Status: Active. First Launch: 1998-01-10. Last Launch: 2009-08-17. Number: 28 . Thrust: 4,000.00 kN (899,200 lbf). Gross mass: 231,000 kg (509,000 lb). Height: 39.00 m (127.00 ft). Diameter: 2.44 m (8.00 ft). Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi).
The spacecraft was delivered to its final orbit in a complex series of five engine burns by three rocket stages. The Delta's second stage demonstrated its restart capability in 4 burns: Burn 1 placed the rocket and payload into a low circular orbit; Burn 2 raised the apogee to 1400 km; Burn 3 circularised the orbit at 1400 km. The second stage then separated, and Burn 4 lowered the spent stage's perigee to a low altitude to ensure the stage would decay quickly and not add to the space junk already on orbit. Stage 3 burned once to place the payload and its kick motor into a high 1400 km perigee geosynchronous transfer orbit. The Stage 4 Star 30 apogee kick motor circularised the spacecraft's orbit at geostationary altitude. Geostationary at 0.8 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 1 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 0.83 deg W drifting at 0.000 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 0.85W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.
BONUM-1 provided domestic Russian television service for Media Most, a Moscow media enterprise, broadcasting 50 channels to western Russia from a geostationary orbit at 36 degrees E. Mass was 1426 kg at launch, 800 kg of that propellant. BONUM-1 carried 8 Ku-band transponders. The Delta upper stage raised the initial 157 km x 189 km at 29.2 degree parking orbit to 159 km x 1304 km and then 1228 km x 1683 km at 26.7 degrees. A Thiokol Star 48B solid third stage boosted BONUM-1 to a 1285 x 36703 km x 19.5 degree geostationary transfer orbit, with the Thiokol Star 30 apogee kick motor placing the satellite in its final geostationary orbit. After separation of the spacecraft, the Delta made a final depletion burn to lower its orbit to 274 km x 1552 km x 25.6 degree to ensure it would quickly decay and burn up in the atmosphere. Geostationary at 35.9 degrees E. From 8 August 2000 position was 56.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 36 deg E in 1998-1999 55 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 56.03 deg E drifting at 0.016 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 55.94E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.
The Delta stage 2 entered a 153 x 418 km x 37 deg parking orbit followed by a 172 x 1144 km second orbit; the PAM-D solid upper stage then fired to give SVN 41 a 20457 km apogee. The Thiokol Star 37FM solid kick motor was fired prior to November 13 to place the spacecraft in its final circular 20,000 km orbit. Placed in Plane F Slot 1 of the GPS constellation.
The 2001 Mars Odyssey probe (formerly the Mars Surveyor 2001 Orbiter) was the first spacecraft in the revamped NASA Mars Exploration Program. Built by Lockheed Martin Astronautics (Denver) and JPL, the satellite was similar to Mars Climate Orbiter. It carried a 6-meter boom with a gamma ray spectrometer for remote sensing of Martian surface mineralogy, as well as an infrared imager and a radiation environment monitor. The probe had a dry mass of 376 kg and carried 349 kg of propellant. 2001 Mars Odyssey entered a 195 x 215 km x 52 deg parking orbit 10 minutes after launch. After a 12 minute coast the Delta second stage fired again and separated from the third stage, which placed the probe on an Earth escape trajectory into a 0.982 x 1.384 AU x 3.05 deg solar orbit. It escaped Earth's nominal gravitational sphere of influence at around 19:00 GMT on April 10.
The 2001 Mars Odyssey probe entered Mars orbit on October 24, 2001. The orbit insertion burn with the main 640 N bipropellant N2O4/hydrazine engine began at 0218 GMT lasted 20 min 19 sec. Mass of the spacecraft was then 456 kg, including 79 kg of fuel left. Initial orbit was was 272 x 26818 km x 93.42 deg with periapsis near the Martian north pole. 76 days of aerobraking began on October 26 to slowly circularise the orbit to its 400 km altitude, 2 hour period sun synchronous operational orbit. The solar panels reached 180 deg C as Odyssey skimmed through upper atmosphere of Mars on each orbit.
After reaching the operational orbit, the probe was to conduct a 917 day mapping program. It was to also serve as a communications relay for American and international landers expected to arrive in 2003/2004. In the Martian orbit, it was to map the distribution of elements and minerals on the surface, the distribution of hydrogen (embedded in water ice) and the radiation environment. The second was to assess the likelyhood of past or present life, and the third was to assess the radiation hazard to manned missions. The three major instruments on board were THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System at the visible and infrared light) for the distribution, at 100 meter resolution, of minerals that form only in the presence of water, GRS (Gamma Ray Spectrometer) for determining hydrogen and other elements, and MARIE (presumably, MArs RadIation Environment) for determining the radiation hazard. THEMIS was to also enable site selection for a future manned landing. THEMIS was expected to provide 15,000 images, each covering 20 x 20 km. GRS carried two neutron monitors also. The gamma rays and neutrons come out of the surface in distinct, element-specific energies, released by cosmic ray bombardment.
Military Communications Technology flight. Launch delayed from March 1, April 25, May 2 and 17. GeoLITE, US National Reconnaissance Office spacecraft was into placed by the Delta launch vehicle into a geostationary transfer orbit. GeoLITE was a TRW T-310 class satellite with a mass of about 1800 kg, including a solid apogee motor. The satellite carried an experimental laser communications payload and an operational UHF data relay payload.
On-orbit servicing technology demonstrator. XSS-10, a 28 kilogram microsatellite, was launched as a secondary payload aboard the Delta 2 launch vehicle carrying a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) satellite. The mission demonstrated the complex interactions of line-of-sight guidance with basic inertial maneuvering. The micro-satellite was attached to the Delta 2 second stage. Once the second stage separated from the GPS satellite, the microsatellite waited for a sunlit Air Force Space Control Network pass before ejecting from the second stage. Once ejected, the microsatellite commenced an autonomous inspection sequence around the second stage, and live video was transmitted to ground stations. The entire mission lasted only 24 hours. Launch delayed from June 11 and August 16, 2001; March 6, April 29, August 11 and November 7, 2002.
Launched into a 0.981 AU x 1.628 AU solar orbit inclined 0.6 deg to the ecliptic. Deep Impact was to fly by Comet 9P/Tempel-1 on 3 July 2005. An impacter it released was to hit the comet on 4 July at 10.2 km/s, producing a crater and ejecta plume that would allow the flyby spacecraft to determine the composition and structure of the comet's nucleus.
Delayed from December 2004; February 1, March 17, 2005. Moved up from May 20 2005. Then delayed from May 4, July 29, August 26, September 22, 2005. Became operational at 23:30 GMT on 16 December. First GPS Block IIR-M version, which added extra navigation signals for both civil and military users. The NASA-funded L2C tracking demonstration was managed by JPL and explored the use of a new Civilian code signal (L2C). The data was collected with Trimble NetRS receivers L2C-enabled firmware. The sites were globally distributed: South Africa, Norway, Antarctica, Hawaii, and Alaska.
The Microsatellite Technology Experiment was a classified mission, believed to be a test of prototype inspect-and-disable satellites that would control the constellation of geostationary satellites on which the world depends for television reception and communications. Each microsatellite, one built by Orbital Sciences, and the other by Lockheed Martin, had a mass of about 250 kg. They were believed to be solar-powered and equipped with propulsion systems that would allow them to rendezvous with geosynchronous satellites. Once they had reached the satellite, they would presumably be capable of destroying, disabling, or jamming them. To deliver the two satellites to near-synchronous orbit, a Naval Research Laboratory liquid propellant bus equipped with a 400 N main engine and solar panels was used.
Mars lander based on surplus hardware from the cancelled Mars Surveyor 2001 and the failed Mars Polar Lander (whence the Phoenix designation). The planned landing location was in the north of Mars, at Vastitas Borealis. The spacecraft consisted of a cruise stage, aeroshell for re-entry, backshell for protection of the lander, parachute system for braking the lander after re-entry, and liquid propellant rocket system for a soft touchdown on the surface. The lander was equipped with a robotic arm, soil analysis instruments, meteorology instruments, and cameras.
The Delta's second stage first cutoff at 06:20 GMT put the stage and payload into a 174 km x 205 km parking orbit. The stage fired again to place the satellite into a 188 km x 20325 km x 40.0 deg transfer orbit. USA 201 fired its apogee motor at 09:21 GMT on 17 March in and placed itself into its operational final orbit.