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Argentina
CELPA
CELPA
Credit: © Mark Wade
The Argentine Interplanetary Society was organized in the 1940's. In 1952 Argentina was one of the founding members of the International Astronautical Federation. From 1960 the Comision Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales (CNIE) worked with the Argentine Air Force's Instituto de Investigaciones Aeronauticas y Espaciales (IIAE) to develop indigenous sounding rockets and missiles. Argentina was the first country in Latin America to send an object into space using an indigenously-developed rocket. In the 1980's Argentina took part in a multinational effort to develop the Condor intermediate range missile. Under American pressure, the Condor Program was canceled in 1991, the IIAE and CNIE were dismantled, and further work on launch vehicles was banned. A new civilian space agency, CONAE was created, which concentrated on development of surveillance satellites for earth resource and environmental monitoring.

During the 1940's Teofilo Tabanera organized a group of foreign and Argentine specialists as the Sociedad Argentina Interplanetaria, SAI (Argentine Interplanetary Society). Tabanera's efforts ensured that Argentina was the first Latin American nation to create a spaceflight organization and in 1952 was one of the founding members of the International Astronautical Federation. Argentinean Aldo Cocca was a pioneer in space law and helped originate the idea of space being the common heritage of humankind, later enshrined in United Nations treaties of the 1960's.

In 1960 Tabanera was named head of the newly-created Comision Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales (CNIE). CNIE worked with the Argentine Air Force's Instituto de Investigaciones Aeronauticas y Espaciales (IIAE) to develop a number of indigenous multistage high altitude sounding rockets and missiles. Argentina was the first country in Latin America to send an object into space using an indigenously-developed rocket.

During the 1970s Argentina regularly launched the American two-stage solid propellant Castor rocket up to 500 kilometers altitude. This rocket carried international experiments for several countries. In the 1980's Argentina took part in a multinational effort to develop the Condor intermediate range missile.

Under American pressure, the Condor Program was canceled in 1991. The associated development and production facilities at Falda del Carmen were closed down, the Fabrica Militar de Aviones was purchased by the American Lockheed company, the IIAE was closed, and the CNIE dismantled. Further work on propulsion and launch vehicles was banned. A new civilian space agency, CONAE was created, which concentrated on development of surveillance satellites for earth resource and environmental monitoring.

People: Caldeiro, Flores. Spacecraft: ARSAT-3K, Bugsat, SAC-D, Oscar, Spacebus 2000, MuSat, SAC-B, SAC-A, SAC-C, Gauchito, AprizeSat, Cubesat, Pehuensat. Launch Vehicles: Deacon, Thor, R-7, Arcas, Loki, Belier, Gamma Centauro, Orion-1, Orion-2, Canopus 2, Rigel, Castor (A), Ariane, Pegasus, Alacran, Condor, PSLV, Condor 1, Condor 2, Ariane 5. Projects: AIS, Nahuel, SAC. Launch Sites: Serrezuela, Wallops Island, Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Baikonur, Plesetsk, Jiuquan, CELPA, Puente del Inca, Base Matienzo, Tartagal, Las Palmas, Mar Chiquita, Kourou, Sriharikota, Villa Reynolds, Dombarovskiy. Stages: Gamma Centauro-1, Gamma Centauro-2, Orion-1 engine, Orion-2 engine, Canopus. Agency: CITED, CNIE, IIAE, ISRO, CONAE, Arianespace, Cannes, Cord.



1904 December 3 - .
  • Charles Perrine's Discovery of Himalia (Jupiter Moon) - . Nation: Argentina.

1905 January 5 - .
  • Charles Perrine's Discovery of Jupiter Moon Elara - . Nation: Argentina.

1958 June 12 - .
  • Birth of Fernando 'Frank' Caldeiro - . Nation: Argentina, USA. Related Persons: Caldeiro. Hispanic-American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 1996-2009..

1962 November 10 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
  • Nation: Argentina. Agency: IIAE. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi). 90-100 km claimed.

1962 Nov 11? - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
1962 Nov 12? - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
1962 Nov 14? - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
1962 November 15 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1963 October 1 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1964 July 27 - . Launch Site: Puente del Inca. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1965 February 6 - . Launch Site: Base Matienzo. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1965 February 6 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
1965 February 6 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1965 February 6 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Base Matienzo. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
  • Matienzo Ionos XR - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1965 February 8 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
1965 February 8 - . 22:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Base Matienzo. LV Family: Gamma Centauro. Launch Vehicle: Gamma Centauro.
  • Matienzo Ionos XR - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1965 October 1 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1965 November 25 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1965 November 25 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1965 November 26 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1966 May 19 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966 July 1 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 August 13 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1966 September 1 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 September 28 - . 18:05 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Arcasonde 2B - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1966 October 6 - . 00:40 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
1966 November 4 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 7 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1966 November 9 - . 17:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1966 November 11 - . 09:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 11 - . 14:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 11 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . 13:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . 14:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 November 12 - . 17:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Tartagal. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Eclipse Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE, NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1967 May 19 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Rat payload - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1967 August 30 - . 17:32 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ION 1 / 67 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1967 September 2 - . 17:37 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • ION 2 / 67 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi).

1967 September 6 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
1967 September 6 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1967 September 7 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1.
1967 September 7 - . 06:05 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1967 September 7 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1967 December 14 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1967 December 16 - . 14:58 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1968 January 24 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Chemical release mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1968 May 15 - . 19:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
1968 May 29 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
1968 June 13 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
1968 June 26 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
1968 July 16 - . 01:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
1968 July 31 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
1968 August 14 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
1968 September 20 - . 03:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Arcasonde 1A - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1968 September 25 - . 19:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
1968 October 2 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Judi-Dart.
1968 October 10 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Arcasonde 1A - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1968 November 13 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Arcasonde 1A - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1968 November 27 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Chaff - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1969 April 16 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Canopus 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1969 May 28 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Biological mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1969 August 30 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Biological mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1969 August 30 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1969 September 12 - . 04:06 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Rigel.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1969 October 23 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Canopus 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1969 December 22 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Castor (A).
  • Dummy St2 test - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 52 km (32 mi).

1969 December 22 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Rigel.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1969 December 23 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Canopus 2.
  • Test / biology mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 May 3 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Mar Chiquita. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Chemical release / fields mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1970 December 19 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Castor (A).
  • Dummy St2 test - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 45 km (27 mi).

1971 December 19 - . 23:33 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: IIAE.Orion. Launch Vehicle: Orion-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1972 November 2 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Rigel.
  • MPE Barium release? EXP 63 Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi).

1972 November 4 - . 23:27 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Rigel.
  • MPE Barium release? EXP 64 Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi).

1972 November 11 - . 08:26 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Rigel.
  • MPE Barium release? EXP 65 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi).

1973 November 18 - . 23:34 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Rigel.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1973 November 19 - . 23:35 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Rigel.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi).

1985 January 6 - .
  • La Criolla Meteorite Fall (Hit House) - . Nation: Argentina.

1990 January 22 - . 01:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40.
  • Oscar 19 - . Payload: LuSat. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Arianespace. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Oscar. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 20442 . COSPAR: 1990-005G. Apogee: 797 km (495 mi). Perigee: 779 km (484 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.60 min. Carried CCD camera..

1996 August 29 - . 05:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Microsat - . Payload: Victor. Mass: 32 kg (70 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Cordoba. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft Bus: MuSat. Spacecraft: MuSat. Decay Date: 1999-11-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 24291 . COSPAR: 1996-050A. Apogee: 19,176 km (11,915 mi). Perigee: 804 km (499 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 94.70 min.

    MuSat-1 Victor separated from the launch vehicle at 05:31 GMT, becoming the first Argentine-built satellite. Measuring 340 x 340 x 450mm."Victor " was an experimental vehicle, intended to evaluate in-orbit behaviour of low-cost space technologies. It carried two video cameras, oriented for earth-imaging, as well as transceivers in both UHF and S bands. The beacon could be heard every 90 seconds at 137.95 MHz as a brief burst of CW ("Hi hi de MUSAT"). Electrical power was provided by four 88-Si cells solar panels, with an end-of-life electrical power of 8 W. Its position was determined by means of a 3-axis, flux-gate magnetometer, as well as both solar and horizon sensors, while its attitude was 3-axis controlled by magnetic coils and reaction wheels, with a pointing precision of 0.5 deg. MuSat-1 was developed and built by a 25-person team at the Instituto Universitario Aeronautico, under the sponsorship of the government of the province of Cordoba, in a 3.5 year, $1.2 million effort.


1996 November 4 - . 17:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island DZ. Launch Pad: RW04/22. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. FAILURE: The rocket functioned perfectly but the separation system failed to release the payload..
  • SAC-B - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Program: SAC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SAC-B. Spacecraft: SAC-B. Decay Date: 2002-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24645 . COSPAR: 1996-061A. Apogee: 555 km (344 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 95.00 min. Air dropped in Wallops Island DZ..

1997 January 30 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Nahuel 1A - . Mass: 1,890 kg (4,160 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: ArSat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Nahuel. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Spacebus 2000. Spacecraft: Spacebus 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 24714 . COSPAR: 1997-002B. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geosynchronous. Stationed over 71.8W Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 72 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 71.82 deg W drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 71.83W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day..

1998 December 4 - . 08:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. Launch Platform: MLP3. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Space Shuttle.
  • SAC-A - . Mass: 68 kg (149 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Manufacturer: INVAP. Program: SAC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SAC-A. Spacecraft: SAC-A. Decay Date: 1999-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 25550 . COSPAR: 1998-069B. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 381 km (236 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. SAC-A was to provide engineering bench testing for new space science technology instruments and equipment that will be used in a more complex spacecraft for the Argentine space program..

2000 August 1 - .
  • Gauchito hybrid tests. - . Nation: Argentina. Program: X-Prize. Pablo de León (Buenos Aires, Argentina) performs sub-scale, hot fire, hybrid rocket engine tests..

2000 November 21 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7320-10.
  • SAC-C - . Mass: 529 kg (1,166 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Manufacturer: INVAP. Program: SAC. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SAC-C. Spacecraft: SAC-C. USAF Sat Cat: 26620 . COSPAR: 2000-075B. Apogee: 704 km (437 mi). Perigee: 701 km (435 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min.

    The SAC-C Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas C was developed by the Argentine space agency CONAE and built by the Argentine company INVAP. The 467 kg satellite carried a battery of earth observing instruments for Argentine forestry and agriculture studies. SAC-C also carried a NASA experiment which used the distortion of GPS signals observed near the horizon to derive atmospheric conditions. The DPAF dual payload support structure, derived from Ariane's SPELDA, was ejected after deployment of the EO-1 satellite from the Delta stage to reveal SAC-C. After a further Delta burn SAC-C was ejected at 1955 GMT into a 687 x 707 km x 98.3 deg orbit.


2001 March 1 - .
  • Gauchito capsule drop test. - . Nation: Argentina. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft Bus: X-Prize. Spacecraft: Gauchito. Pablo de León (Buenos Aires, Argentina) performs a capsule drop test out of a Hercules C-130 aircraft from 54,000 feet..

2002 May 1 - .
  • Gauchito drop test. - . Nation: Argentina. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft Bus: X-Prize. Spacecraft: Gauchito. Pablo de León (Buenos Aires, Argentina) performs second capsule drop test from 96,000 feet..

2002 December 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • LatinSat 1 - . Payload: AprizeSat 3. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27605 . COSPAR: 2002-058A. Apogee: 679 km (421 mi). Perigee: 635 km (394 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.90 min. Messaging satellite..
  • LatinSat 2 - . Payload: AprizeSat 4. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27606 . COSPAR: 2002-058B. Apogee: 702 km (436 mi). Perigee: 632 km (392 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Messaging satellite..

2003 May 16 - .
  • Gauchito life support system tests. - . Nation: Argentina. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft Bus: X-Prize. Spacecraft: Gauchito.

    Pablo de León (Buenos Aires, Argentina tested his vehicle's life support systems, pressure suit, and environment controls using several high altitude glider flights to 30,000 feet using their space suit system. The suit also underwent several thermal tests in a cold chamber (-35 Centigrade) and external temperatures were sustained for more than 2 hours.


2003 June 11 - .
  • Gauchito half-scale vehicle test failure. - . Nation: Argentina. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft Bus: X-Prize. Spacecraft: Gauchito. Pablo de León (100 miles south of Buenos Aires, Argentina) attempts flight test of half-scale X-Prize vehicle, but an explosion caused destruction of the vehicle before launch..

2004 June 29 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Aprizesat 2 (LatinSat D) - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28366 . COSPAR: 2004-025A. Apogee: 853 km (530 mi). Perigee: 695 km (431 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.30 min. Delayed from March. 31.
  • Aprizesat 1 (LatinSat C) - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28372 . COSPAR: 2004-025G. Apogee: 767 km (476 mi). Perigee: 698 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.50 min.

2007 January 10 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV.
  • Pehuensat - . Mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Pehuensat. Spacecraft: Pehuensat. USAF Sat Cat: 29712 . COSPAR: 2007-001D. Apogee: 641 km (398 mi). Perigee: 621 km (385 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. Experimental satellite developed by the Universidad Nacional del Comahue and AMSAT-LU. The satellte remained attached to the PSLV's Dual Launch Adapter..

2009 July 29 - . 18:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Aprizesat 4 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 35684 . COSPAR: 2009-041D. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 607 km (377 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.60 min.
  • Aprizesat 3 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev Design Bureau. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AprizeSat. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 35686 . COSPAR: 2009-041F. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 566 km (351 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.10 min.

    Part of a planned constellation of 64 of small low-earth-orbit satellites for global data transmission, fixed and mobile asset tracking and monitoring built by Spacequest, Fairfax, Virginia for exactEarth. Included Automatic Identification System receiver to gather position data from ships.


2009 October 3 - .
  • Death of Fernando 'Frank' Caldeiro - . Nation: Argentina, USA. Related Persons: Caldeiro. Hispanic-American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 1996-2009..

2009 December 17 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Serrezuela. LV Family: Gradicom 1. Launch Vehicle: Gradicom 1.
2011 June 10 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7320-10C.
  • SAC-D/Aquarius - . Mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Nation: Argentina. Program: SAC. Class: Earth. Type: Climate satellite. Spacecraft Bus: SAC-D. Spacecraft: SAC-D. USAF Sat Cat: 37673 . COSPAR: 2011-024A. Apogee: 655 km (406 mi). Perigee: 653 km (405 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.80 min.

    Argentinian 'Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-D' satellite. Carried NASA Aquarius L-band radiometer/scatterometer map sea salinity; a Ka-band microwave radiometer; a an infrared scanner to measure sea surface temperature; a high sensitivity camera to study light sources at night; and an Italian experiment which measured atmospheric deflection of GPS signals to determine air temperature and humidity.


2013 April 26 - . 04:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 2D.
  • CubeBug-1 - . Mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Nation: Argentina. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39153 . COSPAR: 2013-018D. Apogee: 654 km (406 mi). Perigee: 627 km (389 mi). Inclination: 98.0700 deg. Period: 97.53 min. 2U cubesat from Argentina..

2013 November 21 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. Launch Pad: xxx. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Manolito - . Payload: CUBEBUG 2. Mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Nation: Argentina. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Cubesat. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 39440 . COSPAR: 2013-066AA. Apogee: 710 km (440 mi). Perigee: 593 km (368 mi). Inclination: 97.7700 deg. Period: 97.76 min. 2U cubesat from Argentina..

2013 December 18 - . 10:42 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Rigel. Launch Vehicle: Centenario.
  • Experiencia Centenario - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: IIAE. Apogee: 49 km (30 mi).

2014 June 19 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Bugsat 1 - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: Argentina. Spacecraft Bus: Bugsat. Spacecraft: Bugsat. USAF Sat Cat: 40014 . COSPAR: 2014-033E. Apogee: 618 km (384 mi). Perigee: 568 km (352 mi). Inclination: 97.9900 deg. Period: 96.54 min. Technology testbed for components for a planned constellation of earth observation satellites by Satellogic SA..

2014 October 16 - . 21:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • ARSAT-1 - . Mass: 2,985 kg (6,580 lb). Nation: Argentina. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ARSAT-3K. Spacecraft: ARSAT-3K. USAF Sat Cat: 40272 . COSPAR: 2014-062B. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0600 deg. Period: 1,436.09 min. Argentina's first domestic geosynchronous communications satellite. Used a domestic satellite bus with 24 Ku-band transponder. Stationed in geosynchronous orbit at 72 deg west..

2015 September 30 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5.
  • ARSAT-2 - . Mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). Nation: Argentina. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: ARSAT-3K. Spacecraft: ARSAT-3K. USAF Sat Cat: 40941 . COSPAR: 2015-054B. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0600 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Argentinan indigenous communications satellite. 26 Ku-band and 10 C-band transponders..


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