti-ballistic missile. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1964-02-14. Last Launch: 1975-11-06. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 55,000 kg (121,000 lb). Thrust: 668.00 kN (150,172 lbf).
Thor DSV-2U - American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1980. First Launch: 1976-09-11. Last Launch: 1980-07-15. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 49,500 kg (109,100 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 750.00 kN (168,600 lbf).
Thor Hydra - American orbital launch vehicle. Thor with Hydra liquid oxygen/hydrogen pressure-fed upper stage. Never went beyond initial hardware testing. However such a stage would have vastly increased Thor-Ablestar performance, from 150 kg to over 1000 kg in a medium polar orbit. Status: Canceled 1960. Gross mass: 53,000 kg (116,000 lb). Payload: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Thor MG-18 - American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x MG-18 Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1965-01-19. Last Launch: 1965-03-18. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust: 668.00 kN (150,172 lbf).
Thor satellite series - Designation of series of communications satellites launched by Telenor.
Thor SLV-2 Agena B - Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Agena B Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-01-25. Last Launch: 1965-11-29. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 56,500 kg (124,500 lb). Thrust: 756.00 kN (169,955 lbf).
Thor SLV-2 Agena D - Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Agena D Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1963-08-29. Last Launch: 1967-05-31. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 56,500 kg (124,500 lb). Thrust: 756.00 kN (169,955 lbf).
Thor SLV-2A Agena B - Thor Agena B upgraded with addition of three Castor 1 strap-on motors. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1963-06-29. Last Launch: 1966-05-15. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 67,500 kg (148,800 lb). Payload: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 1,571.00 kN (353,174 lbf).
Thor SLV-2A Agena D - Thor Agena upgraded with addition of three Castor 1 strap-on motors. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1963-02-28. Last Launch: 1968-01-17. Number: 61 . Gross mass: 67,819 kg (149,515 lb). Thrust: 1,571.00 kN (353,174 lbf).
Thorad Agena D SLV-2H - Alternate designation for Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
Thorad Agena D SLV-2G - Alternate designation for Thorad SLV-2G Agena D.
Thorad SLV-2G Agena D - Thor Agena upgraded with Extended Length Tank Thor stage. 3 stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1966-08-09. Last Launch: 1971-12-14. Number: 30 . Gross mass: 91,400 kg (201,500 lb). Thrust: 1,444.00 kN (324,624 lbf).
Thorad SLV-2H Agena D - Thor Agena upgraded with Long Tank Thor stage. Variant with straight tank from Delta was Thorad (Long Tank Augmented Thrust Thor Delta) Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1969-06-05. Last Launch: 1972-05-25. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 88,731 kg (195,618 lb). Thrust: 1,571.00 kN (353,174 lbf).
Thor-Delta - Alternate designation for Thor Delta.
Thorne - German test pilot mission specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Died in an airplane crash. Status: Deceased; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1953-02-11. Died: 1986-05-24.
Thornton - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1984-1996. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1996. Born: 1952-08-17. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 40.63 days.
Thornton, Bill - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1967-1994. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1994. Born: 1929-04-14. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 13.05 days.
Three-Corner Sat - Alternate designation for 3CSat technology satellite.
Three-Magnum Mars Mission - Alternate designation for Combo Lander Mission manned mars expedition.
Thrust Augmented Thor - Alternate designation for Thor Delta G.
Thrust Augmented Thor - Alternate designation for Thor Delta E.
Thrust Augmented Thor - Alternate designation for Thor Delta D.
Thrust Augmented Thor - Alternate designation for Thor SLV-2A Agena D.
Thrust Augmented Thor - Alternate designation for Thor SLV-2A Agena B.
Thrust Augmented Thor - Alternate designation for Thor Delta J.
Thrust Augmented Thor - Alternate designation for Delta J.
Thrust Augmented Thor - Alternate designation for Delta Thor TA rocket stage.
Thule AFB - Air Force base also used for sounding rocket launches. First Launch: 1964-08-10. Last Launch: 1980-09-29. Number: 990 .
Thule AFB TUTO - Loki launch complex. Thule/Camp Tuto (Geopole Station) First Launch: 1964-08-10. Last Launch: 1964-08-19. Number: 4 .
Thumba - Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launch Station. Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1963-11-21. Last Launch: 2011-05-18. Number: 1460 .
Thumba Pad 1 - Sounding rocket launcher
Thumba Pad 2 - Sounding rocket launcher
Thumba Pad 3 - Sounding rocket launcher
Thumba Pad 4 - Sounding rocket launcher
Thumba Pad 5 - RH launch complex. First Launch: 1993-01-01. Last Launch: 1993-01-01. Number: 2 .
Thunderbird - Alternate designation for Starchaser 5 manned spacecraft.
Thuot - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1985-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1995. Born: 1945-05-19. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 27.29 days.
Thuraya - Thuraya was founded in the UAE in 1997 by a consortium of leading national telecommunications operators and international investment houses. The concept was to offer cost-effective satellite-based mobile telephone services to Europe, the Middle East, North and Central Africa, and Central and South Asia. The new aspect was the use of dynamic dual mode handsets.
Tian Jiao 1 - Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 1988. The Tian Jiao 1 (Pre-eminent in Space 1) manned spaceplane was proposed by the First Academy (now the China Academy of Launch Technology) in 1988. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb).
Tian Jiao 2 - Chinese manned spaceplane. Study 2006. What appeared to be an evolved version of 1988's Tian Jiao 1 manned spaceplane concept was proposed by the China Academy of Launch Technology in 2006. A 2020 operational date was mentioned. Status: Study 2006.
Tian Lian - Chinese data relay satellites using the DFH-4 satellite bus. The satellites relayed data from Chinese manned and military satellites, beginning with the Shenzhou missions.
Tiangong - Chinese man-tended space laboratory. A series of three of these laboratories were to be visited by a series of Shenzhou manned spacecraft between 2011 and 2018. The 8.5-ton design will then be extended to a 13-ton cargo carrier for resupply of the Chinese multi-module space station after 2020. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-09-29. Last Launch: 2011-09-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb).
Tianhui - Mapping-1 Satellite 02; carried visible-band mapping cameras with 5 m resolution. Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-08-24. Last Launch: 2015-10-26. Number: 3 .
Tiantuo - Technology satellite for the National University of Defense Technology; carried an payloads such as an imager, an atomic oxygen sensor, and an AIS (maritime tracking) receiver. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-05-10. Last Launch: 2014-09-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
Tianwang - Constellation of Cubesats communicating via a Wifi router aboard the [Pujiang] spacecraft.
Tianxun - Technology satellite built by the Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics with a small Earth observing CCD camera. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-11-09. Last Launch: 2011-11-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 58 kg (127 lb).
Tianying-3C - Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-05-06. Last Launch: 2011-05-06. Number: 1 .
Tianying-3E - Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-04-04. Last Launch: 2013-04-04. Number: 1 .
Tibere - Tibere was an atmospheric re-entry test vehicle derived from the earlier Berenice. Development was authorized in 1965 to support the Electre re-entry experiment program. The first two stages were Stromboli motors of identical length. The third stage was the P.064 motor developed for the Diamant orbital launcher. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1971-02-23. Last Launch: 1972-03-18. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 170.00 kN (38,210 lbf).
Tibere-0 - Alternate name for SEPR P167.
Tibere-2 - Alternate name for SEPR 739-2.
Tier 1 - Alternate designation for Tier One.
Tier 1 - Alternate designation for SpaceShip One.
Tier 1b - Alternate designation for Tier Two.
Tier 1b - Alternate designation for SpaceShipTwo manned spaceplane.
Tier 2 - Alternate designation for Tier Two manned spacecraft.
Tier One - Burt Rutan's Tier One was the second manned reusable suborbital launch system (after the B-52/X-15). But it was developed privately at a small fraction of the cost, and won the X-Prize in 2004 as the first privately-developed reusable manned suborbital spacecraft. The design was greatly enlarged to produce SpaceShipTwo, the first commercial spaceplane. Status: Retired 2004. Gross mass: 7,700 kg (16,900 lb). Payload: 400 kg (880 lb). Propellants: N2O/Solid.
Tier One - Alternate designation for Spaceship One.
Tier Two - American manned spaceplane. Development of the much larger SpaceShipTwo suborbital commercial manned spacecraft was announced in July 2005. Status: Operational 2015. Propellants: N2O/Solid.
Tigrisat - 3U Cubesat built by Iraqi students at the La Sapienza University of Rome.
Tikhomirov - Russian manufacturer of rockets, Zhukovsky, Russia.
Tikhonov - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2006-on. Graduated MAI, 2005. Status: Active 2006-on.
Tikhonravov - Pioneering Soviet engineer and space visionary. Designer at Nll-4 and Korolev design bureau. Leader in development of Sputnik and Vostok spacecraft. Also performed early ICBM work and was pioneering rocketeer at GIRD and Nll-3. Born: 1900-07-29. Died: 1974-03-04.
Tikhonravov Suborbital - Soviet space pioneer Tikhonravov proposed a V-2-launched manned capsule to Stalin in June 1946. Had his plan been approved, the Soviet Union may have put the first man in space in 1948. Instead, Stalin decided to stop the V-2 production in Germany and move everything to Russia. Status: Study 1946. Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 265.00 kN (59,574 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
Tilford - American NASA geophysicist, from the late 1980's Director of Earth Sciences in the Office of Space Science. In 1992 he was appointed acting Associate Administrator for Mission to Planet Earth and served until 1994.
Tiling - German rocket pioneer, developed wing-recovered powder rockets. Inspired by Oberth lecture in 1924. By 1931 demonstrated stable flight to 7 km, first rocket launch from airplane 1932. Killed 1933 in an explosion. Born: 1893. Died: 1933-10-10.
Tilla - Tilla Firing Range, Malute, Jhelum region, Punjab, Pakistan
Tiller - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1914-05-09. Died: 1974-03-15.
Timation - American navigation technology satellite. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-05-31. Last Launch: 1969-09-30. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Timation - Alternate name for NTS.
Timberwind - American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. DARPA project. Nuclear fission engine using pebble bed reactor with spherical fuel elements. Status: Cancelled 1992. Gross mass: 884,478 kg (1,949,940 lb). Thrust: 13,693.80 kN (3,078,489 lbf).
Timberwind 250 - DoE nuclear/LH2 rocket stage. Development ended 1992. Used on Timberwind launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1992. Gross mass: 170,000 kg (370,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 45,000 kg (99,000 lb). Thrust: 2,450.00 kN (550,780 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
Timberwind 45 - DoE nuclear/LH2 rocket stage. Development ended 1992. Used on Timberwind Centaur launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1992. Gross mass: 28,000 kg (61,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,500 kg (16,500 lb). Thrust: 441.00 kN (99,140 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
Timberwind 75 - DoE nuclear/LH2 rocket stage. Development ended 1992. Used on Timberwind Titan launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1992. Gross mass: 110,000 kg (240,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 28,500 kg (62,800 lb). Thrust: 2,206.00 kN (495,928 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
Timberwind Centaur - American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1992. Gross mass: 223,628 kg (493,015 lb). Payload: 12,272 kg (27,055 lb). Thrust: 3,828.63 kN (860,710 lbf).
Timberwind Titan - American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1992. Gross mass: 900,840 kg (1,986,010 lb). Payload: 63,636 kg (140,293 lb). Thrust: 13,693.80 kN (3,078,489 lbf).
TIMED - American solar satellite. TIMED was the first NASA Solar Terrestrial Probe, operated by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab to study the thermosphere, mesosphere and lower ionosphere. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-12-07. Last Launch: 2001-12-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 587 kg (1,294 lb).
Timmons - American engineer. Headed the Skylab Multiple Docking Adapter and External Tank projects. Born: 1919-12-18. Died: 1994-01-08.
Timofei - Alternate designation for Kristall manned space station.
Tingle - American test pilot astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1965-07-19.
Tiny Tim - Test vehicle using a Naval Propellant Plant solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1949. First Launch: 1945-09-26. Last Launch: 1946-05-29. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 278 kg (612 lb). Thrust: 220.00 kN (49,450 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TIP - American navigation satellite. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-09-02. Last Launch: 1988-06-16. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 170 kg (370 lb).
TiPS - American tether technology satellite. The 53 kg satellite consisted of 2 end masses connected by a 4 km tether. NRO (the National Reconnaissance Office) provided funding for the TiPS project. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-05-12. Last Launch: 1998-10-03. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 54 kg (119 lb).
TIROC - Kayser N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Satellite orientation. Tangential Injection and Rotational Combustion, the world's smallest thruster burning monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Date: Early 1960's. Unfuelled mass: 0.0800 kg (0.1760 lb). Thrust: 1.00 N (0.20 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
TIROS - TIROS spacecraft were the beginning of a long series of American polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. The objective was to establish a global weather satellite system. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-04-01. Last Launch: 1966-02-28. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb).
Tiros N - American earth weather satellite. Tiros N was part of the ongoing US series of polar-orbiting weather satellites. These were preceded by the TIROS series and the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-10-13. Last Launch: 2002-06-24. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 1,416 kg (3,121 lb).
TIROS Operational System - Alternate designation for TOS earth weather satellite.
Tisat - Swiss student 1U Cubesat for SUPSI. Successful.
TIT - Japanese manufacturer of spacecraft. Tokyo of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
Titan - Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-13.
Titan - American orbital launch vehicle. The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. Status: Retired 2005.
Titan 1 - Alternate designation for Titan I.
Titan 1-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 76,203 kg (167,998 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 1,467.91 kN (329,999 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Titan 1-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 28,939 kg (63,799 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,725 kg (3,802 lb). Thrust: 355.86 kN (80,001 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Titan 2 - Alternate designation for Titan II.
Titan 2-1 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 117,866 kg (259,850 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,736 kg (14,850 lb). Thrust: 2,172.23 kN (488,337 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Titan 2-2 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 28,939 kg (63,799 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,404 kg (5,299 lb). Thrust: 444.82 kN (99,999 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Titan 23B - American orbital launch vehicle. Basic Titan 3A core, originally developed for Titan 3C, with Agena D upper stage replacing Transtage. New radio guidance system, 1.5 m diameter fairing atop Agena. Payload remained attached to the Agena. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1969-08-23. Last Launch: 1971-04-22. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 165,000 kg (363,000 lb). Thrust: 2,300.00 kN (517,000 lbf).
Titan 23C - American orbital launch vehicle. Post-MOL standardization of Titan 3C, with man-rated systems removed, upgraded first stage engines, digital avionics, blowdown solid rocket motor thrust vector control in place of pressure-regulated system, simplified Transtage attitude control system. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 626,190 kg (1,380,510 lb). Payload: 13,100 kg (28,800 lb). Thrust: 10,586.80 kN (2,380,007 lbf).
Titan 23D - Alternate designation for Titan IIID.
Titan 23D - Alternate designation for Titan 3D.
Titan 23E - Alternate designation for Titan IIIE.
Titan 23E - Alternate designation for Titan 3E.
Titan 24B - American orbital launch vehicle. Stretched first stage, originally developed for the cancelled MOL program, with Agena D upper stage. Radio guidance system, 1.5 m diameter fairing atop Agena. Payload remained attached to the Agena. Status: Retired 1984. First Launch: 1971-08-12. Last Launch: 1984-04-17. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 170,000 kg (370,000 lb). Thrust: 2,410.00 kN (541,780 lbf).
Titan 2B - American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Space launch version of Titan 2 ICBM, obtained through minimal modification of ICBM (new wiring and avionics only, and use of existing ICBM re-entry vehicle shroud). Proposed in the late 1980's but never developed. Gross mass: 154,000 kg (339,000 lb). Payload: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Thrust: 2,090.00 kN (469,850 lbf).
Titan 2G - Alternate designation for Titan II SLV.
Titan 2L - American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Version of refurbished Titan 2 ICBM with two liquid propellant strap-on stages. Proposed in the late 1980's but never developed. Payload: 8,165 kg (18,000 lb).
Titan 2S - American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Version of refurbished Titan 2 ICBM with two to eight Castor 4A solid-propellant strap-on stages. Proposed in the late 1980's but never developed. Gross mass: 247,000 kg (544,000 lb). Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb).
Titan 33B - American orbital launch vehicle. Basic Titan 3A core, except guidance provided by the Agena upper stage. The Agena and its payload were completely enclosed in a new 3.05 m diameter shroud. 'Ascent Agena' separated after orbital insertion and did not remain attached to the payload. Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1971-03-21. Last Launch: 1973-08-21. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 185,000 kg (407,000 lb). Thrust: 2,300.00 kN (517,000 lbf).
Titan 34B - American orbital launch vehicle. Stretched Titan core, originally developed for Titan 3M MOL, with Agena D upper stage. Guidance provided by the Agena upper stage. The Agena and its payload were completely enclosed in a 3.05 m diameter shroud. 'Ascent Agena' separated after orbital insertion and did not remain attached to the payload. Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1975-03-10. Last Launch: 1987-02-12. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 188,520 kg (415,610 lb). Payload: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 1,997.70 kN (449,101 lbf).
Titan 34D - American orbital launch vehicle. Stretched Titan core designed for use with 5 1/2 segment solid rocket motors. IUS (Interim/Inertial Upper Stage) solid upper stages, Transtage, or used without upper stages. Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1983-06-20. Last Launch: 1988-11-06. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 723,490 kg (1,595,020 lb). Payload: 14,515 kg (32,000 lb). Thrust: 11,279.10 kN (2,535,643 lbf).
Titan 34D/IUS - American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 34D with IUS upper stages. Status: Retired 1982. First Launch: 1982-10-30. Last Launch: 1982-10-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 725,000 kg (1,598,000 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 11,280.00 kN (2,535,840 lbf).
Titan 34D/Transtage - American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 34D with Transtage upper stage. Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1984-01-31. Last Launch: 1989-09-04. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 720,000 kg (1,580,000 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 11,280.00 kN (2,535,840 lbf).
Titan 3A - Alternate designation for Titan IIIA.
Titan 3A-1 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 116,573 kg (256,999 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,443 kg (11,999 lb). Thrust: 2,339.76 kN (525,999 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Titan 3A-2 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 29,188 kg (64,348 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,653 kg (5,848 lb). Thrust: 453.71 kN (101,999 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Titan 3B - Alternate designation for Titan IIIB.
Titan 3B-1 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 139,935 kg (308,503 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Thrust: 2,413.19 kN (542,507 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Titan 3B-2 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 37,560 kg (82,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). Thrust: 460.31 kN (103,483 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Titan 3BAS2 - American orbital launch vehicle. Configuration of Titan 3B proposed by Martin in mid-1960's. Titan 3B for deep space missions with Centaur upper stage, Algol strapons for liftoff thrust augmentation. Never flown. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 225,650 kg (497,470 lb). Payload: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Thrust: 3,024.00 kN (679,822 lbf).
Titan 3C - Alternate designation for Titan IIIC.
Titan 3C7 - American orbital launch vehicle. Variant of Titan 3C with seven segment solid motors. Proposed by Martin for precise delivery of payloads beyond Titan 3C capacity into geosynchronous orbit. Never flown. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 818,380 kg (1,804,210 lb). Payload: 15,800 kg (34,800 lb). Thrust: 12,821.00 kN (2,882,275 lbf).
Titan 3D - Alternate designation for Titan IIID.
Titan 3E - Alternate designation for Titan IIIE.
Titan 3L2 - American orbital launch vehicle. Variant of Titan with 15 foot Large Diameter Core, 2 x 7 segment strap-ons. Man-rated, optimized for delivery of heavy payloads into LEO. Never developed. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 1,096,920 kg (2,418,290 lb). Payload: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb). Thrust: 12,821.00 kN (2,882,275 lbf).
Titan 3L4 - American orbital launch vehicle. Variant of Titan with 15 foot Large Diameter Core, 4 x 7 segment strap-ons. Man rated, optimized for delivery of 40,000 pound manned payloads into 250 nm / 50 deg space station orbit. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 1,747,580 kg (3,852,750 lb). Payload: 45,000 kg (99,000 lb). Thrust: 25,642.10 kN (5,764,573 lbf).
Titan 3M - American orbital launch vehicle. Man-rated launch vehicle designed for MOL and other missions of the 1970's. Malfunction Detection System initiated abort procedures during launch. Also suited for launch of 'bulbous and lifting body payloads'. 7 segment UA1207 motors developed but not used until Titan 4 in 1990's. Cancelled with MOL program in 1969. Status: Development ended 1967. Gross mass: 836,560 kg (1,844,290 lb). Payload: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 12,821.00 kN (2,882,275 lbf).
Titan 4 - American orbital launch vehicle. Developed to handle military payloads designed for launch on Shuttle from Vandenberg before the USAF pulled out of the Shuttle program after the Challenger disaster. Further stretch of core from Titan 34, 7-segment solid rocket motors (developed for MOL but not used until 25 years later). Enlarged Centaur G used as upper stage (variant of stage designed for Shuttle but prohibited for flight safety reasons after Challenger). Completely revised electronics. All the changes resulted in major increase in cost of launch vehicle and launch operations. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 886,420 kg (1,954,220 lb). Payload: 17,700 kg (39,000 lb). Thrust: 12,821.00 kN (2,882,275 lbf).
Titan 401A/Centaur - Version of Titan 4 with Centaur T upper stage. Status: Retired 1998. First Launch: 1994-02-07. Last Launch: 1998-08-12. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 868,000 kg (1,913,000 lb). Thrust: 14,200.00 kN (3,192,200 lbf).
Titan 401B/Centaur - Version of Titan 4B with Centaur T upper stage. Status: Retired 2003. First Launch: 1997-10-15. Last Launch: 2003-09-09. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 939,000 kg (2,070,000 lb). Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust: 15,000.00 kN (3,372,000 lbf).
Titan 402A/IUS - American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4 with IUS upper stages. Status: Retired 1994. First Launch: 1989-06-14. Last Launch: 1994-12-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 910,000 kg (2,000,000 lb). Thrust: 14,200.00 kN (3,192,200 lbf).
Titan 402B/IUS - American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4B with IUS upper stage. Status: Retired 2004. First Launch: 1997-02-23. Last Launch: 2004-02-14. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 925,000 kg (2,039,000 lb). Thrust: 15,000.00 kN (3,372,000 lbf).
Titan 403A - American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4 with no upper stage, configured for launch of lower-mass, higher-orbit Lacrosse, SDS and NOSS-2 payloads from Vandenberg. Status: Retired 1997. First Launch: 1991-03-08. Last Launch: 1997-10-24. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 906,000 kg (1,997,000 lb). Payload: 17,700 kg (39,000 lb). Thrust: 14,200.00 kN (3,192,200 lbf).
Titan 403B - American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4B with no upper stage, configured for launch from Vandenberg. Status: Retired 2000. First Launch: 2000-08-17. Last Launch: 2000-08-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 910,000 kg (2,000,000 lb). Payload: 21,680 kg (47,790 lb). Thrust: 15,000.00 kN (3,372,000 lbf).
Titan 404A - American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4 with no upper stage, configured for launch of heavy-weight, low altitude KH-12 and Improved CRYSTAL payloads from Vandenberg. Status: Retired 1996. First Launch: 1992-11-28. Last Launch: 1996-12-20. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 906,000 kg (1,997,000 lb). Payload: 17,700 kg (39,000 lb). Thrust: 14,200.00 kN (3,192,200 lbf).
Titan 404B - American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4B with no upper stage, configured for launch from Vandenberg. Status: Retired 2005. First Launch: 1999-05-22. Last Launch: 2005-10-19. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 910,000 kg (2,000,000 lb). Payload: 21,680 kg (47,790 lb). Thrust: 15,000.00 kN (3,372,000 lbf).
Titan 405A - American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4 with no upper stage, configured for launch of lower-mass, higher-orbit SDS and NOSS-2 payloads from Cape Canaveral. Status: Retired 1996. First Launch: 1990-06-08. Last Launch: 1996-07-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 906,000 kg (1,997,000 lb). Payload: 17,700 kg (39,000 lb). Thrust: 14,200.00 kN (3,192,200 lbf).
Titan 405B - Status: Retired 2005. First Launch: 2005-04-30. Last Launch: 2005-04-30. Number: 1 .
Titan 4-1 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 2005. Gross mass: 163,000 kg (359,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Thrust: 2,428.31 kN (545,906 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Titan 4-2 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 2005. Gross mass: 39,500 kg (87,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 459.51 kN (103,302 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Titan 45D - Alternate designation for Titan 402B/IUS.
Titan 45F - Alternate designation for Titan 403B.
Titan 45H - Alternate designation for Titan 405A.
Titan 45J - Alternate designation for Titan 404B.
Titan 4B - American orbital launch vehicle. Titan 4 with Upgraded Solid Rocket Motors replacing UA1207. Developed to improve performance for certain missions, and reduce number of field joints in motor after Challenger and Titan 34D explosions involving segmented motors. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 943,050 kg (2,079,060 lb). Payload: 21,680 kg (47,790 lb). Thrust: 13,693.80 kN (3,078,489 lbf).
Titan 5 - Alternate designation for Titan 5 stage.
Titan 5 - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed Titan upgrade with cryogenic core as replacement for NLS. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 1,138,660 kg (2,510,310 lb). Thrust: 16,533.60 kN (3,716,901 lbf).
Titan 5 stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Part of launch vehicle proposed by Martin as alternative to NLS. All figures estimated based on 1,000,000 lb thrust single engine. Status: Study 1988. Gross mass: 500,000 kg (1,100,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 45,000 kg (99,000 lb). Thrust: 4,457.10 kN (1,001,996 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Titan C - Alternate designation for Titan C-2.
Titan C - American orbital launch vehicle. The Titan C, a Titan II booster stage topped by a new liquid oxygen/hydrogen upper stage, was the launch vehicle selected in November 1959 for the DynaSoar orbital flight program. Despite the fact the upper stage engine was secretly tested in 1958-1960, after many political twists and turns, it was cancelled in favor of the Titan 3C in July 1961 Status: Development ended 1961. Gross mass: 185,820 kg (409,660 lb). Payload: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb).
Titan C-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Engine developed 1958-1960, but launch vehicle cancelled 1961. Status: Development ended 1961. Gross mass: 57,400 kg (126,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 666.00 kN (149,722 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Titan Centaur 401A - Alternate designation for Titan 401A/Centaur.
Titan Centaur 401B - Alternate designation for Titan 401B/Centaur.
Titan Cluster - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Masses estimated (cluster of four Titan I first stages). Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 2,940.00 kN (660,930 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Titan I - American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM, built as back-up to Atlas, using two stages instead of one and a half, and conventional tank construction in lieu of balloon tanks. It was also to have been used for suborbital tests of the X-20A Dynasoar manned space plane. For unknown reasons never refurbished for use as space launcher and scrapped after being replaced by the Titan II in the missile role in mid-1960's. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1959-02-06. Last Launch: 1965-03-05. Number: 68 . Gross mass: 105,142 kg (231,798 lb). Thrust: 1,295.90 kN (291,330 lbf).
Titan II - American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM, developed also as the launch vehicle for the manned Gemini spacecraft in the early 1960's. When the ICBM's were retired in the 1980's they were refurbished and a new series of launches began. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1962-03-16. Last Launch: 1976-06-28. Number: 81 . Gross mass: 154,000 kg (339,000 lb). Payload: 3,100 kg (6,800 lb). Thrust: 1,893.40 kN (425,653 lbf).
Titan II GLV - American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Version for launch of Gemini manned spacecraft. Developed in parallel with ICBM version. Differed in having redundancy features in systems and MDS (Malfunction Detection System) installed. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1964-04-08. Last Launch: 1966-11-11. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 150,530 kg (331,860 lb). Payload: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Thrust: 2,090.00 kN (469,850 lbf).
Titan II SLV - American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Space launch version, obtained through minimal refurbishment of decommissioned ICBM's. Status: Retired 2003. First Launch: 1988-09-05. Last Launch: 2003-10-18. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 154,000 kg (339,000 lb). Payload: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Thrust: 2,090.00 kN (469,850 lbf).
Titan IIIA - American orbital launch vehicle. Titan with Transtage third stage. Core for Titan 3C. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-09-01. Last Launch: 1965-05-06. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 161,730 kg (356,550 lb). Payload: 3,100 kg (6,800 lb). Thrust: 1,936.90 kN (435,432 lbf).
Titan IIIB - American orbital launch vehicle. Titan core with Agena upper stage. Found to be more cost effective and higher performance than using Transtage. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1966-07-29. Last Launch: 1969-06-03. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 156,540 kg (345,110 lb). Payload: 3,300 kg (7,200 lb). Thrust: 1,936.90 kN (435,432 lbf).
Titan IIIC - American orbital launch vehicle. Titan 3A with five segment solid motors. Man-rated design originally developed for Dynasoar spaceplane. Status: Retired 1982. First Launch: 1965-06-18. Last Launch: 1982-03-06. Number: 36 . Gross mass: 626,190 kg (1,380,510 lb). Payload: 13,100 kg (28,800 lb). Thrust: 10,586.80 kN (2,380,007 lbf).
Titan IIID - American orbital launch vehicle. Titan 3C without transtage. Status: Retired 1982. First Launch: 1971-06-15. Last Launch: 1982-11-17. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 612,990 kg (1,351,410 lb). Payload: 12,300 kg (27,100 lb). Thrust: 10,586.80 kN (2,380,007 lbf).
Titan IIIE - American orbital launch vehicle. Titan 3D with Centaur D-1T upper stage. Used by NASA for deep space missions in 1970's. Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1974-02-11. Last Launch: 1977-09-05. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 632,970 kg (1,395,450 lb). Payload: 15,400 kg (33,900 lb). Thrust: 10,586.80 kN (2,380,007 lbf).
Titan LDC-1 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. 15 foot diameter core Titan proposed in 1960's for space station logistics. Masses estimated. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 350,000 kg (770,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Thrust: 4,344.46 kN (976,674 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Titan LDC-2 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. 15 foot diameter core Titan proposed in 1960's for space station logistics. Masses estimated. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 444.82 kN (99,999 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Titan LR87 stage series -
Titan LR91 stage series -
Titan Retro - Government designation of Star 5C/CB Solid rocket engine.
Titan Transtage - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage, originally developed for the Titan 3C / Dynasoar, continued after Dynasoar's cancellation. Flown 1968-1982 on Titan 3A and 3C boosters. Transtage mass indicated was that remaining after insertion of Dynasoar and Abort Stage into orbit. Transtage had its own RCS. Maneuver in earth orbit. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 12,247 kg (27,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Thrust: 71.17 kN (15,999 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50, N2O4/UDMH.
Titan Transtage Stretch - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. 20% stretch of Transtage to handle geosynchronous insertion of larger payloads launched by Titan 3C7. Masses estimated. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Thrust: 71.17 kN (15,999 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Titan UA1205 - Alternate name for UA1205.
Titan UA1206 - Alternate name for UA1206.
Titan UA1207 - Alternate name for UA1207.
Titan USRM - Alternate name for USRM.
Titan-Vanguard - American orbital launch vehicle. The Martin Company proposed to the Department of Defense that the first stage of the Titan I intercontinental ballistic missile be combined with the Vanguard rocket to provide a launch vehicle capable of placing an instrument package into lunar orbit and on the lunar surface. NASA was instead given the mission and used Atlas/Agena and Atlas/Centaur for this purpose instead. Status: Design 1957.
Tito - American engineer cosmonaut 2000-2001. First space tourist. First American to return to earth in a Russian spacecraft. Status: Inactive; Active 2000-2001. Born: 1940-08-08. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.92 days.
Titov - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1970. Second person in orbit. Youngest person in space. Left cosmonaut team for brilliant career in the space forces after deciding his future spaceflight prospects were nil. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1970. Born: 1935-09-11. Died: 2000-09-20. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 1.05 days.
Titov, Vladimir - Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1976-1998. Survived first pad abort during a manned launch. 387 cumulative days in space. SU Air Force. Call sign: Okean (Ocean). Status: Inactive; Active 1976-1998. Born: 1947. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 387.03 days.
Titschak - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Tittle - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut 1985-1988. Graduated in operations research from the USAF Academy, 1982. US Air Force operations specialist, stationed in the Pentagon. Later a Shuttle Flight Controller at the JSC. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1988. Born: 1960-11-25.
Titus - Sounding rocket derived from the first two stages of the Berenice test vehicle. The two stage vehicle consisted of 4 x SEPR P167 stabilization rockets around a Stromboli 739 first stage, topped by a stretched Stromboli SEPR 740-3 second stage with four fins. The launches were made from Chaco in collaboration with the Argentinian agency CNIE. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1966-11-12. Last Launch: 1966-11-12. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Payload: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 170.00 kN (38,210 lbf).
Titus-2 - Alternate name for SEPR 740-3.
Tiungsat - Astronautic Technology built Malaysia's first microsatellite through a technology transfer program with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Carried multi-spectral Earth imaging CCD cameras, meteorology payload. Used the SSTL-70 bus.
TJ3Sat - Cubesat from Thomas Jefferson High School, Virginia.
TKA - Transport-Supply Ship (Russian abbreviation)
Tkachev - Russian engineer. Chief Designer of NIEI PDS. Specialized in parachutes. Fired 1968 after Soyuz 1 parachute failure and death of Cosmonaut Komarov.
TKM-O - Manufacturer's designation for Spektr manned space station.
TKS - Alternate designation for Kvant FGB.
TKS - Vladimir Chelomei's TKS manned ferry vehicle was designed to provide a reusable resupply and crew return spacecraft much more capable and flexible than either the Soyuz or Apollo designs. Although the TKS completed its development program as part of the military Almaz space station program it was never used for manned spaceflight. However the TKS resupply vehicle provided the basis for the successful FGB space station modules used with the Salyut, Mir, and International Space Station. The original TKS was launched four times, from 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-07-17. Last Launch: 1985-09-27. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 17,510 kg (38,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,688 kg (30,176 lb). Payload: 12,600 kg (27,700 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
TKS BSO - Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). The BSO was equipped with the retro-rocket for deorbit of the VA capsule following separation from the space station. Deorbit Block. Status: Operational 1977. Gross mass: 450 kg (990 lb).
TKS FGB - Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). Orbital Living and Service Module. Status: Operational 1977. Gross mass: 13,260 kg (29,230 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,438 kg (20,807 lb). Payload: 4,528 kg (9,982 lb). Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
TKS Heavy Space Station - Russian manned space station. Study 1961. The TKS (Heavy Space Station, also known as TOSZ - Heavy Orbital Station of the Earth) was Korolev's first 1961 project for a large N1-launched military space station. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb).
TKS SAS - Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). Emergency escape system. Status: Operational 1977. Gross mass: 2,950 kg (6,500 lb). Thrust: 843.00 kN (189,513 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TKS VA - Russian manned spacecraft module. The VA reentry capsule was similar in configuration to the American Apollo, but 30% smaller. Reusable re-entry capsule. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-12-15. Last Launch: 1979-05-22. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Payload: 1,880 kg (4,140 lb).
TKS VA s/n 008 - Planned manned single-orbit flight aboard the TKS space capsule during a series of two-TKS-launched-by-one-Proton flight tests. Flown unmanned due to inability to demonstrate two consecutive failure-free launches. Launched: 1979-04-20. Number crew: 3 .
TKS-1 - Planned first test manned flight of the TKS large ferry craft. Would have docked with the Almaz OPS 4 military space station. Flight cancelled with the rest of the Almaz program in 1981. Flown later unmanned to Salyut 6 as Cosmos 1267. Launched: 1981 Beginning of. Number crew: 3 .
TKS-2 - Second TKS flight that would have docked with the cancelled Almaz OPS 4 military space station. The spacecraft was instead flown unmanned to Salyut 7 as Cosmos 1443. Launched: 1981 Middle of. Number crew: 3 .
TKS-3 - Third TKS flight that would have docked with the cancelled Almaz OPS 4 military space station. The spacecraft was instead flown unmanned to Salyut 7 as Cosmos 1686. Launched: 1981 Late. Number crew: 3 .
TKSAT - Alternate name for DFH-4.
TKS-M - Unmanned version of the TKS spacecraft after the decision not to undertake manned flights of the spacecraft.
TLA - Abbreviation for Three Letter Acronym
TLI - Translunar injection (insertion into trajectory from low earth orbit towards the moon)
TLSS/ALSS - American pressure suit, tested 1982. Tactical Life Support System. Developed by the USAF and Boeing/Gentex to provide get-me-down protection from 18 km. Status: tested 1982.
TM - Abbreviation for Telemetry; or Technical memorandum
TM-50 - TsNIIMash electric/xenon rocket engine. Development. Hall effect thruster with anode layer, designed for satellite orbital raising. Taken to engineering model stage. Status: Development. Thrust: 0.25 N (0.05 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
TM-61A - Alternate designation for Matador.
TM-61B - Alternate designation for CGM-13A.
TM-61B - Alternate designation for MGM-1C.
TM-76A - Alternate designation for CGM-13A.
TM-76B - Alternate designation for CGM-13B.
TME - Manufacturer's designation for Teknologia materials science satellite.
TMETN - Abbreviation or acronym for Trimethylolethane trinitrate
TMI - Canadian agency. TMI, Canada.
TMK - Family of Heavy Interplanetary Spacecraft (Russian abbreviation)
TMK-1 - Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1959. In 1959 a group of enthusiasts in OKB-1 Section 3 under the management of G U Maksimov started engineering design of this first fantastic project for manned interplanetary travel. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
TMKB - Turayevo Machine-Building Design Bureau (Russian abbreviation)
TMKB Soyuz - Third name of Stepanov Design Bureau.
TMKB Soyuz JSC - Alternate designation for Stepanov Design Bureau.
TMK-E - Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. Feoktistov felt that the TMK-1 manned Mars flyby design was too limited. His design group proposed in 1960 a complete Mars landing expedition, to be assembled in earth orbit using two or more N1 launches. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). Thrust: 74 N (17 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
TMP - Russian materials science satellite. Study 1992. The enormous 88 metric ton Engineering Production Module (TMP) was proposed by the Salyut Design Bureau in the early 1990's. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 102,000 kg (224,000 lb).
TMP - Manufacturer's designation for Skif-DM satellite.
TMSAT - Uosat Microbus-class payload built by Surrey Satellite for the Thai Microsatellite Company of Bangkok. Conducted a dual Earth observation and data communications mission.
TMZ - Tushino Machine Building Plant (Russian abbreviation)
TN - Abbreviation for Technical note
TN-81 - Alternate designation for ASMP.
TNT - Trinitrotoluene, high explosive.
Tochka - Russian tactical short-range ballistic missile, deployed from 1976. Status: Active. First Launch: 1970-01-01. Last Launch: 1975-01-01. Number: 3 .
Tochka - Alternate designation for Oka.
Tochka-U - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Improved version. Status: Active. First Launch: 1986-08-01. Last Launch: 2013-10-30. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 2,010 kg (4,430 lb).
Todt - German Manager. National Socialist politician, Major general, Defense Minister and Director/Manager of organization Todt. Born: 1891. Died: 1942-01-01.
Toebe - German engineer, airplane and rocket technician in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Born: 1913.
Toftoy - American Army officer, expert in ordnance, responsible for transferring von Braun's rocket technology to the US in 1945. Commanded Huntsville 1954-1956. Held other rocket development posts until retirement in 1960. Born: 1902-10-31. Died: 1967-04-01.
Tognini - French test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1985-2003. Trained for missions under both US and Russian programs. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2003. Born: 1949-09-30. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 18.74 days.
Tokarev - Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1989-2008. Russian Air Force test pilot, flying 44 types of aircraft and helicopters. Selected as Buran test pilot in 1987. From 1994, commander cosmonaut group for aerospace systems. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-2008. Born: 1952-10-29. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 199.63 days.
Tokyo - Japanese agency. University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Tokyo Broadcasting - Tokyo Broadcasting.
Tokyo Kogyo Daigaku - Alternate name for TIT.
Tolboyev - Avar (Dagestani)-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1983-1994. Status: Inactive; Active 1983-1994. Born: 1951-01-20.
Tolmachev - Russian engineer. General Director, Votkinsk Factory from 1989. Manufacturers of solid propellant ballistic missiles.
Tolubko - Russian officer. First Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces 1960-1968. Commander-in-Chief 1972-1985. Born: 1914-11-25. Died: 1989-06-17.
Tomahawk - American sounding rocket. Test and sounding vehicles developed by Sandia using the TE-416 Tomahawk motor. Status: Retired 1995. First Launch: 1963-06-12. Last Launch: 1967-12-06. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 266 kg (586 lb). Payload: 20 kg (44 lb). Thrust: 43.80 kN (9,847 lbf).
Tomahawk - Alternate designation for BGM-110.
Tomahawk Sandia - Alternate designation for Tomahawk.
Tomahawk-2 Nike - Alternate name for TE-416.
Tomashevit - Russian manufacturer.
Tomato Worm Suit - American pressure suit, tested 1940-43. Project MX-117 full "tomato worm" pressure suits were developed during World War II. Status: tested 1940.
Tommein - German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. Stayed in East Germany after the war.
Tomographic Experiment / Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric EUV & Radio Sources - Alternate designation for TERRIERS earth ionosphere satellite.
TOMS - Abbreviation for Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer
TOMS-EP - American earth atmosphere satellite. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-07-02. Last Launch: 1996-07-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 248 kg (546 lb).
Tomsk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1962. Moved to Gladkaya.
Tongchang-ri - North Korean space launch site, on the west coast, designed for launch direct south into a polar orbit or test of intermediate or intercontinental range missiles into trajectories that do not fly over Japan.
Tonghae - Alternate name for Musudan.
Tongxing Jisshu Shiyan Weixing - Tongxing Jisshu Shiyan Weixing (Communications Engineering Test Satellite). Military satellite; speculation was that it was the first in a constellation of ballistic missile early warning satellites. Believed to use the DFH-4 satellite bus.
Tonkikh - Russian officer. 1969-1985, Chief, Dzerzhinskiy Military Academy. Colonel-General, doctor of military science, professor. After WW2 action, service in artillery forces. From 1960 deputy chief commander of the rocket forces for readiness. Born: 1912. Died: 1987-01-01.
Tonopah - Tonopah Test Range. Sounding rocket and test vehicle launch site. Conducted launches in support of US nuclear weapons development programs. First Launch: 1957-01-01. Last Launch: 1988-09-28. Number: 117 .
Tonopah HAD4 - Tomahawk Sandia launch complex. HAD Launcher No. 4 First Launch: 1967-12-06. Last Launch: 1972-06-02. Number: 3 .
Tonopah UL3 - Malemute launch complex. Universal Launcher No. 3 First Launch: 1976-07-22. Last Launch: 1976-07-24. Number: 2 .
Topaz - Classified US radar satellite. Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-09-21. Last Launch: 2013-12-06. Number: 3 .
Topaze - SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Diamant launch vehicle. First flight 1965. Status: Out of production. Number: 4 . Unfuelled mass: 306 kg (674 lb). Thrust: 120.10 kN (27,000 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Topaze - Alternate designation for Diamant-2 rocket stage.
Topaze VE111 - Topaze was the first guided rocket in the French 'precious stones' series. As such it was the first launched from a pad rather than a ramp. The initial model was the VE111C (short) with the NA802 motor. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1962-12-19. Last Launch: 1964-12-15. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). Payload: 410 kg (900 lb). Thrust: 120.00 kN (26,970 lbf).
Topaze VE111-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1964. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 120.00 kN (26,970 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Topaze VE111L - French test vehicle. The VE111L (long) used the stretched NA803 motor. The VE111L was successfully demonstrated the thrust vectoring concept over a longer burn period. The last two flights were VE111LG configuration, equipped with all-up inertial navigation systems. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1963-12-21. Last Launch: 1965-05-21. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 3,434 kg (7,570 lb). Payload: 360 kg (790 lb). Thrust: 147.00 kN (33,046 lbf).
Topaze VE111L-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Thrust: 156.00 kN (35,070 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Topex/Poseidon - American earth sea satellite. TOPEX/Poseidon was a co-operative mission between the United States and France designed to provide high-accuracy global sea level measurements. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-08-10. Last Launch: 1992-08-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,402 kg (5,295 lb).
TOPO - American earth geodetic satellite. US Army topographic / geodesic satellite launched in 1970. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-04-08. Last Launch: 1970-04-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 18 kg (39 lb).
Topol - Alternate designation for Start.
Topol - Russian containerized all-solid propellant intercontinental ballistic missile designed for launch from mobile and silo launchers. Replaced UR-100/UR-100NU in silos. Status: Active. First Launch: 1981-09-29. Last Launch: 2014-05-20. Number: 104 . Gross mass: 45,100 kg (99,400 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 890.00 kN (200,070 lbf).
Topol - Alternate designation for Topol'.
Topol - Alternate designation for Start-1.
Topol M - Alternate designation for Topol'-M.
Topol'-M - All-Russian solid propellant ICBM set to replace all older models in the first decade of the 21st Century. Designed for mobile deployment on 8-axis transport-launcher RT-2M2/SS-X-29), or placement in existing UR-100N and R-36M silos (RT-2M1/SS-X-27). Status: Active. First Launch: 1994-12-20. Last Launch: 2014-11-01. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 47,200 kg (104,000 lb). Payload: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Thrust: 890.00 kN (200,070 lbf).
Topol'-M 15Zh55 - Status: Retired 2004. First Launch: 2000-09-27. Last Launch: 2004-12-24. Number: 4 .
Topol'-M-1 - Alternate name for 15Zh58A.
Topol'-M-2 - Alternate name for 15Zh58B.
Topol'-M-3 - Alternate name for 15Zh58V.
TOPS - Thermoelectric Outer Planets spacecraft; or Toward Other Planetary Systems
Topsat - Delayed from May 18, mid-July, August 25, September 27 and 30, 2005. UK military surveillance research satellite. Used the SSTL-150 bus.
Topsi - Acronym for Topside sounder satellite
Toroid FD - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1963. Operational date would have been December 1976. Engines for recoverable stage. Used on Nova MM T10RR-2 launch vehicle. Status: Study 1963. Thrust: 20,015.00 kN (4,499,550 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Toroidal 400k - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1967. Used on Saturn V-3B launch vehicle. Status: Study 1967. Thrust: 1,778.00 kN (399,710 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Toroidal 560k - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design concept 1990's. Status: Design concept 1990's. Thrust: 2,491.00 kN (559,999 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Toronto - Canadian agency. Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Toronto GNB - University of Tornto Generic Nanosatellite bus. Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-07-12. Last Launch: 2014-08-19. Number: 9 .
Torpov - Russian manufacturer.
TOS - Alternate designation for TOS (Russian abbreviation).
TOS - Alternate designation for SRM-1.
TOS - American earth weather satellite. TOS spacecraft marked the first operational system of US polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-10-02. Last Launch: 1969-02-26. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 140 kg (300 lb).
TOS - Alternate designation for IUS-2 rocket stage.
TOS (Russian abbreviation) - Heavy Orbital Station (Russian abbreviation)
Toshiba - Japanese manufacturer of spacecraft. Toshiba Corp. , Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Toshiba Corp - First name of NEC.
Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer - Earth Probe - Alternate designation for TOMS-EP earth atmosphere satellite.
Toulon - First Launch: 1945-03-15. Last Launch: 1945-07-18. Number: 7 .
Toulouse - French manufacturer. Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
Tournesol - Alternate name for D.
Townsend - American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1948-06-19.
TPFO - Topex Program Follow-On, alternate name for Jason.
TPI - Abbreviation for Terminal phase initiation
TPS - Abbreviation for Thermal Protection System
TR-1 - Alternate designation for TR-1 pressure suit.
TR-1 - Japanese single stage test vehicle. Status: Retired 1998. First Launch: 1988-09-05. Last Launch: 1989-08-19. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 11,800 kg (26,000 lb). Thrust: 608.00 kN (136,683 lbf).
TR-1 pressure suit - American pressure suit, tested 1980. Prototype full pressure suit developed by ILC Dover for the TR-1 aircraft. Status: tested 1980.
TR106 - Manufacturer's designation of TR-106 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
TR-106 - TRW LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Development. Innovative TRW 650K Low Cost Pintle Engine, test fired at NASA's test center in October 2000. Status: Development. Date: 2000. Thrust: 2,892.00 kN (650,147 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
TR-107 - TRW LOx/kerosene rocket engine. Booster stages. TRW design for NASA's Space Launch Initiative. The engine used duct-cooling of the main combustion chamber and materials that would not interact with kerosene to minimize coking. Date: 2002. Thrust: 4,900.00 kN (1,101,500 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
TR-1-1 - Solid rocket stage. 608.00 kN (136,684 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,800 kg (23,810 lb). Status: Retired 1998. Gross mass: 10,800 kg (23,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,900 kg (8,500 lb). Thrust: 608.00 kN (136,683 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TR-1-10800 - NASDA solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 10,800 kg (23,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,900 kg (8,500 lb). Thrust: 608.00 kN (136,683 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TR-1-7500 - NASDA solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 7,500 kg (16,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 608.00 kN (136,683 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TR-1A - Alternate designation for TR-1A-1.
TR-1A - Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1998. First Launch: 1991-09-15. Last Launch: 1998-11-18. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 10,300 kg (22,700 lb). Thrust: 608.00 kN (136,683 lbf).
TR-1A-1 - Solid rocket stage. 608.00 kN (136,684 lbf) thrust. Mass 7,500 kg (16,535 lb). Status: Retired 1998. Gross mass: 7,500 kg (16,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 608.00 kN (136,683 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TR-201 - Alternate designation for Delta P rocket stage.
TR-201 - TRW N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Apollo lunar module ascent stage engines. Surplus engines used on Delta P stage. First flight 1972. Number: 90 . Unfuelled mass: 113 kg (249 lb). Thrust: 41.90 kN (9,419 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
TRAAC - American technology satellite. Transit Research and Attitude Control. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-11-15. Last Launch: 1961-11-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 109 kg (240 lb).
TRACE - American solar satellite. TRACE, carried a 30-cm extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope for studies of the sun. Lockheed was the lead contractor while the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory made the telescope mirrors. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-04-02. Last Launch: 1998-04-02. Number: 1 .
Tracking and Data Relay Satellite - Alternate designation for TDRS military communications satellite.
Tracking network technology satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Tracor - American manufacturer. Tracor, USA.
Trailblazer - American technology satellite. Launched 2008.08.03, Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-08-03. Last Launch: 2008-08-03. Number: 1 .
Trailblazer 1 - American test vehicle. The rocket's first three stages would take the upper stage package to a 260 km apogee. The upper stage package was mounted upside-down in relation to the other stages. When it had reached the peak, the three upper stages fired in sequence, ramming the payload, a 13 cm sphere, into the atmosphere at orbital re-entry speeds. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1959-03-03. Last Launch: 1963-02-16. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Payload: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Thrust: 365.00 kN (82,055 lbf).
Trailblazer 2 - American test vehicle. NASA rocket designed for high-speed re-entry tests. Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1961-12-14. Last Launch: 1973-12-06. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 6,100 kg (13,400 lb). Payload: 18 kg (39 lb). Thrust: 547.00 kN (122,970 lbf).
Trailblazer 2 M-2 - Alternate name for XM-45.
Trailblazer 2 M-4 - Alternate name for Cygnus 15.
Trailblazer 2 M-5 - Alternate name for Cygnus 5.
Trailblazer 2M - American test vehicle. Five stage version for artificial meteorite launches consisting of 2 x Recruit strap-ons + 1 x Castor first stage + 1 x Skat second stage. The upper stage package consisted of 1 x Altair + 1 x Cygnus 15 + 1 x Cygnus 5 Gross mass: 6,100 kg (13,400 lb). Payload: 0.0008 kg (0.0018 lb). Thrust: 547.00 kN (122,970 lbf).
Trailblazer test vehicle - American test vehicle. The Trailblazer rockets were designed to conduct experiments in re-entry physics. Status: Retired 1973.
train-launched - Category of missiles.
Tramontane - SEPR solid rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Berenice launch vehicle. First flight 1962. Berenice third stage. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 280 kg (610 lb). Unfuelled mass: 124 kg (273 lb). Thrust: 50.00 kN (11,240 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Transat - Modification of first APL-built operational Transit for 'related experiments'.
Transfer Orbit Stage - Alternate designation for TOS rocket stage.
Transhab Module - American manned space station module. Cancelled 1998. Cost overruns soon forced NASA to consider other options for the International Space Station's habitation module. The space agency originally intended to use the same 8. Status: Cancelled 1998.
Transit - Spin-stabilized Transit satellites were developed by the US Navy beginning in 1958 for the first operational navigation satellite system. Transit provided continuous navigation satellite service from 1964, initially for Polaris submarines and later for civilian use. The use of the satellites for navigation was discontinued at the end of 1996 (replaced by GPS/Navstar), but the seemingly-indestructible satellites continued transmitting and became the Navy Ionospheric Monitoring System (NIMS). 46 launches, 1959.09.17 (Transit 1A) to 1988.08.25 (Transit O-31). Status: Operational 1959. First Launch: 1959-09-17. Last Launch: 1988-08-25. Number: 46 . Gross mass: 55 kg (121 lb).
Transportniy Korabl Snabzheniya - Alternate designation for TKS manned spacecraft.
Transtage - Alternate designation for Titan Transtage rocket stage.
Transtar - Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Development completed 1987. Upper stage engine using injectors, chamber, and nozzle derived from the Shuttle OMS system, but pump-fed for increased chamber pressure and Isp. Tested; no production. Status: Development completed 1987. Unfuelled mass: 76 kg (167 lb). Thrust: 16.70 kN (3,754 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Traub - German expert in biological warfare during World War II.
Treaties - Treaties between the United States and the Soviet Union affected the course of space and missile development during the Cold War. The Outer Space Treaty curtailed development of space for offensive military purposes, slowing but not ending plans by both powers for space-based weaponry.. The ABM. SALT, and START treaties limited the numbers of anti-ballistic and ballistic missiles on both sides. The INF treaty actually scrapped a whole category of offensive missiles. With the end of the Cold War, voluntary reductions due to a lack of perceived threat led to further drastic cutbacks on both sides. By 2010 the increases of long-range missile forces in China, India, Pakistan, Israel, Iran, and North Korea led to an end to these reductions and the introduction of force modernization and new anti-ballistic missile programs in Russian and the United States.
Treaties - ABM Treaty - The text of the ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which limited deployment of anti-ballistic missile systems to two sites in each country.
Treaties - INF - The text of the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty, which banned intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe.
Treaties - Outer Space - The text of the Outer Space Treaty, which prohibited deployment of nuclear weapons in space, and led to curtailment of anti-satellite and offensive space weapons programs in the United States and Russia.
Treaties - SALT 1 - The text of the SALT-1 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, which stopped the growth in US/Soviet intercontinental-range nuclear weapons arsenals
Treaties - SALT 2 - The second part of the text of the SALT-2 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, which cut back the US/Soviet intercontinental-range nuclear weapons arsenals
Treaties - START 1 - The second part of the text of the START-1 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, which further cut back the US/Soviet intercontinental-range nuclear weapons arsenals
Treaties - START 2 - The text of the START-2 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, which further cut back the US/Soviet intercontinental-range nuclear weapons arsenals
Tregub - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1964-1973 of Korolev design bureau for flight controls for piloted flights.
Treshchev - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1992-2006. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2006. Born: 1958-08-18. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 184.93 days.
Tresvyatski - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1985-1996. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1996. Born: 1954-05-06.
Triad - Alternate designation for TIP Transit Improvement Program [TIP] prototype spacecraft.
Triamese - American winged orbital launch vehicle. The General Dynamics proposed an ingenious "Triamese" concept for the US Air Force "Integral Launch & Re-entry Vehicle" program. This system (originally developed in 1965 for a classified USAF SAMSO study) would have utilized three virtually identical reusable booster/orbiter element vehicles rather than develop two different booster and orbiter spaceplanes. General Dynamics estimated that the Triamese only would cost $1-2 billion to develop (=$4.5-9B at 1999 economic conditions) and be operational by 1976. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 518,456 kg (1,142,999 lb). Payload: 11,340 kg (25,000 lb). Thrust: 6,679.00 kN (1,501,498 lbf).
Tri-Deacon Deacon HPAG - Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Deacon + 1 x Deacon + 1 x HPAG Status: Retired 1954. First Launch: 1954-04-29. Last Launch: 1954-04-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 75.00 kN (16,860 lbf).
Tri-Deacon Deacon HPAG 3 - Alternate designation for Tri-Deacon Deacon HPAG.
Trident - American submarine-launched ballistic missile. US Navy submarine-launched ballistic missiles, which superseded the Polaris. Status: Active.
Trident 1 - Alternate designation for Trident C-4.
Trident 2 - Alternate designation for Trident D-5.
Trident C-4 - American intercontinental ballistic missile. 3 stages, inertial guided, warhead: nuclear MIRV. Could replace Poseidon in existing submarine launch tubes. Status: Active. First Launch: 1977-01-18. Last Launch: 2001-12-18. Number: 174 . Gross mass: 29,475 kg (64,981 lb). Payload: 1,317 kg (2,903 lb).
Trident C-4-1 - Alternate name for C4-1.
Trident C-4-2 - Alternate name for C4-2.
Trident C-4-3 - Alternate name for Trident St 3.
Trident D-5 - American intercontinental range, submarine-launched ballistic missile. Deployed March 1990 aboard the new Ohio-class submarines. 336 remain in service in the 2010's as America's seaborne nuclear deterrent. Status: Active. First Launch: 1987-01-15. Last Launch: 2015-11-09. Number: 179 . Gross mass: 59,078 kg (130,244 lb). Payload: 1,690 kg (3,720 lb).
Trident D-5-1 - Alternate name for D-5-1.
Trident D-5-2 - Alternate name for D-5-2.
Trident D-5-3 - Alternate name for Trident St 3.
Trident Motor - Philco-Ford solid rocket engine. Atlas F/Trident second stage. Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Thrust: 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Trident St 3 - CSD solid rocket engine. Trident D-5, Trident C-4 third stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 159 kg (350 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Trifanov - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of Chelomei design bureau Filial 1. Later management positions at NPO Energia and NPO Lavochkin.
Trinh - Vietnamese-American physicist payload specialist astronaut 1983-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1983-1992. Born: 1950-09-14. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 13.81 days.
Triple Deacon - American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1953. First Launch: 1953-05-08. Last Launch: 1953-06-25. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 75.00 kN (16,860 lbf).
Triple Deacon HPAG - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Deacon + 1 x HPAG Status: Retired 1953. First Launch: 1953-08-20. Last Launch: 1953-11-20. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 75.00 kN (16,860 lbf).
Tripoli - Tripoli missile base. First Launch: 1986-04-15. Last Launch: 1986-04-15. Number: 2 .
Tritko - Russian engineer. Chief of SKB of NII-88 1946-1949. Led work on early missiles.
Triton - US Navy ship- and sub-to-surface cruise ramjet-powered supersonic missile. Development started in 1946. Program cancelled in 1957. Status: Cancelled 1957. Gross mass: 9,070 kg (19,990 lb).
Triumf - Alternate designation for S-400.
TRMM - American earth atmosphere satellite. TRMM was an international mission dedicated to measuring tropical and subtropical rainfall. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-11-27. Last Launch: 1997-11-27. Number: 1 .
Trochia - Used the SSTL-150 bus.
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Alternate designation for TRMM earth atmosphere satellite.
Trouble In Star City - James Oberg's prescient account of the beginning of the end - or the end of the beginning - of the Soviet space industry
TRS - Alternate designation for TRS (abbreviation).
TRS - American technology satellite. TRS satellites undertook a range of engineering experiments related to radiation-hardening of solar cells and spacecraft electronics. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-05-09. Last Launch: 1964-07-17. Number: 5 .
TRS (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Tele-operated Reboost System
Truax - American USN rocket pioneer, developed missiles USN 1940-1959. Loaned to USAF to run Thor program 1955-1958. At Aerojet 1958-1967. Proponent and inventor of ultra-low-cost rocket engine and vehicle concepts.
Truax LH2 - Aerojet LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Test 1962. Used in Sea Horse-2. Status: Test 1962. Thrust: 147.10 kN (33,069 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Truax Volksrocket. - Alternate designation for Sea Horse.
Trubachev - Russian officer. Major General, Chief of Directorate of GURVO 1963-1970. In 1945-1946 part of team recovering rocket technology in Germany. After that worked in NII-88. Born: 1911. Died: 1981-01-01.
TrueZer0 -
Truhill - American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astronauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. Status: Deceased. Born: 1927. Died: 2013-11-18.
Truly - American pilot astronaut 1965-1983. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1983. Born: 1937-11-12. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 8.31 days.
Trumpet - American military signals intelligence satellite. 3 launches, 1994.05.03 (USA 103) to 1997.11.08 (USA 136). Status: Operational 1994.
Trumpet Follow-on - Probably a signals intelligence satellite with an attached SBIRS-HEO early warning sensor as a secondary payload. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-12-13. Last Launch: 2014-12-13. Number: 1 .
TRW - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. TRW Corporation, Redondo Beach, CA, USA.
TRW - First name of Chantilly.
TRW - First name of Redondo Beach.
TRW Inc. - Alternate name for TRW.
TRW Mars - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1963. In 1963 TRW designed a Mars expedition using aerobraking at both Mars and Earth, and a swing-by of Venus on return. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 650,000 kg (1,430,000 lb). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
TRW Space & Electronics - First name of TRW.
TRW-IAI - American manufacturer. TRW-IAI, USA.
Tryggvason - Icelandic-Canadian engineer mission specialist astronaut 1983-2008. CSA; Alternate Payload Specialist to MacLean for STS-52 Mission LAGEOS-2 and Test of the Canadian Space Vision System. Status: Inactive; Active 1983-2008. Born: 1945-09-21. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 11.85 days.
TS-1 - Article Number of Shiyan civilian surveillance satellite.
Ts-1 - Alternate designation for LL manned rocketplane.
TsAGI - Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute (Russian abbreviation)
Tsahal - Israeli agency. Tsahal, Israel.
Tsander - Soviet chief theoretician. Rocket pioneer Russian-Soviet rocket pioneer. Born: 1887. Died: 1933-01-01.
TsAO - Russian agency. Central Aerology Observatory, Russia.
TSat - Cubesat for Taylor University. Released from Falcon second stage.
TsBank - Russian agency. Central Bank of the Russian Federation.
TsBank RF - Central Bank of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia
TSC - Alternate name for Tanegashima.
TSC - Alternate name for Taiyuan.
Tschechner - German specialist engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacture; Laboratory Department. Born: 1899-01-01.
Tschinkel - German-Austrian rocket technician, arrived in the United States under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. Fluent in English prior to arrival in the United States. Died in Tallahassee, Florida. Born: 1907-04-07. Died: 2004-09-21.
TSCJ - Japanese agency overseeing development of spacecraft. TSCJ, Japan.
Tselina - Russian ELINT satellite network
Tselina-2 - Alternate designation for Tselina-2 ICBM.
Tselina-2 - Ukrainian military signals intelligence satellite. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-09-28. Last Launch: 2007-06-29. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Tselina-2 ICBM - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Development of the Tselina-2 road transport for a heavy ICBM can be traced back to the late 1960's. By the 1970's two versions had been designed, the 12-axle MAZ-7906 and 8-axle MAZ-7907. They could transport loads of up to 140 metric tons, much greater than the single-warhead RT-23 and its container. Although trials of prototypes were conducted in the 1980's, the road mobile version of the RT-23 was never put into service.
Tselina-3 - Ukrainian military signals intelligence satellite. Cancelled in the early 1990s. The Tselina-3 third generation two-tier ELINT satellite system was developed in parallel with Tselina-2. Status: Cancelled 1992. Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Tselina-D - Ukrainian military signals intelligence satellite. The Tselina D was the detailed observation portion of the two-satellite Tselina ELINT satellite system. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-12-18. Last Launch: 1994-05-25. Number: 77 .
Tselina-O - Ukrainian ELINT satellite. From 1965 to 1967 two dedicated ELINT systems were tested by the Soviet Union: Tselina and US. Both were routinely operated. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-06-26. Last Launch: 1982-03-31. Number: 42 .
Tselina-OM - Ukrainian military signals intelligence satellite. Study 1970. Improved version of Tselina-O. Either not put into production or later launches listed as Tselina-O were actually of Tselina-OM model. Status: Study 1970.
Tsentralniya Aerologicheskaya Observatoriya, GMS - Alternate name for TsAO.
Tshepiso - Cubesat from South Africa's Cape Peninsula University of Tech (CPUT).
Tsibliyev - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1987-1998. 381 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Sirius (Sirius). Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1998. Born: 1954-02-20. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 381.66 days.
Tsien - (1911-2009) Father of Chinese spaceflight. Leading rocket theoretician, expelled from USA as Red in 1955. Created China's space industry from scratch, results: China's first ballistic missiles, 1960s; first satellite, 1970; and first astronaut, 2003. Born: 1911-12-11. Died: 2009-10-31.
Tsien Spaceplane 1949 - American winged rocketplane. In 1949 Tsien Hsue-shen, the leading expert in high-speed aerodynamics working in America, applied the knowledge learned from German rocket developments to the design of a practical intercontinental rocket transport. Status: Design 1949. Gross mass: 44,000 kg (97,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Tsien Spaceplane 1978 - Chinese manned spaceplane. Study late 1970s. Tsien Hsue-shen's manned spacecraft design proposed in the late 1970's was a winged spaceplane, launched by a CZ-2 core booster with two large strap-on boosters. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 7,800 kg (17,100 lb).
Tsikada - Russian navigation satellite. Tsikada was a complementary civilian version of the Parus military naval navigation satellite system for the Soviet Merchant Marine and Academy of Sciences. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-12-15. Last Launch: 1995-07-05. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb).
Tsikada-Kospas - Alternate designation for Nadezhda.
Tsikada-M - Alternate designation for Parus navigation satellite.
Tsiklon - Alternate designation for Tsiklon satellite.
Tsiklon - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-2A.
Tsiklon satellite - Russian navigation satellite. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-05-15. Last Launch: 1978-07-27. Number: 31 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
Tsiklon-1 - Alternate designation for 64S5.
Tsiklon-2 - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. A government decree of 24 August 1965 ordered development by Yangel of a version of his R-36 rocket to orbit Chelomei's IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT and US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) naval intelligence satellites. The Tsyklon 2 definitive operational version replaced the 11K67 launch vehicle from 1969 and was an adaptation of the 8K69 (SS-9) two stage ICBM. The IS and US Raketoplan-derived payloads had their own engines for insertion into final orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 1969-08-06. Last Launch: 2006-06-24. Number: 106 . Gross mass: 182,000 kg (401,000 lb). Payload: 2,820 kg (6,210 lb). Thrust: 2,366.00 kN (531,897 lbf).
Tsiklon-2A - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Minimal modification of the R-36 ICBM used in replacement of Chelomei's cancelled UR-200 booster for initial launches of the IS ASAT and US naval radarsat. Development was authorized in late 1965 and first launch was made before the end of 1967. It flew only eight times before being replaced by the definitive Tsyklon-2 space launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1967-10-27. Last Launch: 1969-01-25. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 182,000 kg (401,000 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 2,366.00 kN (531,897 lbf).
Tsiklon-3 - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The Tsyklon 3 was developed in 1970-1977 as a part of a program to reduce the number of Soviet booster types. The first two stages were derived from the 8K68 version of the R-36 ICBM, while the restartable third stage was derived from that of the R-36-O. Compared to the Tsyklon 2, the launch vehicle increased payload to 4 metric tons, provided for completely automated launch operations, and had increased orbital injection accuracy. Status: Active. First Launch: 1977-06-24. Last Launch: 2009-01-30. Number: 122 . Gross mass: 189,000 kg (416,000 lb). Payload: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb). Thrust: 2,713.00 kN (609,906 lbf).
Tsiklon-4 - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Updated version of Tsyklon 3, announced by the Ukraine in 2005 as being in design. Improved lower stages, new upper stage and a new 4.0-m diameter payload fairing. No production plans. Status: Design 2005. Gross mass: 198,250 kg (437,060 lb). Payload: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb).
Tsiklon-B - Manufacturer's designation for Parus navigation satellite.
Tsinghua - Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
Tsinghua - Beijing-1 carried a 31-cm focal-length cartographic telescope with a resolution of 4 meters. It was to be part of the international Disaster Monitoring Constellation. Operated by Tsinghua University. Used the SSTL-150 bus.
Tsiolkovskiy - Alternate designation for Tsiolkovskiy launch vehicle.
Tsiolkovskiy - Chief Soviet theorist of spaceflight, developed mathematics of rocketry and space travel, identifying basic rocket and spacecraft designs. But work little known outside the Soviet Union, did not influence Goddard and Oberth. Born: 1857. Died: 1935-09-19.
Tsiolkovskiy launch vehicle - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Tsiolkovskiy was the first to propose the use of liquid hydrogen and oxygen to propel a rocket, and calculated its performance using the crucial rocket equation V = c ln(Mo/ Me). Status: Design 1903.
Tsirulnikov - Alternate designation for Tsirulnikov bureau.
Tsirulnikov - Russian engineer. First manager of the Perm Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau (later NPO Iskra). Designer of artillery systems, solid propellant missiles, and engine units. Born: 1907. Died: 1990-01-01.
Tsirulnikov bureau - Russian manufacturer of solid propellant missiles.
TsK - Central Committee (Russian abbreviation)
TsKB - Central Design Bureau (Russian abbreviation)
TsKB-7 - Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. TsKB-7, Russia.
TsKBEM - Central Design Bureau of Experimental Machine Building (Russian abbreviation)
TsKBEM (1965) - Third name of Korolev bureau.
TsKBEM Kuibyshev Filial - Second name of Kozlov bureau.
TsKBEM-1 - Alternate name for Energia Engineer Group 1 - 1966.
TsKBEM-2 - Alternate name for Energia Engineer Group 2 - 1967.
TsKBEM-3 - Alternate name for Energia Engineer Group 3 - 1972.
TsKBM - Central Design Bureau of Machine Building (Russian abbreviation)
TsKBM-1 - Alternate name for Almaz Engineer Group 1 - 1972.
TsKBM-2 - Alternate name for Almaz Engineer Group 2 - 1973.
TsKBM-3 - Alternate name for Almaz Engineer Group 3 - 1978.
TsKIK - Central Command-Measurement Complex (Russian abbreviation)
TslAM - Central Institute of Aviation Motor Building (Russian abbreviation)
TsM-D 77KSD-17101 - Manufacturer's designation for Kvant-2 manned space station.
TsM-E 37Ke-010 - Manufacturer's designation for Kvant manned space station.
TsM-I 77KSI - Manufacturer's designation for Priroda manned space station.
TsM-T 77KST-17201 - Manufacturer's designation for Kristall manned space station.
TsNII - Central Scientific-Research Institute (Russian abbreviation)
TsNIIMash - Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Central Scientific-Research Institute for Machine Building, Russia.
TsNPO Vympel - Third name of Vympel.
TsPK - Cosmonaut Training Centre (Russian abbreviation)
TsPK-1 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 1 - 1960.
TsPK-10 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 10 - 1989.
TsPK-11 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 11 - 1990.
TsPK-12 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 12 - 1997.
TsPK-13 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 13 - 2003.
TsPK-14 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 14 - 2006.
TsPK-15 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 15 - 2010.
TsPK-2 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 2 - 1963.
TsPK-3 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 3 - 1965.
TsPK-4 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 4 - 1967.
TsPK-5 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 5 - 1970.
TsPK-6 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 6 - 1976.
TsPK-7 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 7 - 1978.
TsPK-8 - Alternate name for Air Force Group 8 - 1987.
TSS - Alternate designation for TSS (abbreviation).
TSS - The Italian Tethered Satellite System was mounted in the shuttle payload bay and consisted of a 1.6-m-diameter satellite, a conducting tether, and a tether deployment/retrieval system. The system would reel out a satellite on a 22-km long tether. After a failed attempt to deploy it in 1992, there was an inadvertent launch on the second attempt in 1996 when the tether broke. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-07-31. Last Launch: 1996-02-22. Number: 3 .
TSS (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Targeted Search System
TsSKB - Central Specialized Design Bureau (Samara, Russia), Russia
TsSKB (1965) - Third name of Kozlov bureau.
TSTO - Two Stage To Orbit (also 2STO)
Tsubame - 'Swallow', an astronomy satellite from the Tokyo Institute of Technology and carried a hard X-ray polarimeter to study the polarization of gamma ray bursts. Sun synchronous orbit; 1055 GMT local time of the descending node. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-11-06. Last Launch: 2014-11-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 49 kg (108 lb).
TsUKOS - Central Directorate of Space Assets (Russian abbreviation)
Tsukushi - 'Horsetail'; also called QSAT-EOS, Kyushu Satellite for Earth Observation System Demonstration. The satellite carried a CMOS camera with 4 m resolution and 7 km swath, a magnetometer and an in-situ space debris detector, as well as a deployable 3-meter kapton sail used as a drag augmentation device. Sun synchronous orbit; 1055 GMT local time of the descending node. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-11-06. Last Launch: 2014-11-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 49 kg (108 lb).
TsUP - Flight Control Centre (Russian abbreviation)
Tsurilnikov - Russian manufacturer.
TSX - Military Technology satellite. Fifth STEP (Space Test Experiments Program) satellite. The satellite's main section was the STRV-2 experiment module, sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the UK government.
Tsybin - Alternate designation for Tsybin bureau.
Tsybin - Russian Chief Designer OKB-256 1945-1959. Designs: LL rocketplanes, RS Mach 3 ramjet aircraft, PKA spaceplane. Bureau closed, worked for Korolev on Vostok, Soyuz, AMS and Molniya satellites. Deputy Designer of Buran space shuttle, 1974-1992. Born: 1905-12-23. Died: 1992-02-04.
Tsybin bureau - Russian manufacturer of rocketplanes and missiles.
Tsyklon 2-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. SL-11; 11K68;R-36M. Status: Active. Gross mass: 122,300 kg (269,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,400 kg (14,100 lb). Thrust: 2,640.00 kN (593,490 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Tsyklon 2-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 49,300 kg (108,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Thrust: 940.40 kN (211,410 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Tsyklon 2-3 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Integral portion of payload. Status: Active. Gross mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 77.96 kN (17,526 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Tsyklon 3-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. SL-14;11K69. Status: Active. Gross mass: 127,000 kg (279,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Thrust: 3,032.00 kN (681,620 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Tsyklon 3-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 53,300 kg (117,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,800 kg (10,500 lb). Thrust: 941.00 kN (211,545 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Tsyklon 3-3 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 4,600 kg (10,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,407 kg (3,101 lb). Thrust: 78.71 kN (17,694 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Tsyklon M - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-2.
TT- - Tyuratam. Designation given by US intelligence services to launch complexes observed there; or TT, Technical Translation (US government)
TT&C - Abbreviation for Telemetry Tracking and Command
TT-200 - Alternate designation for TT-200 engine.
TT-200 - Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
TT-200 engine - NASDA solid rocket engine. TT-200 first stage. Status: R. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Propellants: Solid.
TT-200-1 - Alternate name for TT-200 engine.
TT-210 - Alternate designation for TT-210 engine.
TT-210 - Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1975-08-17. Last Launch: 1976-09-24. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb).
TT-210 engine - NASDA solid rocket engine. TT-210 first stage. Status: Retired 1976. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Propellants: Solid.
TT-210-1 - Alternate name for TT-210 engine.
TT-500 - Alternate designation for TT-500 engine.
TT-500 - Japanese sounding rocket. Small, half-meter diameter, two stage suborbital rocket used for tracking system and microgravity tests. Status: Retired 1980. First Launch: 1977-01-25. Last Launch: 1980-01-28. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb).
TT-500 engine - NASDA solid rocket engine. TT-500 first stage. Status: Retired 1983. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 116.00 kN (26,077 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TT-500-1 - Alternate name for TT-500 engine.
TT-500-2 - Alternate name for TT-500-S2.
TT-500A - Alternate designation for TT-500.
TT-500A - Japanese sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1980-09-13. Last Launch: 1983-08-18. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb).
TT-500-S2 - NASDA solid rocket engine. TT-500 second stage. Status: Retired 1983. Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Unfuelled mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 61.00 kN (13,713 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TTR - Alternate name for Tonopah.
TTS - American tracking network technology satellite. Tested Apollo tracking network. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-12-13. Last Launch: 1968-11-08. Number: 2 .
TTT - System requirements (Russian abbreviation)
TTZ - System specifications (Russian abbreviation)
TU - Technical University (German)
Tu Shoue - Chinese Engineer. Chief Designer of the CZ-2E heavy-lift launch vehicle.
Tu-121 - Alternate designation for Tu-121 cruise vehicle.
Tu-121 - Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Mach 3 intermediate range cruise missile, tested in 1958-1960 before cancellation. Status: Cancelled 1960. Gross mass: 32,600 kg (71,800 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 790.00 kN (177,590 lbf).
Tu-121 cruise vehicle - Turbojet powered cruise missile stage. KR-15-300 engine by OKB-300 (now MZ Soyuz), rated for 15 hour endurance. Status: Development 1960.. Gross mass: 23,200 kg (51,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Tu-123 - Alternate designation for Tu-123 cruise vehicle.
Tu-123 - Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Exotic design for an intercontinental missile using a gas core fission reactor for cruise propulsion. Studied circa 1957. Status: Study 1957. Gross mass: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Tu-123 cruise vehicle - Nuclear/Air propellant rocket stage. Turbojet using mixed propulsion, either burning kerosene or heating air directly with a nuclear reactor. Status: Study. Gross mass: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb). Propellants: Nuclear/Air.
Tu-123D - Alternate designation for Tu-133.
Tu-123DP - Alternate designation for Tu-123.
Tu-130 - Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Three-stage intercontinental boost-glide missile. Studied 1957-1960. Status: Study 1957. Gross mass: 240,000 kg (520,000 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Tu-131 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Tupolev design for a long-range air-breathing surface-to-air missile. Never got beyond the design stage. Status: Cancelled 1960. Gross mass: 2,960 kg (6,520 lb). Payload: 190 kg (410 lb).
Tu-133 - Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Mach 3 intercontinental range cruise missile, cancelled in 1960 before flight tests began. Status: Cancelled 1960. Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 215.00 kN (48,333 lbf).
Tu-160 - Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Tupolev Bomber-variable geometry. Maximum release conditions: Belly-mounted, 9,977 kg at 2,451 kph at 18,292 m altitude Status: Development ended 1992. Gross mass: 205,442 kg (452,922 lb). Unfuelled mass: 99,773 kg (219,961 lb). Payload: 28,000 kg (61,000 lb). Thrust: 533.67 kN (119,974 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Tu-2000 - Alternate designation for Tu-2000 EAP.
Tu-2000 - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This Soviet equivalent to the US X-30 single-stage-to-orbit scramjet aerospaceplane began development in1986. Three versions were planned: a Mach 6 test vehicle, under construction at cancellation of the program in 1992; a Mach 6 intercontinental bomber; and a single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. Status: Cancelled 1992. Gross mass: 90,000 kg (198,000 lb). Thrust: 900.00 kN (202,320 lbf). Propellants: Air/Lox/LH2.
Tu-2000 EAP - Airbreathing Slush LH2 propellant rocket stage. Aerospaceplane to compete with American X-30. Single stage to orbit, scramjet air breather. Tupolev assigned to start work in 1993. Mockup built, and some subscale flights to Mach 6 on tactical missiles of scramjet model, but project now dormant due to lack of funds. Wing area 160 square meters, wing sweep 70 degrees. Two crew. Status: Development ended 1992. Gross mass: 90,000 kg (198,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Thrust: 882.00 kN (198,281 lbf). Propellants: Air/Slush LH2.
TU-289 - Manufacturer's designation of SR49 rocket engine.
TU-700 stage series -
TU-715 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Ute Tomahawk first stage. Status: Retired 1976. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 62 kg (136 lb). Thrust: 85.00 kN (19,108 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TU-716 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Paiute Apache first stage. Status: Retired 1981. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 81 kg (178 lb). Thrust: 186.00 kN (41,814 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TU-758 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Terrier Malemute second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 55.10 kN (12,387 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TU-844 - Manufacturer's designation of SSUS-A Motor Solid rocket engine.
TU-903 - Manufacturer's designation of Peacekeeper 1 Solid rocket engine.
TU-904 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Peacekeeper first stage. Status: Retired 2005. Gross mass: 53,400 kg (117,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,400 kg (9,700 lb). Thrust: 1,711.00 kN (384,648 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TU-936 - Manufacturer's designation of Star 63D Solid rocket engine.
TUAF - Turkish Air Force, Cigli Air Base, Izmir
Tuan - Vietnamese pilot cosmonaut 1979-1980. First Vietnamese astronaut. Engineer, Air force pilot. Participated in the Vietnam War. Major General of Vietnam Air Force. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1980. Born: 1947-02-14. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.86 days.
TUB - German manufacturer of spacecraft. Technische Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Tubitak-Bilten - Turkish agency. Tubitak-Bilten, Turkey.
Tubsat - Germany's Technical University of Berlin (TUB) built a successful series of 40 kg 'Tubsat' experimental technology satellites. Germany's Technical University of Berlin (TUB) built a successful series of 40 kg 'Tubsat' experimental technology satellites. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-07-17. Last Launch: 2015-09-28. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 45 kg (99 lb).
Tuchkov - Russian officer. Major General, Deputy Chief of the Mozhaiskiy Military Engineering Institute 1971-1986. Born: 1920.
Tucker - American test pilot. Flew the X-5 # 1. Status: Inactive.
TUGSAT - Satellite based on the Toronto Generic Nanosatellite Bus (Toronto GNB), built by the Technical University of Graz, Austria with help from UTIAS. Carried an 0.03m telescope-photometer for stellar photometry and astroseismology.
Tumanskiy - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1955-1973 of OKB-300. Specialized in aircraft turbine engines but also produced spacecraft attitude control engines. Born: 1901-05-21. Died: 1973-09-09.
Tumanyan - Russian officer. Major General, Commander of the political units of the KIK space tracking units 1961-1968. Born: 1901. Died: 1972-01-01.
Tupac Katari - Bolivia's first communications satellite, named after the historical Bolivian leader Julian Apasa Nina (Tupac Katari, 1750-1781). The satellite used a DFH-4 bus.
Tupolev - Alternate designation for Tupolev bureau.
Tupolev - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1943-1972 of OKB-156. Born: 1888-11-10. Died: 1972-12-23.
Tupolev bureau - Russian manufacturer of aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft.
Turaevo Machine-building Design Bureau 'Soyuz - Alternate designation for Stepanov Design Bureau.
Turbofan - Category of engines.
Turbojet - Category of engines.
Turk Hava Kuvvetleri - Alternate name for TUAF.
Turk Tel - Turkish Posts and Telecom Ministry, Turkey.
Turkey - Turkey
Turkish AF - Turkish agency.
TurkmenAlem - Communications satellite series owned by the Turkmenistan National Space Agency and the Turkmen Ministry of Communications. The GEO orbital slot was assigned to Monaco. Used the Spacebus 4000 bus.
Turkmenistan -
Turksat - Communications satellites launched to support Turkish domestic communications and television, orbited by the Ministry of Posts and Communications of the Republic of Turkey.
Turovets - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1980. Test pilot, Gromov Flight Research Institute. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program in 1977 by the Gromov Flight Test Center, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. Died in the crash of an Mi-8 helicopter. Status: Deceased. Born: 1949-02-20. Died: 1982-02-08.
TV - Abbreviation for Television
Tveretskiy - Russian officer. First Commander of Special Purpose Brigade (precursor to the Strategic Missile Forces), 1946-49. Born: 1904-11-17. Died: 1992-12-31.
TVSAT - West German communications satellite network
TV-Sat - West German communications satellite series for the German Bundespost.
Twining - American USAF officer, chief of staff from 1953 and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1957-1960. During this period key decisions were made regarding ICBM, manned spacecraft, and military satellite development. Born: 1897-10-11. Died: 1982-03-01.
TWX - Abbreviation for Teletype message
TX-135 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Nike Zeus first stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 2,000.00 kN (449,600 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TX-174 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Pershing 1A first stage. Status: Retired 1983. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 117.00 kN (26,302 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TX-175 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Pershing 1A second stage. Status: Retired 1983. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 85.00 kN (19,108 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TX-20 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Draco first stage. Status: Retired 1959. Gross mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 213.00 kN (47,884 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TX-230 stage series -
TX-238 - Alternate designation for Nike Zeus DM-15S.
TX-238 - Alternate designation for Nike Zeus.
TX-238 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Nike Zeus second stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Propellants: Solid.
TX-239 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Nike Zeus 3 third stage. Status: Retired 1975. Propellants: Solid.
TX-261-3 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1977. Thrust: 244.00 kN (54,853 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TX-30 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Draco second stage. Status: Retired 1959. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TX-33 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Polaris TV first stage. Status: Retired 1958. Gross mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Thrust: 285.00 kN (64,070 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TX-354-3 - Alternate designation for Castor 2 solid rocket engine.
TX-454 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Spartan ABM second stage. Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Propellants: Solid.
TX-481 - Manufacturer's designation of SR109 rocket engine.
TX-50 stage series -
TX-500 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Spartan ABM first stage. Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 2,000.00 kN (449,600 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TX-52 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Doorknob 1 first stage. Status: Retired 1959. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 168.00 kN (37,767 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TX-526 - Manufacturer's designation of Castor 4 Solid rocket engine.
TX-633 - Manufacturer's designation of SR114 rocket engine.
TX-664 - Alternate designation for TX-664-4.
TX-664-4 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Basic Terrier mk70 motor. Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust kN. The basic Terrier mk70 motor was 3.94 m long with a principal diameter of 46 cm. There was a 7.6-cm interstage adapter which allowed for drag separation at Terrier burnout. Typically, the Terrier booster would utilize two spin motors to reduce dispersion and also serve as drag plates. Each Terrier fin was 0.43 square meters in area. Normally, the fins were canted to provide two revolutions per second spin rate at Terrier burnout. Terrier Mk 70 Oriole first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 1,038 kg (2,288 lb). Unfuelled mass: 290 kg (630 lb). Propellants: Solid.
TX-77 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Castor Lance second stage. Status: Retired 1985. Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Unfuelled mass: 274 kg (604 lb). Thrust: 227.00 kN (51,031 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
TX-780 - Manufacturer's designation of Castor 4A engine Solid rocket engine.
TX-780B - Alternate designation for Castor 4B engine.
TX-780B - Manufacturer's designation of Castor 4B rocket engine.
TX-780XL - Manufacturer's designation of Castor 4AXL Solid rocket engine.
TX-859 - Manufacturer's designation of Castor 4BXL Solid rocket engine.
Tyan-Shan - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-5.
Type 149 - Alternate designation for Variant B.
Type 46 - Alternate designation for P-205.
Type B - British pressure suit, operational 1965. Full pressure suit designed by R. E. Simpson, and developed by Baxter, Woodhouse and Taylor Ltd. for the Royal Air Force. Status: operational 1965.
Tyulin - Russian officer. First Deputy Chairman of GKOT 1961-1965. First Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1976. Chaired many State Commissions. Born: 1914-10-09. Died: 1990-04-22.
Tyulpan - Russian military anti-satellite system target satellite. Study 1987. ASAT target designed to be released and tracked by sensors in original design of Mir Spektr module. May also have been the ASAT targets carried aboard the Polyus star wars test bed. Status: Study 1987.
Tyulpan Comsat - Russian communications satellite. By 1994 Lavochkin's Tyulpan system was promoted more heavily than its earlier Nord system. Status: Design 1994. Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Payload: 670 kg (1,470 lb).
Tyumen - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1964. Base for units deployed with nine R-9 launchers. Moved to Aleisk. First Launch: 1967-07-20. Last Launch: 1968-06-07. Number: 3 .
Tyuratam - Alternate name for Baikonur launch site.
Tyurin - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1994-on. 532 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Status: Active 1994-on. Born: 1960-03-02. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 532.12 days.
Tyurin, Petr - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1953-1981 of KB Arsenal. Specialized in L3 components and later performed EORSAT work. Born: 1917-06-25. Died: 2000-02-26.

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