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Geosynchronous orbit
Category of spacecraft.



Subtopics

AEHF The Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) satellite program was the next generation of global, highly secure, survivable communications system for all services of the US Department of Defense, replacing the Milstar series. The first was finally launched three years behind schedule at a cost that had doubled from the original $5 billion estimate. The satellite was based on the commercial AS 2100 satellite bus (see for launch record). Comsat satellite built by Lockheed Martin (Bus), Northrop Grumman (ex TRW) (Payload) for USAF, USA. Launched 2010 - 2013. Used the A2100M bus.

Syncom American communications technology satellite. Experimental telecommunications satellite. Communication satellite built by Hughes for NASA, USA. Launched 1963 - 1964. Used the HS-301 bus.

Global Communications Satellite Using Nuclear Power Russian military communications satellite. Study 1963. In 1963 Korolev's OKB proposed development of a massive nuclear-powered geosynchronous satellite, which would be launched by the N1 superbooster.

Intelsat 1 American communications satellite. Intelsat 1, also called Early Bird, was the world's first commercial communications satellite. It provided the first scheduled transoceanic TV service and was operational for 3.5 years. Built by Hughes for Intelsat, International. Launched 1965. Used the HS-303 bus.

GGTS American gravity gradient technology satellite. Gravity gradient stabilization tests.

IDCSP American military communications satellite. Communication satellite built by Philco-Ford for USAF, USA. Launched 1966 - 1968.

Intelsat 2 American communications satellite. The Intelsat 2 series expanded ITSO coverage to include 2/3 of the Earth's surface. Built by Hughes for Intelsat, International. Launched 1966 - 1967. Used the HS-303A bus.

ATS-1 American communications technology satellite. ATS 1. During its 18 year lifetime, ATS-1 examined spin stabilization techniques, investigated the geostationary environment, and performed several communications experiments. Communication / Meteorology satellite built by Hughes for NASA, USA. Launched 1966 - 1967. Used the HS-306 bus.

ATS-2 American communications technology satellite. ATS 2. ATS-2 was placed into an undesirable orbit due to a launch vehicle failure.

DODGE American gravity gradient technology satellite. The Navy's 195 kg DODGE (Department Of Defense Gravity Experiment) satellite had the primary mission to explore gravity gradient stabilization at near synchronous altitude. Experimental satellite built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for, USA. Launched 1967.

ATS-3 American communications technology satellite. ATS 3. The goals for ATS-3 included investigations of spin stabilization techniques and VHF and C-band communications experiments.

Canyon American military signals intelligence satellite. The first large US signals intelligence satellite. ELINT satellite built by Lockheed for NRO, USA. Launched 1968 - 1977.

ATS-4 American communications technology satellite. ATS 4. A launch vehicle failure stranded ATS-4 in a much lower than planned orbit, making the satellite nearly useless. Communication / Meteorology satellite built by Hughes for NASA, USA. Launched 1967 - 1969. Used the HS-306 bus.

Intelsat 3 American communications satellite. Intelsat 3 spacecraft were used to relay commercial global telecommunications including live TV. Built by TRW for Intelsat, International. Launched 1968 - 1970.

TACSAT American communications technology satellite. TACSAT was designed to experimentally test and develop tactical communications concepts for all US military services. Communication satellite built by Hughes for USAF, USA. Launched 1969. Used the HS-308 bus.

ATS-5 American communications technology satellite.

NATO 1 British military communications satellite. Military communications. Military communication satellite built by Philco Ford Space & Reentry Systems Division for NATO, USA. Launched 1970-1971. Used Skynet-1 Bus.

DSP American military early warning satellite. An evolving series of satellites built by the United States to detect intercontinental ballistic missiles on launch. Early Warning satellite built by TRW for USAF, USA. Launched 1970 - 1973.

Intelsat 4 American communications satellite. The Intelsat 4 series continued the growth of the Intelsat communications network. Built by Hughes for Intelsat, International. Launched 1971 - 1975. Used the HS-312 bus.

DSCS II American military communications satellite. DSCS provided secure voice and data communications for the US military. Satellite bus built by Northrop Grumman Space Technology, USA.

HS 333 American communications satellite. The satellites, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada.

Raduga First Soviet geosynchronous communications satellite. A single orbital group of two Radugas could handle all communications of the Russian eastern regions. Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1975 - 1999. Used KAUR-3 bus.

SMS American earth weather satellite. Synchronous Meteorological Satellite. Satellite bus built by Space Systems Loral (ex Ford), USA.

ATS-6 American communications technology satellite. ATS 6. In addition to its technology experiments, ATS-6 became the world's first educational satellite. Communication, Meteorology satellite built by Fairchild for NASA, USA. Launched 1974. Used ATS-6 Bus.

Symphonie French communications technology satellite. Experimental telecommunications satellite, constructed jointly by France and the Federal Republic of Germany. Communication satellite built by CIFAS/Aerospatiale consortium for CNES, DFVLR, France. Launched 1974 - 1975.

Spacebus 100 French communications satellite. 3-axis stabilized using bipropellant thrusters (750 kg propellant - unified with apogee insertion and maneuvering propulsion) and momentum wheels.

Intelsat 4A American communications satellite. Intelsat 4A satellites increased satellite capacity to 7250 voice circuits or 2 TV channels. Built by Hughes for Intelsat, International. Launched 1975 - 1978. Used the HS-353 bus.

Prognoz SPRN Russian military early warning satellite. Development began of the Soviet Union's Prognoz geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite in 1980.

GOES American earth weather satellite. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. Meteorology satellite built by Philco-Ford for NASA (SMS) / NOAA (GOES), USA. Launched 1974 - 1978.

AS 1000 American communications satellite.

CTS Canadian communications satellite. Canadian Telecommunications Satellite project. Only one spacecraft launched. Communication, Experimental satellite built by Canadian Communications Research Center (CRC) for NASA, CSA, Canada. Launched 1976.

Marisat American communications satellite. Maritime communications. Communication satellite built by Hughes for Marisat => Inmarsat, International. Launched 1976. Used the HS-356 bus.

NATO 3 British military communications satellite. Military communications. Military communication satellite built by Philco Ford Space & Reentry Systems Division for NATO, International. Launched 1976 - 1984. Used NATO-3 Bus.

Ekran Russian communications satellite. Ekran was the Soviet Union's first geosynchronous satellite. Communication, direct broadcasting satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1976 - 1988. Used KAUR-3 bus.

Himawari Japanese earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1977.07.14 (Himawari 1) to 1995.03.18 (Himawari 5). The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite series were spin-stabilized satellites.

Sirio Italian communications technology satellite. SIRIO was a spin stabilized geostationary experimental communications satellite with a nominal life of two years. Communication satellite built by Compagnia Nazionale Satelliti per Telecommunicaziono SpA, Italy. Launched 1977 - 1982.

ECS/OTS European communications satellite.

Meteosat European earth weather satellite. Meteorology satellite built by Aerospatiale for ESA => EUMETSAT, Europe. Launched 1977 - 1997.

CS-1 Japanese communications satellite. Sakura. This Medium-capacity Communications Satellite for Experimental Purposes was a spin stabilized geostationary communications satellite. Communication satellite built by NASDA, later TSCJ for Mitsubishi Electric (MELCO) (prime); Ford Aerospace (bus), Japan. Launched 1977.

IUE American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. Astronomy (UV) satellite built by NASA GSFC for NASA / ESA, USA. Launched 1978.

FLTSATCOM American military communications satellite. Communication satellite built by TRW for US Navy, USA. Launched 1978 - 1981.

Yuri Japanese communications technology satellite. Medium-scale broadcasting satellite for experimental purposes.

OTS European communications technology satellite. Study 1978. Communications experiments satellite of the European Space Agency.

Chalet American military signals intelligence satellite. Geosynchronous orbit signals intelligence satellite series that replaced Canyon. Also called Program 366 and Vortex. ELINT satellite built by E-Systems for NRO, USA. Launched 1978 - 1989.

Anik satellite Canadian communications satellite. Function - telecommunications. Operating entity - Telesat Canada. Communication satellite built by RCA Astro for Telesat Canada, Canada. Launched 1978. Used the AS-3000 bus.

Gorizont Russian communications satellite. Gorizont-1 was designed specifically to support broadcast of the 1980 Olympic Games from Russia. Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) for RSCC (Kosmicheskiya Svyaz), Russia. Launched 1978 - 2000. Used KAUR-3 bus.

Ayame Japanese communications technology satellite. Experimental Communications Satellite (ECS). Communications and propagation experiments of satellite-communication systems.

HS 376 American communications satellite. Mass 654 kg at beginning-of-life in geosynchronous orbit. Spin stabilized at 50 rpm by 4 hydrazine thrusters with 136 kg propellant.

Intelsat 5 American communications satellite. The last five of the nine spacecraft in this block carry a maritime mobile payload (seven additional transponders) for lease by Inmarsat. Built by Ford Aerospace for Intelsat, International. Launched 1980 - 1984. Used Intelsat-5 bus.

Insat 1 Indian communications satellite. Experimental communications satellite. Communication / Meteorology satellite built by Ford Aerospace for Insat, India. Launched 1982 - 1990. Used Insat-1 Bus.

AS 3000 American communications satellite.

Estafeta Russian military communications satellite. Study 1982. Military nuclear powered communications satellite. Development approved by the Soviet VPK Military-Industrial Commission on 8 January 1982.

Potok Russian military communications satellite. Potok was one element of the second generation global command and control system (GKKRS) developed according to a decree of 17 February 1976. Military relay satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1982 - 2000.

DSCS III American military communications satellite. DSCS satellites provided secure voice and data communications for the US military.

CS-2 Japanese communications satellite. Business communications. Launching organization NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan). Communication satellite built by Mitsubishi Electric (MELCO) (prime); Ford Aerospace (bus) for NASDA, later TSCJ, Japan. Launched 1983.

TDRS American military communications satellite. Satellite communications network, for use by Shuttle and US military satellites. Communication satellite built by TRW for NASA, USA. Launched 1983 - 1993.

DFH-2 Chinese military communications satellite. The DFH-2 was a spin-stabilized, drum-shaped military communications satellite with a despun antenna, a diameter of 2.1 m, and a height of 3.1 m.

HS 381 American military communications satellite. The Leasat HS 381 series was developed as a commercial venture to provide dedicated communications services to the U. S. military.

Energia Geostationary Platform Russian earth land resources satellite. Study 1984. Energia could place observation platforms of 18 to 21 metric tons in geostationary orbit.

Energia Orbital Debris Remover Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. A 15 metric ton maneuverable satellite, consisting of an engine unit and a satellite collection mechanism, would maneuver at geosynchronous altitude in orbits with inclinations of between 0 and 14 degrees.

Globis Russian communications satellite. Studied 1984-1994. LOx/LH2 upper stages launched by Energia would put 21 metric ton communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit.

Magnum American military signals intelligence satellite. Shuttle-launched geostationary ELINT satellite model that replaced Rhyolite/Aquacade. ELINT satellite built by TRW for USAF, USA. Launched 1985 - 1989.

Intelsat 5A American communications satellite. The Intelsat 5A series was derived from the Intelsat 5. Communication satellite built by Ford Aerospace for Intelsat / New Skies (NSS) / Columbia, International. Launched 1985 - 1989. Used Intelsat-5 bus.

ASC Spacecraft bus used for commercial satellites and a British military communications satellite. Communication satellite built by RCA Astro => GE Astro for Contel => GTE, USA. Launched 1985 - 1991. Used the AS-3000 bus.

Luch Russian military communications satellite. Communication, data relay satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1985 - 1994. Used KAUR-4 bus.

AS 4000 American communications satellite. 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters.

Ekran-M Russian communications satellite. Ekran-M provided unique direct television broadcasting service to community users in the central Russian Federation region (Zone 3). Communication, direct broadcasting satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) for RSCC (Kosmicheskiya Svyaz), Russia. Launched 1987 - 2001. Used KAUR-3 bus.

Spacebus 300 French communications satellite. 3-axis stabilized using bipropellant thrusters (1220 kg propellant - unified with apogee insertion and maneuvering propulsion) and momentum wheels.

CS-3 Japanese communications satellite. To continue communications services provided by the communications satellite 2 (CS-2). To meet increasing and diversifying demands for communications. Communication satellite built by Mitsubishi Electric (MELCO), NEC, Ford Aerospace for NASDA, later TSCJ, Japan. Launched 1988.

Eurostar 2000 French communications satellite.

HS 393 American communications satellite. Domestic communication. Launching states: Japan, France, USA. At the time, these were the largest commercial spacecraft ever built.

FS-1300 American communications satellite bus. The 1300 was Space Systems/Loral's space-proven platform for a wide range of services, although its primary use was for geosynchronous communications satellites. From its first flight in 1989, it underwent constant evolutionary development to deliver greater power, communications capability, and longer useful life. Sales continued brisk well into the 21st Century.

Raduga-1 Russian communications satellite. The Raduga-1 geosynchronous communications satellite was to have been the basis for the YeSSS-2 second generation Unified Satellite Communication System. Military Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1989 - 2009. Used KAUR-3 bus.

Olympus European communications technology satellite. This communications technology demonstration satellite tested direct television broadcast beams and was also equipped with conventional communications transponders. Communication, experimental satellite built by British Aerospace BAe (prime); Alenia Spazio, Marconi Space and Alcatel-Bell (payloads) for ESA, International. Launched 1989. Used L-Sat Bus.

Hipparcos European visible astronomy satellite. Scientific satellite for astrometry. Didn't reach GEO due to AKM failure; measured star positions. Frequency plan 2054.25 /2241 MHz. Launch time 2325:53 UT. Designator ESA/89/03. Astrometry satellite built by Matra Marconi Space (satellite prime, payload), Alenia Spazio (co-prime: spacecraft procurement) for ESA, Europe. Launched 1989.

HS 601 American communications satellite bus. 3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimbaled momentum bias wheels.

SECS/OTS British military communications satellite. Study 1990. United Kingdom military communications satellite; 1 deg W. Owner/operator: UK Ministry of Defense. Expected operational life 10 years.

Eurostar 1000 French communications satellite. The Eurostar 1000 platform was the first generation of Matra Marconi Space GEO satellite platforms serving mainly commercial telecoms applications.

SovCanStar Russian communications satellite. Study 1990. One of the early Russian-Western satellite programs was SovCanStar, a 1990 joint venture with Canada.

Italsat Italian communications satellite.talian communications satellite.

AS 5000 American communications satellite. 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 20 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters.

Zerkalo Russian communications satellite. In 1991 Lavochkin NPO teamed up with NOOS Space Technologies Ltd. Of Moscow to develop the Zerkalo spacecraft and telecommunications system.

Insat 2 Indian communications satellite. Communication / Meteorology satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 1992 - 1993. Used the Insat-2/-3 Bus bus.

Forpost Russian military communications satellite. Study 1992. Communications satellite - Soviet Ministry of Defense. No other details available.

ACTS American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.09.12. NASA experimental communications; Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Communication satellite built by RCA Astro => GE Astro => Martin Marietta for NASA, USA. Launched 1993. Used the AS-4000 bus.

AS 7000 American communications satellite. 3-axis stabilized. Two large solar panels with 1-axis articulation.

Gals Russian communications satellite. Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation. Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1994 - 1995.

Spacebus 2000 French communications satellite.

VEP Japanese technology satellite. Monitored H-2 launch vehicle performance. National name MYOJO. Technology satellite for NASDA, Japan. Launched 1994.

Milstar American military communications satellite. Milstar was a series of advanced US military communications satellites designed to provide global jam-resistant communications for military users.

DFH-3 Chinese satellite bus used for geosynchronous communications and navigation satellites and deep space probes. Total mass, payload mass, and payload power improved through three versions from 2320 kg to 3800 kg; 230 kg to 450 kg; and 1000 W to 4000 W.

GOES-Next American earth weather satellite. Geostationary Environmental Satellite. Meteorology satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for NOAA, USA. Launched 1994 - 2001. Used the SSL-1300 bus.

HS 376W American communications satellite. Based on Hughes HS-376, single antenna on despun platform, spin stabilized, hydrazine thrusters, body mounted solar cells provide 982 W BOL.

Mercury ELINT American electronic intelligence satellite. Class of heavy signals intelligence satellites introduced at the end of the 1990's.

Ekspress Russian communications satellite. The Ekspress series communications satellite closely resembled the Gals spacecraft and shared a similar spacecraft bus. Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) for RSCC (Kosmicheskiya Svyaz), Russia. Launched 1994 - 1996.

Elektro Russian earth weather satellite. Elektro was to be the geostationary component of a third generation Soviet meteorological system. Following extended development, it flew only once, in 1994. Meteorology satellite built by NPP VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 1994.

Geostar-MSS Russian communications satellite. Study 1994. The Lavochkin Geostar-MSS communications system was designed in association with Moscow NII Radio-communications.

Advanced Orion American military signals intelligence satellite. Highly classified.

Gelikon Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. An early Applied Mechanics NPO plan to replace Gorizont and Ekran spacecraft revolved around the Gelikon project.

Signal Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. The RKK Energia and Polyot PO teamed up with other industries to propose the Signal constellation of low earth orbit communications satellites.

AMOS Israeli communications satellite. 7 Ku-band transponders. Israeli indigenous communications satellite program.

Spacebus 3000 French communications satellite bus.

AS 2100 American communications satellite. Cost per satellite $100 million for the spacecraft including ground support equipment, but not including launch costs. 3-axis stabilized.

Arkos Russian communications satellite. Study 1996. Applied Mechanics' Arkos satellite was to have served as the geosynchronous anchor of the Marathon telecommunications network, while the highly elliptical Mayak spacecraft completed the system.

FY-2 Chinese earth weather satellite. The Feng Yun 2 spin-stabilized geosynchronous meteorological spacecraft was slightly more massive than China's DFH-2 communications satellite. Meteorology satellite operated by National Satellite Meteorological Centre, China. Launched 1997 - 2014.

Falcon Gold American navigation technology satellite. US Air Force Academy experiment to demonstrate use of GPS navigation in geosynchronous orbit.

Kupon Russian military communications satellite. Kupon was originally developed by Lavochkin for the third generation GKKRS (Global Space Command and Communications System). Other satellites in the network included Potok and Geizer. Communication satellite built by Lavochkin (prime), NPO Elas (transponders) for Central Bank of the Russian Federation, Russia. Launched 1997. Used US-KMO-Bus.

Star bus American communications satellite bus. The Orbital Star bus was designed for reliable and robust performance in a variety of LEO and GEO missions.

Yamal Russian communications satellite. The Yamal communications satellite bus was developed by RKK Energia for Gazprom. Communication satellite built by RKK Energiya for Gazkom > Gazprom Space Systems, Russia. Launched 1999. Used the USP Bus bus.

LMI Russian communications satellite. Lockheed Martin Intersputnik's LMI-1 satellite was a joint Russian-American venture. LMI-1 provided communications services to Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin for Lockheed Martin Intersputnik (LMI) > Asia Broadcast Satellite (ABS), Russia. Launched 1999. Used the A2100AX bus.

HS 702 American communications satellite bus. In October 1995 Hughes Space and Communications Company announced a new communications satellite bus, the HS 702, evolved from the HS 601 and HS 601HP (high-power). The HS 702 could carry up to 118 high-power transponders, of which 94 were active and 24 were spares, and deliver any communications frequencies that customers requested. The company was later acquired by Boeing, which redesignated the bus BSS 702.

Insat 3 Indian communications satellite bus. The multipurpose satellite design provided telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological and search and rescue services. Communication, Meteorology satellite built by ISRO for Insat, India. Launched 2003. Used the Insat-2/-3 Bus bus.

Beidou Chinese navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 2000.10.30. Beidou ('Big Dipper') was the satellite component of an independent Chinese satellite navigation and positioning system.

GSat Indian communications satellite bus. First launch 2001.04.18.

Eurostar 3000 French communications satellite bus. Operational. Third generation of Matra Marconi Space GEO satellite platforms serving mainly commercial telecommunications applications.

Yakhta Russian communications satellite. RKK Energia-developed communications satellite, believed to be a larger development of the Yamal. Satellite bus built by Khrunichev Space Center, Russia.

Mitex American military anti-satellite system. 3 launched, 2006.06.21 (USA 187) to (USA 189). Technology satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corp. (OSC) for DARPA, USA. Launched 2006. Used the Aquila-Bus bus.

DFH-4 Large Chinese communications satellite bus using a blend of Chinese and subcontracted European technologies. The DFH-4 was 3-axis stabilized and designed for use in high capacity communications and broadcasting, direct broadcasting, and regional mobile communications satellites.Payloads of up to 600 kg requiring 8,000 W power could be accomodated in the initial version; the DFH-4E enhanced version increased this to 1,000 kg / 10,000 W and introduced electric propulsion. The DFH-4S could accommodate smaller requirements with 450 kg /4000 W requirements.

20.20 comsat American Loral communications satellite. Design of 2008, provided greater digital communications capacity by integrating next-generation technologies with the proven reliability of traditional concepts and products of the FS 1300 series.

Zohreh Iranian communications satellite. In development, 2008. Iranian geosynchronous communications satellite that was to be built with Russian assistance, containing an Alcatel communications payload.



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