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R-36M
R-36M
R-36M
The super-heavy Ukrainian R-36M ICBM replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. The fall of the Soviet Union ended production and the need for replacement. Nevertheless they remained in Russian service into the 21st Century, some being modified for use as space launchers.

The concepts leading to the mighty R-36M ICBM can be traced back to a decree of 2 September 1969. A replacement for the R-36 would be needed at the end of its service life, and it should be as large as possible to provide the maximum throw weight while using the existing silos. On the other hand the silo itself would need modification to improve its resistance to nearby nuclear explosions. It would still have to be installed in the silo as a 'certified round' - sealed in its canister, fuelled, and ready for instant launch at any time throughout its 10 to 15 year life.

In the early 1960's Chelomei had developed the gas dynamic launch method for this UR-100 missile. This used exhaust gases from the rocket to 'pop' the missile out of its silo. Yangel had appropriated this idea for his abortive mixed propulsion mobile RT-20P ICBM. In 1969 he conceived of the idea of a 'cold launch'. This would use a cold gas generator - essentially a huge mortar charge -- to pop the missile out of the silo. The first stage of the missile would only fire when it was some distance in the air. The advantages were several. A crucial initial energy impulse would be given to the rocket by a device that would not cut into the total missile mass. The silo would not be damaged by the hot exhaust gases of the rocket, providing the possibility for quick reloading and reuse of the silo. More room would be available in the silo itself for shock mounting of the missile.

The draft project for the R-36M missile itself was completed in December 1969. Four warhead variants were proposed -- a single light re-entry vehicle (RV), a single heavy RV, multiple independently-targeted RV's , and ballistic and maneuverable RV's to defeat enemy anti-ballistic missile defenses. The missile was to be designed for a ten year operational life (later extended to 15 years as a result of in-service tests).

A preliminary project document for the new silo was completed in March 1970. However Yangel's usual collaborator on silo design, Yevgeniy Rudyak at TsKB-34, did not agree with the cold launch concept at all. He did not see how it could be applied to a derivative of the R-36 rocket, with a launch mass of over 200 metric tons. But Rudyak was to depart for KB Spetsmash in December 1970 and the next chief designer, Vladimir Stepanov, was willing to pursue the concept. The greatest challenge was not the powder cold-gas generator, but the pneumatic cushioning planned to protect the missile in the silo. How could air bags be kept inflated without maintenance for the required 10 to 15 year guaranteed storage life of the missile? In parallel Vsevolod Soloyev at KBTM was developing an alternate system that would suspend the missile in the silo, isolating it from shock. But this approach was dropped in May 1970 and it was decided to use Stepanov's concept.

In August 1970 the Soviet military approved the complete R-36M/silo design concept. The existing silos would require extensive modification, but they would be fifty times more blast and radiation resistant. The original R-36M design followed the R-36 in the use of common Glushko engines in the first and second stages. But by August 1970 Yangel had selected Konopatov at KBKhA to provide a different engine design for the second stage.

Glushko's four-chamber RD-264 engine for the first stage was made up of four RD-263 chambers fed by common turbopumps. In this generation Glushko finally provided gimbaled engines, that could swivel up to 7 degrees from vertical, allowing Yangel to dispense with the extra vernier rockets of the R-36. A big challenge in development was to ensure the missiles were undamaged and would ignite and operate properly after the mortar launch of the missile. The draft project for the RD-264 was completed in 1969, and stand tests began in September 1973. The engine was cleared for production, but in service high frequency oscillations were discovered. These affected the accuracy of the missile and impacted not only the R-36M but the MR-UR-100, also built by Yuzhnoye but using two RD-263 chambers. Fixes were confirmed at stand tests at KB Yuzhnoye in April-November 1977. The Ministry of Defence approved the fix in December 1977 and R-36M missiles in silos had to be removed and replaced by the R-36MUTTKh version in 1979-1983.

The RD-0228 second stage engine had been under development by Konopatov since 1967. Stand tests were completed in 1974. The guidance system was developed by NII-692/NPO Kharton under the supervision of Vladimir Sergeyev. The countermeasures system was by TsNIRTI. The solid rocket motors used for stage and warhead separation were by Boris Zhukov at LNPO Soyuz. Each ten silos was controlled by an improved hardened universal command point by Nicolai Krivoshein and Boris Aksyutin at TsKB TM.

In 1970 initial qualification tests of the missile began at the Pavlograd Mechanical Factory in the same year. In the same year KTBM completed design of the 8P867 facility of two surface launch complexes in order to conduct subsystems tests of the R-36M. These were above-ground but simulated the horizontal and vertical shock attenuators of the silo. The facility was built at Baikonur as LC-67, with the missile preparation at Area 42. In January 1971 tests of the new cold launch method began at Baikonur. Nine mortar launches of dummy missiles were made. In the first attempts friction during ejection of the missile allowed it to crash back on the concrete pad, reducing the rocket to a pile of twisted metal.

During development four different post-boost bus/warhead combinations were tested:

  • The single-warhead version using the 15B86 upper stage bus+warhead
  • The triple-warhead 15F143 (standardized to 15F143U during the course of development).
  • The ten-warhead 15F147 (standardized to 15F143U during the course of development).
  • The two-tier 15F678 bus that could accommodate 5, 6, 8, 10, or 14 maneuverable homing warheads. The bus used solid rocket motors to dispense the warheads.

The first attempted launch of a live missile on 6 March 1972 resulted in it blowing up directly over the silo, destroying it. The second and third launch attempts were also unsuccessful. The fourth and first successful launch of an R-36M (the single warhead variant) finally came on 21 February 1973. Trials with the 15F143 dispenser were conducted from September 1973 to October 1975. The first 15F147 launch was also in September 1973.

The 15F678 Mayak-1 homing warhead version used pressure-fed engines for maneuver. The draft project was completed in April 1975 and flight trials began in July 1978. In August 1980 tests of a second variant of the homing system for the warhead was tested, this using an optical matching system to allow the re-entry vehicle to home precisely onto the target.

The launches were tracked by US reconnaissance assets, among them a specially converted B-52 and the USS Arnold off the Kamchatka peninsular. Launches would sometimes be postponed to attempt to foil American observation. The Americans were usually able to anticipate launches, either via the warnings the Soviets had to issue to ships and aircraft when scheduling impacts in Kamchatka, or simply by studying weather forecasts. Test launches were normally conducted only in windows of good weather in both the launch and impact zones.

In September 1973 a test was conducted with the missile bus dispensing ten MIRV warheads. The Americans unfortunately detected this test, which would come to haunt the Soviets later in arms treaty negotiations. Although they planned to deploy the R-36M with only a maximum of eight warheads, they had to count each as capable of carrying ten under treaty rules.

Bureaucratic delays and problems with the first stage engines only detected after the missiles were in service resulted in the missiles being put into service years before they were formally accepted by the military. Production of both the R-36M and MR-UR-100 was authorized by a decree of October 1974. The Yuzhnoye factory built the R-36M airframe, the re-entry vehicles, and the first stage engines. Series production of the 15F143 and 15F147 warheads was undertaken by the Perm Chemical Industry Factory.

The first R-36M regiment became operational on 25 December 1974 at Dombarovskiy. The first missile in the new super-hardened silo was deployed on 30 November 1975. The complete missile and launch complex were accepted by the military on 30 December 1975, in the same decree that accepted the MR-UR-100 and the UR-100N missile systems. All three used the same automatic launch system developed by NPO Impuls in Leningrad.

However it was not until 20 November 1978 that the 15B86 single warhead was formally accepted into service, followed by the 15F143U on 29 November 1979. The 15F678 seems never actually to have entered service with the original R-36M before they it was withdrawn due to the engine problem. A peak deployment of 190 R-36M's was reached in 1979, but by 1983 they had all been replaced by the R-36MUTTKh.

In deployment an R-36M would be shipped from the factory to the launch silo or launch stand at Baikonur. After being inserted in the silo, electrical connections would be made and a series of electrical and avionics tests made. The rocket would be fuelled with 180 metric tons of corrosive propellants. The re-entry vehicles with their nuclear warheads would be mounted. The silo hatches and main door would be closed, and the missile was ready for launch within 30 seconds of the receipt of the command for up to fifteen years.

In the 1970's biological warheads for single-warhead ICBM's were developed and flight-tested, presumably including the R-36/R-36M. In the late winter of 1988 the extremely secretive Fifteenth Directorate of the Soviet Army prepared to arm the multiple-warhead R-36M with a biological agent in lieu of nuclear warheads. It seemed that an interchangeable dispensing warhead had already been developed and qualified for this purpose, since the only issue was which agent to select and how quickly it could be produced. Anthrax 836 was the agent of choice. Ten warheads on a single R-36M could dispense 400 kg of milled anthrax in aerosol form over a major city. This would be sufficient, it was calculated, for a single R-36M to kill 12 million people. Attacks were considered against New York, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Chicago. Soviet production capacity at that time was sufficient to load the planned 'hundreds' of warheads on dozens of missiles within two weeks.

The START-1 treaty reduced the number of allowable warheads. R-36M versions were began to be replaced by the R-36M2 in 1988. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the manufacturer of the missiles was in newly-independent Ukraine, an unacceptable situation for a key strategic weapon. The missiles in Kazakhstan were removed in the early 1990's and moved to the Soviet Union for use as spares. By 1999 deployment was down to 180 silos, all of which were to be demolished by 2007 under the START-2 Treaty. Thus ended the career of the 'city buster', the most awesome strategic weapon ever deployed.

Subtopics

R-36M 15A14 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos.

R-36MU 15A18 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the R-36M with a new ten warhead MIRV bus, better guidance system, increased throw-weight, and increased range.

R-36M2 15A18M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M2 was the Soviet Union's answer to the American 'Star Wars' anti-ballistic missile system. It was unusually named 'Voevoda' (an old Russian word for the leader of an army) in recognition of its planned role. In the end, it was only deployed in very limited numbers before the end of the Cold War.

Dnepr Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Spacecraft: SSTL-70, ROCSAT, MiniSat-400, Megsat, Rubin, Saudisat, UniSat, AprizeSat, Cubesat, Amsat Echo, Demeter, MS-1, Kirari, Reimei, Genesis Pathfinder, SaudiComsat, TerraSAR-X, SSTL-150. Launch Sites: Baikonur, Dombarovskiy. More at: 7703.

1971 October 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • BI-2 Silo tests test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1971 November 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1971 December 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1971 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 March 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 April 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 June 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 August 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 October 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14. FAILURE: Failure.
  • BI-4 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1972 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14. FAILURE: Failure.
  • BI-4 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1973 February 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Phase 1 state trials flight - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 April 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 April 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 May 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1973 June 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 July 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 July 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 August 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 September 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 September 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1973 October 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1973 November 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 November 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 December 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 December 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 January 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • POR state trials missile launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 February 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1974 February 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • POR state trials missile launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 February 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 April 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1974 June 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 July 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 July 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 August 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 August 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 September 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 October 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 November 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1974 December 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 December 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1975 February 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 February 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 March 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • SLI POR test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • SLI POR test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 April 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 May 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 June 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • SLI? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 June 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • SLI? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 June 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 August 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 August 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 August 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 September 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 October 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • SLI? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 January 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 February 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 February 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • SLI? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 May 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • SLI? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 June 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 June 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 September 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 December 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • DP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 February 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 March 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 May 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 May 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 October 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • SLI - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 February 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 February 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC102. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1978 July 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • DP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 September 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 September 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1978 December 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 April 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • DP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 March 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • DP - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 April 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 July 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 August 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 November 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
1981 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Kartaly. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 February 10 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 February 11 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 March 5 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 March 5 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 March 6 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kartaly. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 April 28 - . Launch Site: Kartaly. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 April 29 - . Launch Site: Kartaly. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 November 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 - . Launch Site: Kartaly. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 June 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 July 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 August 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 February 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 July 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 July 19 - . Launch Site: Derzhavinsk. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 - . Launch Site: Kartaly. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M 15A14.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 April 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 November 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 September 20 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 - . Launch Site: Derzhavinsk. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 March 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1986 August 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1986 September 14 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 November 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Kartaly. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 January 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1987 June 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1987 Jul - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 July 23 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 September 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1987 October 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 March 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1988 July 18 - . Launch Site: Derzhavinsk. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 December 19 - . Launch Site: Derzhavinsk. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • ICBM operational test launch from missile base silo - . Nation: Kazakhstan. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 May 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 June 12 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 August 17 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 August 29 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 December 11 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 May 28 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 September 12 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 September 17 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 October 10 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 20 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 28 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 April 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 April 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Dnepr Demo test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 April 21 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • UoSAT-12 - . Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Surrey. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MiniSat-400. Spacecraft: MiniSat-400. USAF Sat Cat: 25693 . COSPAR: 1999-021A. Apogee: 654 km (406 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.70 min.

    First launch of Russia's Dnepr launch vehicle, a converted R-36M2 ICBM. The Dnepr was launched from a silo. The third stage maneuvring bus (used on the ICBM for dispensing multiple warheads) placed UoSAT-12 into a 638 km x 652 km x 64.6 deg orbit. The third stage separated from the payload at 05:13 GMT and then made a burn into a 599 km x 1403 km x 64.6 deg orbit. UoSAT-12 was the first test of the Minibus platform, at 325 kg a larger spacecraft than earlier 50 kg Surrey UoSATs. It carried a mobile radio experiment (MERLION), a GPS receiver, and imaging cameras.


2000 September 26 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Tiungsat-1 - . Payload: MY-Sat 1. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Malaysia. Agency: BKSA. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SSTL-70. Spacecraft: SSTL-70. USAF Sat Cat: 26545 . COSPAR: 2000-057A. Apogee: 658 km (409 mi). Perigee: 644 km (400 mi). Inclination: 64.5585 deg. Period: 97.67 min.

    Launch delayed from August 25/26. Customer: Astonautic Technology (M) SDN. BHD. Malaysia's first microsatellite built through a technology transfer programme with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd Carried multi-spectral Earth imaging CCD cameras, meteorological Earth imaging CCD camera, digital store and forward communications, cosmic-ray energy deposition experiment (CEDEX)

  • SaudiSat 1B - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Saudisat. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26549 . COSPAR: 2000-057E. Apogee: 664 km (413 mi). Perigee: 644 km (400 mi). Inclination: 64.5547 deg. Period: 97.73 min. Saudisat 1A and 1B were developed by the Saudi Institute for Space Research at KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology), Riyadh, and carried amateur store-forward communications payloads..
  • SaudiSat 1A - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Saudisat. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26548 . COSPAR: 2000-057D. Apogee: 651 km (404 mi). Perigee: 644 km (400 mi). Inclination: 64.5576 deg. Period: 97.59 min. Saudisat 1A and 1B were developed by the Saudi Institute for Space Research at KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology), Riyadh, and carried amateur store-forward communications payloads..
  • MegSat-1 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: MegSat. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Megsat. Spacecraft: MegSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26546 . COSPAR: 2000-057B. Apogee: 649 km (403 mi). Perigee: 643 km (399 mi). Inclination: 64.5574 deg. Period: 97.56 min. Research satellite owned and built by MegSat Space Division, part of the Gruppo Meggiorin companies in Brescia, Italy..
  • UniSat - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: la Sapienza. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: UniSat. Spacecraft: UniSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26547 . COSPAR: 2000-057C. Apogee: 670 km (416 mi). Perigee: 643 km (399 mi). Inclination: 64.5585 deg. Period: 97.78 min.

    Experimental satellite developed by the GAUSS (Gruppo di Astrodinamica dell' Universita degli Studi 'la Sapienza') in Roma. Unisat was financed by ASI and MURST (Ministero dell'Universtia e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica). It carried NiMH batteries, a magnetometer, and a payload consisting of a space debris sensor and a camera.


2002 December 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • LatinSat 1 - . Payload: AprizeSat 3. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27605 . COSPAR: 2002-058A. Apogee: 679 km (421 mi). Perigee: 635 km (394 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.90 min. Messaging satellite..
  • LatinSat 2 - . Payload: AprizeSat 4. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27606 . COSPAR: 2002-058B. Apogee: 702 km (436 mi). Perigee: 632 km (392 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Messaging satellite..
  • SaudiSat 1S - . Payload: SaudiSat 2. Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Saudisat. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27607 . COSPAR: 2002-058C. Apogee: 690 km (420 mi). Perigee: 633 km (393 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 98.00 min. Amateur store-forward communications payload..
  • Rubin 2 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Rubin. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 27609 . COSPAR: 2002-058E. Apogee: 645 km (400 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Messaging technology satellite..
  • UniSat 2 - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: La Sapienza. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: UniSat. Spacecraft: UniSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27608 . COSPAR: 2002-058D. Apogee: 667 km (414 mi). Perigee: 636 km (395 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.80 min.

2004 June 29 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Aprizesat 2 (LatinSat D) - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28366 . COSPAR: 2004-025A. Apogee: 853 km (530 mi). Perigee: 695 km (431 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.30 min. Delayed from March. 31.
  • Demeter - . Mass: 125 kg (275 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Demeter. Spacecraft: Demeter. USAF Sat Cat: 28368 . COSPAR: 2004-025C. Apogee: 723 km (449 mi). Perigee: 695 km (431 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.00 min.

    Demeter studied disturbances of the ionosphere due to seismo electromagnetic effects and human activities (power lines, VLF transmitters, HF broadcasting stations). Study of natural electromagnetic emissions in the ULF/ELF/VLF range related to seismic or volcanic activity could be used to predict earthquatkes or eruptions in advance. Demeter tracked these emissions and other space plasma parameters (ion composition, electron density and temperature, energetic particles). The scientific payload consisted of three electric and three magnetic sensors (covering six components of the electromagnetic field from DC to 3.5 MHz); a Langmuir probe; an ion spectrometer; and an energetic particle analyzer. 8 Gbits of onboard memory recorded the data, which was returned to earth as 18 Mb/s high bit rate telemetry in the X band. The two-year mission was handled from a control center in Toulouse.

  • Saudicomsat 1 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Saudisat. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28369 . COSPAR: 2004-025D. Apogee: 751 km (466 mi). Perigee: 699 km (434 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Amateur store-forward communications payload..
  • Saudicomsat 2 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Saudisat. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28370 . COSPAR: 2004-025E. Apogee: 783 km (486 mi). Perigee: 698 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.60 min. Amateur store-forward communications payload..
  • Saudisat 2 - . Mass: 35 kg (77 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Saudisat. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28371 . COSPAR: 2004-025F. Apogee: 736 km (457 mi). Perigee: 698 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.10 min. Experimental technology satellite that included imaging with resolution better than 15 m for remote sensing..
  • Aprizesat 1 (LatinSat C) - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28372 . COSPAR: 2004-025G. Apogee: 767 km (476 mi). Perigee: 698 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.50 min.
  • Unisat 3 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: La Sapienza. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: UniSat. Spacecraft: UniSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28373 . COSPAR: 2004-025H. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi). Perigee: 684 km (425 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.80 min.
  • Amsat Echo - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: AmSat. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Amsat Echo. Spacecraft: Amsat Echo. USAF Sat Cat: 28375 . COSPAR: 2004-025K. Apogee: 818 km (508 mi). Perigee: 697 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.00 min.

2004 December 22 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • R-36M2 ICBM demonstration flight - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

    The sixteen-year old missile was launched from an operational ICBM base and its dummy warheads impacted in the test range on the Kamchatka Peninsula after a 6,000 kilometer flight. The test was touted as a demonstration of use of the surplus ICBM's, launched directly from their silos, for launch of commerical orbital payloads, in lieu of more expensive decommissioning. Others saw it as the beginning of the development of Dombarovskiy into a new spaceport, on Russian soil, in replacement of Baikonur.


2005 August 23 - . 21:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Kirari - . Mass: 570 kg (1,250 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: JAXA. Manufacturer: Toshiba. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kirari. Spacecraft: Kirari. USAF Sat Cat: 28809 . COSPAR: 2005-031A. Apogee: 614 km (381 mi). Perigee: 596 km (370 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 96.80 min.

    Moved from J-1A . Delayed from August 15. Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite. Its laser communications experiment was be used in with ESA's Artemis geostationary satellite. The satellite was renamed Kirari (twinkle) after launch.

  • Reimei - . Payload: Index. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: JAXA. Manufacturer: Mitsubishi. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Reimei. Spacecraft: Reimei. USAF Sat Cat: 28810 . COSPAR: 2005-031B. Apogee: 650 km (400 mi). Perigee: 601 km (373 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Plasma Science Technology. INDEX, renamed Reimei ("Dawn") after launch, was a test satellite with new lightweight satellite components, and a demonstration auroral imager payload..

2006 July 12 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Genesis 1 - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Bigelow. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Bigelow. Spacecraft: Genesis Pathfinder. USAF Sat Cat: 29252 . COSPAR: 2006-029A. Apogee: 565 km (351 mi). Perigee: 552 km (342 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. One third scale version of the privately-financed Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module..

2006 July 26 - . 19:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. FAILURE: First stage engine failed. Failed Stage: 1.
  • BelKA, Baumanets, Unisat 4, PicPot, and 9 nanosats - . Mass: 360 kg (790 lb). Nation: Belarus. Agency: BNAS. Manufacturer: Korolev bureau. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Payload consisted of 19 nanosats from academic institutions: BelKA; Baumanets; Unisat-4; PICPOT; ICECube-1; ION; RINCON; AeroCube-1; CalPoly CP1; SEEDS; nCube-1; HAUSAT-1; MEROPE; CalPoly CP2; KUTESat; SACRED; Voyager; ICECube 3.

2006 December 21 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • OT - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2007 April 17 - . 06:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • MisrSat 1 - . Payload: Egyptsat 1 / MS-1TK. Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: Egypt. Agency: NARSSS. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MS-1. Spacecraft: MS-1. USAF Sat Cat: 31117 . COSPAR: 2007-012A. Apogee: 667 km (414 mi). Perigee: 657 km (408 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.00 min. MisrSat/Egyptsat carried an imaging payload for Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences..
  • Saudisat 3 - . Mass: 35 kg (77 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Saudisat. Spacecraft: Saudisat. USAF Sat Cat: 31118 . COSPAR: 2007-012B. Apogee: 679 km (421 mi). Perigee: 656 km (407 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Saudisat 3 carried a suveillance instrument, backed by data collection and relay avionics, to work in concert with the five smaller SaudiComSats launched at the same time..
  • SaudiComsat-3 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SaudiComsat. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31125 . COSPAR: 2007-012J. Apogee: 718 km (446 mi). Perigee: 653 km (405 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.50 min.
  • SaudiComsat-4 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SaudiComsat. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31127 . COSPAR: 2007-012L. Apogee: 751 km (466 mi). Perigee: 650 km (400 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.80 min.
  • SaudiComsat-5 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SaudiComsat. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31124 . COSPAR: 2007-012H. Apogee: 729 km (452 mi). Perigee: 652 km (405 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.60 min.
  • SaudiComsat-6 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SaudiComsat. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31121 . COSPAR: 2007-012E. Apogee: 762 km (473 mi). Perigee: 649 km (403 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.90 min.
  • SaudiComsat-7 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SaudiComsat. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31119 . COSPAR: 2007-012C. Apogee: 740 km (450 mi). Perigee: 651 km (404 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.70 min.
  • CAPE 1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Louisiana. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31130 . COSPAR: 2007-012P. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Cajun Advanced Picosatellite Experiment by the University of Louisiana at Lafayette..
  • Aerocube 2 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Aerospace. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31122 . COSPAR: 2007-012F. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 648 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. 1U cubesat for Aerospace Corporation. Failed. Solar converter malfunction on 18 April 2007..
  • CSTB 1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Boeing. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31133 . COSPAR: 2007-012R. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 648 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. CubeSat TestBed for Boeing IDS/Advanced Systems, Huntington Beach, California..
  • CP 3 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Cal Poly. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31128 . COSPAR: 2007-012M. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. California Polytechnic University cubesat, the backup for CP2 lost in a Dnepr launch failure in 2006..
  • CP 4 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Cal Poly. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31132 . COSPAR: 2007-012Q. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 648 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. California Polytechnic University cubesat..
  • Libertad - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Colombia. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Arboleda. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31129 . COSPAR: 2007-012N. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Picosat built and operated by the Universidad Sergio Arboleda, Bogota, Colombia..
  • MAST - . Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Tethers. Manufacturer: Stanford. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31126 . COSPAR: 2007-012K. Apogee: 783 km (486 mi). Perigee: 647 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.10 min.

    Multi Application Survivable Tether experiment, built by Tethers Unlimited Inc and Stanford University. MAST consisted of the TED (Tether Deployer) satellite, with a 1 km deployable multi-strand Hoytether; RALPH, a small end mass satellite; and between them, GADGET, an inspector 1U cubesat which could move along the tether. Before deployment the MAST package fit into a 0.3 m x 0.1 m module. Failed to deploy, but radio contact made.


2007 June 15 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • TerraSAR-X - . Mass: 1,346 kg (2,967 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TerraSAR-X. Spacecraft: TerraSAR-X. USAF Sat Cat: 31698 . COSPAR: 2007-026A. Apogee: 510 km (310 mi). Perigee: 507 km (315 mi). Inclination: 97.4500 deg. Period: 94.79 min. Scientific/commercial surveillance satellite. equipped with an X-band synthetic aperture radar with 1 meter resolution.

2007 June 28 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Genesis 2 - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Bigelow. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: Bigelow. Spacecraft: Genesis Pathfinder. USAF Sat Cat: 31789 . COSPAR: 2007-028A. Apogee: 561 km (348 mi). Perigee: 556 km (345 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 95.80 min.

    One third scale version of the privately-financed Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module. The spacecraft's 22 interior and exterior cameras provided images of items and pictures carried for paying participants in Bigelow's “Fly your Stuff” program.


2008 August 29 - . 07:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Tachys - . Payload: RapidEye 1. Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SSTL-150. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33312 . COSPAR: 2008-040A. Apogee: 632 km (392 mi). Perigee: 606 km (376 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.10 min.

    RapidEye AG of Brandenberg paid for launch of a constellation of five environmental monitoring satellites in a single launch, each with a mass of 152 kg including 12 kg of propellant. The satellites had an optical resolution of 6 meters, and were designed to provide on-demand images for agricultural storm damage assessment and support of emergency services.

  • Mati - . Payload: RapidEye 2. Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SSTL-150. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33313 . COSPAR: 2008-040B. Apogee: 654 km (406 mi). Perigee: 624 km (387 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.50 min.
  • Choma - . Payload: RapidEye 3. Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SSTL-150. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33314 . COSPAR: 2008-040C. Apogee: 631 km (392 mi). Perigee: 598 km (371 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.00 min.
  • Choros - . Payload: RapidEye 4. Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SSTL-150. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33315 . COSPAR: 2008-040D. Apogee: 639 km (397 mi). Perigee: 620 km (380 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.30 min.
  • Trochia - . Payload: RapidEye 5. Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SSTL-150. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33316 . COSPAR: 2008-040E. Apogee: 647 km (402 mi). Perigee: 623 km (387 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.40 min.

2008 October 1 - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Theos - . Mass: 715 kg (1,576 lb). Nation: Thailand. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ROCSAT. Spacecraft: ROCSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 33396 . COSPAR: 2008-049A. Apogee: 693 km (430 mi). Perigee: 673 km (418 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 98.40 min. Thai surveillance satellite, based on EADS Astrium bus used for ROCSAT-2..

2009 July 29 - . 18:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Deimos 1 - . Mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroSat-100. Spacecraft: MicroSat-100. USAF Sat Cat: 35681 . COSPAR: 2009-041A. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 635 km (394 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.80 min. Disaster monitoring satellite, surveilling 600 km swaths in 22-meter resolution in three spectral bands. Operated by Deimos Space SL, Madrid, Spain..
  • Dubaisat 1 - . Mass: 190 kg (410 lb). Nation: UAE. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Satrec. Spacecraft: SatRec. USAF Sat Cat: 35682 . COSPAR: 2009-041B. Apogee: 682 km (423 mi). Perigee: 666 km (413 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.20 min. Emirates Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Dubai..
  • DMC 2 - . Mass: 95 kg (209 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroSat-100. Spacecraft: MicroSat-100. USAF Sat Cat: 35683 . COSPAR: 2009-041C. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 625 km (388 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.80 min. DMC International Imaging, Guildford, Surrey, UK..
  • Aprizesat 4 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 35684 . COSPAR: 2009-041D. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 607 km (377 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.60 min.
  • Nanosat 1B - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Nanosat. Spacecraft: Nanosat. USAF Sat Cat: 35685 . COSPAR: 2009-041E. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 587 km (364 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. INTA, Spain..
  • Aprizesat 3 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 35686 . COSPAR: 2009-041F. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 566 km (351 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.10 min.

    Part of a planned constellation of 64 of small low-earth-orbit satellites for global data transmission, fixed and mobile asset tracking and monitoring built by Spacequest, Fairfax, Virginia for exactEarth. Included Automatic Identification System receiver to gather position data from ships.


2009 December 24 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • RV x 10? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test.

2010 April 8 - . 13:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Cryosat 2 - . Mass: 720 kg (1,580 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Class: Earth. Type: Climate satellite. Spacecraft Bus: CryoSat. Spacecraft: Cryosat. USAF Sat Cat: 36508 . COSPAR: 2010-013A. Apogee: 724 km (449 mi). Perigee: 713 km (443 mi). Inclination: 92.0000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Satellite carried a Ku-band radar to study the thickness of the polar ice caps. Launched to fulfill mission of Cryosat 1, which failed to reach orbit in 2005..

2010 June 15 - . 14:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Picard - . Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: France. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Myriade. Spacecraft: Myriade. USAF Sat Cat: 36598 . COSPAR: 2010-028A. Apogee: 730 km (450 mi). Perigee: 725 km (450 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Solar observation payload..
  • Prisma - . Mass: 140 kg (300 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Prisma. Spacecraft: Prisma. USAF Sat Cat: 36599 . COSPAR: 2010-028B. Apogee: 787 km (489 mi). Perigee: 724 km (449 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Prototype Research Instruments and Space Mission technology Advancement satellite to test space rendezvous and formation-flight technologies. Consisted of 140 kg primary satellite and 40 kg target..

2010 June 21 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Tandem X - . Mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TerraSAR-X. Spacecraft: TerraSar-X. USAF Sat Cat: 36605 . COSPAR: 2010-030A. Apogee: 509 km (316 mi). Perigee: 507 km (315 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. Period: 94.80 min. Radar surveillance satellite with 1-m resolution in spotlight mode..

2010 July 31 - . LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Prisma Tango - . Payload: Tango. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Class: Technology. Type: Rendezvous technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Prisma. Spacecraft: Prisma. USAF Sat Cat: 36827 . COSPAR: 2010-028F. Apogee: 786 km (488 mi). Perigee: 725 km (450 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Tango subsatellite separated from the main Prisma satellite Mango on 11 August 2010 at 17:51 GMT to begin formation flying experiments..

2011 August 17 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Complex: Taiyuan LC2. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • EDUSAT - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Italy. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: EDUSAT. Spacecraft: EDUSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 37788 . COSPAR: 2011-044A. Apogee: 698 km (433 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Technology satellite built by the Universita di Roma la Sapienza..
  • Nigeriasat 2 - . Mass: 268 kg (590 lb). Nation: Nigeria. Agency: NSRDA. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SSTL-300. Spacecraft: SSTL-300. USAF Sat Cat: 37789 . COSPAR: 2011-044B. Apogee: 718 km (446 mi). Perigee: 693 km (430 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.90 min. Observation satellite with a 2.5-m resolution imager for Nigeria's National Space Research Development Agency..
  • Nigeriasat X - . Mass: 86 kg (189 lb). Nation: Nigeria. Agency: NSRDA. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MicroSat-100. Spacecraft: MicroSat-100. USAF Sat Cat: 37790 . COSPAR: 2011-044C. Apogee: 699 km (434 mi). Perigee: 656 km (407 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.30 min. Technology demonstration satellite built by Surrey Satellite with participation by Nigerian engineers..
  • RASAT - . Mass: 95 kg (209 lb). Nation: Turkey. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: RASAT. Spacecraft: RASAT. USAF Sat Cat: 37791 . COSPAR: 2011-044D. Apogee: 699 km (434 mi). Perigee: 666 km (413 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.40 min. Turkish Earth observation satellite with a Korean-built imager, built for TUBITAK, the Turkish science research council and UZAY, the Space Technology Research Insitute in Ankara..
  • Aprizesat 5 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: USA. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37792 . COSPAR: 2011-044E. Apogee: 697 km (433 mi). Perigee: 610 km (370 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 97.80 min.

    Aprizesat 5 and 6 were built by SpaceQuest for exactEarth Ltd. Equipped with AIS (maritime Automatic Identification System) payloads for ship location tracking. The exactEarth system also included the SpaceQuest AprizeSat 3 and 4, and a payload attached to ISRO's ResourceSat-2 satellite.

  • Aprizesat 6 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: USA. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37793 . COSPAR: 2011-044F. Apogee: 698 km (433 mi). Perigee: 627 km (389 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 98.00 min. Part of a constellation of small LEO satellites for global fixed and mobile asset tracking. Also carried an AIS (Automatic Identification System) receiver monitor naval vessel locations..
  • Sich 2 - . Mass: 175 kg (385 lb). Nation: Ukraine. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Sich. Spacecraft: Sich. USAF Sat Cat: 37794 . COSPAR: 2011-044G. Apogee: 703 km (436 mi). Perigee: 684 km (425 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.60 min. Ukrainian remote sensing satellite built by Yuzhnoye..
  • BPA-2/SL-24 - . Nation: Russia. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37795 . COSPAR: 2011-044H. Apogee: 1,296 km (805 mi). Perigee: 692 km (429 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 105.00 min.

    Yuzhnoye launch vehicle engineering payload which remained attached to the post-boost maneuvering upper stage after deployment of the other six satellites on the launch. 16 minutes after launch, at an altitude of 700 km, the upper stage dispensed the six satellites at two-minute intervals, then maneuvered into itself into a higher orbit.


2013 August 22 - . 14:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. Launch Pad: Yasniy Sh370/13. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Arirang-5 - . Payload: Kompsat-5. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Korea South. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KOMPSAT. Spacecraft: Kompsat. USAF Sat Cat: 39227 . COSPAR: 2013-042A. Apogee: 560 km (340 mi). Perigee: 545 km (338 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. South Korea's first X-band SAR satellite..

2013 October 30 - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • 10 RVs?? - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Launched from Dombarovskiy to to Kura. One of a series of missiles launched on the same day as part of a large scale Russian military exercise..

2013 November 21 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. Launch Pad: xxx. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • AprizeSat-7 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 39416 . COSPAR: 2013-066A. Apogee: 650 km (400 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 97.14 min.

    Communications satellites for SpaceQuest; part of a constellation of small LEO satellites for global fixed and mobile asset tracking. Also carried an AIS (Automatic Identification System) receiver monitor naval vessel locations. Dnepr rocket launched from an ICBM silo at Yasniy in Russia placed a cluster of 24 satellites in orbit on on a single launch. Although this was fewer than the ORS-3 launch the day before, if nanosats ejected later are counted, the single launch put 33 payloads in orbit.

  • HINCube-1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: South Africa. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39417 . COSPAR: 2013-066B. Apogee: 678 km (421 mi). Perigee: 592 km (367 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 97.42 min. 1U cubesat from French South African Institute of Technology at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology. Mission: Space weather, technology demonstration, education and human capital development.. Successful. First South African CubeSat..
  • SkySat-1 - . Mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SkySat. Spacecraft: Skysat. USAF Sat Cat: 39418 . COSPAR: 2013-066C. Apogee: 595 km (369 mi). Perigee: 564 km (350 mi). Inclination: 97.7900 deg. Period: 96.26 min. Imaging satellite, the first for the US company Skybox..
  • Dubaisat-2 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: UAE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SI-300. Spacecraft: SI-300. USAF Sat Cat: 39419 . COSPAR: 2013-066D. Apogee: 600 km (370 mi). Perigee: 583 km (362 mi). Inclination: 97.7900 deg. Period: 96.51 min. Imaging satellite for the United Arab Emirates build by Satrec of South Korea..
  • OPTOS - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: Spain. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39420 . COSPAR: 2013-066E. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 594 km (369 mi). Inclination: 97.7600 deg. Period: 98.63 min. 3U cubesat from INTA of Spain..
  • Unisat-5 - . Mass: 19 kg (41 lb). Nation: Italy. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: UniSat. Spacecraft: Unisat. USAF Sat Cat: 39421 . COSPAR: 2013-066F. Apogee: 636 km (395 mi). Perigee: 592 km (367 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 96.97 min.

    Technology satellite for the University of Rome. It carried a further eight tiny satellites within it, and one of those (PUCP-Sat) carried a further nested satellite, Pocket-PUCP. Most of the subsatellites were ejected from Unisat-5 between 08:10 and 08:25 GMT on November 21.

  • STSat-3 - . Mass: 170 kg (370 lb). Nation: Korea South. Class: Astronomy. Type: Astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: STSat. Spacecraft: STSat. USAF Sat Cat: 39422 . COSPAR: 2013-066G. Apogee: 622 km (386 mi). Perigee: 591 km (367 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 96.83 min.

    Satellite built by KAIST of South Korea, with the MIRIS infrared astronomy experiment (an 8 cm telescope operating at 0.9-2 microns with a 4 degree field of view for spectroscopy of diffuse extended emission), as well as earth imaging and technology payloads.

  • WNISAT-1 - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Japan. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft Bus: WNISAT. Spacecraft: WNISAT. USAF Sat Cat: 39423 . COSPAR: 2013-066H. Apogee: 845 km (525 mi). Perigee: 594 km (369 mi). Inclination: 97.7500 deg. Period: 99.19 min. 30 cm cube for Weather News Inc. and Axelspace, to monitor northern sea routes and atmospheric CO2..
  • KHUSAT-1 - . Payload: CINEMA 2. Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Science. Type: Science satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39424 . COSPAR: 2013-066J. Apogee: 727 km (451 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7700 deg. Period: 97.94 min. 3U cubesat from Kyung Hee University, Seoul, to join the CINEMA constellation..
  • AprizeSat-8 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 39425 . COSPAR: 2013-066K. Apogee: 666 km (413 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 97.31 min. Part of a constellation of small LEO satellites for global fixed and mobile asset tracking. Also carried an AIS (Automatic Identification System) receiver monitor naval vessel locations..
  • KHUSAT-2 - . Payload: CINEMA 3. Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Science. Type: Science satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39426 . COSPAR: 2013-066L. Apogee: 743 km (461 mi). Perigee: 594 km (369 mi). Inclination: 97.7700 deg. Period: 98.11 min. 3U cubesat from Kyung Hee University, Seoul, to join the CINEMA constellation..
  • Triton 1 - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: UK. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39427 . COSPAR: 2013-066M. Apogee: 758 km (470 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7600 deg. Period: 98.27 min. 3U cubesat test of an AIS receiver from ISIS b.v., Netherlands..
  • Delfi-3nXt - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: Netherlands. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39428 . COSPAR: 2013-066N. Apogee: 773 km (480 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7600 deg. Period: 98.41 min. 3U cubesat from Delft University of Technology..
  • Dove-3 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39429 . COSPAR: 2013-066P. Apogee: 809 km (502 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7600 deg. Period: 98.80 min. 3U imaging satellite from PlanetLabs, San Francisco..
  • GOMX-1 - . Mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Nation: Denmark. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39430 . COSPAR: 2013-066Q. Apogee: 813 km (505 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7600 deg. Period: 98.84 min. 2U cubesat test an ADS-B air traffic control receiver, for GOMSpace, Aalborg, Denmark..
  • Lem - . Payload: BRITE-PL. Mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Nation: Poland. Class: Astronomy. Type: Astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Toronto GNB. Spacecraft: Toronto GNB. USAF Sat Cat: 39431 . COSPAR: 2013-066R. Apogee: 884 km (549 mi). Perigee: 594 km (369 mi). Inclination: 97.7500 deg. Period: 99.59 min. Satellite using Toronto's GNB bus carrying the BRITE-PL astronomical photometry payload for the Polish Academy of Sciences..
  • ICUBE-1 - . Mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Nation: Pakistan. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39432 . COSPAR: 2013-066S. Apogee: 634 km (393 mi). Perigee: 587 km (364 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 96.90 min. 2U cubesat from Unisat-5 for Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad. Successful. First Pakistani cubesat..
  • HUMSAT-D - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Spain. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39433 . COSPAR: 2013-066T. Apogee: 632 km (392 mi). Perigee: 586 km (364 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 96.88 min. Deployed from Unisat-5 for University of Vigo, Spain..
  • Dove-4 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39434 . COSPAR: 2013-066U. Apogee: 624 km (387 mi). Perigee: 581 km (361 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 96.75 min. 3U Earth imaging satellite, deployed from Unisat-5 for PlanetLabs..
  • WREN - . Mass: 0 kg (0 lb). Nation: Germany. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39435 . COSPAR: 2013-066V. Apogee: 638 km (396 mi). Perigee: 594 km (369 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 97.02 min. PocketQube cubesat from StaDoKo (spinoff company of the University of Aachen)..
  • 50SAT - . Mass: 0 kg (0 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39436 . COSPAR: 2013-066W. Apogee: 615 km (382 mi). Perigee: 580 km (360 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 96.63 min. AKA Eagle-2, 50DollarSat; from Morehead State University. First PocketQube cubesat; 1P size was 0.15 kg, 5 x 5 x 5cm cubes.
  • BeakerSat-1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39437 . COSPAR: 2013-066X. Apogee: 619 km (384 mi). Perigee: 583 km (362 mi). Inclination: 97.7900 deg. Period: 96.71 min. 2.5P PocketQube, AKA Eagle-1, from Morehead State University..
  • VELOX-P2 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Singapore. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39438 . COSPAR: 2013-066Y. Apogee: 695 km (431 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7700 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Cubesat from Nanyang Tech University..
  • First-Move - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Germany. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39439 . COSPAR: 2013-066Z. Apogee: 691 km (429 mi). Perigee: 591 km (367 mi). Inclination: 97.7700 deg. Period: 97.54 min. Cubesat from Technical University of Munich..
  • Manolito - . Payload: CUBEBUG 2. Mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Nation: Argentina. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39440 . COSPAR: 2013-066AA. Apogee: 710 km (440 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7700 deg. Period: 97.76 min. 2U cubesat from Argentina..
  • Krysaor - . Payload: NEE-2. Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Ecuador. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39441 . COSPAR: 2013-066AB. Apogee: 711 km (441 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7700 deg. Period: 97.77 min. Cubesat from Ecuadorian Space Agency..
  • PUCPSat-1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Peru. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39442 . COSPAR: 2013-066AC. Apogee: 633 km (393 mi). Perigee: 587 km (364 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 96.90 min. 1U cubesat deployed from Unisat-5 for Pontifica Universidad Catolica del Peru, Lima..
  • QBScout-1 - . Mass: 0 kg (0 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39443 . COSPAR: 2013-066AD. Apogee: 630 km (390 mi). Perigee: 591 km (367 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 96.90 min. 2.5P PocketQube from University of Maryland/Baltimore County..
  • FUNcube-1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: UK. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39444 . COSPAR: 2013-066AE. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 592 km (367 mi). Inclination: 97.7700 deg. Period: 97.41 min. Cubesat for AMSAT-UK..
  • Tshepiso - . Payload: ZACUBE. Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Norway. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39445 . COSPAR: 2013-066AF. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 592 km (367 mi). Inclination: 97.7700 deg. Period: 97.41 min. Cubesat from South Africa's Cape Peninsula University of Tech (CPUT)..
  • UWE-3 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Germany. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39446 . COSPAR: 2013-066AG. Apogee: 694 km (431 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7700 deg. Period: 97.59 min. Cubesat from University of Wurzburg..
  • BPA-3 - . Payload: SL-24. Nation: Russia. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 39448 . COSPAR: 2013-066AJ. Apogee: 1,610 km (1,000 mi). Perigee: 591 km (367 mi). Inclination: 97.6700 deg. Period: 107.27 min. Yuzhnoye experiment attached to final stage of rocket..
  • Pocket-PUCP - . Mass: 0 kg (0 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. COSPAR: 2013-066x. Apogee: 616 km (382 mi). Perigee: 579 km (359 mi). Inclination: 97.7800 deg. Period: 96.64 min. PocketQube cubesat ejected from PUCPSat-1..

2014 June 19 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. Launch Pad: Sh370/13. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Kazeosat 2 - . Mass: 177 kg (390 lb). Nation: Kazakhstan. Spacecraft Bus: SSTL-150. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 40010 . COSPAR: 2014-033A. Apogee: 637 km (395 mi). Perigee: 610 km (370 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 97.18 min. Kazakh medium resolution imaging satellite; had an imager with 6.5 metre resolution and a 77 km swath width..
  • Hodoyoshi 4 - . Mass: 64 kg (141 lb). Nation: Japan. Spacecraft Bus: Hodoyoshi. Spacecraft: Hodoyoshi. USAF Sat Cat: 40011 . COSPAR: 2014-033B. Apogee: 651 km (404 mi). Perigee: 612 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 97.34 min. Experimental earth-observation satellite by the University of Toky with a 5 m ground resolution..
  • Unisat 6 - . Mass: 26 kg (57 lb). Nation: Italy. Spacecraft Bus: UniSat. Spacecraft: Unisat. USAF Sat Cat: 40012 . COSPAR: 2014-033C. Apogee: 699 km (434 mi). Perigee: 613 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 97.86 min. Satellite by GAUSS Srl to test customer equipment and deploy four cubesats..
  • Deimos 2 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Spain. Spacecraft Bus: Deimos 2. Spacecraft: Deimos 2. USAF Sat Cat: 40013 . COSPAR: 2014-033D. Apogee: 622 km (386 mi). Perigee: 597 km (370 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 96.88 min. Earth observation satellite which carried an 0.75m resolution, 12 km swath imager provided by Satrec South Korea. Total cost including launch was 60 million Euros..
  • Bugsat 1 - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: Argentina. Spacecraft Bus: Bugsat. Spacecraft: Bugsat. USAF Sat Cat: 40014 . COSPAR: 2014-033E. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 568 km (352 mi). Inclination: 97.9900 deg. Period: 96.54 min. Technology testbed for components for a planned constellation of earth observation satellites by Satellogic SA..
  • Hodoyoshi 3 - . Mass: 58 kg (127 lb). Nation: Japan. Spacecraft Bus: Hodoyoshi. Spacecraft: Hodoyoshi. USAF Sat Cat: 40015 . COSPAR: 2014-033F. Apogee: 666 km (413 mi). Perigee: 612 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Experimental earth-observation satellite by the University of Toky with a 40 m ground resolution..
  • Saudisat 4 - . Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Spacecraft Bus: Saudisat 4. Spacecraft: Saudisat 4. USAF Sat Cat: 40016 . COSPAR: 2014-033G. Apogee: 682 km (423 mi). Perigee: 613 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 97.67 min. Technology demonstration satellite King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology with a joint NASA Ames payload related to gravitational reference sensors for drag-free spacecraft..
  • Tabletsat Aurora - . Mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Tabletsat Aurora. Spacecraft: Tabletsat Aurora. USAF Sat Cat: 40017 . COSPAR: 2014-033H. Apogee: 619 km (384 mi). Perigee: 581 km (361 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.69 min. Technology demonstrator with an imaging payload by SPUTNIX with a panchromatic ground resolution of 15 m and 47 km swath width..
  • Aprizesat 9 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 40018 . COSPAR: 2014-033J. Apogee: 715 km (444 mi). Perigee: 613 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 98.02 min. Part of a constellation of small LEO satellites for global fixed and mobile asset tracking. Also carried an AIS (Automatic Identification System) receiver monitor naval vessel locations..
  • Aprizesat 10 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 40019 . COSPAR: 2014-033K. Apogee: 733 km (455 mi). Perigee: 613 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9600 deg. Period: 98.21 min. Part of a constellation of small LEO satellites for global fixed and mobile asset tracking. Also carried an AIS (Automatic Identification System) receiver monitor naval vessel locations..
  • Brite Toronto - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Canada. Spacecraft Bus: Toronto GNB. Spacecraft: Toronto GNB. USAF Sat Cat: 40020 . COSPAR: 2014-033L. Apogee: 739 km (459 mi). Perigee: 613 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9600 deg. Period: 98.27 min. BRIght-star Target Explorer to observe the brightest starts for variability..
  • Duchifat 1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Israel. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40021 . COSPAR: 2014-033M. Apogee: 623 km (387 mi). Perigee: 601 km (373 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 96.94 min. 1U cubesat by the Herzliya Science Center..
  • Pace - . Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: Taiwan. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40022 . COSPAR: 2014-033N. Apogee: 623 km (387 mi). Perigee: 601 km (373 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.94 min. 2U cubesat for the National Cheng Kung University..
  • Flock 1C 10 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40023 . COSPAR: 2014-033P. Apogee: 623 km (387 mi). Perigee: 601 km (373 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.94 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Nanosat C BR1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Brazil. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40024 . COSPAR: 2014-033Q. Apogee: 623 km (387 mi). Perigee: 602 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.94 min. 1U cubesat for the Southern Regional Space Research Center..
  • Qb50P1 - . Mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Nation: Belgium. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40025 . COSPAR: 2014-033R. Apogee: 623 km (387 mi). Perigee: 602 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.95 min. 2U cubesat; part of a constellation of 50 CubeSats built by university teams to study the llower thermosphere..
  • Flock 1C 7 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40026 . COSPAR: 2014-033S. Apogee: 622 km (386 mi). Perigee: 602 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.94 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Flock 1C 1 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40027 . COSPAR: 2014-033T. Apogee: 623 km (387 mi). Perigee: 602 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.95 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Popsat Hip 1 - . Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: Singapore. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40028 . COSPAR: 2014-033U. Apogee: 625 km (388 mi). Perigee: 601 km (373 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.96 min. 3U cubesat by Microspace Rapid..
  • Flock 1C 2 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40029 . COSPAR: 2014-033V. Apogee: 625 km (388 mi). Perigee: 602 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.97 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Dtusat 2 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Denmark. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40030 . COSPAR: 2014-033W. Apogee: 624 km (387 mi). Perigee: 604 km (375 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 96.97 min. 1U cubesat by the Danish Technical University..
  • Flock 1C 4 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40031 . COSPAR: 2014-033X. Apogee: 624 km (387 mi). Perigee: 601 km (373 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.95 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Qb50p2 - . Mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Nation: Belgium. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40032 . COSPAR: 2014-033Y. Apogee: 624 km (387 mi). Perigee: 604 km (375 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.97 min. 2U cubesat; part of a constellation of 50 CubeSats built by university teams to study the llower thermosphere..
  • Flock 1C 11 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40033 . COSPAR: 2014-033Z. Apogee: 624 km (387 mi). Perigee: 603 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.97 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Antelsat - . Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: Uruguay. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40034 . COSPAR: 2014-033AA. Apogee: 700 km (430 mi). Perigee: 613 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 97.87 min. 2U cubesat by Uruguayan State Faculty of engineering; carried infrared imager and amateur radio payloads..
  • Flock 1C 9 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40035 . COSPAR: 2014-033AB. Apogee: 624 km (387 mi). Perigee: 604 km (375 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.97 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Flock 1C 6 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40036 . COSPAR: 2014-033AC. Apogee: 624 km (387 mi). Perigee: 604 km (375 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.98 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Perseus M2 - . Mass: 7.00 kg (15.40 lb). Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40037 . COSPAR: 2014-033AD. Apogee: 626 km (388 mi). Perigee: 603 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.99 min. 6U Cubesat by by Canopus Systems with an Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver for tracking shipping..
  • Flock 1C 5 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40038 . COSPAR: 2014-033AE. Apogee: 626 km (388 mi). Perigee: 602 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.98 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Perseus M1 - . Mass: 7.00 kg (15.40 lb). Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40039 . COSPAR: 2014-033AF. Apogee: 627 km (389 mi). Perigee: 604 km (375 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 97.01 min. 6U Cubesat by by Canopus Systems with an Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver for tracking shipping..
  • Flock 1C 8 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40040 . COSPAR: 2014-033AG. Apogee: 626 km (388 mi). Perigee: 603 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.99 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Flock 1C 3 - . Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40041 . COSPAR: 2014-033AH. Apogee: 625 km (388 mi). Perigee: 603 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 96.98 min. Part of a Planetary Labs constellation of over 100 3U cubesats to provide continuous optical surveillance of the earth..
  • Polyitan 1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Ukraine. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40042 . COSPAR: 2014-033AJ. Apogee: 628 km (390 mi). Perigee: 604 km (375 mi). Inclination: 97.9800 deg. Period: 97.01 min. 1U cubesat by National Technical University of Ukraine..
  • Tigrisat - . Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: Iraq. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40043 . COSPAR: 2014-033AK. Apogee: 698 km (433 mi). Perigee: 610 km (370 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 97.81 min. 3U cubesat built by Iraqi students at the La Sapienza University of Rome..
  • Lemur 1 - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: USA. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40044 . COSPAR: 2014-033AL. Apogee: 697 km (433 mi). Perigee: 611 km (379 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 97.82 min. 3U cubesat by NanoSatisfi Inc..
  • Aerocube 6a - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40045 . COSPAR: 2014-033AM. Apogee: 700 km (430 mi). Perigee: 613 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 97.87 min.
  • Aerocube 6b - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: USA. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40046 . COSPAR: 2014-033AN. Apogee: 700 km (430 mi). Perigee: 613 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9700 deg. Period: 97.87 min.

2014 November 6 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. Launch Complex: Dombarovskiy. Launch Pad: Yasniy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • ASNARO - . Mass: 495 kg (1,091 lb). Nation: Japan. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: NEXTAR NX-300L. Spacecraft: NEXTAR NX-300L. USAF Sat Cat: 40298 . COSPAR: 2014-070A. Apogee: 509 km (316 mi). Perigee: 506 km (314 mi). Inclination: 97.4500 deg. Period: 94.77 min.

    High resolution imaging satellite developed by NEC and managed by Japan Space Systems (formerly USEF, part of the Ministry of Trade and Industry) rather than by the main Japanese space agency JAXA. The ASNARO had 0.5m resolution on a 10 km nadir swath width. Sun synchronous orbit; 1100 GMT local time of the descending node.

  • Hodoyoshi-1 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Japan. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Hodoyoshi. Spacecraft: Hodoyoshi. USAF Sat Cat: 40299 . COSPAR: 2014-070B. Apogee: 513 km (318 mi). Perigee: 496 km (308 mi). Inclination: 97.4500 deg. Period: 94.70 min. Satellite of the University of Tokyo and AXELSPACE, carried an imager with 6.8m resolution and 28 km swath. Sun synchronous orbit; 1100 GMT local time of the descending node..
  • Kinshachi-1 - . Payload: CHUBUSAT 1. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Japan. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ChubuSat. Spacecraft: ChubuSat. USAF Sat Cat: 40300 . COSPAR: 2014-070C. Apogee: 524 km (325 mi). Perigee: 496 km (308 mi). Inclination: 97.4400 deg. Period: 94.82 min.

    Also known as also known as ChubuSat-1, a project of Nagoya and Daido universities. (The name Kinschachi refers to the golden sea-monster statues on Nagoya castle). It carries d 10m resolution, 14 km swath imager, a 130 m resolution, 7-13 micron infrared camera reported to be for atmosphere temperature profiles and space debris monitoring, and an amateur radio relay payload. Sun synchronous orbit; 1055 GMT local time of the descending node.

  • Tsukushi - . Payload: QSAT-EOS. Mass: 49 kg (108 lb). Nation: Japan. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tsukushi. Spacecraft: Tsukushi. USAF Sat Cat: 40301 . COSPAR: 2014-070D. Apogee: 530 km (320 mi). Perigee: 489 km (303 mi). Inclination: 97.4400 deg. Period: 94.81 min.

    'Horsetail'; also called QSAT-EOS, Kyushu Satellite for Earth Observation System Demonstration. The satellite carried a CMOS camera with 4 m resolution and 7 km swath, a magnetometer and an in-situ space debris detector, as well as a deployable 3-meter kapton sail used as a drag augmentation device. Sun synchronous orbit; 1055 GMT local time of the descending node.

  • Tsubame - . Mass: 49 kg (108 lb). Nation: Japan. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Tsubame. Spacecraft: Tsubame. USAF Sat Cat: 40302 . COSPAR: 2014-070E. Apogee: 553 km (343 mi). Perigee: 495 km (307 mi). Inclination: 97.4400 deg. Period: 95.11 min. 'Swallow', an astronomy satellite from the Tokyo Institute of Technology and carried a hard X-ray polarimeter to study the polarization of gamma ray bursts. Sun synchronous orbit; 1055 GMT local time of the descending node..

2015 March 25 - . 22:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. Launch Complex: Yasniy Sh370/13. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Arirang-3A - . Payload: KOMPSAT 3A. Mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Nation: Korea South. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KOMPSAT. Spacecraft: Kompsat. USAF Sat Cat: 40536 . COSPAR: 2015-014A. Apogee: 538 km (334 mi). Perigee: 522 km (324 mi). Inclination: 97.5300 deg. Period: 95.23 min. South Korean imaging satellite with submeter resolution. Sun synchronous orbit; 0130 GMT local time of the descending node..


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