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ECS/OTS
ECS-OTS
ECS-OTS
Credit: ESA
European communications satellite.

AKA: JCSat 2;MARECS;OTS. Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-09-13. Last Launch: 2001-02-07. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 1,490 kg (3,280 lb).

The OTS/ECS satellites were the first European-developed operational communications satellites, after groundwork laid by two experimental French/German Symphonie satellites in the 1970s.

3-axis controlled, maintained by 2 x 25 Nms and 1 x 16 Nms momentum wheels, and 20 x 0.7 N / 8 N thrusters with 118 kg propellant. 1260 W generated by solar panels, feeding two 24 Ah NiCd batteries. On the Marecs series the spacecraft provided three repeaters: shore-to-ship with 5 MHz bandwidth, ship-to-shore with 6 MHz bandwidth, shore-to-shore with 0.5 MHz bandwidth. These provide 35 two-way voice channels plus search and rescue capabilities.



Family: Communications, Geosynchronous orbit, Technology. Country: Europe. Spacecraft: Skynet. Launch Vehicles: Titan, Thor, Delta, Ariane 1, Delta 3914, Ariane, Ariane 2/3, Delta 2 7000, Ariane 3, Ariane 44LP, Ariane 44L, Commercial Titan 3, Delta 7925, Delta 7925-9.5, Delta 3000. Projects: Eutelsat, MARECS, Telecom. Launch Sites: Cape Canaveral, Cape Canaveral LC17B, Cape Canaveral LC17A, Cape Canaveral LC40, Kourou, Kourou ELA1, Kourou ELA2. Agency: NATO, ESA. Bibliography: 126, 2, 276, 296, 5, 552, 554, 6, 61, 12296, 12297, 12298, 12299.
Photo Gallery

Eutelsat 1Eutelsat 1
Credit: Manufacturer Image


MARECS 1MARECS 1
Credit: Manufacturer Image


NATO 4ANATO 4A
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Skynet 4ASkynet 4A
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Telecom 1ATelecom 1A
Credit: Manufacturer Image


OTS 1OTS 1
Credit: Manufacturer Image



1977 September 13 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914. FAILURE: Vehicle exploded, probably SRM case.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • OTS 1 - . Mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Decay Date: 1977-09-13 . Orbital Test Satellite; failed to orbit..

1978 May 11 - . 22:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914.
  • OTS 2 - . Payload: OTS 2. Mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1991-01-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10855 . COSPAR: 1978-044A. Apogee: 36,128 km (22,448 mi). Perigee: 36,085 km (22,422 mi). Inclination: 13.1000 deg. Period: 1,452.50 min.

    Orbital Test Satellite; replacement for OTS-A; communications experiments. European Space Agency satellite. Launch time 2259 GMT. Reached definitive position, 10 deg east longitude, on May 24 at 0800 GMT. Launch by US Delta rocket. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 10 deg E in 1978-1982 over the Atlantic Ocean 5 deg E in 1982-1990 As of 30 August 2001 located at 18.51 deg W drifting at 4.070 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 39.02E drifting at 4.083W degrees per day.


1981 December 20 - . 01:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1.
  • MARECS 1 - . Payload: MARECS A. Mass: 582 kg (1,283 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1996-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 13010 . COSPAR: 1981-122A. Apogee: 37,858 km (23,523 mi). Perigee: 36,782 km (22,855 mi). Inclination: 10.8000 deg. Period: 1,515.20 min.

    MARECS-A was a geostationary maritime communications satellite, which formed part of INMARSAT's world-wide maritime communications satellite network. MARECS-A moved to a new position on the geostationary orbit. Old position: 334E. New position: 22.5 E. The Marecs satellites were members of Inmarsat's first generation global maritime communications network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 26 deg W in 1982-1986; 178 deg E in 1986-1991; 20 deg E in 1991-1992; 22 deg E in 1992-1996 As of 1 September 2001 located at 11.08 deg W drifting at 18.839 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 168.28W drifting at 18.837W degrees per day. Additional Details: here....


1982 September 9 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. FAILURE: Stage 3 turbopump.. Failed Stage: U.
  • MARECS B - . Payload: MARECS B. Mass: 1,490 kg (3,280 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Decay Date: 1982-09-10 . Marecs B intended for maritime communications, planned for lease to Inmarsat; launched with Sirio 2. Geosynch orbit..

1983 June 16 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1.
  • Eutelsat 1 - . Payload: ECS 1. Mass: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1996-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14128 . COSPAR: 1983-058A. Apogee: 36,246 km (22,522 mi). Perigee: 36,123 km (22,445 mi). Inclination: 9.2000 deg. Period: 1,456.50 min.

    Designator ESA/83/4. Launch time 1159 GMT. Launch agency ESA. Geostationary position 10+/- 0.1 deg E. EUTELSAT 1 is a regional geostationary telecommunication Satellite for European countries. It is operated by the EUTELSAT organization. Frequency plan: 1 36-138 MHz (S-E). 148-149.9 MHz (E-S). 10.7-11.7 GHz (S-E). 14-14.5 GHz (E-S). Positions: Document Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1983; 13 deg E in 1983-1989; 16 deg E in 1989-1991; 25 deg E in 1992-1993; 48E1993-1996; 36 deg E in 1996 As of 31 August 2001 located at 12.27 deg W drifting at 5.043 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 109.78W drifting at 5.059W degrees per day.


1984 August 4 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3.
  • Eutelsat 2 - . Payload: ECS 2. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1993-11-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 15158 . COSPAR: 1984-081A. Apogee: 36,248 km (22,523 mi). Perigee: 36,165 km (22,471 mi). Inclination: 3.0000 deg. Period: 1,457.60 min.

    Stationed at 7 deg E. Launch time 1333 UT. Geostationary orbit position 10 +/- 0.1; afterwards 7 +/- 0.1 deg E. EUTELSAT 2 is a regional geostationary satellite for European countries. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1984; 7 deg E in 1984-1990; 2 deg E in 1991; 1 deg E in 1992-1993 As of 5 September 2001 located at 62.27 deg W drifting at 5.317 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 57.69E drifting at 5.323W degrees per day.

  • Telecom 1A - . Mass: 690 kg (1,520 lb). Nation: France. Agency: France Telecom. Program: Telecom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1992-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 15159 . COSPAR: 1984-081B. Apogee: 36,459 km (22,654 mi). Perigee: 36,179 km (22,480 mi). Inclination: 8.5000 deg. Period: 1,463.40 min.

    Stationed at 8 deg W. Communications satellite. Registration France 1984-2.B (Telecom 1A) 1985-2.B (Telecom 1B). 1988-1-C (Telecom 1C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 8 deg W in 1984-1992 As of 4 September 2001 located at 142.83 deg W drifting at 6.735 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 11.08W drifting at 6.728W degrees per day.


1984 November 10 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3.
  • MARECS 2 - . Payload: MARECS B2. Mass: 563 kg (1,241 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 15386 . COSPAR: 1984-114B. Apogee: 37,544 km (23,328 mi). Perigee: 36,556 km (22,714 mi). Inclination: 9.9000 deg. Period: 1,501.10 min.

    Stationed at 177.5 deg E; maritime communications; leased by Inmarsat. Geostationary position 177.5 deg E. MARECS PAC 1 is a geostationary maritime mobile communication satellite which will form part of the INMARSAT world-wide maritime communication satellite network. 1985 Jul 1. Move to a new position. Old position: 177.5E. New position: 345 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 177 deg E in 1984-1986; 26 deg W in 1986-1990; 55 deg W in 1990-1992; 15 deg W in 1992-1997; 26 deg W in 1997-on. As of 4 September 2001 located at 25.98 deg W drifting at 0.006 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 105.63W drifting at 15.647W degrees per day.


1985 May 8 - . 01:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3.
  • Telecom 1B - . Mass: 690 kg (1,520 lb). Nation: France. Agency: France Telecom. Program: Telecom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1988-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15678 . COSPAR: 1985-035B. Apogee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 5.4000 deg. Period: 1,435.50 min.

    Stationed at 5 deg W; business communications. Communications satellite. Registration France 1984-2.B (Telecom 1A) 1985-2.B (Telecom 1B). 1988-1-C (Telecom 1C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 5 deg W in 1985-1988 As of 3 September 2001 located at 4.82 deg E drifting at 0.111 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 86.72E drifting at 0.424E degrees per day.


1985 September 12 - . 23:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. FAILURE: Geosynchronous orbit injection failure. Third stage igniter cartridge failure was determined to be the most likely cause.. Failed Stage: U.
1987 September 16 - . 00:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3.
  • Eutelsat I F4 - . Payload: ECS 4. Mass: 1,175 kg (2,590 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 18351 . COSPAR: 1987-078B. Apogee: 35,813 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,760 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 6.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    European communications; 10 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1987-1988; 13 deg E in 1989-1991; 7 deg E in 1991-1993; 25 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 33.14 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 120.92E drifting at 5.702W degrees per day.


1988 July 21 - . 23:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3.
  • Eutelsat I F5 - . Payload: ECS 5. Mass: 1,185 kg (2,612 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 2000-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19331 . COSPAR: 1988-063B. Apogee: 36,456 km (22,652 mi). Perigee: 36,321 km (22,568 mi). Inclination: 6.1000 deg. Period: 1,466.90 min.

    European communications; 13 deg E. ECS-5/Eutelsat I F5 is a regional geostationary telecommunications satellite for European countries. It is operated by the EUTELSAT organization. Frequency plan 136-138 MHz (S-E), 148-149.9 MHz (E-S), 10.7-11.7 GHz (S-E), 14.0-14.5 GHz (E-S). Launch time 2334:00 UT. ESA designator ESA/88/03. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1989-1991; 21 deg E in 1991-1998; 12 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 48.15 deg E drifting at 7.596 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 102.26W drifting at 7.597W degrees per day.


1988 December 11 - . 00:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Skynet 4B - . Mass: 1,433 kg (3,159 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: MoD. Program: Skynet. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1988-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 19687 . COSPAR: 1988-109A. Apogee: 35,967 km (22,348 mi). Perigee: 35,933 km (22,327 mi). Inclination: 7.5000 deg. Period: 1,444.40 min.

    British military communications; 1 deg W. Military communications. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 1 deg W in 1989-1990; 53 deg E in 1990-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 60.05 deg E drifting at 2.136 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 126.32E drifting at 2.116W degrees per day.


1990 January 1 - . 00:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Commercial Titan 3.
  • Skynet 4A - . Payload: Skynet 4A [PAM-D2] / JCSat 2 [Orbus-7S]. Mass: 1,463 kg (3,225 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: MoD. Program: Skynet. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 20401 . COSPAR: 1990-001A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 5.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    British military communications; 6 deg E. Military communications. Expected life approx 7 years. Owner/operator: Ministry of Defence, Main Building, Whitehall, London SW1A 2HB. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 6 deg E in 1990; 29 deg E in 1991; 65 deg E in 1991; 34 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 34.01 deg W drifting at 0.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 63.46W drifting at 4.595W degrees per day.


1990 August 30 - . 22:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP.
  • Skynet 4C - . Mass: 1,463 kg (3,225 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: MoD. Program: Skynet. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 20776 . COSPAR: 1990-079A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 2.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    UK military communications; 1 deg W. United Kingdom military communications satellite. Owner/operator: UK Ministry of Defence. Expected operational life 10 years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 1 deg W in 1990-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 0.97 deg W drifting at 0.002 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 1.27W drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.


1991 January 8 - . 00:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • NATO 4A - . Payload: NATO 4A. Mass: 1,433 kg (3,159 lb). Nation: NATO. Agency: NATO. Program: NATO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 21047 . COSPAR: 1991-001A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 2.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NATO communications; 18 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 18 deg W in 1991-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 17.81 deg W drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 16.26W drifting at 0.003W degrees per day.


1993 December 8 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925.
  • USA 98 - . Payload: NATO 4B. Mass: 1,430 kg (3,150 lb). Nation: NATO. Agency: NATO. Program: NATO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 22921 . COSPAR: 1993-076A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,767 km (22,224 mi). Inclination: 2.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    NATO encrypted communications relay. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 6 deg E in 1994-1998; 20 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 20.16 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 35.47E drifting at 0.007E degrees per day.


1998 January 10 - . 00:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Thor. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-9.5.
  • Skynet 4D - . Mass: 1,490 kg (3,280 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: MoD. Manufacturer: Martin. Program: Skynet. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 25134 . COSPAR: 1998-002A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 3.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Geostationary at 52.8 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1998-1999; moving As of 4 September 2001 located at 34.00 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 34.33W drifting at 0.016W degrees per day..

1999 February 26 - . 22:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Skynet 4E - . Mass: 1,490 kg (3,280 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: MoD. Manufacturer: Stevenage. Program: Skynet. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 25639 . COSPAR: 1999-009B. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 7.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Skynet 4E was a SHF/UHF military communications satellite for the UK Ministry of Defense. Dry mass was 759 kg; it used a Thiokol Star 30 solid apogee motor. Stationed at 53 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 52.91 deg E drifting at 0.000 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 53.02E drifting at 0.005E degrees per day.


2001 February 7 - . 23:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L.
  • Skynet 4F - . Mass: 2,596 kg (5,723 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: MoD. Manufacturer: Alenia. Program: Skynet. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 26695 . COSPAR: 2001-005B. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 2.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Skynet 4F was a communications satellite for the UK Ministry of Defense, and the last of the venerable ECS (European Communications Satellite) class of satellites built by Astrium/Stevenage. It carried a Thiokol Star 30 apogee motor and its mass was 1489 kg full, 830 kg dry - a dry mass more than twice the first OTS. The spacecraft carried a total of eight transponders in the SHF-, UHF-, and S-bands to provide secure communications after parking over either 1 deg-E or 6 deg-W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 6 deg E in 2001 As of 5 September 2001 located at 8.77 deg E drifting at 0.284 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 6.01E drifting at 0.004E degrees per day.



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