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Korolev bureau
Part of Korolev Family
Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines, Kaliningrad, Russia.

AKA: Korolev;NII-88;NPO Energia;OKB-1;RKK Energia (1976);RSC Energia im S P Korolev;RSC Energia imeni S P Korolev;TsKBEM (1965). Location: Kaliningrad.

The Korolev bureau developed Russia's first ballistic missile, its first ICBM, the world's first Sputnik and first manned spacecraft. After his premature death in 1966 Korolev's successors continued to enjoy high visibility and large budgets for the Soyuz spacecraft, the Salyut and Mir space stations, and the Energia launch vehicle. However the celebrity disguised the fact that before his death Korolev had spun off almost all other space work and that other bureaus were responsible for all of the actual operational space launchers and satellites of the Soviet Union.

Korolev's bureau originated in 1946 as Section 3 of the SKB (Special Design Bureau) of NII-88 (scientific research institute). Korolev was tasked with copying the German V-2 and further development of ballistic missiles. As the work grew, Korolev's organization became reorganized at higher levels. In 1950 Section 3 became OKB-1 (Research Design Bureau) of NII-88. In 1953 Korolev was given responsibility for developing the world's first ICBM. On August 14, 1956, OKB-1 become an independent design bureau. On the basis of the R-7 Korolev was able to achieve a series of space 'first' from 1957-1965 that kept the Soviet Union in the lead of the space race. In 1964 Korolev plunged into the task of building the N1 superbooster and beating the Americans to the moon.

Throughout his career Korolev had spun off new bureau to handle further design of technologies that did not contribute to his ultimate goal - manned colonization of the planets. Generally after testing a prototype of each new technology Korolev would find a new bureau to further develop the technology. These spin-offs included:

  • After testing the R-1, R-2, and R-5 ballistic missiles, OKB-586 was established in 1954 under Yangel in Dnepropetrovsk to handle further development of intermediate range ballistic missiles.
  • In 1955, after testing the R-11, further development of short-range and sea-launched ballistic missiles was transferred to SKB-385 under Makeyev at Miass.
  • In 1959, after completion of flight testing of the R-7, production engineering responsibility for the ICBM was transferred to Kozlov at a filial of OKB-1 in Samara. Kozlov was given responsibility for design of future R-7 derivatives in 1964. His branch became an independent design bureau in 1976.
  • Following flight test of the first version, Kozlov was also given design responsibility for Zenit photoreconnaissance satellites.
  • In 1964 all work on the Molniya and all future communications and navigation satellites was transferred to Reshetnev at OKB-10.
  • In 1965 all further development of unmanned lunar and interplanetary probes was transferred to the Lavochkin OKB.

Having cleared the boards in order to concentrate on developing the N1 and landing Soviet men on the moon and Mars, Korolev died suddenly in January 1966.

As part of a reorganization of the Soviet defense industry after Khrushchev's overthrow, OKB-1 was renamed TsKBEM (Central Design Bureau of Experimental Machine-building) on March 6, 1966. Korolev's deputy Mishin was named Chief Designer two months later. Following the collapse of the N1 project in 1974 Mishin was removed and replaced by rocket engine maker Glushko.

Glushko managed a combined organization, NPO Energia, composed of the former OKB-1 and Glushko's own OKB-456 rocket engine bureau. From 1976-1985 NPO Energia also included KB Salyut, a space station design group taken from Chelomei's Almaz program. Glushko died in January 1989. OKB-456 again was split off to make NPO Energomash. Semenov was named as General Designer of he remaining part, still called NPO Energia.

The remarkable fact is that despite its public role as the 'pre-eminent Soviet space design bureau' the organization flew very little hardware after Korolev's death. His successor Mishin oversaw four failed launches of the N1 before the entire project was cancelled. Glushko was put in charge of developing a replacement heavy lift vehicle, the Energia. This flew but twice before the collapse of the Soviet Union. None of Glushko's plans for space or lunar bases were ever funded.

Korolev's bureau did manage to achieve a high profile by operating the visible Soviet manned space program - the Vostok, Voskhod, Soyuz, Salyut, and Mir projects. These however were funded at a relatively low level and used equipment developed for secret military projects in the late 1960's (Almaz and Soyuz-S).



People: Korolev, Glushko, Semenov, Anokhin, Mishin, Feoktistov, Yazdovsky, Grechko, Ponomaryov, Rukavishnikov, Makarov, Bugrov, Patsayev, Yeliseyev, Kubasov, Aksyonov, Sevastyanov, Dolgopolov, Volkov, Nikitsky, Ryumin, Savinykh, Ivanchenkov, Andreyev, Strekalov, Lebedev, Aleksandrov, Serebrov, Solovyov, Vladimir, Baturin, Manarov, Laveykin, Yemelyanov, Pronina, Budarin, Balandin, Vinogradov, Poleshchuk, Avdeyev, Kaleri, Kuleshova, Kondakova, Zaitsev, Usachyov, Lazutkin, Treshchev, Krikalyov, Yurchikhin, Tyurin, Korniyenko, Kuzhelnaya, Borisenko, Andrei, Revin, Frolov, Kozeyev, Skripochka, Artemyev, Serov, Mark, Tikhonov. Country: Russia. Engines: S1.35800, S1.5400A, YaRD Type AF, YaRD Type V-B, 11D121, RD-58M, 17D11, 17D12, RD-58S, RD-58Z, 11B97, 17D15, 8D726, RD-58MF, RD-58, YaERD-2200, YaRD Type A, YaRD Type V. Spacecraft: RP-318, Korolev Rocket Plane, MPK, Suborbital Cabin, Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, TMK-E, Sputnik 3, Luna E-1, Early Soviet Lunar Lander, Sever, Luna E-1A, Luna E-3, TMK-1, Vostok, OS, Mars 1M, L1-1960, L4-1960, Venera 1VA, TKS Heavy Space Station, Zenit-2 satellite, Soyuz A, Soyuz B, Soyuz V, Vostok-Zh, L1-1962, OS-1962, 1MS, OP, 2MS, Mars 2MV-1, Mars 2MV-2, OS-1 (1965), Mars 2MV-4, Mars 2MV-3, Luna E-6, L3-1963, L2-1963, L4-1963, L5-1963, Global Communications Satellite Using Nuclear Power, Mavr, Elektron-A, Elektron-B, Voskhod, Mars 3MV-4A, L3, Soyuz 7K-TK, Luna E-6S, Soyuz 7K-OK Tether, KK, Luna E-6LF, Soyuz 7K-OK, Luna E-6M, OS-1 (1969), Soyuz 7K-L1, Luna E-6LS, Soyuz OB-VI, L5-1967, L3M-1970, Nauka, Aelita satellite, Soyuz 7K-L1A, Soyuz Kontakt, MKBS, Soyuz 7K-L1E, MEK, OS-1 Lunar, LK, L3M, Salyut 1, Soyuz 7KT-OK, Mars 1986, Soyuz 7K-LOK, DLB Lunokhod 2, L3M-1972, Soyuz 7K-T, Salyut 4, Soyuz 7K-TM, Soyuz 7K-T/A9, Soyuz 7K-S, MTKVA, LEK Lunar Expeditionary Complex, LEK, Lunokhod LEK, LZhM, LZM, Mir-2, Soyuz 7K-MF6, Salyut 6, Progress, Soyuz T, EA, USB, 37K-Mir, 37KS, LO, Salyut 7, Multipurpose Satellite Gals, Energia Ozone Replenishment Satellite, Energia Nuclear Waste Disposal, Energia Geostationary Platform, Energia Orbital Debris Remover, Energia Polar City Illuminator, Energia Control Sat, Globis, Zarya, ISS, RP, MVKS, Mir, Soyuz TM, Mir complex, 37KB, Buran, Energia Lunar Expedition, KS space station, LK Energia, LOK Energia, Mir-2 KB Salyut, Progress M, Mars 1989, Gamma, KRT-25 Radio Telescope, ERTA, Energia Ecosat, Progress M2, ISS Russian Science and Power Platform, Mars Together, Mir-Shuttle Docking Module, Signal, Alpha Lifeboat, Yamal, ISS Commercial Enterprise Module, Progress M1, ISS Zvezda, Marpost, Progress M-SO, ISS Pirs, Soyuz TMA, Kliper, DSE-Alpha, Yakhta, Parom, Big Soyuz. Flights: Vostok 5, Vostok 6, Voskhod 1. Launch Vehicles: GIRD-09, GIRD-10, 212 missile, 217/I, 217/II, D-2, RDD, D-1, R-3, R-1A, R-2e, R-2, R-3A, R-1V, R-1B, R-1 8A11, R-2R, T-1, EKR, R-5, R-5M, A-1 (R-1), R-1, R-1D, R-1E, R-1E (A-1), Vostok 8K72, R-7A, R-2A, R-7, Sputnik 8K71PS, R-5A, Vostok-L 8K72, Sputnik 8A91, R-11A, YaKhR-2, RT-1, R-5V, OKB-456, OKB-670, Superraket, Molniya 8K78, GR-1, Vostok 8K72K, YaRD ICBM, Romashka, 8K79, MR, 8K73, 8K713, 8K76, 8K77, 8K711, 8K513, R-9M, R-11A-MV, Soyuz 11A511, Voskhod 11A57, Vostok 8A92, Molniya 8K78L, R-5B, R-9A, N11, N111, N11GR, Molniya 8K78/E6, Desna, N1 1964, Sputnik 11A59, N11 1963, N1 Nuclear A, N1 Nuclear V-B, N1 Nuclear AF, N1 Nuclear V, Soyuz 11K55, Soyuz 11K56, N1 1962, Molniya 8K78M, Vostok 8A92M, R-5 VAO, Dolina, Molniya 8K78M 2BL, Molniya 8K78M ML, Soyuz 11A510, N-IF 1965, N-IM 1965, N-IFV-III, N-IFV-II-III, N-IMV-III, N-IMV-II-III, N-IUV-III, N-IU, RT-2, Soyuz 11A514, N1M, N1, RT-2P, N1F, Soyuz 11A511L, N1F Sr, Soyuz 11A511M, N1 1969, N1F-L3M, Soyuz-U, RT-2M, RLA, Buran launch vehicle, Energia, N1-MOK, RLA-120, RLA-150, RLA-135, Soyuz-U2, Vulkan, Kvant launch vehicle, Groza, Buran-T, Energia M, Kvant-1, Yamal launch vehicle, Soyuz 11A511U / Ikar, 11A513, Molniya 8K78M SOL, Soyuz M, Sodruzhestvo, Soyuz 11A511U / Fregat, Soyuz-FG, Soyuz-ST-B, Onega, Soyuz ST / Fregat ST. Projects: Elektron, Luna, Mars, Molniya, Venera. Stages: Blok SO-L.

1907 January 12 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev - . Nation: Russia, Ukraine. Related Persons: Korolev bureau. Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for creating the first long range ballistic missiles, the first space launchers, the first artificial satellite, and putting the first man in space. After his premature death the Soviets lagged in space..

1947 October 18 - . 07:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi). Range achieved 206.7 km. Destroyed during ballistic portion of flight..

1947 October 20 - . 08:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi). Range achieved 231.4 km. Tore loose from launch stand; flew 180 km left of planned target..

1947 October 23 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Payload destroyed, leading to rocket disintegration..
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 14 km (8 mi). Range achieved 29.4 km..

1947 October 28 - . 13:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi). Range achieved 274.3 km. Achieved objectives..

1947 October 31 - . 13:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Loss of control on longitudinal axis..
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Range achieved 2 km..

1947 November 2 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi). Range achieved 260 km. Achieved objective..

1947 November 3 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Rolled after launch and lost stabilization..
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). Range achieved 2.3 km..

1947 November 4 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi). Range achieved 268 km. Met objectives..

1947 November 10 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. FAILURE: Lost guidance..
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 11 km (6 mi). Range achieved 24.4 km..

1947 November 13 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1947 November 13 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • Soviet V-2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi). Range achieved 270 km. Broke up on re-entry..

1948 September 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1. FAILURE: Veered 51 degrees from flight path..
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi). First of 9 rockets of first test series. Veered 51 degrees from flight path..

1948 October 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Range achieved 300 km. Successful flight..

1948 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 October 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 October 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 November 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 November 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1948 November 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Ninth and last launch of first R-1 test series..

1949 May 7 - . 03:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

    Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 200 km. Ballistic launch. Expected range 210 km. Launched at 0612 local time. The launches were first made public by Tass on March 27, 1958: 'In May 1949 a single-stage Russian rocket attained an altitude of 109 km with an instrument payload of 120 to 130 kg'.


1949 May 10 - . 15:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 279.6 km. Ballistic launch. Expected range 210 km. Launched at 1857 local time..

1949 May 15 - . 02:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 210 km. Ballistic launch. Expected range 210 km. Launched at 0548 local time..

1949 May 16 - . 21:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 320 km. Ballistic launch. Expected range 210 km. Launched at 0055 local time..

1949 May 24 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1A.
  • FIAR-1 Test/Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 32.9 km. Vertical launch. Expected range 22 km. Launched at 0440 local time. Carried two 85 kg Physical Measurement of Atmospheric Boundary (FIAR-1) containers, but they were not recovered..

1949 May 28 - . 01:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1A.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

    Test of separable warhead. Range achieved 31.9 km. Vertical launch. Expected range 22 km. Launched at 0450 local time. Carried two 85 kg Physical Measurement of Atmospheric Boundary (FIAR-1) containers, which were recovered but damaged; no science resulted


1949 September 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). First launch of second series - 10 preproduction and 11 prototype rockets available. A total of 20 were fired; six failures in 16 launches..

1949 September 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 September 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 September 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 September 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 September 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 September 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1. FAILURE: Failure.
1949 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1. FAILURE: Failure.
1949 September 25 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2e.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Modification of R-1 missile to test R-2 concepts (integral fuel tank and seperable warhead). Range achieved 541.3 km. Deviation from aim point -0.2 km. Launched at 1416 local time..

1949 September 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 September 30 - . 11:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2e.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Range achieved 562.2 km. Deviation from aim point -9.3 km. Launched at 1449 local time..

1949 October 2 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2e. FAILURE: Fire in tail compartment..
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Range achieved 324.1 km. Deviation from aim point -11.4 km. Launched at 1400 local time..

1949 October 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 October 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 October 8 - . 06:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2e.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Range achieved 569.8 km. Deviation from aim point -0.8 km. Launched at 0905 local time..

1949 October 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 October 11 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2e. FAILURE: Fire in tail compartment..
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Range achieved 9 km. Deviation from aim point 1.7 km. Launched at 1545 local time..

1949 October 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 October 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 October 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 October 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 October 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1949 October 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Last and 20th launch in second R-1 test series..

1950 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1950 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. FAILURE: Failed to reach target.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). First launch to full range..

1950 October 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). First launch in first test series of protoype missiles..

1950 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1950 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1950 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1950 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1950 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1950 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1950 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1950 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1950 December 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. FAILURE: Failed to reach target.
  • First series test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Twelfth and final launch in prototype test series. All missiles failed to reach targets..

1951 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). First launch in winter test series. Carried dogs..

1951 January 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 January 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Last launch in winter test series..

1951 June 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). First launch in quality assurance test series of operational missiles..

1951 June 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1951 June 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Last launch in quality assurance test series of operational missiles..

1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1951 July 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). First launch in second test series..

1951 July 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1V.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). First Soviet rocket flight with animals (dogs Dezik and Zhegan). Maximum Altitude - 100 km. Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed..

1951 July 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Second series test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Thirteenth and last launch of the second series. 12 of the 13 reached their targets..

1951 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1B.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Electrical failure. No payload recovery. Carried dogs..

1951 August 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1B.
  • Test / solar ultraviolet / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed. Carried dogs..

1951 August 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1V.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container functioned. Carried dogs..

1951 August 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1B.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Smoke container functioned; Instruments recovered..

1951 September 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1B.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed. Carried dogs..

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 August 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). First launch of production quality assurance test series..

1952 August 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1952 August 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1952 August 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1952 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 September 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Third series controlled test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). 14th and last launch in quality assurance testing. 12 of the 14 reached their targets..

1952 October 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1952 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1952 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1952 November 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 March 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 March 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

    Unsuccessful. First Phase I trials launch of the 8 remaining rockets of the first production lot were fired, of which 6 reached the target area. The first launch was on 15 March 1953. The first successful flight was on 2 April 1953. The first full range flight came on 19 April 1953.


1953 March 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5. FAILURE: Failure.
1953 March 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Of the 8 rockets of the first production lot fired, 6 reached the target area..

1953 April 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1953 April 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5. FAILURE: Failure.
1953 April 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

    Massive problems were encountered in the difficult test series - with poor-quality kerosene fuel, handling and leakage of the propellants, and reliable start of the engine. But the Red Army saw much more promise in the design than in Korolev's cumbersome liquid oxygen rockets.


1953 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
1953 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1953 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Range achieved 270 km. First test launch of R-5..

1953 May 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 May 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Completion of first series of 8 R-5 flight tests. 2 achieved 270 km range, 5, 1200 km range, and one, 550 km range..

1953 June 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
1953 July 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1953 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1953 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1953 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1953 October 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1953 October 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 October 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 October 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 October 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 October 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • State trials Phase 2 launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Through December 1953 there were 7 Phase II launches, one of which was unsuccessful. A maximum range of 1185 km was reached..

1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1953 November 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 November 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 November 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
1953 November 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1953 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1953 December 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1954 March 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 March 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 March 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 March 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 April 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
1954 April 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 April 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 April 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 April 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • NII-88 Production - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). 10th and last launch in production missile series, 8 successes.

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). First launch of series production missile..

1954 May 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 May 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 May 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 May 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 May 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
1954 May 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • First production series test launch. - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 June 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 June 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 June 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 June 26 - . 13:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1D.
  • Test / biology / ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1954 July 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1D.
  • Test / biology / ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed. Carried dogs Lyza and Ryjik..

1954 July 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1D.
  • Test / biology / ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload recovered; left animal container, smoke container..

1954 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

    Through February 1955 the state acceptance trials for the production missile were conducted. 19 launches were made, 10 of which passed the acceptance criteria, 5 did not, and 4 were used for test of the new radio-correction guidance system. This used the R-5R variant of the missile; one of those four tests was unsuccessful.


1954 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1954 August 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 August 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1954 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1954 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1954 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1954 September 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SM-49. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1954 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1954 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1954 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1954 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1954 October 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1954 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1954 November 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1954 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
1955 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
1955 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1955 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1955 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • State trials Phase III launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). The second phase in August-November 1955 consisted of 10 successful launches at ranges of 1083 to 1190 km. This cleared the way for a final test series leading to the first rocket-delivered test of a Soviet atomic bomb..

1955 January 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 January 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1E.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload section deployed at 22 seconds. Left animal container recovered. Carried dogs..

1955 January 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
1955 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). The first phase of flight trials were conducted from 21 January to July 1955. Of the 14 launches, 13 were successful..

1955 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 February 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 February 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1E.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). No recovery. Carried dogs..

1955 February 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 February 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1955 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
1955 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 April 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 April 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 April 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 April 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 May 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1955 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1955 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1955 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1955 June 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 June 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 June 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 June 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 June 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 July 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 July 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 July 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 July 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1955 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1955 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 August 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 August 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 August 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 September 12 - . 14:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). The third test series was conducted from the Project 611 submarine B-67 through 13 October 1955 in the White Sea. This demonstrated launches from a pitching surfaced vessel and a total range of 150 km..

1955 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 October 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 October 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1955 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 November 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1E.
  • Biological mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container functioned. Carried dogs..

1955 November 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1955 December 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Certification test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). The series of 5 launches began on 11 January 1956 with launch of a dummy warhead..

1956 January 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1956 January 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1956 January 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. FAILURE: Failure.
1956 February 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1956 February 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1956 March 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1956 April 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1956 May 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1E.
  • Biological mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container functioned. Carried dogs..

1956 May 31 - . 02:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1E.
  • Biology / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container failed. Carried dogs..

1956 June 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1E (A-1).
  • Biological mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Payload, instruments, left and right animal containers all recovered. Smoke container functioned. Carried dogs..

1956 June 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1956 July 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. FAILURE: Failure.
1956 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1956 July 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1956 July 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11.
1956 October 31 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1956 October 31 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1956 December 26 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1957 March 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1957 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1957 April 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1957 April 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 April 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 June 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 June 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 June 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 June 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 June 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 July 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 July 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1957 August 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
1957 August 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1957 August 25 - . 02:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Ionosphere / biological mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1957 August 31 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Ionosphere / biological mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1957 September 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
1957 September 9 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Ionosphere / biological mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1958 March 31 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1958 May 25 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1958 May 26 - . Launch Site: Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1958 July 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1958 August 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1958 August 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1958 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1958 September 6 - . Launch Pad: Pacific Ocean, 40.0 N x 170.0 E. Launch Platform: B-62. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
1958 October 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
1960 June 15 - . 02:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Carried dogs (Otvazhnaya and one unnamed). - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1960 June 23 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Carried dogs, final operational R-2A launch. - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1960 July 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1960 July 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1960 July 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1960 July 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1962 May 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
1963 January 4 - . 08:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. FAILURE: The escape stage's BOZ unit failed to operate due to failure of a DC transformer of the power system. The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Sputnik 25 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 1. Mass: 1,422 kg (3,134 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1963-01-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 522 . COSPAR: 1963-001B. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 88.00 min.

1963 March 21 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 13 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 9. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 554 . COSPAR: 1963-006A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 April 22 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 15 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 8. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 569 . COSPAR: 1963-011A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried weather, radiation experiments..

1963 April 28 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 16 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 10. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 571 . COSPAR: 1963-012A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Program partially completed. Part of the information lost due to failure of engine block stabilization system. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 May 24 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 18 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 11. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 586 . COSPAR: 1963-018A. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 October 18 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 20 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 13. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-10-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 673 . COSPAR: 1963-040A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1963 November 1 - . 08:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 11A59.
  • Polet 1; Polyot 1 - . Payload: I-2B s/n 1. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: Polyot. Decay Date: 1982-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 683 . COSPAR: 1963-043A. Apogee: 1,420 km (880 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 58.9000 deg. Period: 102.40 min.

    ASAT interceptor control and propulsion test. Launched by Korolev R-7 because Chelomei's own UR-200 was not yet available. Purpose - elaboration of system providing for the extensive manoeuvring of space apparatuses. Flight was considered a great success. Micro-engine fired 350 times and main stabilizing engine fired 300 times. Orbit given is final orbit after manoeuvres.


1963 November 11 - . 06:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. FAILURE: During unpowered coast in parking orbit the escape stage Block L lost stable attitude. Engine ignition occurred in an incorrect direction.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 21 - . Payload: 3MV-1A s/n 1. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Mars. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1A. Decay Date: 1963-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 687 . COSPAR: 1963-044A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit as Cosmos-51 and burnt up on re-entry..

1963 November 16 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 22 - . Payload: Zenit-4 no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 689 . COSPAR: 1963-045A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1963 December 19 - . 09:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 24 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 15. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 712 . COSPAR: 1963-052A. Apogee: 391 km (242 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 January 30 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Elektron 1 - . Payload: 2D s/n 1. Mass: 329 kg (725 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-A. USAF Sat Cat: 746 . COSPAR: 1964-006A. Apogee: 6,439 km (4,001 mi). Perigee: 413 km (256 mi). Inclination: 60.9000 deg. Period: 161.00 min.

    Studied inner Van Allen belt. Electron I and II launched by a single carrier rocket. Electron I: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and upper atmosphere. Electron II: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and outer space.

  • Elektron 2 - . Payload: 2D s/n 2. Mass: 444 kg (978 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-B. Decay Date: 1997-04-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 748 . COSPAR: 1964-006B. Apogee: 62,811 km (39,028 mi). Perigee: 5,611 km (3,486 mi). Inclination: 60.2000 deg. Period: 1,356.40 min.

    Studied outer Van Allen belt. Electron I and II launched by a single carrier rocket. Electron I: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and upper atmosphere. Electron II: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and outer space.


1964 March 27 - . 03:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. FAILURE: During unpowered coast in parking orbit the escape stage Block L lost stable attitude due to a loss of the power circuit of the pneumatic valves of the attitude control and stabilization system.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 27 - . Payload: 3MV-1 s/n 3. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. Decay Date: 1964-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 772 . COSPAR: 1964-014A. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit as Cosmos-27..

1964 April 2 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Zond 1 - . Payload: 3MV-1 s/n 4. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. USAF Sat Cat: 785 . COSPAR: 1964-016D. Failed Venus probe. Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Elaboration of a long range space system and conduct of scientific research..

1964 April 4 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 28 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 16. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 779 . COSPAR: 1964-017A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 April 12 - . 09:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 11A59.
  • Polet 2; Polyot 2 - . Payload: I-2B s/n 2. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: Polyot. Decay Date: 1966-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 783 . COSPAR: 1964-019A. Apogee: 479 km (297 mi). Perigee: 303 km (188 mi). Inclination: 58.1000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. ASAT interceptor control and propulsion test. Elaboration of systems providing for the extensive manouevring of space apparatuses..

1964 April 25 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 29 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 19. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-05-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 791 . COSPAR: 1964-021A. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 May 18 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 30 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 797 . COSPAR: 1964-023A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1964 June 10 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 32 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 18. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-06-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 807 . COSPAR: 1964-029A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 June 23 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 33 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 20. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 816 . COSPAR: 1964-033A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 July 1 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 34 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 822 . COSPAR: 1964-034A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1964 July 10 - . 21:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Elektron 3 - . Payload: 2D s/n 3. Mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-A. USAF Sat Cat: 829 . COSPAR: 1964-038A. Apogee: 6,302 km (3,915 mi). Perigee: 408 km (253 mi). Inclination: 60.9000 deg. Period: 159.30 min. Studied inner Van Allen belt. Electron 3 and 4 launched by a single carrier rocket. Simultaneous study of the inner and outer radiation belts of the earth, cosmic rays and the upper atmosphere. .
  • Elektron 4 - . Payload: 2D s/n 4. Mass: 444 kg (978 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-B. Decay Date: 1983-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 830 . COSPAR: 1964-038B. Apogee: 66,269 km (41,177 mi). Perigee: 447 km (277 mi). Inclination: 60.8000 deg. Period: 1,313.80 min. Studied outer Van Allen belt. Electron 3 and 4 launched by a single carrier rocket. Simultaneous study of the inner and outer radiation belts of the earth, cosmic rays and the upper atmosphere. .

1964 July 15 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 35 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 21. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 833 . COSPAR: 1964-039A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 August 14 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 37 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 22. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 848 . COSPAR: 1964-044A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Break in the film fof the SA-10 camera..

1964 August 22 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Cosmos 41 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 2004-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 869 . COSPAR: 1964-049D. Apogee: 39,169 km (24,338 mi). Perigee: 1,023 km (635 mi). Inclination: 68.4000 deg. Period: 714.50 min.

    Successful launch of first Soviet communications satellite. This is the second Molniya launch attempt. (the first was a launch failure). The failure of the antennae to deploy means the spacecraft can only be tested in a limited manner and cannot be used for the planned relay of television.


1964 August 28 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 44 - . Payload: Meteor no. 1. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. USAF Sat Cat: 876 . COSPAR: 1964-053A. Apogee: 778 km (483 mi). Perigee: 599 km (372 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1964 September 13 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 45 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Voskhod. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 880 . COSPAR: 1964-055A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min.

    High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried weather experiments. The Zenit-4 launches a day ahead of schedule. The booster rocket performs perfectly as Korolev and Kamanin watch from the veranda of the IP-1 tracking station. This confirms readiness of the same launch vehicle for the Voskhod launch.


1964 September 24 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 46 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 23. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 885 . COSPAR: 1964-059A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Demonstration launch witnessed by Khrushchev..

1964 October 6 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 47 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 2. Mass: 5,320 kg (11,720 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kirillov, Korolev, Rudenko, Tyulin. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.01 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 891 . COSPAR: 1964-062A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 90.10 min.

    Unmanned test of Voskhod spacecraft. At 07:00 the State Commission meets at Area 2. All Chief Designers, Commanders, and Section report that all is ready for flight. The commission gives the order to proceed with the launch. Weather at the pad is 7 balls, 8-10 m/s wind with gusts to 15 m/s, temperature 9 to 12 deg C. Weather in the recovery zones is reported as winds up to 15 m/s. Weather in the recovery zone is not clear, but that is not considered an impediment, and in fact Kamanin would like to see how the landing system functions in bad conditions. Kamanin visits the pad at T-30 seconds; at T-20 seconds, the veranda at IP-1 has over 50 viewers of the launch, including 15 cosmonaut candidates and the 7 Voskhod cosmonauts. Kamanin is relegated to the IP-1 veranda this time, with Rudenko, Kirillov, and Tyulin the bunker adjacent to the pad. Korolev stays with the booster until T-5 minutes, then enters the bunker. The booster ignites precisely at 10:00; the strap-ons burn out and are jettisoned at T+120 seconds; the core burns out and the final stage ignites at T+290 seconds; and at T+523 seconds spacecraft 3KV number 2 is placed in orbit as the final stage shuts down. The spacecraft separates and all systems look normal.

    Recovered October 7, 1964 7:28 GMT. Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1964 October 14 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 48 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 24. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 908 . COSPAR: 1964-066A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Returned early due to failure of spacecraft thermoregulation system; internal temperature rose to 43 degrees C..

1964 October 28 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 50 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 25. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 919 . COSPAR: 1964-070A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.2000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Failure of the braking engine system. Spacecraft ordered to self destruct..

1964 November 30 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Zond 2 - . Payload: 3MV-4A s/n 2. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 3MV. Spacecraft: Mars 3MV-4A. USAF Sat Cat: 945 . COSPAR: 1964-078C.

    Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Zond 2 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards Mars to test space-borne systems and to carry out scientific investigations. Zond 2 carried six electric rocket engines of plasma type that served as actuators of the attitude control system. The communications system failed during April 1965. The spacecraft flew by Mars on August 6, 1965, at a distance of 1500 km.


1965 January 11 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 52 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 26. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-2 satellite. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 968 . COSPAR: 1965-001A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 February 22 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 57 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 1. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Korolev. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 0.22 days. Decay Date: 1965-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 1093 . COSPAR: 1965-012A. Apogee: 708 km (439 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.

    Unsuccessful mission. Voskhod 2 test. Immediately after orbital insertion airlock and spacesuit inflated normally. Then two ground control stations sent commands to the spacecraft simultaneously. The combined signals accidentally set off the retrofire sequence, which some time later triggered the self destruct mechanism (designed to prevent the spacecraft from falling into enemy hands).
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. Additional Details: here....


1965 February 26 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 58 - . Payload: Meteor no. 2. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1990-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 1097 . COSPAR: 1965-014A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 333 km (206 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1966 March 1 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L lost roll control during unpowered coast in parking orbit because the axis of the course regulator of the control system jammed in the zero position. The stage's engine was not fired.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 111 - . Payload: Ye-6S s/n 204. Mass: 6,540 kg (14,410 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Luna E-6. Spacecraft: Luna E-6S. Decay Date: 1966-03-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 2093 . COSPAR: 1966-017A. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.00 min.

1966 March 31 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Luna 10 - . Payload: E-6S s/n 206 ISL. Mass: 1,597 kg (3,520 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Luna E-6. Spacecraft: Luna E-6S. USAF Sat Cat: 2126 . COSPAR: 1966-027A.

    Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). Development of system to permit the creation of an artificial lunar satellite for the investigation of circumlunar space; development of onboard systems for putting a station into a selenocentric (circumlunar) orbit. Orbit: Lunar Orbiter. The Luna 10 spacecraft was launched towards the Moon from an Earth orbiting platform. The spacecraft entered lunar orbit 3 50 x 1017 km, inclination 71.9 deg to plane of the lunar equator. on April 4, 1966. Scientific instruments included a gamma-ray spectrometer for energies between 0.3--3 MeV, a triaxial magnetometer, a meteorite detector, instruments for solar-plasma studies, and devices for measuring infrared emissions from the Moon and radiation conditions of the lunar environment. Gravitational studies were also conducted. The spacecraft played back to Earth the `Internationale' during the Twenty-third Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Luna 10 was battery powered and operated for 460 lunar orbits and 219 active data transmissions before radio signals were discontinued on May 30, 1966.


1966 December 21 - . 10:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Luna 13 - . Payload: E-6M s/n 205. Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Korolev bureau. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft Bus: Luna E-6. Spacecraft: Luna E-6M. Decay Date: 1966-12-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2626 . COSPAR: 1966-116A.

    Soft landed on Moon 24 December 1966 at 18:01:00 GMT, Latitude 18.87 N, 297.95 E - Oceanus Procellarum. The petal encasement of the spacecraft was opened, antennas were erected, and radio transmissions to Earth began four minutes after the landing. On December 25 and 26, 1966, the spacecraft television system transmitted panoramas of the nearby lunar landscape at different sun angles. Each panorama required approximately 100 minutes to transmit. The spacecraft was equipped with a mechanical soil-measuring penetrometer, a dynamograph, and a radiation densitometer for obtaining data on the mechanical and physical properties and the cosmic-ray reflectivity of the lunar surface. It is believed that transmissions from the spacecraft ceased before the end of December 1966.


1995 November 12 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP2. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • Mir-Shuttle Docking Module - . Payload: DM 316GK s/n 1. Mass: 6,134 kg (13,523 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz TM-22, STS-74. Spacecraft Bus: Mir. Spacecraft: Mir-Shuttle Docking Module. Duration: 8.19 days. COSPAR: 1995-061xx. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 356 km (221 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Atlantis rendezvoused and docked with Mir space station on Nov 15. After departure the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module remained attached to Mir to provide easier docking capability in the future..

1997 February 10 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
1997 April 6 - . 16:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-34 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 234. Mass: 7,156 kg (15,776 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-25, STS-81 Mir NASA-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 86.60 days. Completed Operations Date: 1997-07-02 06:31:45 . Decay Date: 1997-07-02 06:31:45 . USAF Sat Cat: 24757 . COSPAR: 1997-014A. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 375 km (233 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. It carried supplies for the Mir station and repair equipment for Mir's oxygen generators, replacement oxygen-generating 'candles' and a pair of new spacesuits. Docked with Mir at the rear Kvant module port on 8 Apr 1997 17:30:03 GMT. The Mir complex raised its orbit by 5 km on 15 Apr 1997 at 12:00 GMT, using Progress M-34's engine. Undocked on 24 Jun 1997 10:22:50 GMT. It was then used to perform a redocking test using newly developed remote-control procedures which were to replace the automatic system that Russia could no longer afford to buy from Ukraine. At 25 Jun 1997 09:18 GMT Mir commander Tsibliev was remotely commanding the approach of Progress to the Kvant module. This involved guiding the Progress via a television monitor. The Progress was difficult to see against the cloudy earth background at the time of the attempted docking. It went off course and collided with a solar array on the Spektr module and then the module itself. A large hole was made in a solar panel, one of the radiators was buckled, a hole was punched into Spektr's hull, and the module began to depressurize. This was not a slow leak - the crew heard a hissing sound and felt their ears pop. They disconnected the power cables leading from Mir to the main station and closed the hatch on the core module transfer section that led to Spektr. The Spektr module became fully depressurized, remaining docked to Mir with its docking hatch open. The loss of electrical connection between Spektr's solar panels and the main station cut the available power supply to the station, crippling its operations until later repairs reconnected the electrical lines. Tsibliev was also the pilot on a previous orbital collision, when he banged Soyuz TM-17 into Mir in Jan 1994. After the return of the crew to earth he was found to be to blame for the incident, although the fines assessed were later dismissed. The Progress M-34 cargo ship was backed to a safe distance from the station and was destroyed in reentry on 2 Jul 1997 06:31:50 GMT. Total free-flight time 9.90 days. Total docked time 76.70 days.


1997 July 5 - . 04:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-35 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 235. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-25, STS-84 Mir NASA-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 82.50 days. Decay Date: 1997-10-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 24851 . COSPAR: 1997-033A. Apogee: 391 km (242 mi). Perigee: 383 km (237 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.30 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 7 Jul 1997 05:59:24 GMT. Undocked on 6 Aug 1997 11:46:45 GMT. Redocked with Mir on 18 Aug 1997 12:52:48 GMT. Final undocking on 7 Oct 1997 12:03:49 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 Oct 1997 17:23:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 80.21 days.


1997 August 5 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-26 - . Call Sign: Rodnik. Crew: Solovyov, Vinogradov. Backup Crew: Avdeyev, Padalka. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 75. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev, Padalka, Solovyov, Vinogradov. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-25, Soyuz TM-26, STS-84 Mir NASA-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 197.73 days. Decay Date: 1998-02-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 24886 . COSPAR: 1997-038A. Apogee: 385 km (239 mi). Perigee: 378 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Mir Expedition EO-24. The Soyuz docked manually at 17:02 GMT August 7. Over the next six months the crew undertook seven internal and external spacewalks to repair the crippled space station..

1997 October 5 - . 15:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-36 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 237. Mass: 7,195 kg (15,862 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-26, STS-84 Mir NASA-4, STS-86, STS-86 Mir NASA-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 74.92 days. Decay Date: 1997-12-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 25002 . COSPAR: 1997-058A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 378 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 8 Oct 1997 17:07:09 GMT. Undocked on 17 Dec 1997 06:01:53 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Dec 1997 13:20:01 GMT. Total free-flight time 5.39 days. Total docked time 69.54 days..

1997 December 20 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-37 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 236. Mass: 7,040 kg (15,520 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-26, STS-86 Mir NASA-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 61.69 days. Decay Date: 1998-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 25102 . COSPAR: 1997-081A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

    Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir at the rear Kvant port on 22 Dec 1997 10:22:20 GMT. Undocked on 30 Jan 1998 12:00:00 GMT. Redocked with Mir on 23 Feb 1998 09:42:28 GMT. Final undocking 15 Mar 1998 19:16:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 15 Mar 1998 23:04:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 59.47 days.


1998 January 29 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-27 - . Call Sign: Kristall. Crew: Budarin, Eyharts, Musabayev. Backup Crew: Afanasyev, Haignere, Treshchev. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 76. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Budarin, Eyharts, Haignere, Musabayev, Treshchev. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-26, Soyuz TM-27, Soyuz TM-27 Mir Pegase, STS-86 Mir NASA-5, STS-89, STS-89 Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 207.53 days. Decay Date: 1998-08-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 25146 . COSPAR: 1998-004A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

    Soyuz TM-27 carried the Mir EO-25 crew and French astronaut Leopold Eyharts. NASA and the Russian Space Agency had hoped Soyuz TM-27 could dock with Mir while Endeavour was still there, resulting in an on-board crew of 13, a record which would have stood for years or decades. But the French vetoed this, saying the commotion and time wasted would ruin Eyharts Pegase experimental programme. Soyuz TM-27 docked at the Kvant module port at 17:54 GMT on January 31, 1998, less than five hours before Endeavour landed in Florida.

    Solovyov handed over command of Mir to EO-25 commander Musabayev, and the Mir EO-24 crew and Eyharts undocked from the forward port of Mir at 05:52 GMT on February 19 aboard the Soyuz TM-26 for their return home. On February 20, the EO-25 crew and Andy Thomas of the NASA-7 mission boarded Soyuz TM-27 and undocked from the Kvant port at 08:48 GMT. They redocked with the forward port on Mir at 09:32 GMT. This freed up the Kvant port for a test redocking of the Progress M-37 cargo ship, parked in a following orbit with Mir during the crew transfer.


1998 March 14 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-38 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 240. Mass: 7,007 kg (15,447 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 61.05 days. Decay Date: 1998-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 25256 . COSPAR: 1998-015A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 372 km (231 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 92.10 min.

    Progress M-38 was specially modified to carry the second VDU (Vynosnaya Dvigatel'naya Ustanovka, External Engine Unit) propulsion unit. The VDU was mounted externally on a special structure between the cargo module and the service module, replacing the OKD fuel section present on normal Progress vehicles. The crew spacewalks to extract the VDU from Progress and place it on the end of the Sofora boom extending from the Kvant module. The VDU was used to provide attitude control capability for the station. By 03:20 GMT on March 15 1998 Progress M-38 had successfully completed its first two orbital manoeuvres. It replaced Progress M-37 at the docking port on the Kvant module, with a successful docking on March 16 1998 at 22:45 GMT. Undocked May 15 at 1844 UTC, freeing up the docking port on the Kvant module for Progress M-39. Deorbited over Pacific May 15, 1998.


1998 May 14 - . 22:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-39 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 238. Mass: 7,450 kg (16,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, STS-89 Mir NASA-6. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 167.08 days. Decay Date: 1998-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 25340 . COSPAR: 1998-031A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 360 km (220 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Docked with Mir at the Kvant port at 23:51 GMT on May 16 1998, bringing supplies and scientific experiments to the station. Undocked 09:28 GMT on August 12 1998 in order to clear the port for Soyuz TM-28. Deorbited over Pacific Ocean on October 29, 1998..

1998 August 13 - . 09:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-28 - . Call Sign: Altair. Crew: Avdeyev, Baturin, Padalka. Backup Crew: Kaleri, Zalyotin. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 77. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev, Baturin, Kaleri, Padalka, Zalyotin. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-27, Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EP-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 198.69 days. Decay Date: 1999-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 25429 . COSPAR: 1998-047A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

    Soyuz TM-28 docked at 10:56 GMT on August 15 with the rear (Kvant) port of the Mir space station, which had been vacated at 09:28 GMT on August 12 by Progress M-39. The EO-25 crew, Musabayev and Budarin, landed with Baturin on Aug 25, leaving the EO-26 crew of Padalka and Avdeyev on the station. As only one final Soyuz mission to Mir was planned, with two of the seats on that Soyuz pre-sold to Slovak and French experimenters, the return crew of Soyuz TM-28 was subject to constant replanning and revision. On February 8, 1999, at 11:23 GMT Padalka and Avdeyev undocked from Mir's -X port in Soyuz TM-28, and redocked at the +X Kvant port at 11:39 GMT, freeing up the front port for the Soyuz TM-29 docking. Finally on February 27, 1999 EO-26 commander Padalka and Slovak cosmonaut Bella undocked Soyuz TM-28 from the Kvant rear docking port at 22:52 GMT, landing in Kazakhstan on February 28 at 02:14 GMT. Avdeyev remained on Mir with the EO-27 crew delivered on Soyuz TM-29, heading for a manned space flight time record.


1998 October 25 - . 04:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-40 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 239. Mass: 7,450 kg (16,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 103.25 days. Decay Date: 1999-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 25512 . COSPAR: 1998-062A. Apogee: 360 km (220 mi). Perigee: 349 km (216 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.63 min.

    Docked with the rear (+X, Kvant) docking port of the Mir station on October 27. Delivered fuel, dry cargo, and the Znamya-2.5 solar illumination experiment. This was a follow-on to the earlier Znamya-2 experiment on Progress M-15 in 1992. The 25 m diameter Znamya reflector, which would unfold from the nose of the Progress, was to reflect sunlight over a 6 km area onto selected cities. Znamya-2.5 was developed by the Space Regatta Consortium, led by RKK Energia. Energia had long studied such space mirrors as a means of providing lighting to Siberian towns. The project was opposed by environmentalists and astronomers, who feared light pollution. Progress M-40 undocked on February 4, 1999 at 09:59 GMT, but the attempted deployment of the Znamya-2.5 reflector was thwarted when it snagged on a rendezvous system antenna. After two more failed attempts to deploy the antenna the experiment was abandoned. Progress M-40 fired its engines at 10:16 GMT on February 5, braked out of orbit, and burned up over the Pacific Ocean.


1999 February 20 - . 04:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-29 - . Call Sign: Derbent. Crew: Afanasyev, Bella, Haignere. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 78. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Bella, Haignere. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-28, Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27, Soyuz TM-29, Soyuz TM-29 Mir Stefanik. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 188.85 days. Decay Date: 1999-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 25632 . COSPAR: 1999-007A. Apogee: 357 km (221 mi). Perigee: 341 km (211 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.52 min.

    Soyuz TM-29 docked with Mir on February 22 at 05:36 GMT. Since two crew seats had been sold (to Slovakia and France), Afansyev was the only Russian cosmonaut aboard. This meant that Russian engineer Avdeyev already aboard Mir would have to accept a double-length assignment. After the February 27 departure of EO-26 crew commander Padalka and Slovak cosmonaut Bella aboard Soyuz TM-28, the new EO-27 Mir crew consisted of Afanasyev as Commander, Avdeyev as Engineer and French cosmonaut Haignere. Follwoing an extended mission and three space walks, the last operational crew aboard Mir prepared to return. The station was powered down and prepared for free drift mode.


1999 April 2 - . 11:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-41 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 241. Mass: 7,450 kg (16,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27, Soyuz TM-29. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 105.99 days. Decay Date: 1999-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 25664 . COSPAR: 1999-015A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.51 min.

    Resupply craft docked uneventfully with the Mir complex two days later. It also delivered the Sputnik-99 amateur radio satellite, launched into orbit by hand by the cosmonauts during an EVA on April 16. Still hopeful of finding a backer to pay to keep Mir in space, Progress M-41 began a series of engine burns in late April to raise the orbit of the station. It finally undocked from Mir at 11:20 GMT on July 17 and was deorbited over the Pacific later the same day.


1999 July 16 - . 16:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-42 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 242. Mass: 7,450 kg (16,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-28 Mir EO-26/-27, Soyuz TM-29. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 200.57 days. Decay Date: 2000-02-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 25858 . COSPAR: 1999-038A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.42 min.

    Delivered supplies to the crew of the Mir complex. Docked with the Kvant port at 17:53 GMT on July 18. Remained docked to the station after the departure of the last operational crew in September 1999. Undocked on February 2. 2000, to clear the port for Progress M1, at 0311:52 GMT. Deorbited over the Pacific later the same day at 0610:40 UTC with an 8 minute burn.


1999 September 6 - . 16:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Yamal 101 - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: AO Gazco. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: USP (Victoria). Spacecraft: Yamal. USAF Sat Cat: 25896 . COSPAR: 1999-047A. Apogee: 36,298 km (22,554 mi). Perigee: 35,503 km (22,060 mi). Inclination: 2.4000 deg. Period: 1,441.90 min.

    The first two Yamal communications satellites were placed into a 197 km x 36,311 km x 49.3 degree transfer orbit The DM-2M fourth stage made two successful burns, placing the satellites in circular 36,000 km geosynchronous orbits. Yamal 101 reportedly ran into problems after it was deployed. RKK Energia built the new Yamal satellites for AO Gazcom of Moscow, a joint venture of RKKE and RAO Gazprom, the Russian natural gas monopoly. The two satellites will support internal communications for RAO Gazprom. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 89 deg E in 1999. As of 30 August 2001 located at 112.86 deg E drifting at 1.484 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 42.96E drifting at 1.484W degrees per day.

  • Yamal 102 - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: AO Gazco. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: USP (Victoria). Spacecraft: Yamal. Completed Operations Date: 1999-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 25897 . COSPAR: 1999-047B. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geosynchronous communications satellite. Stationed at 90 deg E. As of 5 September 2001 located at 89.85 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 89.78E drifting at 0.010W degrees per day..

2000 February 1 - . 06:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M1-1 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 250. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 85.53 days. Decay Date: 2000-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 26067 . COSPAR: 2000-005A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 342 km (212 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.44 min.

    Progress M1 was a modification of the Progress M for the International Space Station. The first such spacecraft was diverted to raise the orbit of Mir. It docked with the unoccupied Mir space station on February 3 at 0802:20 GMT. Burns of its motor to raise Mir's orbit began on February 5 and continued through February 9. Progress M1-1 undocked at 16:33 GMT on April 26 to clear the docking port for Progress M1-2. It was deorbited over the Pacific at 19:27 GMT the same day.


2000 April 4 - . 05:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-30 - . Call Sign: Yenisey. Crew: Kaleri, Zalyotin. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 204. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kaleri, Zalyotin. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-30. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 72.82 days. Decay Date: 2000-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 26116 . COSPAR: 2000-018A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 358 km (222 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.97 min.

    Soyuz TM-30 docked with Mir's forward (-X) port on April 6 at 0631 GMT. Zalyotin and Kaleri reactivated the uninhabited station. Unloading Progress M1-1 and M1-2, they resupplied the station. The Progress spacecraft were also used to raise the station's orbit to 360 x 378 km x 51.6 deg. The orbital plane of Mir was then around 120 degrees away from that of ISS (making transport between the stations impossible, as desired by NASA).


2000 April 25 - . 20:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M1-2 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 252. Mass: 7,280 kg (16,040 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-30. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 173.00 days. Decay Date: 2000-10-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 26301 . COSPAR: 2000-021A. Apogee: 380 km (230 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.98 min. Progress M1-2 docked with the rear Kvant port of Mir at 2128 GMT on April 27. Mir's orbit was raised on April 29 in the first of a series of three burns by Progress M1-2. It later undocked and was deorbited over the Pacific on 15 October..

2000 July 12 - . 04:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Zvezda - . Mass: 20,295 kg (44,742 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau, Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: ISS Zvezda. USAF Sat Cat: 26400 . COSPAR: 2000-037A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg.

    Years behind schedule, the Zvezda living module of the International Space Station, built and financed by Russia, finally reached orbit. Zvezda's initial orbit was 179 x 332 km x 51.6 deg. On July 14 the orbit was raised to 288 x 357 km. ISS was then in a 365 x 372 km orbit. After matching orbits with the ISS, Zvezda then became the passive docking target for the Russian-built, US-financed Zarya module already attached to the station. The Zarya/Unity stack docked with the Zvezda module at 00:45 GMT on July 26, forming the basic core of the International Space Station. A flood of NASA missions would follow to bring the station into operation.


2000 August 6 - . 18:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M1-3 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 251. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: STS-106. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 86.53 days. Decay Date: 2000-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 26461 . COSPAR: 2000-044A. Apogee: 362 km (224 mi). Perigee: 347 km (215 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 91.63 min.

    Progress M1-3 automatically docked with the International Space Station on August 8 at 20:13 GMT at the rear Zvezda port. The supply ship began refuelling of the station a few days later. It remained attached for offloading of its dry cargo by the STS-106 crew. It later separated from Zvezda's rear port at 0405 GMT November 1 and was deorbited over the Pacific at 0705 GMT.


2000 October 16 - . 21:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-43 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 243. Mass: 6,860 kg (15,120 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 101.00 days. Decay Date: 2001-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 26570 . COSPAR: 2000-064A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.64 min.

    Mir Servicing flight. Launch delayed from October 15. Progress docked with Mir, primarily to raise its orbit and preserve the option of a MirCorp-financed flight in 2001. However the funding never came through and the decision was taken to deorbit Mir. Progress M-43 undocked at 0519 GMT on January 25 from the +X Kvant port to clear it for Progress M1-5 (which would deorbit the Mir station). On January 29 Progress M-43 was in a 271 x 280 km x 51.6 deg orbit.


2000 October 31 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-31 - . Call Sign: Uran. Crew: Gidzenko, Krikalyov, Shepherd. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 205. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gidzenko, Krikalyov, Shepherd. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-31. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 186.91 days. Decay Date: 2001-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 26603 . COSPAR: 2000-070A. Apogee: 385 km (239 mi). Perigee: 378 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 92.18 min.

    Soyuz TM-31 delivered the Expedition One crew to the International Space Station with Gidzenko as the Soyuz crew commander with the call-sign 'Uran'. The spacecraft docked at Zvezda's rear port at 0921 GMT on November 2. The hatch to Zvezda was opened at 1023 GMT. Once aboard ISS, Shepherd became the ISS Commander, with 'Station Alpha' as the ISS callsign. Soyuz TM-31, with Shepherd, Gidzenko and Krikalyov aboard, undocked from the -Y port on Zvezda on February 24, 2001 at 1006 GMT and redocked with the -Z port on Zarya at 1037 GMT. This freed the Zvezda port for a Progress resupply ship. After the departure of the Progress, Soyuz TM-31 undocked from the Zarya nadir port April 18 2001 at 1240 GMT and redocked with the Zvezda aft port at 1301 GMT, leaving clearance for the Raffaello MPLM module to be berthed at the Unity nadir during the STS-100 mission.


2000 November 16 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M1-4 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 253. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-31. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 84.58 days. Decay Date: 2001-02-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 26615 . COSPAR: 2000-073A. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.70 min.

    Progress M1-4 was an unmanned resupply craft that rendezvoused with the International Space Station on November 18. After problems with the automatic system, ISS Expedition 1 crew member Gidzenko took over manual control with the remote TORU system at 0302 GMT. The first docking attempt was aborted when M1-4 was only 5 m from the station at 0309 GMT. On the second attempt docking was successfully achieved at 0348 GMT at Zarya's nadir port. The problem on the first attempt was icing of the TORU system TV camera on the Progress when the spacecraft was in shadow. Progress M1-4 undocked from ISS at 1623 GMT on December 1. Following the mission of STS-97 Progress M1-4 redocked to Zarya's nadir port on December 26 at 1054 GMT. The redocking tested a fix to the software that caused problems in the vehicle's first docking attempt on November 18. Yuri Gidzenko completed the docking manually using the remote control TORU system. Progress M1-4 undocked from Zarya's nadir port for the last time at 1126 GMT on February 8. It was deorbited over the Pacific and reentered at 1350 GMT the same day.


2001 January 24 - . 04:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M1-5 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 254. Mass: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 58.00 days. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 26688 . COSPAR: 2001-003A. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi). Perigee: 151 km (93 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.20 min.

    Mir Deorbiting mission. Launch delayed from January 16 and 18. The Mir station had a power failure on January 18, delaying the launch of the Progress cargo ship that was to deorbit it for a few days. Nick-named "Hearse", it was to deliver the 130 tonne Mir station to its cremation over the southern Pacific. Six cosmonauts were on "Hot-Standby" to reach Mir in the event the automatic docking failed. Progress M1-5 carried 2677 kg of fuel. A special three-day fuel-economy approach was be used to keep as much fuel as possibile for the deorbit. Progress M1-5 docked with the +X Kvant port at 0533 GMT on January 27. It later undocked and was deorbited over the Pacific together with Mir on 23 March.


2001 February 26 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-44 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 244. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-31. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 49.22 days. Decay Date: 2001-04-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 26713 . COSPAR: 2001-008A. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 376 km (233 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

    ISS Servicing flight. Launch delayed from February10/20. Progress M-44 was a Russian, automatic cargo carrier that carried 2.5 tonnes of food, water, fuel, oxygen, and equipment to the International Space Station. In preparation for the docking, the ISS crew repositioned the Soyuz TM-31 escape craft from its port on Zvezda to a port on the Zarya module. Progress M-44 docked with the -Y port on Zvezda at 09:47 UT on 28 February. It undocked from Zvezda's aft port on April 16 at 0848 GMT and was deorbited at 1323 GMT over the Pacific Ocean.


2001 April 28 - . 07:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-32 - . Call Sign: Kristall. Crew: Baturin, Musabayev, Tito. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 206. Mass: 6,750 kg (14,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Baturin, Musabayev, Tito. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-32 ISS EP-1. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 185.89 days. Decay Date: 2001-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 26749 . COSPAR: 2001-017A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 385 km (239 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    Soyuz TM-32 was designated ISS flight 2S by NASA and EP-1 (Visiting Crew 1) by RKK Energia. Soyuz TM-32 was a fresh lifeboat for the station; the Soyuz TM-31 crew themselves would return in Soyuz TM-31, which was at the end of its rated in-space storage tie. Dennis Tito's inclusion in the crew created controversy between NASA and the Russians since he was the first space tourist to fly to ISS. He had originally paid to fly to the Mir station but funds ran out to keep that station in orbit. Soyuz TM-32 docked with the -Z port on Zarya at 0758 GMT on April 30 after Endeavour had departed.. The crew transferred their customized reentry seat liners to Soyuz TM-31, at which point TM-32 became the Station's rescue vehicle. After a six day stay, the Soyuz TM-32 crew returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-31. The Expedition 3 crew entered Soyuz TM-32) on October 19, 2001 and undocked from the nadir port of Zarya at 1048 GMT, flying it out and then sideways a few meters before approaching the station again to dock with the Pirs nadir port at 1104 GMT. This freed up Zarya for the arrival of a new Soyuz. The docking port at the aft end of Zvezda was occupied by the Progress M-45 cargo ship.


2001 May 20 - . 22:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Progress M1-6 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 255. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: STS-102 ISS EO-2. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 93.44 days. Decay Date: 2001-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 26773 . COSPAR: 2001-021A. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi). Perigee: 391 km (242 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.50 min.

    ISS Servicing flight. Launch delayed from april 12. This Progress resupply mission to the ISS was launched by the first Soyuz-FG rocket - a modified Soyuz-U with 5 percent improved perfomance using new fuel utilisation systems. Progress M1-6 after launch was also designated as ISS supply mission 4P. It carried 2.5 tonnes of food, fuel, water, life-support material, and equipment, including spare computer equipment for the ISS Destiny module. Nearly one tonne of the fuel was for raising the altitude of the ISS. Progress M1-6 docked with Zvezda's aft (-Y) port at 0024 GMT on May 23. It undocked at 0601 GMT on August 22 and deorbited at around 0900 GMT the same day.


2001 August 21 - . 09:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-45 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 245. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: STS-105 ISS EO-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 93.50 days. Decay Date: 2001-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 26890 . COSPAR: 2001-036A. Apogee: 389 km (241 mi). Perigee: 376 km (233 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

    ISS Servicing Mission. Launch delayed from July 4 and 24. Progress M-45, 7K-TGM No. 245 (of the older generation series of Progress) docked with the ISS at 0951 GMT on August 23 at the aft Zvezda port vacated by Progress M6-1 a day earlier. It and delivered 2.5 tonnes of fuel, water, oxygen, equipment and spare parts. Progress M-45 undocked on November 22 and was deorbited over the Pacific later the same day.


2001 October 21 - . 08:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-33 - . Call Sign: Derbent. Crew: Afanasyev, Andre-Deshays, Kozeyev. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 207. Mass: 6,750 kg (14,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Andre-Deshays, Kozeyev. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-33 ISS EP-2. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 195.79 days. Decay Date: 2002-05-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 26955 . COSPAR: 2001-048A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 386 km (239 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    Soyuz TM-33, an ISS lifeboat, carried two Russian and one French cosmonaut to the International Space Station (ISS). It docked with the ISS at 10:00 UT on 23 October. This new crew spent eight days on the ISS, and returned on the older Soyuz TM-32 at 03:59 UT on 31 October. The new Soyuz was to remain docked as a lifeboat craft for the long-term ISS crew of three (two Russian and one American) astronauts. On May 5, 2002, after a week aboard the station, the visting Soyuz TM-34 crew moved to the old Soyuz TM-33, docked at the Pirs port. They undocked at 0031:08 UTC on May 5, leaving the EO-4 crew of Onufrienko, Walz and Bursch with the new Soyuz TM-34 as their rescue vehicle. Soyuz TM-33 made its deorbit burn at 0257 UTC and landed successfully at 0352 UTC 25 km SE of Arkalyk.


2001 November 26 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Progress M1-7 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 256. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: STS-105 ISS EO-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 113.29 days. Decay Date: 2002-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 26983 . COSPAR: 2001-051A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 384 km (238 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min.

    ISS Servicing flight. Launch delayed from November 14. The Progress M1-7 Russian automatic cargo carrier soft docked with the International Space Station Zvezda module at 1943 GMT on Nov 28. The docking probe retracted, but the eight peripheral latches would not engage. It turned out that a rubber seal had been left on the docking ring by Progress M-45. Cosmonauts from aboard the station cleared the debris in a spacewalk on December 3. As they watched from a few meters away Progress M1-7 was commanded to a hard dock with the station. NASA referred to this flight as `Progress 6'. It delivered 2.5 tonnes of food, fuel and equipment to the station, as well as a microsatellite named Kolibri. The Expedition 4 crew finished loading trash into Progress M1-7 on 19 March 2002, and it undocked from Zvezda's aft port at 1743 UTC. The Kolibri-2000 microsatellite was ejected from the Progress cargo compartment at 2228 UTC; Progress fired its engines to deorbit over the Pacific at about 0127 UTC on Mar 20.


2002 March 21 - . 20:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M1-8 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 257. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: STS-108 ISS EO-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 95.67 days. Decay Date: 2002-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 27395 . COSPAR: 2002-013A. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 379 km (235 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min.

    ISS Servicing mission. Launch delayed from February 15 and 28. The Progress M1-8 resupply spacecraft was flown on ISS mission 7P. It docked with the Zvezda module on the Station at 2058 UTC on March 24. Progress M1-8 undocked from the Zvezda module at 0826 UTC on June 25. The deorbit burn was at 1135 UTC, lowering its orbit from 379 x 398 km x 51.6 deg to 50 x 398 km. The spacecraft reentered over the Pacific at 1213 UTC with debris impact near 46 S 144 W.


2002 April 25 - . 06:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Soyuz TM-34 - . Call Sign: Uran. Crew: Gidzenko, Shuttleworth, Vittori. Payload: Soyuz TM s/n 208. Mass: 6,750 kg (14,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gidzenko, Shuttleworth, Vittori. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-34 ISS EP-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 198.73 days. Decay Date: 2002-11-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 27416 . COSPAR: 2002-020A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 387 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    Launch delayed from April 10, 22 and 17. Soyuz TM-34 was launched on ISS Mission 4S with Commander Yuri Gidzenko of Rosaviakosmos, Flight Engineer is Roberto Vittori of ESA, and Tourist Mark Shuttleworth, a South African citizen. At 1210 UTC Soyuz TM-34 was in a 242 x 269 km x 51.6 deg orbit. The flight was also referred to as ISS Mission 4S, the EP-3 visiting crew flight, and even as 'Soyuz 4' by NASA. Soyuz TM-34 docked with the nadir port on the Zarya module at 0755 UTC on April 27. The 4S flight docked at the Zarya nadir port on April 27. and the crew would return to Earth in the old TM-33 vehicle, leaving TM-34 as the active ISS rescue vehicle.


2002 June 26 - . 05:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-46 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 246. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: STS-111 ISS EO-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 110.00 days. Decay Date: 2002-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 27454 . COSPAR: 2002-033A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 387 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

    Launch delayed from May 21, then moved forward from July 14. Progress M-46 was launched on ISS mission 8P and docked with the Zvezda module at 0623 UTC on June 29 after carrying out tests of the Kurs rendezvous system on June 28. Seperated from ISS and commanded to destructive re-entry on 14 October 2002.


2002 September 25 - . 16:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Progress M1-9 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 258. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: STS-111 ISS EO-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 129.00 days. Decay Date: 2003-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 27531 . COSPAR: 2002-045A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 282 km (175 mi). Inclination: 51.6331 deg. Period: 90.60 min.

    Launch delayed from July 22, September 10 and 20. Progress-M1 9, known to NASA as Progress 9P, was a Russian automatic cargo transportation craft that was to deliver food, fuel, and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS). It docked with the Zvezda module of the ISS on September 29 at 1700 UTC. Prior to the docking, the port was vacated by the earlier Progress-M 46. Undocked from the station on 1 February 2003 and commanded to destructive re-entry in the atmosphere.


2002 October 30 - . 03:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-1 - . Call Sign: Yenisey. Crew: De Winne, Lonchakov, Zalyotin. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 211. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: De Winne, Lonchakov, Zalyotin. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-1 ISS EP-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 185.96 days. Decay Date: 2003-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 27552 . COSPAR: 2002-050A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 278 km (172 mi). Inclination: 51.6200 deg. Period: 90.20 min.

    Launch delayed from October 22, 28 pending investigation of causes of failure of another Soyuz booster on 15 October. Soyuz-TMA 1 was a Russian automatic passenger craft. It carried the EP-4 visiting crew of three astronauts (two Russians and one Belgian) to automatically dock with the International Space Station (ISS). This was the first flight of the new Soyuz-TMA model. It was to remain parked at the ISS as the escape craft, relieving the Soyuz TM-34. The crew conducted several microgravity experiments on the ISS during their 10-day stay before returning in Soyuz TM-34.


2003 February 2 - . 12:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-47 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 247. Mass: 7,290 kg (16,070 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: STS-113 ISS EO-6. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 206.00 days. Decay Date: 2003-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 27681 . COSPAR: 2003-006A. Apogee: 247 km (154 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6476 deg. Period: 88.77 min.

    Launch delayed from original schedule of January 30, and was made just one day after the Columbia disaster resulted in a suspension of shuttle flights. Docked successfully with the ISS on 14:49 GMT on 4 February 2003. Undocked from Zvezda on August 27 and deorbited later the same day.


2003 April 26 - . 03:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-2 - . Call Sign: Agat. Crew: Lu, Malenchenko. Backup Crew: Foale, Kaleri. Return Crew: Duque, Lu, Malenchenko. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 212. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Duque, Foale, Kaleri, Lu, Malenchenko. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-2. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 184.95 days. Decay Date: 2003-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 27781 . COSPAR: 2003-016A. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 386 km (239 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle is grounded. Replaced three-man crew aboard ISS since before STS-107 disaster..

2003 June 8 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M1-10 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 259. Mass: 7,270 kg (16,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-2. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 117.06 days. Decay Date: 2003-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 27823 . COSPAR: 2003-025A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.40 min.

    Resupply of International Space Station. Additional water carried to meet needs of skeleton crew. Successfully docked with the nadir port on Pirs at 1115 GMT on June 11. It undocked from the station on September 4 to clear the port for Soyuz TMA-3 but then unusually spent a month on an autonomous earth observation mission. The deorbit engine ignited at 11:26 GMT on October 3 from a 247 x 340 km x 51.6 deg orbit, reducing the perigee to 69 km. Progress M1-10 reentered the atmosphere over the Pacific at 11:58 GMT and broke up around 12:05 GMT.


2003 October 18 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-3 - . Call Sign: Ingul. Crew: Duque, Foale, Kaleri. Return Crew: Foale, Kaleri, Kuipers. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 213. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Duque, Foale, Kaleri, Kuipers. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-2, Soyuz TMA-3, Soyuz TMA-3 Cervantes. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 194.77 days. Decay Date: 2004-04-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 28052 . COSPAR: 2003-047A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 376 km (233 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

    The spacecraft carried the Expedition 8 crew of Mike Foale and Aleksandr Kaleri and the EP-5 (Cervantes) mission crewmember Pedro Duque. During the flight to the station spacecraft Commander was Aleksandr Kaleri . Soyuz TMA-3 docked with the Pirs module at 07:16 GMT on October 20. Once the EO-7 crew aboard the ISS was relieved, the roles switched, with Foale becoming the ISS Commander. Duque carried out out 24 experiments in the fields of life and physical sciences, Earth observation, education and technology. The experiments were sponsored by the European Space Agency and Spain. After ten days in space, Duque returned to earth with the EO-7 crew of Malenchenko and Lu aboard Soyuz TMA-2.


2004 January 29 - . 11:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M1-11 - . Payload: Progress M1 s/n 260. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-3. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M1. Duration: 116.00 days. Decay Date: 2004-06-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 28142 . COSPAR: 2004-002A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6500 deg. Period: 88.73 min.

    ISS resupply, to dock at the Zvezda module of the station 13:15 GMT on 31 January. Launch delayed from November 20, 2003. Payload delivered amounted to 2345 kg and included a new flex hose for the Destiny module's leaky window, replacement parts for the Russian Elektron oxygen-generating unit, a spare Elektron, new Russian Solid Fuel Oxygen Generator candles, batteries for the Zarya and Zvezda modules, gas analyser equipment, updated fire suppression and detection equipment, a new Russian Orlan spacesuit, film, cameras, data cassettes and the Matreshka experiment package for installation on Zvezda's exterior during a spacewalk.

    A few days prior to its departure from the ISS, ground controllers fired the Progress M1-11's engines for 11 minutes, boosting the Station's altitude by 3.7 km and adjusting its inclination by one one-hundredth of a degree. Progress M1-11 undocked from the Station at 11:19 GMT on 24 May 2005, clearing the way for the arrival of Progress M-49. It was thereafter commanded to a destructive re-entry over the Pacific Ocean.


2004 April 19 - . 03:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-4 - . Call Sign: Altair. Crew: Fincke, Kuipers, Padalka. Return Crew: Fincke, Padalka, Shargin. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 214. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Fincke, Kuipers, Padalka, Shargin. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-3, Soyuz TMA-4, Soyuz TMA-4 Delta. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 187.89 days. Decay Date: 2004-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 28228 . COSPAR: 2004-013A. Apogee: 367 km (228 mi). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.80 min.

    Soyuz TMA-4 was ISS transport mission ISS 8S and delivered the EO-9 caretaker crew of Gennadiy Padalka and Michael Fincke, together with the ESA/Netherlands Delta mission crewmember Andre Kuipers, to the Space Station. Soyuz TMA-4 docked with the nadir port on Zarya at 05:01 GMT on April 21 and the hatches to the ISS were opened at 06:30 GMT. Another gyro on the station had shut down prior to the docking and possibly would require a maintenance spacewalk to replace its failed electronics.

    After Soyuz TMA-5 docked with the ISS on October 16, the EO-9 crew handed activities over to the EO-10 crew.


2004 May 25 - . 12:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-49 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 249. Mass: 7,283 kg (16,056 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 66.00 days. Decay Date: 2004-07-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 28261 . COSPAR: 2004-019A. Apogee: 367 km (228 mi). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.80 min.

    Docked at the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station on 27 May at 13:55 GMT. Delivered two and a half tons of food, water, fuel, spare parts and supplies. Progress M-49 undocked from the Zvezda module on 30 July 2004 at 7:05 GMT, after having been filled with a tonne of trash. Fincke filmed its departure, and Station exterior cameras captured rare footage of the Progress' fiery re-entry into Earth's atmosphere after it was deorbited.


2004 August 11 - . 05:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-50 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 250. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 133.73 days. Decay Date: 2004-12-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 28399 . COSPAR: 2004-032A. Apogee: 365 km (226 mi). Perigee: 358 km (222 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Delayed from July 22 and 28. Docked with the International Space Station at 05:01 GMT on August 14. Undocked from the Zvezda module of the ISS on December 22 at 19:34 GMT and was deorbited over the Pacific at 22:32 GMT..

2004 December 23 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-51 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 251. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-5. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 76.00 days. Decay Date: 2005-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 28503 . COSPAR: 2004-051A. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi). Perigee: 316 km (196 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min.

    Launch delayed from November 24, December 22 . Progress M-51 docked with the Zvezda module of the International Space Station on December 25 at 23:58 GMT, bringing critical food supplies to the EO-10 crew. Press hype during the delays prior to the launch had portrayed the situation as one where failure of the Progress to dock would have required the crew to either return to earth or starve.

    Undocked from at 16:06 GMT on February 27, 2005, in order to clear the port for Progress M-52, which would launch the next day. Progress M-51 lowered its perigee at around 18:30 GMT and remained in orbit for several days. FInally an engine firing was commanded, bringing it down in a destructive re-entry over the Pacific Ocean on March 9.


2005 June 16 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-53 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 353. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-6. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 82.62 days. Decay Date: 2005-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 28700 . COSPAR: 2005-021A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min.

    Delayed from June 10. Space station resupply mission. After a communications failure, ISS Commander Krikalyov took manual remote control used the TORU system to guide Progress M-53 to a docking at the ISS Zvezda module at 00:42 GMT on 19 June. Undocked at 10:26 GMT on 7 September into a 350 km x 351 km orbit. Progress M-53 began retrofire at 13:26 GMT the same day, lowering its perigee to 56 km and thereby ensuring a destructive re-entry into the Pacific Ocean.


2005 October 1 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-7 - . Call Sign: Rassvet. Crew: McArthur, Olsen, Tokarev. Return Crew: McArthur, Pontes, Tokarev. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 217. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: McArthur, Olsen, Pontes, Tokarev. Agency: NASA, RAKA, Shanghai Astronautics Bureau. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-6, Soyuz TMA-7, Soyuz TMA-8 ISS EP-10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 189.83 days. Decay Date: 2006-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 28877 . COSPAR: 2005-039A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 347 km (215 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min.

    Launch delayed from September 27. Soyuz TMA-7 docked with the International Space Station at 05:27 GMT on 3 October, bringing the long duration EO-12 crew of (McArthur, Commander; Tokarev, Flight Engineer) and space tourist Olsen. McArthur, Tokarev and Pontes (brought to the station aboard Soyuz TMA-8) transferred to TMA-7 on April 8, 2006, closing the hatches at 17:15 GMT and undocking from Zvezda at 20:28 GMT, leaving Vinogradov and Williams from Soyuz TMA-8 as the Expedition 13 in charge of the station. Soyuz TMA-7 fired its engines at 22:58 GMT for the deorbit burn and landed in Kazakhstan at 23:48 GMT.


2005 December 21 - . 18:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-55 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 355. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-7. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 179.96 days. Decay Date: 2006-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 28906 . COSPAR: 2005-047A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. The resupply spacecraft docked with the ISS Pirs module at 19:46 GMT on 23 December. It undocked at 14:06 GMT on June 19, 2006; fired its engines at 17:06 GMT to lower its orbit into the atmosphere; and burned up over the Pacific Ocean at 17:41 GMT..

2006 March 30 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
2006 April 24 - . 16:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-56 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 356. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-8. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 157.35 days. Decay Date: 2006-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 29057 . COSPAR: 2006-013A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Progress M-56 docked at the Zvezda port of the International Space Station on 26 April at 17:41 GMT. It undocked at 00:28 GMT on 29 September and was then commanded to a destructive reentry over the south Pacific Ocean..

2006 June 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-57 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 357. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-8. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 207.00 days. Decay Date: 2007-01-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 29245 . COSPAR: 2006-025A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 335 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. The Progress flew International Space Station resupply mission 22P (NASA called the flight Progress 22). It docked at the ISS Pirs port at 16:25 GMT on June 26..

2006 July 26 - . 19:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. FAILURE: First stage engine failed. Failed Stage: 1.
  • BelKA, Baumanets, Unisat 4, PicPot, and 9 nanosats - . Mass: 360 kg (790 lb). Nation: Belarus. Agency: BNAS. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Payload consisted of 19 nanosats from academic institutions: BelKA; Baumanets; Unisat-4; PICPOT; ICECube-1; ION; RINCON; AeroCube-1; CalPoly CP1; SEEDS; nCube-1; HAUSAT-1; MEROPE; CalPoly CP2; KUTESat; SACRED; Voyager; ICECube 3.

2006 September 18 - . 04:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-9 - . Call Sign: Vostok. Crew: Ansari, Lopez-Alegria, Tyurin. Return Crew: Lopez-Alegria, Simonyi, Tyurin. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 219. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Ansari, Lopez-Alegria, Simonyi, Tyurin. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-8, Soyuz TMA-9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 215.35 days. Decay Date: 2007-04-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 29400 . COSPAR: 2006-040A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min.

    Carried the Expedition 14 crew and space tourist Anousheh Ansari to the International Space Station. Ansari replaced tourist Daisuke Enomoto, who was removed from flight status by the Russians just 28 days before the flight. Docked at the Zvezda port of the station at 05:21 GMT on September 20. On 21 April 2007, Lopez-Alegria, Tyurin and space tourist Charles Simonyi (who was taken to the station aboard Soyuz TMA-10) boarded Soyuz TMA-9, separated from the ISS, conducted retrofire, and landed in Kazakhstan at 12:31 GMT.


2006 October 23 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-58 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 358. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-8. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 155.38 days. Decay Date: 2007-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 29503 . COSPAR: 2006-045A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 321 km (199 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min.

    The Progress docked with the Zvezda module of the ISS at 14:29 GMT on October 26. There were indications that the Kurs rendezvous antenna on the forward docking ring had not retracted correctly, but this proved not to be the case. Hard dock was commanded at 18:06 GMT. Progress M-58 undocked from the Zvezda module on 27 March 2007 at 18:11 GMT and was deorbited at 22:44 GMT.


2007 January 18 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-59 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 359. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lopez-Alegria, Tyurin, Williams. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-9, STS-117 ISS EO-15. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 195.00 days. Decay Date: 2007-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 29714 . COSPAR: 2007-002A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 321 km (199 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Progress docked to the Pirs port of the ISS at 01:59 GMT on 20 January. The cargo craft brought up 780 kg of propellant for the Russian thrusters, 50 kg of oxygen and 1500 kg of spare parts, experiment hardware and life support components..

2007 April 7 - . 17:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-10 - . Call Sign: Pulsar. Crew: Kotov, Simonyi, Yurchikhin. Return Crew: Kotov, Muszaphar, Yurchikhin. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 220 / ISS-14S. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kotov, Muszaphar, Simonyi, Yurchikhin. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-10, Soyuz TMA-10 ISS EP-12. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 196.71 days. Decay Date: 2007-10-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 31100 . COSPAR: 2007-008A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min.

    Carried the Expedition 15 crew and space tourist Charles Simonyi to the International Space Station. Soyuz TMA-10 docked at the Zarya port of the International Space Station at 19:10 GMT on 9 April. It undocked from Zarya at 19:20 GMT on Sep 27 September and docked at the Zvezda port at 19:47 GMT to clear Zarya for Soyuz TMA-10.

    The EO-15 crew and EP-13 space tourist Shukor (brought to the station by Soyuz TMA-11) boarded Soyuz TM-10 and undocked from the Zvezda port at 07:14 GMT on 21 October. The re-entry burn began at 09:47 and was normal. But afterwards, due to failure of an explosive bolt, the Soyuz service module remained connected to the re-entry capsule. The Soyuz tumbled, then began re-entry with the forward hatch taking the re-entry heating, until the connecting strut burned through. The Soyuz the righted itself with the heat shield taking the heating, but defaulted to an 8.6 G ballistic re-entry, landing 340 km short of the aim point at 10:36 GMT. Improved procedures after the ballistic re-entry of Soyuz TMA-1 meant a helicopter recovery crew reached the capsule only 20 minutes after thumpdown. However the true nature of the failure was concealed from the world until the same thing happened on Soyuz TMA-11.


2007 May 12 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-60 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 360. Mass: 7,280 kg (16,040 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kotov, Williams, Yurchikhin. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-10, STS-117 ISS EO-15. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 136.65 days. Decay Date: 2007-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 31393 . COSPAR: 2007-017A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min.

    Space station resupply spacecraft which docked with the Zvezda port of the International Space Station at 05:10 GMT on 15 May. It undocked on 19 September was conducted plasma depletion experiments before being deorbited over the Pacific at 19:01 GMT on 25 September..


2007 August 2 - . 17:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-61 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 361. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-10, STS-117 ISS EO-15. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 173.00 days. Decay Date: 2008-01-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 32001 . COSPAR: 2007-033A. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi). Perigee: 334 km (207 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min.

    International space station resupply; docked with the Pirs module at 18:40 GMT on 5 August. Undocked at 03:59 GMT on 22 December to clear port for Progress M-62 launched the next day. Deorbited over the Pacific on 22 January 2008 after a month of free flight carrying out the Plazma-Progress experiment.


2007 December 23 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
  • Progress M-62 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 362. Mass: 7,130 kg (15,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-11, STS-120 ISS EO-16. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 54.11 days. Decay Date: 2008-02-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 32391 . COSPAR: 2007-064B. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 333 km (206 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min.

    Resupply spacecraft that docked with the Pirs port of the International Space Station at 08:14 GMT on 26 December. Undocked on 4 February 2008 at 10:32 GMT and then carried out Earth observations for ten days before being deorbited on 15 February at 09:44 GMT.



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