Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: D

D - French earth geodetic satellite. Small French science and technology satellites used on early Diamant launch vehicle tests. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-02-17. Last Launch: 1975-09-27. Number: 7 .
D - Alternate designation for UR-500.
D - Alternate designation for Tu-133.
D- - Abbreviation for Department of Defense experiments prefix
D D Sevruk - First name of Sevruk Design Bureau.
D\'el\'egation Minist\'erielle pour l'Armement - Alternate name for DMA.
D-1 - Alternate designation for Proton-K.
D-1 - Alternate designation for D-1 spacesuit.
D-1 - Alternate designation for D-1 engine.
D-1 - Russian tactical ballistic missile. Korolev design for a 'long range' rocket prior to orders to copy the V-2. The 1000 kg rocket would have a range of 32 km. Wingspan 1.0 m; 370 kg propellants; minimum range 12.8 km; maximum velocity 854 m/s; maximum altitude 12.5 km. Status: Design 1944. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
D-1 - Alternate designation for Proton K.
D-1 - Alternate name for Sputnik 3.
D-1 - Alternate designation for R-11FM.
D-1 engine - Kosberg isopropyl nitrate monopropellant rocket engine. Developed 1955-56. Second thrust level at 50%. Explosion of D-1 on test bench in 1956 forced stop of work with mono-propellant OT-152. Sea level thrust 39 kN. Status: Developed 1955-56. Date: 1955-56. Thrust: 39.00 kN (8,767 lbf). Propellants: Isopropylnitrate.
D-1 spacesuit - American space suit, operational 1998. The D-1 (S1035X) space suit assembly was developed to provide a functional all-soft suit technology demonstrator prototype model to be used for mobility system testing and evaluation. Status: operational 1998. Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
D-100 - Alternate name for D-100-II.
D-100 - Alternate name for TAL-100.
D-100-II - TsNIIMash electric/xenon rocket engine. Development. Hall effect thruster with anode layer, designed for satellite orbital raising. Taken to engineering model stage. Status: Development. Thrust: 0.0650 N (0.0140 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
D-11 - Alternate designation for R-31.
D-18T - Lotarev turbofan engine. Used on An-225 launch aircraft for Interim HOTOL, MAKS concepts. Development ended 1988. Status: Development ended 1988. Unfuelled mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 229.40 kN (51,571 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
D-19 Grom - Alternate designation for R-39M.
D-19 Grom - Alternate designation for R-39.
D-19 Rif - Alternate designation for 3M20.
D-19M - Alternate designation for Bulava.
D-19UTH Bark - Alternate designation for R-39UTTKh.
D-19UTH Grom - Alternate designation for R-39M.
D-1e - Alternate designation for Proton-K/17S40.
D-1e - Alternate designation for Proton-K/DM.
D-1e - Alternate designation for Proton-K/D-1.
D-1e - Alternate designation for Proton-K/DM-2M.
D-1e - Alternate designation for Proton-K/D.
D-1e - Alternate designation for Proton-K/DM-2.
D-1e - Alternate designation for Proton-K/D-2.
D-1e - Alternate designation for Proton K/DM-2M.
D-1-e - Alternate name for Proton 11S824M.
D-1-e - Alternate name for Proton 11S824F.
D-1-e - Alternate name for Proton 11S86.
D-1-e - Alternate name for Proton 11S861-01.
D-1-e - Alternate name for Proton 11S824.
D-1-e - Alternate name for Proton 11S861.
D-1-e - Alternate name for Proton 17S40.
D-2 - Alternate designation for D-2 engine.
D-2 - Russian tactical ballistic missile. Korolev design for a 'long range' rocket prior to orders to copy the V-2. Extended-range winged version of the D-1. The 1200 kg rocket would have a range of 76 km. Wingspan 1.5 m; 370 kg propellants; minimum range 20 km; maximum velocity 628 m/s; maximum altitude 10.7 km. Status: Design 1944. Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
D-2 - Alternate designation for R-13.
D-2 engine - Polyarniy LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. R-3. Out of Production. Competing engine for 3000 km range IRBM design to study problems of long-range rockets. Developed from April 1947 until cancellation. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1947-51. Thrust: 1,373.00 kN (308,662 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
D-20 - TsNIIMash electric/xenon rocket engine. Development. Hall effect thruster with anode layer, designed for satellite station-keeping and attitude control. Taken to engineering model stage. Status: Development. Thrust: 0.0015 N (0.0003 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
D-21 - American air-launched drone. Project 'Tagboard', Project 'Senior Bowl'. Mach 3.5 ramjet recoverable reconnaissance drone air-launched from back of A-12 or with booster rocket from B-52. Status: Retired.
D-25 - Alternate name for RD-861.
D-3 - Alternate designation for R-15.
D-38 - Manufacturer's designation of TAL-38 Electric-Xenon rocket engine.
D-4 - Alternate designation for R-21.
D-5 - Alternate designation for R-27.
D50 - Yuzhnoye electric/xenon rocket engine. Development. Hall engine electric jet propulsion system intended for use by spacecraft for inter-orbital transfer, orbit correction, and stabilization. Status: Development. Thrust: 0.0480 N (0.0100 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
D-50G1 - Manufacturer's designation of LR39 LOx-Alcohol rocket engine.
D-5-1 - Hercules-Thiokol solid rocket engine. Trident D-5 first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 39,100 kg (86,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,242 kg (4,942 lb). Propellants: Solid.
D-5-2 - Hercules-Thiokol solid rocket engine. Trident D-5 second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 11,800 kg (26,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 790 kg (1,740 lb). Propellants: Solid.
D-54 - Manufacturer's designation of RD-54 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
D-55 - Manufacturer's designation of TAL-WSF Electric-Xenon rocket engine.
D-558-1 - American manned high-speed research aircraft. Flown 1947-1953. The D-558-I "Skystreaks" were among the early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and XF-92A. Status: Operational 1947.
D-558-2 - American manned rocketplane. Flown from 1949. Research airplane Douglas D-558. Airplane had both jet and rocket engines and was flown from ground takeoff. The D-558-II Skyrocket exceeded the speed of sound at Edwards AFB, Calif. Status: Operational 1949.
D-558-3 - American manned rocketplane. Flown 1954. The D-558-3 was a US Navy/Douglas counterpart to the X-15, which would have kept the Navy in the 'space race' and Douglas in the running for future manned spaceplanes. Status: Operational 1954. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Thrust: 222.60 kN (50,042 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Ammonia.
D-56 - Alternate name for RD-56.
D-57 - Alternate designation for RD-57 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
D-6 - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First Soviet solid propellant submarine launched ballistic missile. Development began in 1958, but the system was cancelled in 1961 in favor of the D-7 naval version of the RT-15 IRBM (itself in turn cancelled). Status: Cancelled 1961.
D-68 - Alternate designation for RD-68 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
D-68M - Alternate designation for RD-855 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
D-68M - Alternate designation for RD-68M N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
D-69 - Alternate designation for RD-69 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
D-69M - Alternate designation for RD-69M.
D-69M - Alternate designation for RD-856 and [RD-856] N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
D-7 - Kosberg isopropyl nitrate monopropellant rocket engine. Missile by Toropov. Out of Production. Intended for air-air missile by I I Toropov. Uncooled thrust chamber. Sea level thrust 11.8 kN. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1956. Thrust: 11.80 kN (2,653 lbf). Propellants: Isopropylnitrate.
D-7 - Alternate designation for RT-15M.
D-8 - Alternate designation for R-29.
D-8 - Alternate designation for R-29D.
D-9 - Alternate designation for R-29R.
D-9 - Alternate designation for R-29RL.
D-9 - Alternate designation for R-29K.
D-9RM Shtil - Alternate designation for R-29RM.
DA - Abbreviation for Deployment Assembly
Da Vinci - Canadian manufacturer of spacecraft. Da Vinci Project, Canada.
DAC - Abbreviation for Data Acquisition Camera
DAC Helios - American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Douglas/Bono 1963 concept for a chemical-boosted / nuclear upper stage launch vehicle, designed as alternatives to the Convair/Ehricke Helios. The baseline version used a nuclear, recoverable upper stage boosted above the atmosphere by a minimum chemical stage. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 3,275,400 kg (7,221,000 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 44,535.70 kN (10,012,024 lbf).
DAC Helios ISI - American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. As the basic design, but featuring an Improved Specific Impulse chemical stage that used many engines feeding into single large nozzle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,948,400 kg (6,500,100 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 39,955.80 kN (8,982,421 lbf).
DAC Helios ISI-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,333,000 kg (2,938,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 120,000 kg (260,000 lb). Thrust: 49,807.00 kN (11,197,059 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
DAC Helios ISI-2 - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,070,000 kg (2,350,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 214,000 kg (471,000 lb). Thrust: 17,926.00 kN (4,029,925 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
DAC Helios-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,660,000 kg (3,650,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 149,000 kg (328,000 lb). Thrust: 52,926.00 kN (11,898,238 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
DAC Helios-2 - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,070,000 kg (2,350,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 214,000 kg (471,000 lb). Thrust: 17,926.00 kN (4,029,925 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
Dac Roc - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1963-10-24. Last Launch: 1963-12-10. Number: 2 .
DAC Roc-1 - Solid rocket stage. Status: Retired 1963. Propellants: Solid.
DACO - DACO.
DACRoc - Alternate designation for Dac Roc.
DAD - American earth atmosphere satellite. Dual Air Density; air density experiments. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-12-06. Last Launch: 1975-12-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 71 kg (156 lb).
Dadieu - German engineer, SS Officer, and wartime governor of Styria. Worked on German uranium processing in World War 2, and for Saenger post-war. By the 1970's on review committees for post-Apollo space programs in US and Europa III LV in Europe. Consultant to West German government on OTRAG. Born: 1901-08-20. Died: 1978-04-06.
Dahm - German-American aerodynamicist, worked at Peenemuende on A9/A10, A7, A4b, and Wasserfall winged missiles. Post-war completed studies, joined von Braun team in US as Head of Aerodynamics Analysis Branch, Aeroballistics Division, Huntsville. Born: 1917-02-16. Died: 2008-01-17.
Daichi - Japanese civilian surveillance optical and radar satellite used for cartography, regional observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. It lost all power on 22 April 2011. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-01-24. Last Launch: 2006-01-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,850 kg (8,480 lb).
Daichi-2 - Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2, placed in a noon/midnight sun-synchronous orbit. Carried the PALSAR-2 radar imager with 1 to 3 meter resolution in spotlight mode and 3 to 10 m in high resolution mode. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-05-24. Last Launch: 2014-05-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb).
Dailey - American USMC officer, associate deputy administrator of NASA 1992-1999 and director of the NASM 2000-2009. He flew 450 missions during two tours in Viet Nam.
Daimler-Benz Aerospace - Third name of MBB.
Daimler-Benz Aerospace - Second name of DASA.
DaimlerChrysler Aerospace - First name of Dornier.
DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, Bremen (formerly ERNO) - Fourth name of Bremen.
DaimlerChrysler Dornier - Third name of Friedrichshafen.
Dal - Russian surface-to-air missile. Trials of this long range surface-to-air missile were conducted in 1960-1963 but the project was cancelled after the system failed to down a single target. V-200 missiles were installed in the Dal installations built around Leningrad for the failed missile. In a bit of disinformation, the V-400 was paraded in Moscow, and US intelligence, thinking it was operational, applied the SA-5 designation. The SA-5 code was transferred to the V-200 after the La-400 was cancelled. Status: Cancelled 1973. Gross mass: 8,757 kg (19,305 lb). Payload: 250 kg (550 lb).
Dal-2 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Planned next generation high performance long-range surface-to-air missile developed 1959-1963. Cancelled together with basic the Dal system at the end of 1963.
Dal-M - Russian surface-to-air missile. Planned improved version of the Dal high performance long-range surface-to-air missile developed 1959-1963. Cancelled together with basic the Dal system at the end of 1963.
Dal-M - Alternate designation for Dal-2.
Dana - American test pilot 1965-1968. Flew on X-15 Flight 174, X-15 Flight 197. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1968. Born: 1930-11-03. Died: 2014-05-06. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 0.0140 days.
Danchik - American engineer. John Hopkins APL 1967-2000. Transit program manager for 16 years. Born: 1933-05-03.
DANDE - Drag and Atmospheric Neutral Density Explorer from the University of Colorado. The sphere carried a particle spectrometer to measure the outer atmosphere wind speed and direction, and a drag measurement system. It was attached to an 8 kg Lightband adapter which was jettisoned on October 30 (cataloged as 2013-055AC) and DANDE then began its atmospheric density studies. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-09-29. Last Launch: 2013-09-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 38 kg (83 lb).
Daniel - French test vehicle. Three stage test vehicle for Israel's Jericho consisting of 1 x SPRAN-50 + 1 x MD-620 + 1 x Melanie Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1959-01-27. Last Launch: 1961-10-09. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Daniel-1 - Alternate name for SPRAN-50.
Daniel-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Danish Technical University - Danish Technical University, Denmark.
Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut - Alternate name for DMI.
Dannenberg - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Liaison between Huntsville and Rocketdyne for development of the engines for the Redstone, Jupiter, and Saturn I rockets; managed development of the Saturn V in the early years; developed concepts for Saturn V-launched space stations. Retired 1973. Born: 1912-08-05. Died: 2009-02-16.
Dantscher - German pilot and chief staff engineer.
DAPP - Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Used the AFP-43 bus.
DARA - German agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (German Space Agency), Germany.
Darevskiy - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1965-1975 of Special OKB of Gromov LII. Designed simulators and cockpit consoles.
DARPA - American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (formerly ARPA), USA.
DARPA Falcon - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed Martin all-hybrid propulsion, mobile orbital launch system that could launch from an unimproved site with limited infrastructure on 24 hours notice, placing up to 840 kilograms into LEO Status: Development. Payload: 840 kg (1,850 lb).
DARPASAT - American technology satellite. USA 102. GPS receiver and data processor technology tests. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-03-13. Last Launch: 1994-03-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 203 kg (447 lb).
Dart - Alternate designation for Dart missile.
DART - American rendezvous technology satellite. Autonomous Rendezvous Technology mission, planned to guide itself to within a few meters of a US satellite. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-04-15. Last Launch: 2005-04-15. Number: 1 .
DART Autonomous Rendezvous Technology - Alternate designation for DART.
Dart missile - American surface-to-surface anti-tank missile. Development started in 1953 Program cancelled in 1958 in favor of the French SS.10. Status: Cancelled 1958. Gross mass: 135 kg (297 lb).
Dartmouth - American manufacturer. Dartmouth, USA.
DASA - German agency. Deutsche Aerospace AG, Bremen, Germany.
DASA Jena Optronic GmbH (DJO) - Alternate name for Jena.
DASA-ERNO - Daimler-Benz Aerospace, Bremen (formerly ERNO), Germany
DASA-MBB - Daimler-Benz Aerospace, Munich (formerly MBB), Germany
Dash - American military technology satellite. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-05-09. Last Launch: 1963-07-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
DASH 2002 - Japanese re-entry vehicle technology satellite. DASH. DASH (Demonstrator of Atmospheric Reentry System and Hypervelocity) was a small secondary payload built by ISAS, the scientific space agency which was to merge with NASDA. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-02-04. Last Launch: 2002-02-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 70 kg (154 lb).
Dassault - French manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Dassault Aircraft, France.
Data Downloads! - Data on astronauts, manned flights, rockets, engines, and more!
Datil - Military testing range. First Launch: 1963-05-13. Last Launch: 1963-05-16. Number: 3 .
Dauphin - French sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket consisting of a single Stromboli motor. Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1967-03-20. Last Launch: 1979-02-08. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 1,132 kg (2,495 lb). Payload: 130 kg (280 lb). Thrust: 90.00 kN (20,232 lbf).
Daus - German expert in special vehicles for rocket transportation during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
David - Name of one Galileo Navsat.
David Clark - American manufacturer of spacecraft. David Clark, USA.
Davies - American scientist, worked for Douglas 1940-1948 and then RAND. Conceptual work on reconnaissance satellites led to the Corona program. Involved at JPL in early Mars imaging missions, establishing the reference systems for other planets. Born: 1917-09-13. Died: 2001-04-17.
Davis - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1987-1999. Engineer, was married to astronaut Mark Lee, part of first married couple to fly in space together. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1999. Born: 1953-11-01. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 28.09 days.
Davis-Monthan AFB - Titan 2 ICBM base. Davis-Monthan, a US military base since 1925, was selected in 1960 as the headquarters for a Titan 2 ICBM wing (the 570th). By the end of 1962 18 silos had been built, at the cost of five lives and many injuries. The missiles remained on alert in their silos for nearly twenty years, until the decision was taken to retire them in October 1981. The missiles were removed for refurbishment and use as space launchers. The silos were demolished with explosives beginning 30 November 1983. One silo was preserved as the Titan Missile Museum.
Davis-Monthan AFB 570-1 -
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Davis-Monthan AFB 570-6 -
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Davy Crockett M-28 - American tactical ballistic rocket. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 68 kg (149 lb).
Davy Crockett XM-29 - American tactical ballistic rocket. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 170 kg (370 lb).
Dawn - American asteroid probe. Asteroid belt unmanned probe designed to first orbit and survey the asteroid Vesta, and then fly on to the largest asteroid, Ceres. Orbit asteroids Ceres and Vesta. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-09-27. Last Launch: 2007-09-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,218 kg (2,685 lb). Unfuelled mass: 793 kg (1,748 lb). Thrust: 0.27 N (0.06 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
Dawn-1 - Alternate designation for Shuguang 1 manned spacecraft.
Day - American engineer. Worked in leadership positions in the area of technical information services at the AEC (1947-1960) and NASA (1960-1970). Born: 1923-07-29. Died: 1986-07-01.
Daylight Rover - American manned lunar rover. Study 1990. The Daylight Rover was a Boeing concept of 1990, which consisted of two separate pressure vessels. The forward served as the driving station, and the rear served as a storm shelter and EVA airlock. Status: Study 1990. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb).
dB - Abbreviation for Decibel
Dbayeh - Dbayeh launch site First Launch: 1962-11-21. Last Launch: 1966-08-04. Number: 6 .
DBP - Deutsche Bundespost (Germany), Germany
DBP Telekom - DBP Telekom.
DBS - Designation of series of communications satellites launched by DirecTV.
DC - Abbreviation for Delta Clipper
DCA - Defense Communications Agency, US Department of Defense, USA
DCAM - Attached to Hayabusa-2 Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-12-03. Last Launch: 2014-12-03. Number: 1 .
DCBB - 2U Cubesat with an amateur radio payload.
DC-I - Alternate designation for DC-Y.
DC-I - Alternate name for Delta Clipper manned spacecraft.
DCR - Abbreviation for Design certification review
DCS - Abbreviation for Digital Command System
DCX - Abbreviation for Delta Clipper eXperimental
DC-X - The Space Defense Initiative Office's Single Stage Rocket Technology program of 1990-1995 demonstrated technology readiness for an SSTO vehicle. Despite successful test flights of the DC-X technology demonstrator, no development funding was forthcoming, and designs for prototype and production rockets remained on the drawing boards. Status: Retired 1996. First Launch: 1993-08-18. Last Launch: 1995-07-07. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 16,320 kg (35,970 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Thrust: 223.00 kN (50,132 lbf).
DC-X2 - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Proposed intermediate 1/2 scale test vehicle between DC-X and DC-Y orbital version. No government agency was willing to fund the $450 million development cost -- and neither were any private investors. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 84,000 kg (185,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 1,051.20 kN (236,319 lbf).
DC-XA - American VTOVL test vehicle. After a hard landing in the last flight of this series, the vehicle was rebuilt to the DC-XA configuration. The DC-XA flew from May 1996 until destroyed when it tipped over while landing on its fourth flight on 31 July 1996. Status: Retired 1996. First Launch: 1996-05-18. Last Launch: 1996-07-31. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Thrust: 242.00 kN (54,403 lbf).
DC-XA - Alternate designation for DC-X.
DC-Y - Alternate name for Delta Clipper manned spacecraft.
DDCU - Abbreviation for DC-to-DC Converter Unit
DDR - German Democratic Republic (German abbreviation)
DDTE - Abbreviation for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation
DE - Abbreviation for Dynamics Explorer.
De Beek - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1904-07-13. Died: 1989-12-02.
de Bergerac - French writer. Writer who's works included two novels involving flight to the moon. Most remembered as the subject of an 1897 novel. Born: 1619. Died: 1655-01-01.
De Winne - Belgian physician astronaut 1998-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2012. Born: 1961-04-25. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 198.73 days.
Deacon - Hercules solid rocket motor developed in World War II that later became the basis of dozens of test vehicle and sounding rocket configurations. The design was upgraded to the Cajun, then the Apache. An equivalent was produced by Atlantic Research as the Arcon. Thousands were flown as single stage vehicles; in combination with other lower or upper stages; or carried aloft by balloons in the Rockoon configuration. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1947-04-01. Last Launch: 1958-08-26. Number: 95 . Gross mass: 93 kg (205 lb). Payload: 17 kg (37 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf).
Deacon Arrow II - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x Arrow II Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1958-11-19. Last Launch: 1963-01-23. Number: 44 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf).
Deacon Arrow II-2 - GCR solid rocket engine. Deacon Arrow II second stage. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Deacon Arrow II-2 - Alternate name for Arrow (engine).
Deacon Deacon - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x Deacon Status: Retired 1952. First Launch: 1950-08-01. Last Launch: 1952-09-01. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf).
Deacon HVAR - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x HVAR Status: Retired 1950. First Launch: 1950-11-02. Last Launch: 1950-11-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf).
Deacon Judi - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x Judi III Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1963-04-30. Last Launch: 1963-04-30. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 21.00 kN (4,720 lbf).
Deacon Rockoon - American sounding rocket. The Rockoon concept involved release of a 12 m diameter balloon from a ship, which took a Deacon sounding rocket to 9 to 27 km altitude in 80 minutes. The rocket was ignited at a preset time or altitude or by remote control, and then boosted an 18 kg payload to a 50 to 100 km altitude. The Deacon was painted black and wrapped in plastic to protect it against the cold, and fitted with larger fins for stability at high altitude. Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1952-08-21. Last Launch: 1956-07-27. Number: 77 . Gross mass: 93 kg (205 lb). Payload: 17 kg (37 lb). Thrust: 28.35 kN (6,373 lbf).
Deacon Rockoon Loki - Alternate designation for Deacon-Loki Rockoon.
Deacon Rockoon-0 - Rocket stage used on Deacon Rockoon sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1992.
Deacon Sidewinder - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x HPAG Status: Retired 1953. First Launch: 1953-10-15. Last Launch: 1953-10-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 160 kg (350 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf).
Deacon-Loki Rockoon - Two stage version of Rockoon balloon-launched sounding rocket consisting of a Deacon first stage and Loki second stage. Status: Retired 1955. First Launch: 1955-09-28. Last Launch: 1955-09-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 115 kg (253 lb). Thrust: 28.35 kN (6,373 lbf).
DeArmond - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1988. Born: 1954-11-27.
deboost - A velocity control engine burn to allow a spacecraft to decelerate and go into orbit around a planetary body, or to leave an orbit and descend to a landing on that body.
Debus - German-American engineer. At Peenemuende from 1940, designed and operated V-2 test launch facility. In US from 1945, headed design, build, and operation of launch facilities for the V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and Saturn rockets for Apollo. Born: 1908-11-29. Died: 1983-10-04.
Debut - Japanese communications technology satellite. Boom, umbrella test. DEBUT "Orizuru". Experiment of extending and contracting boom; experiment of expanding and contracting aerodynamic brake. Launching organization NASDA. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-02-07. Last Launch: 1990-02-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
decibel - The decibel is a ratio of two numbers, equal to the tenth root of ten or about 1.259. It is mostly used as the ratio of two power levels. If a radio receiver, playing at a certain "volume" level. is turned up until the acoustic power output has increased by 25.9%, its new level is one decibel above the original level.
Dediu - Romanian pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1981. Rumanian Air Force. Served in the Rumanian Army as Lieutenant Colonel, stationed in Bucharest. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1981. Born: 1942-05-12. Died: 2013-07-01.
Dedkov - Belarusian pilot cosmonaut, 1970-1983. Status: Inactive; Active 1970-1983. Born: 1944-07-24.
Deep Impact - American comet probe. Studied interior composition of Comet Tempel 1. The flyby spacecraft carried a smaller impactor which it released, allowing it to study the plume from the collision with the comet on 2005.07.04. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-01-12. Last Launch: 2005-01-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,020 kg (2,240 lb).
Deep Space 1 - American asteroid probe. Deep Space 1 (DS1) was a primarily a technology demonstration probe powered by an ion engine, although the spacecraft also flew by asteroid and cometary targets. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-10-24. Last Launch: 1998-10-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 486 kg (1,072 lb). Unfuelled mass: 374 kg (824 lb). Thrust: 0.0980 N (0.0220 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
Defence Research Agency - Second name of Farnborough.
Defender - Alternate designation for Bambi military anti-ballistic missile satellite.
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Alternate designation for DMSP Block 5A.
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Alternate designation for DMSP Block 5B.
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Alternate designation for DMSP Block 5C.
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Alternate designation for DMSP Block 5D.
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Alternate designation for DMSP Block 5D-2.
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Alternate designation for DMSP Block 4A earth weather satellite.
Defense Nuclear Agency, DoD, USA - Alternate name for DNA.
Defense Research and Development Lab - Alternate name for IDRDL.
Defense Research and Development Organization - Alternate name for DRDO.
Defense Research Telecommunications Establishment, Canada - Alternate name for DRTE.
Defense Satellite Communications System - Alternate designation for DSCS III.
Defense Satellite Communications System - Alternate designation for DSCS II military communications satellite.
Defense Science and Technology Organization, Weapons Sys Div. - Alternate name for DSTO.
Defense Support Program - Alternate designation for DSP military early warning satellite.
Defense System - Defense System.
Defense Systems Inc - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Defense Systems Inc, USA.
DeFrance - American engineer. Designer and director of research for wind tunnels at Langley, 1922-1940, and Ames, 1940-1965. His work in the 1950's established blunt-body shapes for re-entry vehicles. Born: 1896-01-19. Died: 1985-05-06.
DEGDN - Abbreviation or acronym for Diethylene glycol dinitrate
Degenkolb - Leader of the Special Group for the A4 and supervisor of manufacturing for the 'war locomotive'.
degrees K - Degrees Kelvin. A degree of temperature on the Kelvin scale also called '`absolute scale." The Kelvin zero point is approximately -273.1° Centigrade. A degree Kelvin is equal in magnitude to a degree on the Centigrade scale.
Degtyarev - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1966. Born: 1932-04-04.
DEI - Design (development) engineering inspection
Deimos 2 - Earth observation satellite which carried an 0.75m resolution, 12 km swath imager provided by Satrec South Korea. Total cost including launch was 60 million Euros. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-06-19. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
Delamar Dry Lake DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone. RW00/18 on the dry lake was also used for emergency landings.
Delegation Generale de l'Armament, Paris - Alternate name for DGA.
Delfi - Dutch technology satellite. One launch, 2008.04.28. Technical University of Delft nanosat. Status: Operational 2008.
Dellmeier - German Engineer. Engineer at Peenemuende.
Delta - American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. Status: Active.
Delta 0100 - American orbital launch vehicle. The military Thor-Delta vehicles were developed into the first of a series of commercial satellite launch vehicles. The Delta 0100 series featured Castor 2 solid propellant strap-ons and a Long Tank Thor core with MB-3 engine. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 116,573 kg (256,999 lb). Payload: 635 kg (1,399 lb). Thrust: 2,140.70 kN (481,249 lbf).
Delta 0300 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1C + 1 x DSV-3N-4 Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1972-10-15. Last Launch: 1973-11-06. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 90,100 kg (198,600 lb). Thrust: 1,590.00 kN (357,440 lbf).
Delta 0900 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1C + 1 x DSV-3N-4 Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1972-07-23. Last Launch: 1972-12-11. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 116,500 kg (256,800 lb). Payload: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 2,500.00 kN (562,000 lbf).
Delta 1000 - American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 1000 series used Castor 2 strap-ons and the Extended Long Tank core with MB-3 engine. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 130,286 kg (287,231 lb). Thrust: 2,287.50 kN (514,250 lbf).
Delta 104 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1962. Gross mass: 4,472 kg (9,859 lb). Unfuelled mass: 590 kg (1,300 lb). Thrust: 35.10 kN (7,890 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Delta 1410 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1975-04-09. Last Launch: 1975-04-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 110,000 kg (240,000 lb). Thrust: 1,863.00 kN (418,819 lbf).
Delta 1604 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta F + 1 x Star 37C Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1972-09-23. Last Launch: 1973-10-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 118,000 kg (260,000 lb). Payload: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
Delta 180 - SDIO sensor tests. Part of SDI series of missions.
Delta 181 - Military tracking exercise; released subsatellites. Part of SDI series of missions.
Delta 1900 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta F Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1973-12-16. Last Launch: 1973-12-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 130,000 kg (280,000 lb). Thrust: 2,410.00 kN (541,780 lbf).
Delta 1910 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1975-06-21. Last Launch: 1975-06-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 130,000 kg (280,000 lb). Thrust: 2,410.00 kN (541,780 lbf).
Delta 1913 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37D Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1973-06-10. Last Launch: 1973-06-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 130,000 kg (280,000 lb). Thrust: 2,410.00 kN (541,780 lbf).
Delta 1914 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37C Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1972-11-10. Last Launch: 1973-04-20. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 130,286 kg (287,231 lb). Thrust: 2,287.50 kN (514,250 lbf).
Delta 2 6000 - American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 6000 series used the Castor 4A strap-ons with the ultimate Extra Extended Long Tank core with RS-27 engine. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 218,000 kg (480,000 lb). Payload: 3,981 kg (8,776 lb). Thrust: 3,480.60 kN (782,470 lbf).
Delta 2 7000 - American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 7000 series used GEM-40 strap-ons with the Extra Extended Long Tank core, further upgraded with the RS-27A engine. Status: In production. Gross mass: 231,870 kg (511,180 lb). Payload: 5,089 kg (11,219 lb). Thrust: 3,110.00 kN (699,150 lbf).
Delta 2000 - American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 2000 series used Castor 2 strap-ons together with an Extended Long Tank core equipped with the more powerful RS-27 engine. This engine was derived from surplus H-1 engines intended for the Saturn IB booster of the Apollo program. The Delta P upper stage was built by Douglas and used surplus Apollo lunar module engines from TRW. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 130,392 kg (287,465 lb). Payload: 724 kg (1,596 lb). Thrust: 2,287.50 kN (514,250 lbf).
Delta 2310 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1974-11-15. Last Launch: 1981-10-06. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 131,000 kg (288,000 lb). Thrust: 1,737.00 kN (390,493 lbf).
Delta 2313 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37D Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1974-01-19. Last Launch: 1977-08-25. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 131,000 kg (288,000 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 1,737.00 kN (390,493 lbf).
Delta 2910 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 Status: Retired 1978. First Launch: 1975-01-22. Last Launch: 1978-10-24. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 131,000 kg (288,000 lb). Thrust: 2,560.00 kN (575,510 lbf).
Delta 2913 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37D Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1975-08-09. Last Launch: 1976-05-04. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 131,800 kg (290,500 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 2,560.00 kN (575,510 lbf).
Delta 2914 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37E Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1974-04-13. Last Launch: 1979-08-10. Number: 30 . Gross mass: 130,392 kg (287,465 lb). Payload: 724 kg (1,596 lb). Thrust: 2,287.50 kN (514,250 lbf).
Delta 3 - Alternate designation for Delta 8930.
Delta 3 - 1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. The first stage of the Delta III is powered by a Rocketdyne RS-27A main engine which has a 12:1 expansion ratio and employs a turbine/turbopump, a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and nozzle, and a hydraulically gimbaled thrust chamber and nozzle that provides pitch and yaw control. Status: Retired 2000. Gross mass: 104,377 kg (230,111 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,822 kg (15,039 lb). Thrust: 1,085.79 kN (244,095 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Delta 3000 - American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 3000 series upgraded the boosters to Castor 4 solid propellant strap-ons, while retaining the Extended Long Tank core with RS-27 engine. The 3910 series used the TRW Lunar Module engine in the second stage, while the 3920 series reintroduced the Aerojet AJ110 Delta engine. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 185,382 kg (408,697 lb). Payload: 954 kg (2,103 lb). Thrust: 3,046.20 kN (684,813 lbf).
Delta 3-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. The upgraded cryogenic second-stage Pratt & Whitney RL10B-2 engine is based on the 30-year heritage of the reliable RL10 engine. It incorporates an extendable exit cone for increased specific impulse (Isp) and payload capability. Status: Retired 2000. Gross mass: 19,300 kg (42,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,476 kg (5,458 lb). Thrust: 110.03 kN (24,736 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Delta 3910 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1980-02-14. Last Launch: 1988-02-08. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 190,000 kg (410,000 lb). Thrust: 3,188.00 kN (716,690 lbf).
Delta 3910/PAM - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P + 1 x Star 48B Status: Retired 1982. First Launch: 1980-11-15. Last Launch: 1982-06-09. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 191,600 kg (422,400 lb). Payload: 1,087 kg (2,396 lb). Thrust: 3,188.00 kN (716,690 lbf).
Delta 3913 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37N Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1981-08-03. Last Launch: 1981-08-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 190,000 kg (410,000 lb). Thrust: 3,188.00 kN (716,690 lbf).
Delta 3914 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37E Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1975-12-13. Last Launch: 1986-05-03. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 185,382 kg (408,697 lb). Payload: 951 kg (2,096 lb). Thrust: 3,046.20 kN (684,813 lbf).
Delta 3920 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K Status: Retired 1986. First Launch: 1982-07-16. Last Launch: 1986-09-05. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 191,000 kg (421,000 lb). Thrust: 3,188.00 kN (716,690 lbf).
Delta 3920/PAM - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1982-08-26. Last Launch: 1987-03-20. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 191,600 kg (422,400 lb). Payload: 1,280 kg (2,820 lb). Thrust: 3,188.00 kN (716,690 lbf).
Delta 3920-8 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1989-03-24. Last Launch: 1989-03-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 190,000 kg (410,000 lb). Thrust: 3,188.00 kN (716,690 lbf).
Delta 3924 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 37E Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1982-10-28. Last Launch: 1987-02-26. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 191,000 kg (421,000 lb). Payload: 954 kg (2,103 lb). Thrust: 3,188.00 kN (716,690 lbf).
Delta 3925 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 192,360 kg (424,080 lb). Payload: 3,451 kg (7,608 lb). Thrust: 3,046.20 kN (684,813 lbf).
Delta 4 - 2 - Alternate name for Delta 4-2.
Delta 4000 - American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 4000 series used more powerful Castor 4A strap-ons, but the old Extended Long Tank core with MB-3 engine. Only two of these were launched. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 200,740 kg (442,550 lb). Payload: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Thrust: 3,468.80 kN (779,817 lbf).
Delta 4-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Delta 3 second stage with hydrogen tank stretch. Status: In production. Gross mass: 24,170 kg (53,280 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,850 kg (6,280 lb). Thrust: 110.05 kN (24,740 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Delta 4925-8 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor /MB-3 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing) Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1989-08-27. Last Launch: 1990-06-12. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 200,740 kg (442,550 lb). Payload: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Thrust: 3,468.80 kN (779,817 lbf).
Delta 4H - American orbital launch vehicle. Heavy lift all-cryogenic launch vehicle using two Delta-4 core vehicles as first stage flanking a single core vehicle as second stage. A heavy upper stage is carried with a 5 m diameter payload fairing. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-12-21. Last Launch: 2014-12-05. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 733,400 kg (1,616,800 lb). Payload: 25,800 kg (56,800 lb). Thrust: 8,670.00 kN (1,949,090 lbf).
Delta 4H - 2 - Alternate name for Delta 4H-2.
Delta 4H-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Delta 4 second stage with hydrogen tank increased to 5.1 m diameter. Status: Active. Gross mass: 30,710 kg (67,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,490 kg (7,690 lb). Thrust: 110.05 kN (24,740 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Delta 4M - American orbital launch vehicle. Basic Delta-4 vehicle with no strap-ons, the core vehicle, and RL10B-1 upper stage with a 4 m diameter payload fairing. World's first all-cryogenic launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 2003-03-11. Last Launch: 2006-11-04. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 249,500 kg (550,000 lb). Payload: 8,600 kg (18,900 lb). Thrust: 2,890.00 kN (649,690 lbf).
Delta 4M+(4,2) - American orbital launch vehicle. As Delta 4 medium but with 2 x GEM-60 solid rocket boosters and a 4 m diameter payload fairing. Status: Active. First Launch: 2002-11-20. Last Launch: 2015-03-25. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 292,732 kg (645,363 lb). Payload: 11,700 kg (25,700 lb). Thrust: 4,183.20 kN (940,421 lbf).
Delta 4M+(5,2) - American orbital launch vehicle. As Delta 4 medium but with 2 x GEM-60 solid rocket boosters and a 5 m diameter payload fairing. Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-04-03. Last Launch: 2012-04-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 292,732 kg (645,363 lb). Payload: 10,300 kg (22,700 lb). Thrust: 4,183.20 kN (940,421 lbf).
Delta 4M+(5,4) - American orbital launch vehicle. As Delta 4 medium but with 4 x GEM-60 solid rocket boosters and a 5 m diameter payload fairing. Status: Active. First Launch: 2009-12-06. Last Launch: 2015-07-24. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 404,600 kg (891,900 lb). Payload: 13,600 kg (29,900 lb). Thrust: 5,860.00 kN (1,317,380 lbf).
Delta 5000 - American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 5000 series used the more powerful Castor 4A strap-ons but with the Extended Long Tank core with RS-27 engine. Only one was launched. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 201,580 kg (444,400 lb). Payload: 3,848 kg (8,483 lb). Thrust: 3,468.90 kN (779,840 lbf).
Delta 5920-8 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing) Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1989-11-18. Last Launch: 1989-11-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 201,580 kg (444,400 lb). Payload: 3,848 kg (8,483 lb). Thrust: 3,468.90 kN (779,840 lbf).
Delta 6920-10 - Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27+ 1 x Delta K with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter fairing Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1990-06-01. Last Launch: 1992-06-07. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 219,000 kg (482,000 lb). Thrust: 3,790.00 kN (852,020 lbf).
Delta 6920-8 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27+ 1 x Delta K with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing) Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1990-02-14. Last Launch: 1990-02-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 219,000 kg (482,000 lb). Thrust: 3,790.00 kN (852,020 lbf).
Delta 6920-X - Alternate designation for Delta 6920-10.
Delta 6925 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27+ 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1989-02-14. Last Launch: 1992-07-24. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 218,000 kg (480,000 lb). Payload: 3,981 kg (8,776 lb). Thrust: 3,480.60 kN (782,470 lbf).
Delta 6925-8 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27+ 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing) Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1990-04-13. Last Launch: 1990-04-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 219,000 kg (482,000 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
Delta 7 - Alternate name for Mercury MA-7 Delta 7.
Delta 7320-10 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-06-24. Last Launch: 2003-01-13. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 151,700 kg (334,400 lb). Thrust: 2,500.00 kN (562,000 lbf).
Delta 7320-10C - American orbital launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-11-20. Last Launch: 2015-01-31. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 151,700 kg (334,400 lb).
Delta 7320-XC - Alternate designation for Delta 7320-10C.
Delta 7326-9.5 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 37FM with 2.9 m (9.5 foot) diameter fairing) Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-10-24. Last Launch: 2001-08-08. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 155,000 kg (341,000 lb). Thrust: 2,500.00 kN (562,000 lbf).
Delta 7420-10 - American orbital launch vehicle. Status: Active.
Delta 7420-10C - Three stage vehicle consisting of 4 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter composite fairing Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-02-14. Last Launch: 2010-11-06. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 165,000 kg (363,000 lb). Thrust: 3,020.00 kN (678,920 lbf).
Delta 7420-XC - Alternate designation for Delta 7420-10C.
Delta 7425-10 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter fairing Status: Active. First Launch: 2001-06-30. Last Launch: 2001-06-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 170,000 kg (370,000 lb). Thrust: 3,020.00 kN (678,920 lbf).
Delta 7425-9.5 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.9 m (9.5 foot) diameter fairing) Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-12-11. Last Launch: 2002-07-03. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 170,000 kg (370,000 lb). Thrust: 3,020.00 kN (678,920 lbf).
Delta 7426-9.5 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 37FM with 2.9 m (9.5 foot) diameter fairing) Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-02-07. Last Launch: 1999-02-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 170,000 kg (370,000 lb). Thrust: 3,020.00 kN (678,920 lbf).
Delta 7920-10 - Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter fairing Status: Active. First Launch: 1995-11-04. Last Launch: 2001-12-07. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 220,000 kg (480,000 lb). Thrust: 4,000.00 kN (899,200 lbf).
Delta 7920-10C - Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter composite fairing Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-05-05. Last Launch: 2011-10-28. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 232,000 kg (511,000 lb). Thrust: 4,000.00 kN (899,200 lbf).
Delta 7920-10L - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter long fairing Status: Active. First Launch: 2002-05-04. Last Launch: 2004-07-15. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 232,000 kg (511,000 lb).
Delta 7920-8 - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing) Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-08-25. Last Launch: 1997-08-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 220,000 kg (480,000 lb). Thrust: 4,000.00 kN (899,200 lbf).
Delta 7920H - American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Delta 7000 using much larger GEM 46 solid rocket motors originally developed for the Delta 3. Status: Active. First Launch: 2003-08-25. Last Launch: 2011-09-10. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 286,000 kg (630,000 lb). Payload: 1,816 kg (4,003 lb). Thrust: 4,510.00 kN (1,013,880 lbf).
Delta 7920-X - Alternate designation for Delta 7920-10.
Delta 7920-XC - Alternate designation for Delta 7920-10C.
Delta 7925 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B Status: Active. First Launch: 1990-11-26. Last Launch: 1997-11-06. Number: 34 . Gross mass: 231,870 kg (511,180 lb). Payload: 5,089 kg (11,219 lb). Thrust: 3,110.00 kN (699,150 lbf).
Delta 7925-10 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter fairing Status: Active. First Launch: 1994-11-01. Last Launch: 1996-02-24. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 231,900 kg (511,200 lb). Thrust: 4,000.00 kN (899,200 lbf).
Delta 7925-10C - Status: Retired 2007. First Launch: 2007-02-17. Last Launch: 2007-02-17. Number: 1 .
Delta 7925-10L - American orbital launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 2006-10-26. Last Launch: 2009-03-07. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 231,900 kg (511,200 lb).
Delta 7925-8 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing) Status: Active. First Launch: 1994-02-19. Last Launch: 1996-02-17. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 220,000 kg (480,000 lb). Thrust: 4,000.00 kN (899,200 lbf).
Delta 7925-9.5 - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.9 m (9.5 foot) diameter fairing) Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-01-10. Last Launch: 2009-08-17. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 231,000 kg (509,000 lb). Thrust: 4,000.00 kN (899,200 lbf).
Delta 7925H - American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-46 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B Status: Active. First Launch: 2003-07-08. Last Launch: 2007-09-27. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 231,870 kg (511,180 lb). Payload: 5,089 kg (11,219 lb). Thrust: 3,110.00 kN (699,150 lbf).
Delta 8930 - American orbital launch vehicle. Delta 3 was an attempt by the manufacturer to provide the ultimate development of the original Delta booster. The core vehicle was beefed-up to accommodate much larger solid rocket boosters and a new cryogenic upper stage. However problems were incurred during development, resulting in the first two launches being failures. Meanwhile the satellite launch market crashed and the new vehicle was left without customers. The venerable Delta 7925 soldiered on for NASA, and the new Delta 4 series captured the USAF EELV requirement. Status: Retired 2000. First Launch: 1998-08-27. Last Launch: 2000-08-23. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 301,450 kg (664,580 lb). Payload: 8,292 kg (18,280 lb). Thrust: 4,889.50 kN (1,099,203 lbf).
Delta A - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Able was only the first of many engine and application programs that flowed from the Vanguard experience base. These included Able, Ablestar, Delta, Fat Delta, the Japanese N II, and applications or offshoots such as Hydra, Saint (Satellite Intercept), and other classified programs. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 2,164 kg (4,770 lb). Unfuelled mass: 694 kg (1,530 lb). Thrust: 33.80 kN (7,599 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Delta A - Alternate designation for Thor Delta A.
Delta B - Alternate designation for Thor Delta B.
Delta C - American orbital launch vehicle. Unaugmented Thor with Delta D and solid propellant upper stages. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 51,285 kg (113,064 lb). Payload: 82 kg (180 lb). Thrust: 667.20 kN (149,993 lbf).
Delta Clipper - The ultimate goal of the Delta Clipper program was to produce a prototype reusable single-stage to orbit, vertical takeoff/vertical landing space truck. The DC-I Delta Clipper would be the full production version. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 470,000 kg (1,030,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 36,000 kg (79,000 lb). Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 5,330.20 kN (1,198,277 lbf).
Delta Clipper Experimental - Alternate designation for DC-X.
Delta Clipper-Experimental - Alternate designation for DC-X.
Delta Clipper-Prototype - Alternate designation for DC-X2.
Delta D - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 2,693 kg (5,937 lb). Unfuelled mass: 545 kg (1,201 lb). Thrust: 33.70 kN (7,575 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Delta D - Alternate designation for Thor Delta D.
Delta E - Alternate designation for Thor Delta E.
Delta E - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1982. Gross mass: 6,009 kg (13,247 lb). Unfuelled mass: 785 kg (1,730 lb). Thrust: 35.10 kN (7,890 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Delta E1 - Alternate designation for Thor Delta E1.
Delta F - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1987. Gross mass: 5,629 kg (12,409 lb). Unfuelled mass: 784 kg (1,728 lb). Thrust: 41.36 kN (9,299 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
Delta G - Alternate designation for Thor Delta G.
Delta III - Alternate designation for Delta 8930.
Delta III - Alternate designation for Delta 3.
Delta IV - American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta IV was the world's first all-LOx/LH2 launch vehicle and represented the only all-new-technology launch vehicle developed in the United States since the 1970's. It was the winner of the bulk of the USAF EELV orders and was based on the all-new RS-68-powered LOx/LH2 cryogenic Common Booster Core (CBC). This could be used with new Delta cryogenic upper stages powered by the RL10 engine but unrelated to previous Centaur upper stages. It could be flown without augmentation, or use 2-4 large GEM-60 solid rocket boosters. The heavy lift version used two core vehicles as a first stage, flanking the single core vehicle second stage. Status: Active.
Delta IV Heavy - Alternate designation for Delta 4H.
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 30 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding 4 GEM-60 solid rocket boosters. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 35 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding RS-68B upgraded engines to the core vehicles and an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 2 MB-45 or RL-45 20 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 engines. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 32,000 kg (70,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 40 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding 4 GEM-60 solid rocket boosters, RS-68 Regen upgraded engines with regeneratively-cooled nozzles to the core vehicles, and cryogenic propellant densification. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 36,000 kg (79,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 42 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding new RS-800 engines to the core vehicles, an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 2 MB-60 or RL-60 27 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 engines, and aluminum-lithium lightweight alloy in place of the existing aluminum in all stages. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 38,000 kg (83,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 43 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding 4 GEM-60 solid rocket boosters, RS-68 Regen upgraded engines with regeneratively-cooled nozzles to the core vehicles, cryogenic propellant densification, and an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 1 MB-60 or RL-60 27 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 engine. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 45 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding 6 GEM-60 solid rocket boosters, RS-68B upgraded engines to the core vehicles, and an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 1 MB-60 or RL-60 27 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 engine. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 41,000 kg (90,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 48 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding 4 GEM-60 solid rocket boosters, RS-68 Regen upgraded engines with regeneratively-cooled nozzles to the core vehicles, cryogenic propellant densification, and cryogenic propellant cross-feed between the strap-ons and core. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 43,000 kg (94,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 53 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering five common booster modules, using an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 2 MB-60 or RL-60 27 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 engines, and aluminum-lithium lightweight alloy in place of the existing aluminum in all stages. Payload fairings over 6.5 m diameter could be accommodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 48,000 kg (105,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 67 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering seven common booster modules, and using an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 2 MB-60 or RL-60 27 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 engines. A payload fairing over 6.5 m diameter could be accommodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 61,000 kg (134,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 70 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering seven common booster modules, using an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 3 MB-60 or RL-60 27 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 engines. A payload fairing over 6.5 m diameter could be accommodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 63,000 kg (138,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 76 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering seven common booster modules, using an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 3 MB-60 or RL-60 27 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 engines, and aluminum-lithium lightweight alloy in place of the existing aluminum in all stages. Payload fairings over 6.5 m diameter could be accommodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 69,000 kg (152,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 87 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering seven common booster modules, using a new RS-800K engine in the booster stages, and an AUS-60 27 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 upper stage. Payload fairings over 6.5 m diameter could be accommodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 79,000 kg (174,000 lb).
Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 94 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering seven common booster modules, using a new RS-800K engine in the booster stages, an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 4 MB-60 or RL-60 27 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 engines, and aluminum-lithium lightweight alloy in place of the existing aluminum in all stages. Payload fairings over 6.5 m diameter could be accommodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 85,000 kg (187,000 lb).
Delta IV Medium - Alternate designation for Delta 4M.
Delta IV Medium+ (4.2) - Alternate designation for Delta 4M+(4,2).
Delta IV Medium+ (5.2) - Alternate designation for Delta 4M+(5,2).
Delta IV Medium+ (5.4) - Alternate designation for Delta 4M+(5,4).
Delta IV Small - American orbital launch vehicle. Light launch vehicle using the Delta-4 core with the traditional Delta K and PAM-D upper stages. 2 m diameter payload fairing. Not flown as of 2008 but cancellation of the Delta II could lead to its eventual use. Status: In production. Gross mass: 244,046 kg (538,029 lb). Payload: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Thrust: 2,949.00 kN (662,961 lbf).
Delta J - Alternate designation for Thor Delta J.
Delta K - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 6,954 kg (15,330 lb). Unfuelled mass: 950 kg (2,090 lb). Thrust: 43.63 kN (9,808 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Delta L - Alternate designation for Thor Delta L.
Delta M - Alternate designation for Thor Delta M.
Delta M6 - Alternate designation for Thor Delta M6.
Delta N - Alternate designation for Thor Delta N.
Delta N6 - Alternate designation for Thor Delta N6.
Delta P - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 5,434 kg (11,979 lb). Unfuelled mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Thrust: 41.92 kN (9,425 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Delta RL-10 stage series -
Delta RS-68 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Low cost expendable stage using lower performance engine. Used in Delta 4, Boeing EELV. Engine can be throttled to 60%. Status: In production. Gross mass: 226,400 kg (499,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 26,760 kg (58,990 lb). Thrust: 3,312.76 kN (744,737 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Delta Sensor - Part of SDI series of missions.
Delta Star - Part of SDI series of missions.
Delta Thor ELT - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1990. Gross mass: 84,067 kg (185,336 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,059 kg (8,948 lb). Thrust: 1,030.21 kN (231,600 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Delta Thor LT - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1973. Gross mass: 70,354 kg (155,104 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,715 kg (8,190 lb). Thrust: 866.71 kN (194,844 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Delta Thor RS27 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1989. Gross mass: 84,368 kg (185,999 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,360 kg (9,610 lb). Thrust: 1,030.22 kN (231,602 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Delta Thor TA - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1968. Gross mass: 49,442 kg (109,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,175 kg (6,999 lb). Thrust: 866.71 kN (194,844 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Delta Thor XLT - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1992. Gross mass: 101,700 kg (224,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,690 kg (12,540 lb). Thrust: 1,032.00 kN (232,003 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Delta Thor XLT-C - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1987. Gross mass: 101,900 kg (224,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,900 kg (13,000 lb). Thrust: 1,054.20 kN (236,992 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Delta Utec - European manufacturer of spacecraft. Delta Utec, Europe.
delta V - A change in velocity.
DeLucas - American physiologist payload specialist astronaut 1990-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1950-07-11. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 13.81 days.
Dementiev - Russian politician. Minister of Aviation Industry 1953-1977. Supporter of Chelomei. Born: 1907-01-24. Died: 1977-05-14.
Demeter - French earth seismology satellite. Demeter studied disturbances of the ionosphere due to seismic electromagnetic effects and human activities (power lines, VLF transmitters, HF broadcasting stations). Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-06-29. Last Launch: 2004-06-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 125 kg (275 lb).
Demin - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1963-1982. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1982. Born: 1926-01-11. Died: 1998-12-18. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 2.01 days.
Demon - WRE solid rocket engine. HAT first stage. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Demosat - Instrumented dynamic model of the HS 702 satellite.
Dempsey - American engineer. Headed development of the Atlas missile at Convair. Born: 1921-10-04.
Demyanenko - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1969-1971. Engineer at the Scientific Research Institute of Automatics and Instrument Engineering. On 11 September 1969 selected as a cosmonaut, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. Status: Deceased. Born: 1942. Died: 1971-01-01.
Denel - South African manufacturer of spacecraft. Denel, South Africa.
Deng Qingming - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1998-on. PLAAF pilot. Selected in the first Chinese cosmonaut detachment. Status: Active 1998-on.
Denmark - Denmark
Denner - German Wehrmacht Officer; expert in biological warfare during World War II.
Denver - American pop singer who sought to fly into space before his death in an air crash. Born: 1943-12-31. Died: 1997-10-12.
DeOrbitSail - 3U CubeSat. 22:10 local time longitude of descending node sun synchronous orbit.
DEP - Diethylphtalate (solid fuel plasticizer)
Deppe - German-American expert in guided missiles during WW2. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre.
DERA - Defense Evaluation. and Research Agency, Farnborough, UK
Derbent - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-29.
Derbent - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-33 ISS EP-2.
Derbent (Derbent - Russian city) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-18.
Derbent (Derbent - Russian city) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-11.
Derezhnya - Alternate name for Belokorovichi.
Derzhavinsk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-1996. Operated 52 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M2). First Launch: 1983-07-19. Last Launch: 1988-12-19. Number: 4 .
Descent Module - Alternate designation for MRC DM manned spacecraft module.
Descent Stage - Alternate designation for Apollo LM DS manned spacecraft module.
desiccant - A drying agent.
Design Reference Mission 1 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1993. The Design Reference Mission 1.0 was the Space Exploration Initiative's last gasp. Status: Study 1993.
Design Reference Mission 3 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1996. This July 1997 DRM was a subscale version of the original, with a scrub of the original payloads to reduce mass wherever possible. Status: Study 1996.
Design Reference Mission 4 NTR - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. The design reference mission 4.0 took into account all of the changes in payload masses as a result of further study of individual elements. Status: Study 1998.
Design Reference Mission 4 SEP - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. In 1998 NASA Lewis studied a Solar Electric Transfer Vehicle for use in a Mars Expedition. This would never leave earth orbit yet provide most of the delta-V to send a spacecraft toward Mars. Status: Study 1998.
Desna - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Silo-launched version, silo hardened to 15-30 atmospheres overpressure. Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb).
Desna-N - Alternate designation for Romashka.
Desna-V - Alternate designation for Desna.
DESPATCH - Also known as ArtSat-2; from Tama Art University. The yellowish, tapered-helix assembly was intended mainly as a work of art although it also carries an amateur radio communications payload with a limited range. In a 0.915 AU x 1.089 AU x 6.8 deg solar orbit. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-12-03. Last Launch: 2014-12-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 32 kg (70 lb).
Dessau -
Detko ATV - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. George Detko of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center produced designs for SSTO vehicles as early as 1960. This final design for a minimum SSTO VTOVL vehicle was completed in 1972. The expendable vehicle had a gross liftoff mass of only 22 metric tons, and could deliver a two-person crew to orbit. Status: Design 1972. Gross mass: 22,000 kg (48,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Detroye - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Bachelor of science in astronautical engineering from USAF Academy, 1977. From 1986 worked as a Shuttle Flight Controller. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1985. Born: 1955-01-14.
Dettmering - German Professor. Worked at Peenemuende West. Born: 1912.
Deucker - German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA in the theoretical group of the target acquisition department from 1947-1952.
Deutch - American scientist, served as Deputy Secretary of Defense from 1994-1995; Director of Central Intelligence from 1995-1997. Doctorate from MIT and also served as that school's dean of science and provost. Born: 1938-07-27.
Deutsche Aerospace - Fourth name of MBB.
Deutsche Aerospace - Third name of DASA.
Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten - Alternate name for DARA.
Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, - Alternate name for DLR.
Deutsche Raketen Gesellschaft (Seliger) - Alternate name for DRG.
Developmental Sciences - American manufacturer. Developmental Sciences, USA.
Deversoir - Deversoir Air Base First Launch: 1973-10-22. Last Launch: 1973-10-22. Number: 3 .
Dezhurov - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1987-2004. Made nine spacewalks, total time 1.58 days. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-2004. Born: 1962-07-30. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 244.23 days.
DF-1 - Alternate designation for DF-1 engine.
DF-1 - Chinese version of Soviet R-2. Status: Retired 1970's. First Launch: 1960-11-05. Last Launch: 1960-12-01. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 20,400 kg (44,900 lb). Thrust: 250.00 kN (56,200 lbf).
DF-1 (before 1964) - Alternate designation for DF-3.
DF-1 engine - CALT Liquid oxygen/Alcohol rocket engine. Number: 1 . Thrust: 270.00 kN (60,690 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
DF-11 - Chinese single-stage solid-propellant short range ballistic missile. Export designation M-11, assembled as Ghaznavi in Pakistan. Status: Active. First Launch: 1990-01-01. Last Launch: 1990-01-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Thrust: 93.20 kN (20,952 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
DF-1-1 - LOx/Alcohol rocket stage. 270.00 kN (60,698 lbf) thrust. Mass 14,000 kg (30,865 lb). Status: Retired 1970's. Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 270.00 kN (60,690 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
DF-15 - Chinese mobile single-stage solid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Active. First Launch: 1988-01-01. Last Launch: 1996-03-13. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 6,170 kg (13,600 lb). Payload: 950 kg (2,090 lb). Propellants: Solid.
DF-2 - First Chinese IRBM, a single stage missile with the objective of carrying a 1500 kg warhead to Japan. The starting point for the design were R-12 construction drawings and a single exemplar of the missile provided by the Soviet Union prior to the break with Moscow in 1960. Following protracted development the design was accepted by the Chinese military for service in 1970. Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1962-03-21. Last Launch: 1974-01-01. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 31,900 kg (70,300 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 300.00 kN (67,440 lbf).
DF-21 - Chinese two-stage solid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Active. First Launch: 1985-05-01. Last Launch: 2015-10-31. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 14,664 kg (32,328 lb). Payload: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
DF-2-1 - Nitric acid/kerosene rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 30,000 kg (66,139 lb). Status: Retired 1979. Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 300.00 kN (67,440 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
DF-21-1 - Shanxi solid rocket engine. First stage of DF-21 IRBM. JL-1 first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Propellants: Solid.
DF-21-2 - Shanxi solid rocket engine. Second stage of DF-21 IRBM. Status: Active. Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Propellants: Solid.
DF-2A - Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile. Extended-range version of DF-2. The missile featured reduced thrust, but 20% more range, and used autonomous gyroscopic guidance in place of the DF-2's radio system. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1965-11-01. Last Launch: 1966-10-27. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 31,900 kg (70,300 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
DF-2A-1 - Nitric acid/kerosene rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 30,000 kg (66,139 lb). Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 300.00 kN (67,440 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
DF-3 - Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile. The DF-3 project began in 1964 with the objective of developing a nuclear-tipped missile capable of reaching the Philippines (earlier referred to as the DF-1). Status: Retired 2002. First Launch: 1966-12-26. Last Launch: 2001-08-21. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 64,000 kg (141,000 lb). Payload: 2,140 kg (4,710 lb). Thrust: 1,224.00 kN (275,166 lbf).
DF-3 Tsien - Development of the original DF-3 10,000 km missile was undertaken personally by Tsien Hue Shen, the father of Chinese rocketry, but faced insurmountable technical and management difficulties. It was cancelled and replaced by the DF-4. Status: Cancelled 1962.
DF-31 - Mobile, solid propellant, land-based, medium range, three-stage ballistic missile. The missile was tested on the ground in 1995. Ejection tests from the transport-launch tube began in 1998. The first flight test took place on 1 August 1999. JL-2 was the submarine-launched version. The KT family of all solid-propellant Chinese launch vehicles, used the DF-31 with new upper or lower stages to achieve a range of payload performances. Following two unsuccessful launches in 2002-2003, the KT project seems to have been abandoned. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-08-02. Last Launch: 2013-07-24. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Payload: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
DF-3A - Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile. Modernized DF-3 with modest range increase. Status: Retired 1986. First Launch: 1985-12-01. Last Launch: 1986-01-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 63,843 kg (140,749 lb). Payload: 2,140 kg (4,710 lb).
DF-4 - Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile. Development of the DF-4 began in 1964 with the objective of fielding a ballistic missile capable of hitting Guam. The technical solution was to add a second stage to the DF-3 IRBM. Status: Retired 2005. First Launch: 1969-11-16. Last Launch: 2002-01-03. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 82,000 kg (180,000 lb). Payload: 2,190 kg (4,820 lb). Thrust: 1,224.00 kN (275,166 lbf).
DF-41 - Chinese solid propellant, mobile ICBM. The DF-41 was a longer-range version of the DF-31. Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-12-13. Last Launch: 2014-12-13. Number: 1 . Payload: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
DF-5 - Alternate designation for Dong Feng 5.
DF-5A - Alternate designation for Dong Feng 5A.
DFBW - Abbreviation for Digital fly-by-wire program
DFH - Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. Aerospace Dongfanghong Satellite Ltd, China. Also, Chinese abbreviation for a series of communications satellite buses by that company and its predecessors.
DFH-1 - Chinese communications technology satellite. First Chinese satellite. The initial satellite was flown for purely propaganda purposes, using a tune generator to play the 'East is Red'. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-11-16. Last Launch: 1971-03-03. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 173 kg (381 lb).
DFH-2 - Chinese military communications satellite. The DFH-2 was a spin-stabilized, drum-shaped military communications satellite with a despun antenna, a diameter of 2.1 m, and a height of 3.1 m. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-01-29. Last Launch: 1991-12-28. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 1,025 kg (2,259 lb). Unfuelled mass: 441 kg (972 lb). Propellants: Solid.
DFH-2 AKM - Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. DFH series apogee kick motor. Out of Production. First flight 1984. First use in China of glass fiber wound cases, carbon/carbon nozzle throat insert material, contoured divergent nozzle. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1975-1987. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 580 kg (1,270 lb). Unfuelled mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Thrust: 43.46 kN (9,770 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
DFH-3 - Chinese satellite bus used for geosynchronous communications and navigation satellites and deep space probes. Total mass, payload mass, and payload power improved through three versions from 2320 kg to 3800 kg; 230 kg to 450 kg; and 1000 W to 4000 W. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-02-08. Last Launch: 2012-07-25. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 2,230 kg (4,910 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,130 kg (2,490 lb).
DFH-4 - Large Chinese communications satellite bus using a blend of Chinese and subcontracted European technologies. The DFH-4 was 3-axis stabilized and designed for use in high capacity communications and broadcasting, direct broadcasting, and regional mobile communications satellites.Payloads of up to 600 kg requiring 8,000 W power could be accomodated in the initial version; the DFH-4E enhanced version increased this to 1,000 kg / 10,000 W and introduced electric propulsion. The DFH-4S could accommodate smaller requirements with 450 kg /4000 W requirements. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-10-28. Last Launch: 2015-11-03. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
DFH-5 - The Chinese DFH-5 bus was developed for the next generation large GEO telecommunications and earth observation satellites. It used many new technologies: electric propulsion, networked heat pipes, a deployable radiator, a 2-dimension semi-rigid solar wing, unified system propulsion management, a new-generation power controller, and improved integrated electronics. It's greater launch mass was matched to the CZ-5 launch vehicle and first launch would await the availability of the new booster. Status: Operational 2017.
DFI - Development Flight Instrumentation Pallet, included in shuttle bay on early missions. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-04-12. Last Launch: 1983-08-30. Number: 6 .
DFRC - Abbreviation for Dryden Flight Research Center
DFRF - Dryden Flight Research Facility (was ADFRF, now DFRC)
DFS - Multipurpose communications.
DFV - First name of DFVLR.
DFVLR - German agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Germany.
DGA - French agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Delegation Generale de l'Armament, France.
Dhanush - Indian short-range, sea-based, liquid-propellant ballistic missile thought to be a variant of the Prithvi. Status: Active. First Launch: 2000-04-11. Last Launch: 2014-04-27. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Dhom - German-American engineer and expert in guided missiles in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1909-01-01. Died: 1988-09-18.
Diadem - French earth geodetic satellite. French geodetic satellites. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-02-08. Last Launch: 1967-02-15. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 23 kg (50 lb).
Diademe - Alternate name for Diadem.
Dial MIKA - French technology satellite. Engineering package; monitored launch vehicle performance. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-03-10. Last Launch: 1970-03-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 52 kg (114 lb).
DIAL WIKA - German technology satellite. DIAL-WIKA. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-03-10. Last Launch: 1970-03-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 63 kg (138 lb).
Diamant - French orbital launch vehicle. In December 1961 France decided to demonstrate an indigenous satellite-launch capability, using stages in development for its ballistic missile program. Following careful evolutionary development, Diamant was successful on its first attempt in 1965. Improved versions were flown over the next ten years. Although France abandoned the planned ICBM for the solid-propellant SSBS, Diamant technology was used in the European Europa and Ariane launch vehicles. Status: Retired 1975.
Diamant A - Diamant development could be done relatively quickly using stages and systems being developed for strategic missiles. In May 1962 CNES selected DMA as program manager, with SEREB as the prime contractor. The Diamant orbital launch vehicle was created by replacing the payload of the existing Saphir test vehicle with a new third stage. Prior to any all-up satellite launch attempt the P064 third stage was flight tested on the smaller suborbital Rubis test vehicle. This evolutionary approach paid off. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1965-11-26. Last Launch: 1967-02-15. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 18,400 kg (40,500 lb). Payload: 160 kg (350 lb). Thrust: 265.50 kN (59,687 lbf).
Diamant B - As a follow-on to the Diamant-A, CNES decided to evolve a more capable launch vehicle. The Diamant-B used a new first stage with 50% more propellants and 33% more thrust; the same second stage; and a fatter third stage. Six Diamant-B boosters were ordered. Originally four of these were to be used to test the Europa 2 launch vehicle's Perigee-Apogee System. These tests were cancelled and instead CNES used five of the six boosters for orbital attempts. Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1970-03-10. Last Launch: 1973-05-21. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 26,990 kg (59,500 lb). Payload: 160 kg (350 lb). Thrust: 349.00 kN (78,458 lbf).
Diamant B-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 21,500 kg (47,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 396.52 kN (89,142 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Diamant B-3 - Alternate name for P6.
Diamant BP.4 - In January 1972 a further evolution, the Diamant BP.4, was authorized. The second stage was replaced with the P4 Rita motor developed for the MSBS SLBM. The larger 1.38 m diameter fairing developed for the British Black Arrow launcher allowed larger payloads to be accommodated. Three launches of the BP.4 in 1975 completed the Diamant saga. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1975-02-06. Last Launch: 1975-09-27. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 26,300 kg (57,900 lb). Payload: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 316.00 kN (71,039 lbf).
Diamant BP-2 - Alternate name for P4.
Diamant-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 14,685 kg (32,374 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,946 kg (4,290 lb). Thrust: 301.55 kN (67,791 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Diamant-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 2,815 kg (6,206 lb). Unfuelled mass: 540 kg (1,190 lb). Thrust: 120.08 kN (26,996 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Diamant-3 - Alternate name for P6.
Diapason - Alternate name for D.
Diborane - Boron 'zip' fuels were much in fashion in the late 1950's. They seemed to offer a means of boosting the performance of both aircraft (the B-70 bomber) and rockets. However expense, toxicity, and fouling of engines led to them being abandoned.
DICE - Utah State University 1.5U Cubesat. Deployed 10-m span electric field antennae to study magnetosphere.
dichromic - The property of a substance to appear in one color by reflected light and in another by transmitted light.
Dietrich - American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astronauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. Status: Deceased. Born: 1926. Died: 2008-06-05.
Dietrich, Marion - American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female pilots declared fit for astronaut duty in 1961, but never entered training. Status: Deceased. Born: 1926. Died: 1974-12-01.
diffusion - In an atmosphere, as in any gaseous system, the exchange of fluid parcels between regions, in apparently random motions of a scale too small to be treated by the equations of motion.
Digges - British astronomer and mathematician who modified Dante's medieval conceptions of the universe in his Description of the Caelestiall Orbes (1576), adopting a Copernican view that placed the Sun in the center of the universe. Born: 1576. Died: 1595-08-24.
DigitalGlobe - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. DigitalGlobe, USA.
Direct Measurement Explorer - Alternate designation for DME earth ionosphere satellite.
DirecTV - DirecTV Incorporated, USA, began broadcast of satellite-to-home direct television services in mid-1994. Originally a subsidiary of Hughes Communications, the company faced as competitors the similar Primestar and USSB services, as well as older C-band satellite services and cable TV companies. By 2007 it had become the most successful American direct-broadcast television service.
Disaster Monitoring Constellation - Alternate designation for HJ-1 civilian surveillance satellite.
Discoverer - Cover name for series of tests of early Keyhole film-return surveillance satellites. Some carried biological payloads as part of the USAF's early man-in-space effort.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-102.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-56.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-105 ISS EO-3.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-124.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-105.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-70.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-85.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-131.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-103.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-60.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-91.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-82.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-133.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-128.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-63.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-64.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-39.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-53.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-121.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-120.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-119.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-114.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-116.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-102 ISS EO-2.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-29.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-42.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-33.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-51-I.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-48.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-95.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-51.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-51-A.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-31.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-51-C.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-92.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-96.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-26.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-51-G.
Discovery - Alternate designation for Discovery series.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-41-D.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-51-D.
Discovery - Alternate designation for STS-41.
Discovery - American manned spaceplane. merican manned spaceplane. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-08-30. Last Launch: 2011-02-24. Number: 39 . Gross mass: 116,884 kg (257,685 lb). Unfuelled mass: 104,472 kg (230,321 lb). Payload: 24,990 kg (55,090 lb). Thrust: 53.37 kN (11,997 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Discovery series - The Discovery program was begun by NASA in the early 1990s as the planetary counterpart to the Explorer program.
Discraft Corporation - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Discraft Corporation, USA.
Disney - Spanish-American creator of children's movies and amusement parks; produced a series of three crucial television programs in 1955-1957 that popularized von Braun's concepts for manned orbital, lunar, and Mars travel with the American public. Born: 1901. Died: 1966-01-01.
Dittmar - German glider pilot, test pilot during World War II, and designer of sailplanes. Stayed in Germany after the war, working at the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Segelflug, Ainring, Bavaria.
Divine Arrow - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2F.
Divine Arrow - Alternate designation for CZ-2F.
Dixon - American engineer, analyzed a recovered V-2 rocket engine in 1944. Important role at Rocketdyne 1948-1961 in development of rocket engines from the V-2 through to the prototype for the F-1. NASA Deputy Associate Administrator 1961-1963. Born: 1916-03-15. Died: 1998-01-03.
DLB - Long-Duration Lunar Base (Russian abbreviation). Soon after the beginning of the L3 project studies work also began on a lunar base to follow the initial single cosmonaut lunar landing. These studies were undertaken by Korolev's OKB-1 with Chief Designer Vladimir Pavlovich Barmin's GSKB SpetsMash (State Union Design Bureau of Special Machine-Building) as principal subcontractor. The project was known to SpetsMash as the 'Long-term Lunar Base' (DLB) and to OKB-1 as 'Zvezda'. Consideration was given to using the same elements in expeditions to other planets. Under the DLB studies SpetsMash defined purposes of the base, the principles of its construction, phases of its deployment and composition of its scientific and support equipment.
DLB Beacon Lander - Russian lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1971. In most Soviet manned lunar landing scenarios, versions of the Ye-8 unmanned landers would precede manned landings on the moon. Status: Study 1971.
DLB Lunar Base - Russian manned lunar base. Substantial development activity from 1962 to cancellation in 1974. The N1 draft project of 1962 spoke of 'establishment of a lunar base and regular traffic between the earth and the moon'. Status: Cancelled 1974. Gross mass: 52,000 kg (114,000 lb).
DLB Lunokhod 1 - Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions. Status: Study 1971.
DLB Lunokhod 2 - Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions. Status: Study 1971.
DLB Lunokhod 3 - Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions. Status: Study 1971.
DLB Module - Russian manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1974. Basic module developed by Barmin's OKB from 1962 for the Zvezda Lunar Base. Cancelled, together with the N1 booster, in 1974. Status: Cancelled 1974. Gross mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb).
DLR - German agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten, Cologne, Germany.
DLR Group 1 - 1987 - Requirement: German astronauts for flights to the Mir space station and aboard the shuttle. Date: 1987.
DLR Group 2 - 1990 - Requirement: German astronauts for flights to the Mir space station and aboard the shuttle. Date: 1990.
DM - Abbreviation for Docking module
DMA - French agency. Délégation Ministérielle pour l'Armament, France.
DMBT - Dimethylbitetrazole, a developmental high nitrogen solid fuel with a high positive heat of formation
DMC - Alternate designation for MicroSat-100.
DMC - DMC International Imaging, Guildford, Surrey, UK. Used the SSTL-100 bus.
DME - American earth ionosphere satellite. Explorer 31. Explorer 31, the Direct Measurement Explorer, was launched with a Canadian Alouette II on November 28, 1965, on a Thor-Agena rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-11-29. Last Launch: 1965-11-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 99 kg (218 lb).
DMI - Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark.
Dmitri - Alternate designation for Kvant-2 manned space station.
Dmitriev - Russian engineer. First Deputy Chief, Central Committee Defense Industries Department, 1965-1981. Succeeded Serbin. Born: 1909.
Dmitriev, Pavel - Russian officer. Director of Russian Institute for Radio Navigation and Timing, 1969-1984. Played key role in development of spacecraft timing and synchronization systems and satellite navigation systems. Born: 1924.
DMLRV - American manned lunar rover. Study 1990. Status: Study 1990.
DMSP - Series of military weather satellites launched as part of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.

The first CORONA photos in August 1960 convinced authorities that knowledge of cloud cover over Russia was necessary and could be obtained only via satellite. Since the civilian TIROS program could not yet meet the requirement, the Director, National Reconnaissance Office authorized an 'interim' effort - the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. The satellite series continued to be updated and served into the 21st Century.


DMSP Block 4/5 satellites -
DMSP Block 4A - American earth weather satellite. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-01-19. Last Launch: 1969-07-23. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 131 kg (288 lb).
DMSP Block 5A - American earth weather satellite. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-02-11. Last Launch: 1971-02-17. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 195 kg (429 lb).
DMSP Block 5B - American earth weather satellite. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-10-14. Last Launch: 1974-03-16. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 195 kg (429 lb).
DMSP Block 5C - American earth weather satellite. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-08-09. Last Launch: 1976-02-19. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 195 kg (429 lb).
DMSP Block 5D - American earth weather satellite. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-09-11. Last Launch: 1980-07-15. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb).
DMSP Block 5D-2 - American earth weather satellite. DMSP 5D-2 was the military's sixth generation of weather satellites. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-12-21. Last Launch: 1997-04-04. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb).
DMSP Block 5D-3 - American earth weather satellite.merican earth weather satellite. Military spacecraft similar in design to the civilian NOAA weather satellites. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-12-12. Last Launch: 2014-04-03. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,154 kg (2,544 lb).
DMT engine series -
DMT-600 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic (self-igniting) engine, pressure-fed. 6,000 ignitions Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 4.20 kg (9.20 lb). Thrust: 600 N (130 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
DMT-600 MMH - Isayev N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Hermes. In Production. Version of DMT-600 using MMH in place of UDMH, adaptation to western market (was discussed for European Hermes space plane project). 6,000 ignitions Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 4.20 kg (9.20 lb). Thrust: 600 N (130 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
DNA - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Defense Nuclear Agency, USA.
DND - Directorate of Space Development (DSpaceD), Department of National Defense
Dnepr - Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 intercontinental ballistic missiles. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-04-21. Last Launch: 2015-03-25. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 208,900 kg (460,500 lb). Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 4,525.00 kN (1,017,260 lbf).
Dnepr (Dnieper ) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-7.
Dnepr (Dnieper ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 35.
Dnepr (Dnieper ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 40.
Dnepr (Dnieper) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 35.
Dnepr (Dnieper) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-7.
Dnepr (Dnieper) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 40.
DOA - Dioctyl adipate (solid fuel plasticizer)
Dobele - Base for units deployed with R-12 missiles.
Dobrick - German engineer and expert in guided missiles in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Returned to Germany and died in Oberlenningen. Died: 1986-07-02.
Dobrokvashina - Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1993. Civilian Physician, Institute of Biological Medical Problems. Cosmonaut training October 1979 - July 1980. Returned to work at the IMBP. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1993. Born: 1947-10-08.
Dobrovolsky - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1963-1971. Member of first crew to stay aboard a space station, however perished during landing. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1971. Born: 1928-06-01. Died: 1971-06-30. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 23.76 days.
Docking Module - Alternate name for Apollo ASTP Docking Module.
DoD - United States Department of Defense, USA. Also, designation for Department of Defense satellites and payloads deployed on NASA missions.
DoD - First name of DARPA.
DoD - First name of DNA.
DoD 82-1 - Cirris cryogenic infrared radiance instrument to obtain spectra of rocket and aircraft target exhausts. Lens cap failed to deploy. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-06-27. Last Launch: 1982-06-27. Number: 1 .
DoD Group 1 - 1979 - Requirement: shuttle manned spaceflight engineers to operate military payloads. Date: 1979.
DoD Group 2 - 1982 - Requirement: shuttle manned spaceflight engineers to operate military payloads. Date: 1982.
DoD Group 3 - 1985 - Requirement: shuttle manned spaceflight engineers to operate military payloads. Date: 1985.
DODECAPOLE - American military target satellite. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-03-09. Last Launch: 1965-08-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
DODGE - American gravity gradient technology satellite. The Navy's 195 kg DODGE (Department Of Defense Gravity Experiment) satellite had the primary mission to explore gravity gradient stabilization at near synchronous altitude. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-07-01. Last Launch: 1967-07-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 102 kg (224 lb).
DOE (1971-) - Second name of AEC.
Doetsch - German expert in ballistics theoretical during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Doi - Japanese engineer mission specialist astronaut 1985-2009. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2009. Born: 1954-09-18. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 31.45 days.
DOK - Engine Orientation Complex (Russian abbreviation)
DOK-10 - Isayev monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Pressure-fed monopropellant engine. Thermal decomposition of hydrazine by an iridium-based catalyst, which heated to increase stability. 40,000 ignitions Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.60 kg (1.32 lb). Thrust: 10 N (2 lbf).
DOK-50 - Isayev monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Pressure-fed monopropellant engine. Thermal decomposition of hydrazine by an iridium-based catalyst, which heated to increase stability. 40,000 ignitions Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.10 kg (2.40 lb). Thrust: 50 N (11 lbf).
Dokhov - Russian officer. Chief of Centre for Automated Systems at GNITs MO Space Tracking Centre 1982-1990. Born: 1932.
Dolgopolov - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1966-1967. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI), 1959 Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Retired due to medical reasons. Worked thereafter at NPO Energia. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1967. Born: 1935-11-14. Died: 2008-11-13.
Dolgov - Russian phantom cosmonaut, purportedly dying on a Vostok flight on 1960.10.11. The real Dolgov died 1961.11.01, jumping from a balloon from 28 km in a Vostok suit test on 1962.11.01. His visor cracked and he died when his suit depressurized. Died: 1960-10-11.
Dolgov, Aleksey - Russian officer. Major General, served in key positions at Kapustin Yar, Baikonur, and the defense industry. Born: 1930.
Dolina - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Alternate silo-launched version, silo hardened to 15-30 atmospheres overpressure. Gross mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb).
Dollhopf - German engineer, member of Rocket Team in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA as head of the pump / measurements group from 1947 until 1958. Then returned to Sonthofen, Germany.
Dolphin - American sea-launched test vehicle. The Dolphin hybrid rocket (solid fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer) was built by Starstruck (formerly ARC Technology), a predecessor to AMROC. The Dolphin included not only innovative propulsion technology but was also launched from a floating launch canister at sea. One test article of the hybrid was successfully launched in the summer of 1984. But the project was backed entirely with private funds and when backing for further development was not forthcoming, the project folded. Status: Retired 1984. First Launch: 1984-08-03. Last Launch: 1984-08-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 7,500 kg (16,500 lb). Thrust: 155.00 kN (34,845 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Solid.
Dombarovskiy - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Operated 64 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M). Two silos were modified to launch surplus R-36M missiles as orbital launch vehicles. First Launch: 1968-03-01. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 99 .
Dombarovskiy Sh370/13 -
Domrachev - Russian bureaucrat. First Chairman of GKOT 1951-1958. Participated in Baikonur's selection. Born: 1906-10-01. Died: 1961-01-26.
Don - Code name for Orlets-1 surveillance satellite.
Donbass (Donbass - River Don basin) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-13.
Donbass (Donbass - River Don basin) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-7.
Dong Fang Hong - Alternate designation for DFH-4.
Dong Fang Hong - Alternate designation for DFH-3 or [DFH-3] military communications satellites.
Dong Feng 5 - Development of the DF-5 began in 1964. The goal was an ICBM capable of reaching the United States. Although deployed in very limited numbers as an ICBM, this rocket became the basis for an entire family of space launch vehicles and the foundation of the Chinese space program. Status: Active. First Launch: 1971-09-10. Last Launch: 1989-01-01. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 181,000 kg (399,000 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 2,500.00 kN (562,000 lbf).
Dong Feng 5A - Chinese intercontinental ballistic missile. Modernized DF-5 incorporating guidance and propulsion improvements developed for the CZ-series of launch vehicles. Status: Active. First Launch: 1993-01-01. Last Launch: 2014-02-20. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 181,000 kg (399,000 lb). Payload: 3,190 kg (7,030 lb).
Dong Feng-15 - Alternate designation for DF-15.
Dong Feng-21 - Alternate designation for DF-21.
Dong Xiaohai - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Status: Inactive.
Dong-Feng 1 - Alternate designation for DF-1.
Dong-Feng 2 - Alternate designation for DF-2.
Dong-Feng 2A - Alternate designation for DF-2A.
Dong-Feng 3 - Alternate designation for DF-3.
Dong-Feng 31 - Alternate designation for DF-31.
Dong-Feng 3A - Alternate designation for DF-3A.
Dong-Feng 4 - Alternate designation for DF-4.
Dong-Feng 5A - Alternate designation for Dong Feng 5A.
Donovan - American engineer. Headed aeronautical mechanics department at Cornell 1946-1955. Ramo-Wooldridge, 1955-1960, involved in definition of USAF ICBM and the Pioneer satellite programs. Founding member and Senior Vice President, Technical, Aerospace Corp, 1960-1978, where he managed supervision of all US Air Force space projects in that period, including the Titan launch family, and military satellites Born: 1914. Died: 1995-03-11.
Doolittle - American officer. Noted aviator 1917-1940, led one-way raid on Tokyo in 1942. Post-WW2 through to Sputnik served on scientific advisory boards that shaped US space policy. Born: 1896-12-14. Died: 1993-09-27.
Doorknob - American test vehicle. Test vehicle developed by Sandia for aeronomy measurements during atmospheric nuclear tests. One (Doorknob-1) or two surplus Lacrosse (Doorknob-2) missile motors were mated with the payload section. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1957-01-01. Last Launch: 1959-01-31. Number: 21 .
Doorknob 1 - American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Doorknob 1-1 - Alternate name for TX-52.
Doorknob 2 - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Lacrosse + 1 x Lacrosse Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb).
DOP - Dioctyl phthalate (solid fuel plasticizer)
Dorado - Alternate name for Lupus.
Dore - American engineer, prominent manager in the Atlas program, very important in the early years as a performance analyst and project point man. NASA credited him with for convincing them that the Atlas would do the Mercury mission. Born: 1924-12-14. Died: 2013-11-09.
Doresa - Name of one Galileo Navsat.
Dorian - Alternate name for MOL.
Dorian, AFP-632, KH-10 - Code name for MOL manned space station.
Dorman - American engineer. Key Aerojet employee, 1943-1972. Born: 1907-07-30. Died: 1999-03-27.
Dornberger - German-American officer and manager. Head of Wehrmacht rocket development; recruited von Braun and led development and deployment of V-2. Post-war worked in US, notably for Bell on the BOMI rocket bomber. Born: 1895. Died: 1980-01-01.
Dornier - German manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. DaimlerChrysler Aerospace - Dornier Satellitensysteme GmbH, Germany.
Dornier - First name of Friedrichshafen.
Dorofeyev - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of Korolev design bureau. Chief Designer for N1 rocket 1972-1974. He was demoted in 1974 after the cancellation of the N1 program. Born: 1927-11-25. Died: 1999-07-09.
DOS - Long-Duration Orbital Station (Russian abbreviation)
DOS 17KS-12701 - Manufacturer's designation for Mir manned space station.
DOS 2-1 - Launched: September 1971. Number crew: 3 .
DOS 2-2 - Launched: November 1971. Number crew: 2 .
DOS 2-3 - Launched: Early 1972. Number crew: 2 .
DOS 2-4 - Launched: Spring 1972. Number crew: 2 .
DOS-5 - Alternate name for Salyut 6.
DOS-6 - Alternate name for Salyut 7.
Dosimeter - An instrument for measuring the accumulated flux of particle or photon radiations, such as protons in the Van Allen Belts, or X-rays in solar radiation.
DOT - Alternate designation for DOT (abbreviation).
DOT - American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x Star 26C Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1980-02-05. Last Launch: 1981-06-12. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Thrust: 586.00 kN (131,738 lbf).
DOT (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Department Of Transportation
DOT-25 - Isayev monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Pressure-fed monopropellant engine. Thermal decomposition of hydrazine by a wire catalyst, which is electrically heated to 620 K. 60,000 ignitions Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.30 kg (2.80 lb). Thrust: 25 N (5 lbf).
DOT-5 - Isayev monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Pressure-fed monopropellant engine. Thermal decomposition of hydrazine by a wire catalyst, which is electrically heated to 620 K. 550,000 ignitions Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.90 kg (1.98 lb). Thrust: 5.00 N (1.10 lbf).
Double Cajun T40 - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Cajun + 1 x T-40 Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1957-11-20. Last Launch: 1957-11-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 36.00 kN (8,093 lbf).
Double Cajun T40-2 - Alternate name for T-40.
Double Deacon - American test vehicle. Single stage vehicles consisting of 2 Deacon motors fired in parallel. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1949-11-16. Last Launch: 1958-09-08. Number: 42 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 54.00 kN (12,139 lbf).
Double Deacon HPAG - Alternate designation for Double HPAG Deacon.
Double FFAR - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of two FFAR Mk7 motors in tandem. Status: Retired 1947. First Launch: 1947-04-28. Last Launch: 1947-11-14. Number: 2 .
Double FFAR-2 - Alternate name for Mk7.
Double HPAG Deacon - Two stage vehicle consisting of 2 x HPAG + 1 x Deacon Status: Retired 1954. First Launch: 1954-01-29. Last Launch: 1954-01-29. Number: 1 . Thrust: 12.00 kN (2,697 lbf).
Double HPAG Deacon-2 - Alternate name for X-220.
Double Star - Chinese earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 2003.12.29 (Tan Ce 1) to 2004.07.25 (Tan Ce 2). Double Star was a joint ESA - China project to supplement ESA's Cluster satellites in characterizing the earth's magnetosphere. Status: Operational 2003. Gross mass: 270 kg (590 lb).
Double Star - Equatorial member of a pair of Chinese-European magnetospheric research satellites carrying surplus instrumentation from the ESA Cluster program. First CZ-2C launch from Xichang. Used the CAST2000 bus.
Douglas - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Boeing Huntington Beach, Huntington Beach, CA, USA.
Douglas - First name of Rand.
Douglas Astro - American winged orbital launch vehicle. The Douglas "Astro" was a VTHL TSTO system designed for launching space station crews and cargo by the 1968-70 period. A key requirement was that off-the-shelf technologies must be used, e.g. existing M-1, J-2 and RL-10 engines from the Saturn and Nova expendable launch vehicle programs. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 407,870 kg (899,190 lb). Payload: 16,851 kg (37,150 lb).
Douglas Clipper - Alternate designation for Delta Clipper.
Douglas Clipper - Alternate designation for DC-Y.
Douglas HATV - American orbital launch vehicle. The Douglas HATV design of 1946 was laid out by the Douglas engineer William Ballhaus. He proved that there were no obstacles to a single-stage-to-orbit space launch vehicle, as long as pressurized 'metal balloon' tanks were used instead of using aircraft-structure design approaches. Status: Design 1946. Gross mass: 45,350 kg (99,970 lb).
Douglas Huntington Beach - First name of Douglas.
Dove - 3U Cubesat Earth imaging satellite, deployed from Unisat-5 for PlanetLabs.
DP - Alternate designation for Tu-123.
DP - Alternate designation for Tu-130.
DP Boost - Solid propellant rocket stage. Boost stage for Tu-123/DP nuclear propulsion upper stage. Status: Study. Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Propellants: Solid.
DPS - Descent propulsion system (Apollo LM component)
DRA - Defense Research Agency, Farnborough, England (UK MoD), UK
Draco - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-20 Sergeant + 1 x TX-30 Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1959-02-16. Last Launch: 1959-04-27. Number: 3 .
Draco-1 - Alternate name for TX-20.
Draco-2 - Alternate name for TX-30.
Draeger Suit - German pressure suit, developed 1935-1945. Draeger-Werke developed a hard shell full pressure suit for the Nazi government. Status: Tested 1935.
Dragon - American manned spacecraft. Commercial space capsule developed by SpaceX as a shuttle to take cargo and crews to the International Space Station and the planned Bigelow Commercial Station. Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-06-04. Last Launch: 2015-06-28. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb).
Dragon - Alternate designation for Dragon 1.
Dragon 1 - French sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket. The Belier upper stage was augmented by a Stromboli booster with 686 kg of solid propellant. The rocket was spin stabilized by small solid rocket engines on the four fins. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1962-12-05. Last Launch: 1972-12-13. Number: 37 . Gross mass: 1,157 kg (2,550 lb). Payload: 60 kg (132 lb). Thrust: 75.00 kN (16,860 lbf).
Dragon 2B - French sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Stromboli + 1 x Belier II Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1968-03-15. Last Launch: 1972-04-28. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Dragon 3 - French sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Stromboli + 1 x Belier III Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1968-07-23. Last Launch: 1973-02-17. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 1,190 kg (2,620 lb). Payload: 60 kg (132 lb). Thrust: 97.00 kN (21,806 lbf).
Dragon-2 - Alternate name for SNP Jericho.
DragonSat - Cubesat from Drexel University, Penn. and the US Naval Academy, Annapolis.
Dragsphere - Alternate name for Calsphere.
Dragun - Russian engineer. From 1996 General Director and General Designer OKB Vympel. Missile designer.
Draper - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Draper, USA.
Draper, Charles - American engineer. Pioneered development of inertial navigation systems in the United States and designed the Apollo navigation system. Born: 1901-10-02. Died: 1987-07-01.
Drawe - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1910-11-05. Died: 1996-06-15.
DRDE - Indian manufacturer of rockets. DRDE, India.
DRDO - Indian manufacturer of rocket engines. DRDO, India.
DRDO-ENESTIEL Naval Science and Technology Laboratory - Alternate name for Visakhapatnam.
DRE - Canadian agency. Defence Research Establishment, Canada.
Dream Chaser - American manned spaceplane. A six-passenger human space transport system announced in 2006 by SpaceDev, based on the ten-passenger HL-20 Personnel Launch System developed by NASA Langley in the 1980's. Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb).
D-Region Tomahawk - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1968-02-05. Last Launch: 1968-02-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
Drew - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 2000-2013. Status: Inactive; Active 2000-2013. Born: 1962-11-05. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 25.54 days.
Drew, Russell - American scientist. Important figure in management of the Polaris and Poseidon programs, 1953-1973. Born: 1931-08-16.
Drews - German coppersmith in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Department Laboratory. Born: 1912-03-06.
DRG - German manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Deutsche Raumfahrtgesellschaft eV, Germany.
DRM 1 Mars Local Rover - American manned Mars rover. Study 1987. The local unpressurized rover for the Mars Design Reference Mission was conceptually the same as the Apollo lunar rover. Status: Study 1987. Gross mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb).
DRM 1 Mars Rover - Pressurized - American manned Mars rover. Study 1997. Hoffman and Kaplan proposed a large pressurized rover for long duration exploration sorties on Mars as a part of the Mars Design Reference Mission study. Status: Study 1997. Gross mass: 16,500 kg (36,300 lb).
DRM1 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Mars Design Reference Mission version 1.0 studied a number of heavy-lift boosters capable of lofting more than 200 metric tons into low earth orbit. The Red Team recommended configuration was an NLS / shuttle-derived vehicle with F-1A powered liquid rocket boosters. Status: Study 1991. Payload: 240,000 kg (520,000 lb).
Drobov - Russian officer. Lieutenant-General, leading Soviet scientist in area of space communications. From 1944-1971 head of radio-technical faculty at Mozhaiskiy Academy. Retired 1971. Born: 1908. Died: 1995-01-01.
drone - Category of missiles.
Drovyanaya - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-present. Base for a peak of 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100/UR-100N). Number had declined to 50 by 1993. First Launch: 1967-06-01. Last Launch: 1988-12-29. Number: 37 .
DRTE - Canadian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Defence Research Telecommunications Establishment, Canada.
DRTS - Japanese geostationary communications satellite. One launch, 2002.09.10. DRTS (Data Relay Transponder Satellite) relayed images and data procured by the ADEOS 2 and ALOS satellites, and the KIBO module on ISS. Status: Operational 2002.
DRTS - Data Relay Transponder Satellite) was a Japanese geostationary communications spacecraft which relayed images and data provided by the ADEOS 2 and ALOS satellites. Used the DS2000 bus.
Druzhinin - Russian officer. Colonel-General, Head of the Political Section at Baikonur 1963-1969. Born: 1920. Died: 1996-01-01.
Dryden - American aerodynamicist, director of NACA (NASA's predecessor) 1947-1958. Born: 1898. Died: 1965-01-01.
DS - Alternate designation for DS engine.
DS - The DS ('Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik') small satellite bus was developed by Yangel's OKB-586 / KB Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine for launch by the same bureau's Kosmos launch vehicles. They were used for a wide range of military and scientific research; component proving tests; and as radar, ASAT, and ABM targets.
DS engine - MITT solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1995. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Propellants: Solid.
DS-1 - Ukrainian technology satellite. Technology test version of the original DS light satellite design. Primary mission was to test launch vehicle. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-10-27. Last Launch: 1961-12-21. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
DS-2 - Ukrainian technology satellite. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-03-16. Last Launch: 1964-12-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 315 kg (694 lb).
DS2 Microprobe - Deep Space 2 Microprobes were penetrators which would impact the Martian surface separately from the Mars Polar Lander and return data on subsurface conditions from widely spaced points. The two penetrators were dubbed Scott and Amundsen. However no further communications were ever received from the Polar Lander or the Microprobes after arrival on the Martian surface. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-01-03. Last Launch: 1999-01-03. Number: 2 .
DS2000 - Japanese communications satellite bus. Mitsubishi Electric developed the DS2000 standard satellite platform based on a design originally created for the DRTS and ETS-8 platforms for NASDA. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-09-10. Last Launch: 2015-10-16. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 500 N (110 lbf).
DS-A1 - Ukrainian navigation technology satellite. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-10-20. Last Launch: 1965-07-02. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 30 kg (66 lb).
DSCOVR - The Deep Space Climate Observatory was originally dubbed "Goresat" and launched after many years of political hold-ups, three presidential administrations after it was begun. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-02-11. Last Launch: 2015-02-11. Number: 1 .
DSCS - Defense Satellite Communications System.
DSCS - Defense Satellite Communications System; provided the United States with global military communications. Three generations of satellites were used in the system: DSCS III 1966-68 ,[DSCS II] 1971-89, and [DSCS III] 1982-2003.
DSCS II - American military communications satellite. DSCS provided secure voice and data communications for the US military. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-11-03. Last Launch: 1982-10-30. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 562 kg (1,238 lb).
DSCS III - American military communications satellite. DSCS satellites provided secure voice and data communications for the US military. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-10-30. Last Launch: 2003-08-29. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 2,613 kg (5,760 lb).
DSE-Alpha - Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 2005. Potential commercial circumlunar manned flights were offered in 2005, using a modified Soyuz spacecraft docked to a Block DM upper stage. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb).
DSI - Sensor of velocity of observation (Russian abbreviation)
DSI and C - Second name of McLean.
DSIF - Abbreviation for Deep Space Instrumentation Facility
DSIR - British agency. DSIR, UK.
DS-K-40 - Ukrainian communications technology satellite. Development of systems for the later operational Tselina satellites. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-12-28. Last Launch: 1966-02-21. Number: 2 .
DS-K-8 - Ukrainian earth micrometeoroid satellite. Cosmos 8. Detected meteoroid flux in near-earth space and carried unspecified military research equipment. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-08-18. Last Launch: 1962-08-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 337 kg (742 lb).
DSKY - Abbreviation for Display Keyboard
DSL HTHL - German winged orbital launch vehicle. Under the Future European Space Transportation Investigation Programme (FESTIP) of 1994-1999 French agencies and contractors designed a number of alternative reusable space launchers. This one was a Horizontal Takeoff / Horizontal Landing Two Stage to Orbit proposal with Mach 3 stage separation. Later evolved into the FESTIP FSS-11,which was merged with FSS-12. Reusable and expendable upper stage options. Status: Study 1990.
DS-MG - Ukrainian technology satellite. Payload developed by VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Also studied magnetosphere of the earth. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-03-18. Last Launch: 1964-10-24. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 360 kg (790 lb).
DS-MO - Ukrainian technology satellite. Used in development of aerodynamic systems for stabilization and orientation of spacecraft. Also carried military optical equipment experiments. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-03-21. Last Launch: 1970-01-16. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 375 kg (826 lb).
DS-MT - Ukrainian technology satellite. Payload developed by the VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Also studied variations in the intensity of cosmic rays. Status: Operational 1963. First Launch: 1963-06-01. Last Launch: 1964-12-09. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 340 kg (740 lb).
DSN - Abbreviation for Deep Space Network
DSP - American military early warning satellite. An evolving series of satellites built by the United States to detect intercontinental ballistic missiles on launch. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-11-06. Last Launch: 2007-11-11. Number: 23 . Gross mass: 2,358 kg (5,198 lb).
DS-P1 - Ukrainian military target satellite. Prototype ABM radar target; supported developmental experiments for ABM systems. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-06-30. Last Launch: 1964-02-27. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 355 kg (782 lb).
DS-P1-I - Ukrainian military target satellite. Operational radar target for the ABM forces. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-01-25. Last Launch: 1977-06-18. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 340 kg (740 lb).
DS-P1-M - Ukrainian military anti-satellite system target satellite. Target for IS ASAT systems tests. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-12-22. Last Launch: 1982-06-06. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
DS-P1-Yu - Ukrainian military target satellite. Development of systems for air defense and the control of outer space. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-07-30. Last Launch: 1976-08-26. Number: 79 . Gross mass: 330 kg (720 lb).
DST engine series -
DST-100 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic (self-igniting) engine, pressure-fed. 10,000 ignitions Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.10 kg (2.40 lb). Thrust: 100 N (20 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
DST-100A - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic engine, pressure-fed. Larger nozzle and reduced chamber pressure to increase performance and lifetime in comparison to DST-100. 450,0000 ignitions. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.50 kg (3.30 lb). Thrust: 100 N (20 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
DST-200 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic (self-igniting) engine, pressure-fed. 10,000 ignitions Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.30 kg (2.80 lb). Thrust: 200 N (40 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
DST-200A - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic engine, pressure-fed. Larger nozzle and reduced chamber pressure to increase performance and lifetime compared to DST-200. 100,0000 ignitions. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.70 kg (3.70 lb). Thrust: 200 N (40 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
DST-25 - Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic (self-igniting) engine, pressure-fed. 300,000 ignitions Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.90 kg (1.98 lb). Thrust: 25 N (5 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
DSTO - Australian agency. Defense Science and Technology Organization, Australia.
DS-U1-A - Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. Cosmos 215. Studied the optical characteristics of the atmosphere. Radiation observatory; 8 telescopes. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-04-18. Last Launch: 1968-04-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 385 kg (848 lb).
DS-U1-G - Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. Studied the relationship between variations in the upper atmosphere and solar activity. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-02-11. Last Launch: 1967-12-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 355 kg (782 lb).
DS-U1-IK - Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. Studies ionosphere of the earth; version used for Intercosmos international launches. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-12-25. Last Launch: 1972-11-30. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 330 kg (720 lb).
DS-U1-R - Ukrainian earth atmosphere satellite. Cosmos 335. Studied spectral range of the UF. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-04-24. Last Launch: 1970-04-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 295 kg (650 lb).
DS-U1-Ya - Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. Studied charged particle flows and cosmic rays. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-03-06. Last Launch: 1968-06-11. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 375 kg (826 lb).
DS-U2-D - Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. Studied charged particle flows. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-12-21. Last Launch: 1968-04-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
DS-U2-GF - Ukrainian solar satellite. Cosmos 262. Conducted heliophysical studies. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-12-26. Last Launch: 1968-12-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 352 kg (776 lb).
DS-U2-GK - Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. Conducted complex geophysical studies of the upper atmosphere. Air density, auroral investigations. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-12-19. Last Launch: 1970-06-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 350 kg (770 lb).
DS-U2-GKA - Soviet-French earth magnetosphere satellite. Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-12-27. Last Launch: 1973-12-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 590 kg (1,300 lb).
DS-U2-I - Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. Studied the influence of the ionosphere on passing VLF radio waves. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-05-24. Last Launch: 1968-12-14. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
DS-U2-IK - Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. Studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere; version used for Intercosmos international launches. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-08-07. Last Launch: 1975-12-11. Number: 7 .
DS-U2-IP - Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. Cosmos 378. Studied the ionosphere and charged particle flows. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-11-17. Last Launch: 1970-11-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 710 kg (1,560 lb).
DS-U2-K - Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. Cosmos 426. Studied charged particle flows and cosmic radiation. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-06-04. Last Launch: 1971-06-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
DS-U2-M - Ukrainian technology satellite. Development tests of atomic clocks. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-11-26. Last Launch: 1967-03-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 260 kg (570 lb).
DS-U2-MG - Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. Studied the Earth's magnetic poles. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-01-20. Last Launch: 1970-08-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 360 kg (790 lb).
DS-U2-MP - Ukrainian earth micrometeoroid satellite. Studied cosmic dust particles in near-Earth space. Status: Operational 1966. First Launch: 1966-12-12. Last Launch: 1967-06-05. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 356 kg (784 lb).
DS-U2-MT - Ukrainian gamma ray astronomy satellite. Cosmos 461. Measured micrometeoroid impacts and gamma rays. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-12-02. Last Launch: 1971-12-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
DS-U2-V - Ukrainian military technology satellite. Military technology development satellite - mission still classified. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-10-19. Last Launch: 1968-02-20. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 320 kg (700 lb).
DS-U3-IK - Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. Measurements of the sun; used for Interkosmos launches. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-10-14. Last Launch: 1976-07-27. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 390 kg (850 lb).
DS-U3-S - Ukrainian solar satellite. Specialized orbital solar observatory for measuring solar rays in multiple spectral zones. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-06-16. Last Launch: 1968-07-05. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 360 kg (790 lb).
DS-U4-B - Ukrainian biology satellite. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. Status: Cancelled 1965.
DS-U4-T - Ukrainian materials science satellite. Cancelled 1963. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for low gravity materials and technology studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. Status: Cancelled 1963.
DS-U5 - Ukrainian technology satellite. Cancelled 1965. Light satellite with propulsion for periodic correction of orbit. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. Status: Cancelled 1965.
DSV-2A - Alternate designation for Thor Agena D.
DSV-2C - Alternate designation for Thor SLV-2A Agena B.
DSV-2C - Alternate designation for Thor SLV-2A Agena D.
DSV-2L - Alternate designation for Thorad SLV-2H Agena D.
DT - Abbreviation for Delayed Time
DTI Associates - American manufacturer of rockets. DTI Associates, USA.
DTUSAT - Danish 1U Cubesat DTUSat remained silent after release despite several attempts to contact it. Carried a 450-meter copper wire tether for lowering the satellite orbit.
DU - Engine unit (Russian abbreviation)
Du Jincheng - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Joined PLA in 1965. He was a PLAAF squadron commander when selected. Selected as Chinese astronaut in March 1971. Status: Inactive. Born: 1949.
DU-1 Rocket Belt - Russian space mobility device. Cancelled 1966. This rocket belt was planned for use aboard a follow-on Voskhod mission in the 1960's. The mission was cancelled and the belt never tested. Status: Cancelled 1966.
Dual Air Density Explorer - Alternate designation for DAD earth atmosphere satellite.
Dual Keel Space Station - 1985 - American manned space station. Study 1985. NASA radically changed its Space Station baseline design in October 1985 following frequent complaints from users and astronauts. Status: Study 1985.
Dual Lander Mission - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1999. After some discussion within NASA, in the Combo Lander mission was found to be too lean. Status: Study 1999.
Dual Mode-Liquid Apogee Engine - TRW MON/Hydrazine rocket engine. In Production. First Flight: April 1991. Burn Time 24,000 sec total, with a 3600 sec maximum single burn. Hypergolic ignition via 28 V current to an on/off bi-propellant torque motor valve. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 4.80 kg (10.50 lb). Thrust: 454 N (102 lbf). Propellants: MON/Hydrazine.
Dubaisat - Imaging satellite series for the United Arab Emirates.
Dubna - Alternate designation for V-880M.
Dubovik - Russian military officer.
DuBridge - American physicist. President of Caltech 1946-1969; Science Adviser to Presidents Truman and Nixon. Born: 1901-09-21. Died: 1994-01-23.
Dubrov - Russian pilot astronaut 2012- . Status: Active 2012-on. Born: 1978-01-30.
Duchifat - 1U Cubesat by the Herzliya Science Center.
Duerr - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1909-01-26. Died: 2000-12-20.
Duffy - American test pilot astronaut 1985-2001. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2001. Born: 1953-06-20. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 40.73 days.
Duga-K - Code name for Taifun-3 military target satellite.
Duke - American test pilot astronaut 1966-1976. Tenth person to walk on the moon. Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1976. Born: 1935-10-03. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 11.08 days.
Dulles - American intelligence officer, Director of the CIA 1953-1961. Under his watch the secret U-2 and A-12 aircraft, and Corona spy satellite were developed. He was forced to retire after the Bay of Pigs debacle. Born: 1888. Died: 1959-01-01.
Dumont d'Urville - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1967-01-25. Last Launch: 1967-01-29. Number: 4 .
Dumsat - Cluster 2 Composite Mock-Up validation flight. Mass model of a pair of Cluster 2 scientific satellites built by Aerospatiale Matra.
Dun-1 - Alternate designation for DF-2.
Dun-2 - Alternate designation for DF-3.
Duna (Danube ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 15.
Duna (Danube) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 15.
Dunbar - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1980-2005. Engineer. Was married to astronaut Ronald Sega. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-2005. Born: 1949-03-03. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 50.35 days.
Dunlap - American physician payload specialist astronaut, 1996-1998. Candidate specialist for STS-90 Neurolab. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-1998. Born: 1960-07-15.
Dunn - American engineer. At Ramo-Wooldridge headed oversight of development of the Thor, Titan, Atlas, and Minuteman missiles for the USAF Born: 1908-11-04. Died: 1979-08-01.
DuPont - duPont.
Duque - Spanish engineer mission specialist astronaut 1992-on. First Spanish astronaut. Status: Active 1992-on. Born: 1963-03-14. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 18.78 days.
Durant - American writer and space exploration advocate. Engineer at Bell and several government laboratories 1945-1965; Director of Astronautics at NASM; President ARS and IAF 1953-1956; author of several works on space history. Born: 1916-12-31.
Durrance - American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut 1984-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1995. Born: 1943-09-17. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 25.59 days.
Dushkin - Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Dushkin, Russia.
Dushkin 3M9 - Dushkin solid rocket engine. 3M9 Kub. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Propellants: Solid.
Dutton - American test pilot astronaut 2004-2012. Flew combat air patrols over Northern Iraq during the 1990s. Status: Inactive; Active 2004-2012. Born: 1968-11-20. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.12 days.
DUVE - Japanese earth atmosphere satellite. Diffuse Ultraviolet Explorer package bolted to Delta 2 2nd stage. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-07-24. Last Launch: 1992-07-24. Number: 1 .
DVA - Department of Veteran Affairs.
Dvina - Alternate designation for S-75M.
Dvina - Alternate designation for R-12U.
Dvina - Alternate designation for S-75.
DX 1 - Experimental small satellite bus; carried an Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver for tracking ships. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-07-08. Last Launch: 2014-07-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 27 kg (59 lb).
Dyess AFB - Atlas F (SMS 578) ICBM base.
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Dynacon - Canadian manufacturer of spacecraft. Dynacon Enterprises, Canada.
Dynamics Explorer - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-08-03. Last Launch: 1981-08-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 403 kg (888 lb).
Dynasoar - American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1963. The X-20A Dynasoar (Dynamic Soarer) was a single-pilot manned reusable spaceplane, really the earliest American manned space project to result in development contracts. Status: Cancelled 1963. Gross mass: 10,125 kg (22,321 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,435 kg (16,391 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb). Thrust: 71.19 kN (16,004 lbf).
Dynasoar 10 - Planned eighth manned flight, second multi-orbit flight, and final flight of the Dynasoar program would have the objectives to demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and a precision recovery. Project cancelled in December 1963 Launched: 1968 Early. Number crew: 1 .
Dynasoar 3 - Planned Dynasoar first manned single-orbit flight. The flight would have been devoted to demonstrating pilot control of the spacecraft and evaluation of the systems (this was to have followed two unmanned flight tests). Project cancelled December 1963. Launched: 1966 July. Number crew: 1 .
Dynasoar 4 - Planned second manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight. Objectives were to demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and systems evaluation. Project cancelled in December 1963 Launched: 1966 Late. Number crew: 1 .
Dynasoar 5 - Planned third manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight; would demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and systems evaluation. Project cancelled in December 1963. Launched: 1967 Early. Number crew: 1 .
Dynasoar 6 - Planned fourth manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight; would demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and systems evaluation. Project cancelled in December 1963. Launched: 1967 Spring. Number crew: 1 .
Dynasoar 7 - Planned fifth manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight. Would demonstrate reuse of a minimally-refurbished spacecraft flown on an earlier mission. Project cancelled in December 1963 Launched: 1967 Summer. Number crew: 1 .
Dynasoar 8 - Planned sixth manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight. Would demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and a precision recovery. Project cancelled in December 1963 Launched: 1967 Fall. Number crew: 1 .
Dynasoar 9 - Planned first multi-orbit flight and seventh manned flight of Dynasoar would have the objectives to demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and a precision recovery. Project cancelled in December 1963 Launched: 1967 December. Number crew: 1 .
Dynasoar AS - American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1963. Abort Section, equipped with Thiokol XM-92 Minuteman Stage II motor. Contingency boost. Status: Cancelled 1963. Gross mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Unfuelled mass: 320 kg (700 lb). Thrust: 177.89 kN (39,991 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Dynasoar Glider - American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1963. Manned space plane. Status: Cancelled 1963. Gross mass: 5,165 kg (11,386 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb).
Dyson - American cosmonaut, 2008-2009. Internet entrepreneur, daughter of physicist and space visionary Freeman Dyson. Internet entrepreneur who paid $ 3 million to train as back-up to Charles Simonyi as a space tourist aboard Soyuz TMA-14. Status: Inactive; Active 2008-2009. Born: 1951-07-14.
Dzhambul - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1965, operating 12 R-14 missile launchers. Earlier the base deployed with two R-1 (followed by R-2) launchers.
Dzhanibekov - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1970-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1970-1986. Born: 1942-05-13. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 145.66 days.

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