Encyclopedia Astronautica
Home - Search - Browse - Alphabetic Index: 0- 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9
A- B- C- D- E- F- G- H- I- J- K- L- M- N- O- P- Q- R- S- T- U- V- W- X- Y- Z

Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: R

r - Alternate designation for Space Data LCLV.
R - Alternate designation for Raketoplan manned spaceplane.
R- - Rocket (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
R.04 - Alternate designation for SEPR 43.
R.04 - French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Wasserfall. Status: Cancelled 1950.
R/V - Abbreviation for Re-entry vehicle
R-1 - Alternate designation for R-1 stage.
R-1 - Russian short range ballistic missile. Stalin did not decide to proceed with Soviet production of this copy of the German V-2 until 1948. Despite the threatening supervision of the program by Stalin's secret police chief, Beria, and the assistance of German rocket engineers, it took eight years for the German technology to be absorbed and the missile to be put into service. It was almost immediately superseded by later designs, but the effort laid the groundwork for the Soviet rocket industry. Surplus R-1's were converted to use as a sounding rockets for military and scientific research missions. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1948-09-17. Last Launch: 1959-11-09. Number: 88 . Gross mass: 13,248 kg (29,206 lb). Payload: 547 kg (1,205 lb). Thrust: 271.50 kN (61,036 lbf).
R-1 - Alternate designation for GIRD-09.
R-1 8A11 - Russian short range ballistic missile. Initial production version. Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1952-08-20. Last Launch: 1957-06-01. Number: 85 . Gross mass: 13,400 kg (29,500 lb).
R-1 stage - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Payload 815 / 483 kg. Range 270 km. Maximum altitude 77 km. Time of flight 5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1465 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally. Status: Retired 1964. Gross mass: 12,630 kg (27,840 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,066 kg (8,963 lb). Thrust: 307.09 kN (69,035 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
R-10 - Alternate designation for G-1.
R-10 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Glushko booster - 1500t, Korolev I evo delo p. 307 Status: Design 1960.
R-10 - Alternate designation for G-4. Status: Design 1960.
R-101 - Post-war Russian version of German Wasserfall surface-to-air missile. Never put into production, but technology used for further surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missile developments in Russia. Status: Cancelled 1951. Gross mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Payload: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 78.40 kN (17,625 lbf).
R-101B.36000-0 - Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Single chamber engine designed for use in the R-101B and R-108 (derivative of German Wasserfall). Status: Developed 1950-51. Date: July 1950. Thrust: 83.30 kN (18,727 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
R-102 - Post-war Russian version of German Schmetterling surface-to-air missile. 16 test flights made at Kapustin Yar between 18 October and 19 December 1949. Not put into production, cancelled in favor of the R-112. Status: Cancelled 1950. Gross mass: 460 kg (1,010 lb). Payload: 41 kg (90 lb). Thrust: 17.16 kN (3,858 lbf).
R-103 - Post-war Russian version of German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1947-1951 but abandoned in favor of the R-110. Status: Cancelled 1952. Gross mass: 24 kg (53 lb). Payload: 1.05 kg (2.31 lb). Thrust: 7.72 kN (1,735 lbf).
R-103A - Russian surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 31 kg (68 lb). Payload: 1.05 kg (2.31 lb). Thrust: 7.72 kN (1,735 lbf).
R-108 - All-Russian second generation version of the R-101, itself a derivative of the German Wasserfall. Development began in May 1949 but the missile did not reach flight test stage before its cancellation in 1951. Status: Cancelled 1951.
R-109 - Russian derivative of the German Wasserfall, an interim design between the R-101 and R-108. The missile did not reach flight test stage before it was cancellation in 1951. Status: Cancelled 1951.
R-11 - Alternate designation for R-11 stage.
R-11 - First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants, developed from the German Wasserfall SAM by Korolev's OKB. The design was then spun off to the Makeyev OKB for development of Army (R-17 Scud) and SLBM (R-11FMA) derivatives. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1953-04-18. Last Launch: 1965-05-18. Number: 105 . Gross mass: 5,337 kg (11,766 lb). Payload: 699 kg (1,541 lb). Thrust: 101.00 kN (22,705 lbf).
R-11 stage - Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants. Enlargement/elaboration of German Wasserfall SAM. Developed by Korolev OKB, then Makeyev OKB spun off to develop Army and SLBM derivatives. Range 270 km with 690 kg, accuracy 1.5 km/0.75 km. Maximum altitude 78 km. Time of flight 5.4 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1430 m/s. Source: Wall chart, Russian Space Agency HQ, Moscow. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 4,660 kg (10,270 lb). Unfuelled mass: 955 kg (2,105 lb). Thrust: 93.28 kN (20,970 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
R-110 - Alternate designation for Chirok.
R-110 - Larger caliber Russian version of the German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1948-1956 and reached the initial production stage, but cancelled due to the inability to produce an economical rocket with the necessary consistent range accuracy for the barrage role. Status: Cancelled 1957. Gross mass: 47 kg (103 lb). Payload: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Thrust: 10.67 kN (2,398 lbf).
R-112 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Soviet surface-to-air missile design of 1948-1951. Propulsion and guidance based on that of the R-102 (copy of German Schmetterling) but with new aerodynamics. Cancelled without ever flying in 1951 when decision was made to proceed with a new generation of SAM designs. Status: Cancelled 1951. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
R-117 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Soviet surface-to-air missile design of 1948-1950. Developed in competition with the R-112 (derived from the German Schmetterling) but with new aerodynamics. Cancelled without ever flying in 1950 in favor of further development of the R-112. Status: Cancelled 1950. Gross mass: 1,220 kg (2,680 lb). Thrust: 117.00 kN (26,302 lbf).
R-11A - Russian suborbital launch vehicle. Version of the R-11 'Scud' missile used as a sounding rocket. First launched in 1957, and capable of taking 250 to 400 kg of payload to 100 to 160 km altitude. The payloads were enclosed in a spherical re-entry capsule, which was gyro-stabilized to ensure instruments could be pointed precisely at the sun or other astronomical target. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1958-10-04. Last Launch: 1963-01-27. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 4,600 kg (10,100 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf).
R-11A-MV - Russian suborbital launch vehicle. Sounding rocket version of R-11 with increased payload. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1962-01-01. Last Launch: 1962-01-01. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf).
R-11FM - Alternate designation for R-11FM stage.
R-11FM - First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Following protracted testing the design was accepted by the military in 1959 but never put into operational service. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1954-09-26. Last Launch: 1960-09-10. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 4,473 kg (9,861 lb). Thrust: 80.90 kN (18,187 lbf).
R-11FM stage - Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Range 150 km with 967 kg warhead. Accuracy 1.5 km in range, 0.75 km lateral. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 4,473 kg (9,861 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb). Thrust: 92.83 kN (20,869 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
R-11M - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Improved production version of R-11, not retired until 1977. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1955-12-30. Last Launch: 1959-12-27. Number: 92 . Gross mass: 5,846 kg (12,888 lb). Payload: 984 kg (2,169 lb). Thrust: 130.40 kN (29,315 lbf).
R-12 - Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-12 was the first operationally effective intermediate range ballistic missile, the first Soviet missile deployed with a thermonuclear warhead, and the first mass-produced missile in history. 2,300 of the storable propellant rockets were built and deployed in both mobile and silo-based versions for thirty years, from March 1959 to June 1989. It was a primary element in the Soviet deterrent threatening Western Europe and China throughout the Cold War. Deployment of R-12's to Cuba in 1962 precipitated the Cuba Missile Crisis. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1957-06-22. Last Launch: 1965-05-12. Number: 377 . Gross mass: 34,610 kg (76,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,810 kg (10,600 lb). Payload: 390 kg (850 lb). Thrust: 625.52 kN (140,622 lbf).
R-12 - Alternate designation for G-2.
R-12U - Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. Universal version of the R-12U, for pad-launch or from the 'Dvina' silo complex. Gross mass: 41,750 kg (92,040 lb). Payload: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Thrust: 637.00 kN (143,203 lbf).
R-13 - Alternate designation for R-13 engine.
R-13 - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Developed from 1956-1960. First nuclear-armed SLBM. Status: Cancelled 1969. First Launch: 1959-06-01. Last Launch: 1965-05-31. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 30,800 kg (67,900 lb). Payload: 910 kg (2,000 lb).
R-13 - Alternate designation for G-3.
R-13 engine - Dushkin Nitric acid/Solid hybrid rocket engine. Out of Production. Developed in the late 1950s by OKB Dushkin. It was a combined (powder+liquid) engine, characterized by a new technical approach conceived by Dushkin in the prewar design of the KRD-604. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1946-. Number: 1 . Propellants: Nitric acid/Solid.
R-14 - Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-14, with a range of 3600 km, was the only missile of that range class to be fielded. A key element in the Cuba missile crisis, it thereafter was part of the nuclear deterrent targeted at NATO and China. Built in relatively limited numbers by Soviet standards, it was perhaps more important as the basis for the first stage of the R-16 ICBM and the Kosmos-3 launch vehicle. The latter continued in use into the 21st Century. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1960-06-06. Last Launch: 1965-03-22. Number: 80 . Gross mass: 86,300 kg (190,200 lb). Payload: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Thrust: 1,480.00 kN (332,710 lbf).
R-14 - Alternate designation for G-4.
R-14U - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Universal version, for pad-launch or from silo complex 'Chusovaya'. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1962-01-11. Last Launch: 1969-07-18. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 86,400 kg (190,400 lb). Thrust: 1,480.00 kN (332,710 lbf).
R-15 - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Yuzhnoye 1000-km range submarine-launched ballistic missile. According to Przybilski, it was related to the light ICBM later designated R-26/8K66. Status: Cancelled 1957.
R-16 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants. Development began in 1956 and the missile was in service from 1962 to 1974. Peak deployment consisted of 186 launchers, about a third of them in missile silos, the rest in fixed 'soft' installations. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1960-10-24. Last Launch: 1961-12-02. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 140,600 kg (309,900 lb). Payload: 1,475 kg (3,251 lb). Thrust: 2,221.30 kN (499,368 lbf).
R-16-1 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Range 12,000 km. TsNIIMash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMash. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 110,000 kg (240,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 2,609.50 kN (586,639 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
R-16-2 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Range 12,000 km. TsNIIMash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMash. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 882.10 kN (198,304 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
R-16U - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Standardized version of R-16, for either pad or silo launch. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1961-10-09. Last Launch: 1976-01-01. Number: 361 . Gross mass: 146,600 kg (323,100 lb). Thrust: 2,610.00 kN (586,750 lbf).
R-17 - Alternate designation for R-17 stage.
R-17 - Russian short-range ballistic missile. The final refinement of the R-11 design, the R-17, was exported widely and became infamous around the world by its ASCC reporting name - "Scud". It was perhaps the most famous ballistic missile of the post-war period due to its use in the Iran-Iraq 'War of the Cities' and the Gulf War. This was the definitive production version of what was essentially a storable-propellant rocket with the performance of the V-2. The original design was by Makeyev but the missile itself was produced by the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant. Status: Active. First Launch: 1959-12-12. Last Launch: 1990-12-26. Number: 179 . Gross mass: 6,350 kg (13,990 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 81.30 kN (18,277 lbf).
R-17 stage - Russian nitric acid/kerosene propellant tactical missile. The final refinement of the R-11 design, the R-17, was exported widely and became infamous around the world by its ASCC reporting name - "Scud". It was perhaps the most famous ballistic missile of the post-war period due to its use in the Iran-Iraq 'War of the Cities' and the Gulf War. This was the definitive production version of what was essentially a storable-propellant rocket with the performance of the V-2. Copies and developments of the R-17 were undertaken in North Korea, Iraq, Syria, and Egypt. Using the calculations of Gerald Bull, R-17's were stretched and clustered as basis of the Tamouz Iraqi ICBM/satellite launch vehicle. Status: Active. Gross mass: 5,385 kg (11,871 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,645 kg (3,626 lb). Thrust: 93.10 kN (20,930 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
R-17VTO - Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1977-11-01. Last Launch: 1989-09-01. Number: 13 .
R-1A - Russian short range ballistic test vehicle. Experimental missile for testing warhead separation. Status: Retired 1949. First Launch: 1949-05-07. Last Launch: 1949-05-28. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 13,400 kg (29,500 lb).
R-1B - Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1B version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including study of cosmic rays; properties of the atmosphere; solar spectra; effects if zero-G and radiation on animals; and development of recovery of the entire missile using parachutes in order to reuse it for further experimental launches. Status: Retired 1951. First Launch: 1951-07-29. Last Launch: 1951-09-03. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 13,400 kg (29,500 lb).
R-1D - Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1B version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including winds aloft, the ionosphere, and effects of spaceflight and recovery of living animals. Status: Retired 1954. First Launch: 1954-06-26. Last Launch: 1954-07-07. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 13,400 kg (29,500 lb).
R-1E - Alternate designation for R-1E engine.
R-1E - Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1E version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including winds aloft, air composition, solar radiation, the ionosphere, ozone layer characteristics, and effects of spaceflight and recovery of living animals. Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1955-01-25. Last Launch: 1956-05-31. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 13,400 kg (29,500 lb).
R-1E (A-1) - Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1956-06-07. Last Launch: 1956-06-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 13,400 kg (29,500 lb).
R-1E engine - Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production from 1981. Thruster developed as the Space Shuttle Orbiter's vernier attitude control and orbit adjust thruster. There were six employed in conjunction with the 38 R-40 thrusters. Status: In Production. Number: 1 . Unfuelled mass: 3.70 kg (8.10 lb). Thrust: 110 N (20 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
R-1UK - Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1956-05-08. Last Launch: 1956-06-21. Number: 10 .
R-1V - Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1V version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including study of cosmic rays; properties of the atmosphere; solar spectra; effects if zero-G and radiation on animals; and development of recovery of the entire missile using parachutes in order to reuse it for further experimental launches. Status: Retired 1951. First Launch: 1951-07-22. Last Launch: 1951-08-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 13,400 kg (29,500 lb). Thrust: 267.00 kN (60,023 lbf).
R-2 - Alternate designation for R-2 stage.
R-2 - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The Soviet R-2 ballistic missile was developed in 1947-1953, nearly in parallel with the R-1 from which it derived. It incorporated many detailed improvements, had double the range of the R-1 and V-2, and was equipped with a deadly radiological warhead. The ethyl alcohol used in the V-2 and R-1 was replaced by methyl alcohol in the R-2, eliminating the problem of the launch troops drinking up the rocket fuel. Versions of the R-2 for suborbital manned flight were studied by Korolev in 1956-1958, but it was decided instead to move directly to orbital flights of the Vostok. However some equipment tested on the R-2 found its way onto canine flights of Sputnik and Vostok. The R-2 design was transferred to China in 1957 to 1961, providing the technical basis of the Chinese rocket industry. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1950-10-01. Last Launch: 1961-09-01. Number: 216 . Gross mass: 20,091 kg (44,293 lb). Payload: 570 kg (1,250 lb). Thrust: 364.90 kN (82,033 lbf).
R-2 stage - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Payload 1350 / 508 kg. Range 550 km. Maximum altitude 171 km. Time of flight 7.5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 2175 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally. Status: Retired 1962. Gross mass: 19,632 kg (43,281 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,592 kg (10,123 lb). Thrust: 404.11 kN (90,848 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
R-20 - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Glushko booster - 2000t, Korolev I evo delo p. 307 Status: Design 1960.
R-200 - Dushkin rocket engine. Out of Production. Thrust variable 0.8 metric tons -1.0 metric tons. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 9.80 kN (2,203 lbf).
R-21 - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1962. NATO code Serb may apply to SS-N-6 instead. First subsurface launched SLBM (development began at OKB- 586 and transferred to SKB-385). Status: Retired 1989. First Launch: 1960-05-01. Last Launch: 1967-01-01. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 17,700 kg (39,000 lb). Payload: 910 kg (2,000 lb).
R-21-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1989. Gross mass: 16,600 kg (36,500 lb). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-21A - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Version of R-21 SLBM on Yankee submarines. Gross mass: 14,300 kg (31,500 lb).
R-26 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Two stage light ICBM developed 1960-1962, but cancelled so that Yangel could concentrate his efforts on the R-36. After project cancellation, a mock-up of this missile was shown in Moscow parades and misidentified for years by Western analysts as the 'SS-8'. Status: Cancelled 1962. Gross mass: 85,500 kg (188,400 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 1,175.10 kN (264,173 lbf).
R-26-1 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Orevo has sectioned hardware. TsNIIMash has 1:10 structural simulation model. All figures accurate except empty mass estimated. Source: Placard, TsNIIMash, Orevo. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 60,300 kg (132,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 1,451.00 kN (326,197 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
R-26-2 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Orevo has sectioned hardware. TsNIIMash has 1:10 structural simulation model. All figures accurate except empty mass estimated. Source: Placard, TsNIIMash, Orevo. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 25,200 kg (55,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 428.06 kN (96,232 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
R-27 - Alternate designation for Scud D.
R-27 - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1967. Correct NATO code may be Serb; Sawfly was competitor. Development completed 1968. Status: Retired 1993. Gross mass: 14,394 kg (31,733 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
R-27-1 engine series -
R-27K - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight October 1972. Gross mass: 14,394 kg (31,733 lb). Payload: 650 kg (1,430 lb).
R-27U - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Development completed 1973. Gross mass: 14,394 kg (31,733 lb). Payload: 840 kg (1,850 lb).
R-29 - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First intercontinental submarine-launched ballistic missile (range 7800 km). First flight 1969. Development completed 1973. The variants of this missile were given three different DoD designations over the years (SS-N-8, SS-N-18, and SS-N-23). Status: Active. Gross mass: 32,800 kg (72,300 lb). Payload: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
R-29-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Thrust: 682.00 kN (153,319 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-29-2 engine series -
R-29-3 engine series -
R-29D - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1976. Development completed 1974 according to Makeyev. Gross mass: 33,300 kg (73,400 lb). Payload: 860 kg (1,890 lb).
R-29K - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1977. Gross mass: 34,388 kg (75,812 lb). Payload: 820 kg (1,800 lb).
R-29MU2 - Alternate designation for Sineva.
R-29R - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1975; Nov 1978 first sub launch. Developed 1973-1977. 3 MIRV Gross mass: 34,388 kg (75,812 lb). Payload: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).
R-29R-2S - Alternate designation for R-29R.
R-29RL - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1981. SLBM on Delta 2 subs. 7 MIRV Gross mass: 35,300 kg (77,800 lb). Payload: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).
R-29RM - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. SLBM on Delta 4 subs. First flight June 1983. Developed 1973-1986. Status: Active. Gross mass: 40,300 kg (88,800 lb). Payload: 1,810 kg (3,990 lb).
R-2A - Russian intermediate range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-2A was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 200 km, including properties of the atmosphere from 150-200 km; ultraviolet observations of the sun; recovery of animals from flights to 200 km altitude; and study of the ionosphere at altitudes of 150-200 km. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1957-04-12. Last Launch: 1962-05-21. Number: 35 . Gross mass: 20,300 kg (44,700 lb). Thrust: 363.00 kN (81,605 lbf).
R-2e - Russian intermediate range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-2E prototype tested technological innovations planned for the production R-2 missile. These included use of an integral fuel tank and a separable warhead. Status: Retired 1949. First Launch: 1949-09-25. Last Launch: 1949-10-11. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 20,300 kg (44,700 lb). Thrust: 363.00 kN (81,605 lbf).
R-2R - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1952. First Launch: 1952-10-15. Last Launch: 1952-10-27. Number: 5 .
R-3 - Korolev 3000 km range intermediate range ballistic missile. Developed April 1947 to 1949 before cancellation. Status: Cancelled 1949. Gross mass: 71,720 kg (158,110 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,480 kg (18,690 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 1,370.00 kN (307,980 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
R-3 - Alternate designation for D-2 engine LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
R-30 - Alternate designation for Bulava.
R-31 - Alternate designation for R-31 engine.
R-31 - Russian submarine launched ballistic missile. First Soviet submarine-launched ballistic missile to reach production using solid propellants. Deployed from 1980, but withdrawn in 1990 under the terms of the SALT-2 Treaty. Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1974-12-01. Last Launch: 1979-08-01. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 26,900 kg (59,300 lb). Payload: 465 kg (1,025 lb). Thrust: 580.00 kN (130,380 lbf).
R-31 engine - Lyulka turbojet engine. MiG-25. Out of Production. Used in MiG-25. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Status: Out of Production. Number: 1 . Thrust: 91.20 kN (20,503 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
R-31 RV Bus - Solid propellant rocket stage. Bus powered by four solid propellant motors mounted 90 degrees to each other, each 60 kg mass, 0.77 m long, 0.28 m diameter. Status: Retired 1990. Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
R-31 Stage 1 - Solid propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1990. Gross mass: 17,500 kg (38,500 lb). Thrust: 578.00 kN (129,939 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
R-31 Stage 2 - Solid propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1990. Gross mass: 6,900 kg (15,200 lb). Thrust: 233.30 kN (52,448 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
R-36 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. Status: Active. Gross mass: 183,890 kg (405,400 lb). Payload: 5,825 kg (12,841 lb). Thrust: 2,366.00 kN (531,897 lbf).
R-36 8K67 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial ICBM version. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1963-09-28. Last Launch: 1975-10-25. Number: 106 . Gross mass: 183,900 kg (405,400 lb).
R-36 8K67M - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1968-07-16. Last Launch: 1971-12-02. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 185,000 kg (407,000 lb).
R-36 8K67MA - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1972-04-12. Last Launch: 1975-02-28. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 185,000 kg (407,000 lb).
R-36 8K67P - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36P was a version of the R-36 which could deploy three separate (but not independently-targeted) warheads instead of one. The concept was to ensure a wider zone of destruction and overpressure then a single warhead detonation would create. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1968-08-23. Last Launch: 1970-10-23. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 183,000 kg (403,000 lb). Payload: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 2,366.30 kN (531,965 lbf).
R-36 8K67PM - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1973-04-08. Last Launch: 1973-12-21. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 183,900 kg (405,400 lb).
R-36-0-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 125,000 kg (275,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,500 kg (18,700 lb). Thrust: 2,640.00 kN (593,490 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-36-0-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 48,000 kg (105,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 955.99 kN (214,915 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-36-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Verniers 4 x RD-68M, 285 kN, maximum 42 degree gimbal angle. Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 122,300 kg (269,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,400 kg (14,100 lb). Thrust: 2,651.70 kN (596,126 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-36--1 - Alternate name for R-36-1.
R-36-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Verniers 4 x RD-69M, 54.3 kN, maximum 50 degree gimbal angle. Status: Retired 1975. Gross mass: 49,300 kg (108,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb). Thrust: 940.40 kN (211,410 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-36M - Alternate designation for R-36M 15A14.
R-36M - The super-heavy Ukrainian R-36M ICBM replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. The fall of the Soviet Union ended production and the need for replacement. Nevertheless they remained in Russian service into the 21st Century, some being modified for use as space launchers.
R-36M 15A14 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. Status: Active. First Launch: 1971-10-22. Last Launch: 1984-01-01. Number: 103 . Gross mass: 209,600 kg (462,000 lb). Payload: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Thrust: 4,500.00 kN (1,011,600 lbf).
R-36M St 1 - Alternate name for R-36M-1.
R-36M St 2 - Alternate name for R-36M-2.
R-36M-1 - N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 4522.00 kN (1,016,586 lbf) thrust. Mass 210,000 kg (462,971 lb). Status: Active. Gross mass: 210,000 kg (460,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Thrust: 4,522.00 kN (1,016,586 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-36M2 - Alternate designation for R-36M2 15A18M.
R-36M-2 - N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 760.00 kN (170,855 lbf) thrust. Mass 49,000 kg (108,027 lb). Status: Active. Gross mass: 49,000 kg (108,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 760.00 kN (170,850 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-36M2 15A18M - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M2 was the Soviet Union's answer to the American 'Star Wars' anti-ballistic missile system. It was unusually named 'Voevoda' (an old Russian word for the leader of an army) in recognition of its planned role. In the end, it was only deployed in very limited numbers before the end of the Cold War. Status: Active. First Launch: 1986-03-23. Last Launch: 2013-10-30. Number: 39 . Gross mass: 211,100 kg (465,300 lb). Payload: 8,800 kg (19,400 lb). Thrust: 4,452.00 kN (1,000,849 lbf).
R-36M2-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Surplus ICBMs; failures based on ICBM tests through 1994. Status: Active. Gross mass: 161,520 kg (356,090 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,620 kg (30,020 lb). Thrust: 4,523.00 kN (1,016,810 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-36M2-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Surplus ICBMs; failures based on ICBM tests through 1994. Status: Active. Gross mass: 41,114 kg (90,640 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,374 kg (9,643 lb). Thrust: 760.00 kN (170,850 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-36M2-3 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Main engine could be throttled to 800 kgf. Status: Active. Gross mass: 4,266 kg (9,404 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,356 kg (5,194 lb). Thrust: 18.60 kN (4,181 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-36MU 15A18 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the R-36M with a new ten warhead MIRV bus, better guidance system, increased throw-weight, and increased range. Status: Active. First Launch: 1977-10-31. Last Launch: 1997-04-17. Number: 62 . Gross mass: 211,100 kg (465,300 lb). Payload: 7,570 kg (16,680 lb).
R-36MUTTKh - Alternate designation for R-36MU 15A18.
R-36-O - Alternate designation for R-36O 8K69.
R-36O 8K69 - Ukrainian orbital missile. The R-36-O was the only orbiting military nuclear weapon ever deployed, although in order to remain legal under international treaties it was a 'fractional orbital' weapon. Although American infrared early warning satellites invalidated the 'surprise attack' component of the concept, 18 missiles were operational from 1969 to 1983. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1965-12-16. Last Launch: 1970-07-28. Number: 22 . Gross mass: 182,000 kg (401,000 lb). Payload: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Thrust: 2,366.00 kN (531,897 lbf).
R-36O 8K69M - Ukrainian orbital missile. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1970-09-25. Last Launch: 1971-08-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 180,000 kg (390,000 lb).
R-38 - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Small, economical ICBM studied by Yangel as an alternative to Chelomei's UR-100. Both one and two stage variants were considered. Work ended when Yangel was ordered to concentrate on R-36. Status: Study 1962.
R-39 - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First Russian solid-propellant submarine-launched ballistic missile. Deployed on six Typhoon subs, 1984-2004. Proposed as the basis for numerous satellite launchers. Status: Retired. Gross mass: 90,000 kg (198,000 lb). Payload: 2,550 kg (5,620 lb). Thrust: 2,060.00 kN (463,100 lbf).
R-39 St2 - Makeyev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-39 St3 - Makeyev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-39-1 - Alternate designation for R-39 St2.
R-39-1 - Alternate name for 15D305.
R-39-2 - Alternate designation for Grom-2.
R-39-3 - Alternate designation for R-39 St3.
R-39M - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Improved version with better accuracy, increased spread of independently-guided re-entry vehicles. Entered development 1985; tested in 1988; deployed from 1989.
R-39UTTKh - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile, developed for launch from new Borey-class submarines. Intended successor of the R-39. Cancelled in 1998, after three test launch failures, in favor of Bulava missile from Nadiradize design bureau. Date: 1997-1998. Gross mass: 34,000 kg (74,000 lb).
R-3A - Alternate designation for R-3A stage.
R-3A - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. So much new technology was involved for the R-3 that it was deemed necessary to build an R-3A intermediate experimental rocket, based on the R-2. This would be flown to test new construction methods, guidance systems, and high energy propellants. The R-3A was specified in 1949 to have a 900 to 1000 km range with a payload of 1530 kg; an unfueled mass of 4100 kg; 20,500 kg of propellants; and a lift-off thrust of 40 metric tons. The R-3A could also serve as a prototype for a more modest IRBM. Flight tests of the R-3A were scheduled for October 1951. Status: Cancelled 1951. Gross mass: 23,400 kg (51,500 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 400.00 kN (89,920 lbf).
R-3A stage - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Further incremental upgrade of R-2. Payload 500 kg. Range 935 km. Developed from 1949 to October 1951. Cancelled, work combined with 8K14 development. Status: Development ended 1951. Gross mass: 19,900 kg (43,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 434.40 kN (97,657 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
R-4 - Alternate designation for G-1.
R-40 engine series -
R-40A - Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Thruster developed for Shuttle Orbiter orbit control. The orbiter had 38 long scarf, short scarf, or no scarf configurations, depending on the location. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 10 kg (23 lb). Thrust: 3.87 kN (870 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
R-40B - Redmond N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 7.23 kg (15.93 lb). Thrust: 4.00 kN (899 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
R-42 - Redmond N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 4.53 kg (9.98 lb). Thrust: 890 N (200 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
R-46 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Super-heavy ICBM designed by Yangel in 1963-1966. The original R-56 super-booster concept consisted of clustered R-46's. Status: Study 1966.
R-4D - Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Developed as attitude control thruster for the Apollo Service and Lunar Modules in 1960s. In production for numerous satellites (Leasat, Insat, HS 393, Milstar, Intelsat 6, Italsat, Eurostar) for apogee / perigee maneuvers, orbit adjustment, and attitude control. Status: In production. Number: 20 . Unfuelled mass: 3.63 kg (8.00 lb). Thrust: 490 N (110 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
R-5 - Yangel intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-5 was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, the first for which the new southern facility at Dnepropetrovsk took over full design and production responsibility. It was also the end of the road in being the ultimate extrapolation of German V-2 technology. Later missiles of both Yangel and Korolev would use other propellants and engine designs. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1953-03-15. Last Launch: 1961-11-15. Number: 64 . Gross mass: 28,625 kg (63,107 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,625 kg (10,196 lb). Payload: 1,375 kg (3,031 lb). Thrust: 479.22 kN (107,733 lbf).
R-5 VAO - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments using the High-Altitude Automatic Geophysical Station nose cone originally flown on the R-11, equipped with a parachute recovery system. . Experiments carried in the gyro-stabilised payload included solar ultraviolet spectroscopes and x-ray pinhole cameras. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-09-26. Last Launch: 1965-10-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 24,400 kg (53,700 lb). Thrust: 430.00 kN (96,660 lbf).
R-500 - Russian surface-to-air missile. MiG design for an equivalent to the US Bomarc extremely long-range surface-to-air missile. Never got beyond the design stage. Status: Cancelled 1961.
R-56 - Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The R-56 was Yangel's ultimate superbooster design. Trade studies begun in 1962 resulted in a conventional tandem stage design capable of being transported on the Soviet canal system from the factory to the launch site, while still placing 40 metric tons into low earth orbit. However various Soviet government factions favored the much larger (and less practical) Korolev N1 or Chelomei UR-700 designs. Yangel made one last attempt to convince the government to sponsor a common approach to the lunar program, with different design bureaus concentrating on just one part of the mission, as the American's were doing. But his practical solutions obtained no traction, and further work on the R-56 was abandoned. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 1,421,000 kg (3,132,000 lb). Payload: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Thrust: 23,220.00 kN (5,220,060 lbf).
R-56 Block A - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 1,162,000 kg (2,561,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 162,000 kg (357,000 lb). Thrust: 1,608.00 kN (361,492 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-56 Block B - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 213,000 kg (469,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Thrust: 1,980.00 kN (445,120 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-56 Block K - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Empty mass estimated (rounded figures given in source material indicates impossible 9 metric tons gross with 8.7 metric tons propellant). Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 9,400 kg (20,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Thrust: 117.00 kN (26,302 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
R-56 Block O - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Empty mass estimated (rounded figures given in source material indicates impossible 31 metric tons gross with 30 metric tons propellant). Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 32,000 kg (70,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 544.20 kN (122,341 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-56 Blok A - Notional Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. R-56 Blok A. Notional engines for polyblock R-56, immense booster/ICBM; planned range 16,000 km. payload 35,000 kg. TsNIIMash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Date: 1961. Thrust: 4,412.00 kN (991,857 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
R-56 Blok B - Notional Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. R-56 Blok B. Notional engines for polyblock R-56, immense booster/ICBM; planned range 16,000 km. payload 35,000 kg. TsNIIMash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Date: 1961. Thrust: 784.00 kN (176,250 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
R-56 Polyblock - Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. One design approach considered for Yangel's R-56 superbooster of the 1960's was a polyblock design limited to rail transport restrictions (4 x 3.8 m diameter stages clustered together). Although a dynamic test model was built and tested at TsNIIMash, Yangel finally reached the conclusion that a monoblock design was clearly superior to polyblock versions. Further work on the polyblock design was abandoned. TsNIIMash exhibits in its small museum the 1:10 structural simulation model of the 3.8 m diameter polyblock design. Status: Study 1961. Gross mass: 1,165,500 kg (2,569,400 lb). Payload: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb). Thrust: 16,549.00 kN (3,720,363 lbf).
R-56 Polyblock ICBM - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. TsNIIMash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Three stage carrier rocket with consecutive first and parallel second stages. Range indicated on placard; possibly considered as monster ICBM in competition with UR-500. Work began in 1961. Gross mass: 1,197,000 kg (2,638,000 lb). Payload: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb).
R-56 Polyblock Stage A - Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Range 16,000 km. Payload 35,000 kg. TsNIIMash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Three stage carrier rocket with consecutively divided first and parallel divided second stages. Work began in 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMash. Gross mass: 222,000 kg (489,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Thrust: 4,410.00 kN (991,400 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
R-56 Polyblock Stage B - Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Gross mass: 55,500 kg (122,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 784.00 kN (176,250 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
R-5A - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments retaining the nose cone of the IRBM, but equipped with a parachute recovery system. Experiments carried included solar ultraviolet spectroscopes, mass spectrometers for atmospheric composition studies, and capsules carrying dogs for zero-gravity biologically research. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1958-02-21. Last Launch: 1965-05-26. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 24,400 kg (53,700 lb). Thrust: 430.00 kN (96,660 lbf).
R-5B - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1962-10-18. Last Launch: 1965-10-01. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 24,400 kg (53,700 lb). Thrust: 430.00 kN (96,660 lbf).
R-5M - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-5M was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, and the first to launch a live nuclear warhead in test. The technical characteristics were virtually the same as those of the R-5 basic model, except for an increase in the propellant load. 48 launchers were deployed from 1956 to 1968, tipped with nuclear warheads of 80 kiloton, 300 kiloton, or 1 megaton. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1955-01-20. Last Launch: 1961-10-06. Number: 126 . Gross mass: 28,610 kg (63,070 lb). Payload: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Thrust: 420.00 kN (94,410 lbf).
R-5V - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments under the Vertikal international program, equipped with a spherical re-entry capsule and a parachute recovery system. A wide range of international astrophysics and geophysics instruments were carried. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1959-06-21. Last Launch: 1983-10-20. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 24,400 kg (53,700 lb). Thrust: 430.00 kN (96,660 lbf).
R-6 - Alternate designation for G-2.
R6-117 - Chelomei N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. LK-1 Blok A. Developed 1964-66. Developed in cooperation with OKB-117 on the basis of the latter's main engine for the UR-100 stage II. Status: Developed 1964-66. Date: 1964-66. Thrust: 132.00 kN (29,674 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
R-65 - Russian tactical ballistic rocket.
R-6C - Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. In Production.Derivative of Advent communications satellite thruster for Insat 1, Arabasat 1, and Olympus and HS-393 satellites. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.66 kg (1.45 lb). Thrust: 33 N (7 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
R-7 - Alternate designation for Sputnik 8K71PS.
R-7 - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile and launch vehicle series. The world's first ICBM and first orbital launch vehicle. The original 8K71 version was never actually put into military service, being succeeded by the R-7A 8K74.

The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millennium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1957-05-15. Last Launch: 1960-06-04. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 279,100 kg (615,300 lb). Payload: 5,370 kg (11,830 lb). Thrust: 3,904.00 kN (877,654 lbf).


R-7 8K71-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 43,100 kg (95,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 970.00 kN (218,060 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
R-7 8K71-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 95,300 kg (210,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,500 kg (16,500 lb). Thrust: 912.00 kN (205,025 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
R-7 Block A stage series -
R-7 Block BVGD stage series -
R-7 Block I stage series -
R-70 - Standard Russian tactical artillery rocket. Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Payload: 450 kg (990 lb).
R-75 - Russian tactical ballistic rocket.
R-7A - Alternate designation for Molniya 8K78.
R-7A - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-7A was an improved version of the R-7 first ICBM, and the one actually deployed to pads in Baikonur and Plesetsk. The missile saw service from 1960 to 1968. Four pads at Plesetsk, and one reserve pad at Baikonur, were operational at the peak of deployment in 1962. These were the Soviet Union's only strategic missile deterrent during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1959-12-23. Last Launch: 1967-07-25. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 272,900 kg (601,600 lb). Payload: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb). Thrust: 3,996.85 kN (898,528 lbf).
R-7A 8K74-0 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1967. Gross mass: 42,800 kg (94,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Thrust: 995.30 kN (223,752 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
R-7A 8K74-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1967. Gross mass: 101,700 kg (224,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb). Thrust: 940.40 kN (211,410 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
R-7M - Alternate designation for Molniya 8K78L.
R-8 - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Glushko project 1956 for multistage 650t ICBM powered by LOx/UDMH. Status: Study 1956.
R-8 - Alternate designation for G-3. Status: Study 1956.
R-9 - Alternate designation for R-9A.
R-9 - Alternate designation for Romashka.
R-9 - ICBM developed by Korolev OKB using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. The Soviet military favored storable propellants as advocated by Glushko and implemented by Yangel and Chelomei. Development of the R-9 was protracted and it was deployed in only very limited numbers between 1964 and 1974.
R-9A - Alternate designation for Romashka.
R-9A - Alternate designation for Desna.
R-9A - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM developed by Korolev OKB using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. The Soviet military favored storable propellants as advocated by Glushko and implemented by Yangel and Chelomei. Development of the R-9 was protracted and it was deployed in only very limited numbers between 1964 and 1974. Status: Retired 1970's. First Launch: 1961-04-09. Last Launch: 1974-01-01. Number: 94 . Gross mass: 80,500 kg (177,400 lb). Payload: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 1,378.50 kN (309,899 lbf).
R-9A Stage 1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Payload 3,500 kg. Range 13,000 km. Accuracy (90%) 8 km in range and 5 km in dispersion with radio guidance; 20 km / 10 km with inertial guidance. Empty mass estimated. Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 61,600 kg (135,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 1,595.83 kN (358,757 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
R-9A Stage 2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Empty mass estimated. Developed into Molniya/Soyuz second stage. Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 15,900 kg (35,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 304.00 kN (68,341 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
R-9A-N - Alternate designation for Desna.
R-9M - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version with Kuznetsov engines in first and second stages. Development undertaken, but cancelled in favor of basic version with RD-111/RD-0106 engines.
RACE - French agency. RACE, France.
Rachuk - Russian engineer. From 1993 General Director and Chief Designer of KBKhA. Designer of liquid propellant rocket engines.
rad - Unit of absorbed dose of radiation equal to an energy of 100 ergs per gram of irradiated material
Radar Evaluation Pod - American logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1965.08.21, Gemini 5 REP. The Radar Evaluation Pod was a small reflecting target released from Gemini spacecraft to test the rendezvous radar. Status: Operational 1965. Gross mass: 34 kg (74 lb).
Radar-1 - Alternate name for JB-5.
Radar-2 - Alternate name for JB-7.
Radarsat - Canadian earth resources radar satellite. T Canada's Radarsat was a radar satellite featuring variable resolution, and different view angles at a number of preset positions. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-11-04. Last Launch: 2007-12-14. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,713 kg (5,981 lb).
Radcal - American military target satellite. Radar calibration. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-06-25. Last Launch: 1993-06-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 95 kg (209 lb).
RADCAT - American military technology satellite. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1972-10-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 208 kg (458 lb).
Radiance - French winged orbital launch vehicle. Two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing vehicle. Booster would be powered by scramjets to Mach 12 separation before second stage separated. Status: Study 1990.
Radiation Experiment - Alternate designation for REX earth ionosphere satellite.
Radiation Meteoroid - Alternate designation for RM earth micrometeoroid satellite.
Radio - Russian amateur radio communications satellite. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-10-26. Last Launch: 1994-12-26. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 72 kg (158 lb).
Radio Amateur Club de L'Espace - Alternate name for RACE.
Radio Astronomy Explorer - Alternate designation for RAE radio astronomy satellite.
Radio astronomy satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Radio Sputnik - Alternate name for Radio.
Radio Test Spacecraft - American tracking network technology satellite. Mercury-Scout 1. Small satellite was to have verified the readiness of the worldwide Mercury tracking network Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-11-01. Last Launch: 1961-11-01. Number: 1 .
Radiobook - Russian communications satellite. Study 1991. The Radiobook network would utilize from 24 to 36 micro-satellites (10 kg or less) in a packet radio network, which could be launched with small boosters, including air-launched missiles. Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb).
radiometer - An instrument for detecting and measuring radiant energy.
Radioplane - American manufacturer of rockets. Radioplane, USA.
Radioscaf - Used Orlan spacesuit equipped with a radio transmitter. Released during an ISS EVA and transmitted for two days in a separate orbit. The astronauts shoved it into space with the words "Goodbye, Mr Smith."
Radon (Radon ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 23.
Radon (Radon) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 23.
RADOSE - American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1963.06.15. Radiation dosimeter measurements. Status: Operational 1963. Gross mass: 25 kg (55 lb).
Radovskiy - Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of OKB-456. Specialized in rocket engines and succeeded Glushko 1989. Born: 1920-05-11.
Radsat - American military technology satellite. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-10-02. Last Launch: 1972-10-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 726 kg (1,600 lb).
Raduga - Alternate designation for Raduga Machine Design Bureau.
Raduga - First Soviet geosynchronous communications satellite. A single orbital group of two Radugas could handle all communications of the Russian eastern regions. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-03-26. Last Launch: 1999-07-05. Number: 36 . Gross mass: 1,954 kg (4,307 lb).
Raduga - Russian reentry capsule. See VBK Raduga
Raduga - Code name for DS-P1-Yu military target satellite.
Raduga Machine Design Bureau - Russian manufacturer.
Raduga-1 - Russian communications satellite. The Raduga-1 geosynchronous communications satellite was to have been the basis for the YeSSS-2 second generation Unified Satellite Communication System. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-06-21. Last Launch: 2013-11-11. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
RAE - Alternate designation for Royal Aerospace Establishment.
RAE - American radio astronomy satellite. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-07-04. Last Launch: 1973-06-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 190 kg (410 lb).
RAE Orbital Fighter - British winged orbital launch vehicle. The Royal Aircraft Establishment Orbital Fighter proposal of the 1960's envisioned a two-stage single-crew vehicle. Status: Design 1965.
RAE TSTO - British winged orbital launch vehicle. The Royal Aircraft Establishment Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) Concept of the 1960's consisted of a hypersonic air-breathing first stage and rocket powered second stage. Status: Design 1963.
RAF - American agency. Royal Air Force, USA.
RAF Driffield - At this location the 8th RAF Strategic Missile Squadron operated 15 Thor IRBM launchers from 22 December 1959 to April 1963. They were withdrawn as part of the secret agreement between Kennedy and Khrushchev ending the Cuban missile crisis, under which all Thor missiles were to be removed from Europe.
RAF Feltwell - At this location the 77th RAF Strategic Missile Squadron operated 15 Thor IRBM launchers from 15 June 22 1959 to 1 July 1963. They were withdrawn as part of the secret agreement between Kennedy and Khrushchev ending the Cuban missile crisis, under which all Thor missiles were to be removed from Europe.
RAF Hemswell - At this location the 7th RAF Strategic Missile Squadron operated 15 Thor IRBM launchers from 11 Sept. 1959 to 15 May 1963. They were withdrawn as part of the secret agreement between Kennedy and Khrushchev ending the Cuban missile crisis, under which all Thor missiles were to be removed from Europe.
RAF Jaguar - The Jaguar was designed by the RAE Supersonics Department as part of the HRV (Hypersonic Research Vehicle) program. This was a joint project with the Australian Weapons Research Establishment for testing of re-entry vehicles at high speeds. Regardless of the variant, the Rook first stage would propel the upper stages and subscale RV to a high altitude. The upper stages would then fire downward to push the RV into the atmosphere at speeds of up to 5 km/s. After the conclusion of the HRV project in April 1970, tests continued using the Jabiru 3 with other aerothermal experiments until November 1974. Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1960-01-01. Last Launch: 1961-01-01. Number: 2 .
RAF Jerkin System - British pressure suit, operational 1955. The RAF Jerkin System comprised a pressure vest used with a P/Q mask and anti-G suit. Several variations included unsleeved, sleeved and integrated garments proven for short term protection to 18 km. Status: operational 1955.
RAF North Luffenham - At this location the RAF No. 144 (Strategic Missile) Squadron operated 15 Thor IRBM launchers from 29 April 29 1960 to September 1963. The other units in the North Luffenham Thor complex were No. 218 (SM) Sqn at Harrington, Northamptonshire, No. 223 (SM) Sqn at Folkingham, Lincolnshire, No. 130 (SM) Sqn at Polebrook, Northamptonshire and No. 254 (SM) Sqn at Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire. They were withdrawn as part of the secret agreement between Kennedy and Khrushchev ending the Cuban missile crisis, under which all Thor missiles were to be removed from Europe.
Rafael - Israeli manufacturer. Rafael Armaments (IAI), Israel.
Rafikov - Tatar-Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1962. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1962. Born: 1933-09-29. Died: 2000-07-23.
Raijin - Microsatellite for Tohoku University mission for studies of lightning with visible and mid-IR imagers and a VLF receiver. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-05-24. Last Launch: 2014-05-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
RAIKO - Released from the J-SSOD Cubesat deployer outside the ISS Kibo module's equipment airlock by the JEM-RMS robot arm.
Railroad Valley Lake DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 2 launches in 1968, reaching up to 81 kilometers altitude.
Raimann - German expert in aircraft and rockets during World War II. Stayed in East Germany after the war.
Rainbow - Communications satellite for Cablevision. Used the AS 2100 bus.
RAKA - Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Rosaviakosmos), Moscow, Russia.
Rakentiye Voiska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniye - Alternate name for RVSN.
Raketenflugplatz - The world's first rocket port, an abandoned German Army storage facility in the northern suburbs of Berlin. First Launch: 1931-05-10. Last Launch: 1931-08-01. Number: 6 .
Raketoplan - Russian manned spaceplane family. Succeeding the VKA project, this was developed by Chelomei from 1959, including suborbital hardware tests, before cancellation in 1964. Succeeded by the Spiral program. Status: Cancelled 1964. Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
RAM - Alternate designation for RAM (abbreviation).
RAM - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1964. Payload: 99 kg (218 lb).
RAM (abbreviation) - Radio attenuation measurement (reentry communications blackout research); or Research and Applications Module (Spacelab forerunner)
RAM A - American test vehicle. Employed by NACA-Langley for accelerating aerodynamic models. Could lift 34 kg to 1271 km. 5 stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1961-08-30. Last Launch: 1962-02-21. Number: 2 .
RAM B - American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Alcor Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1962-09-21. Last Launch: 1964-04-10. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 235.00 kN (52,830 lbf).
Ramey - Ramey AFB. Sounding rocket launch site used in support of high-altitude monitoring after Project Argus nuclear tests. Six launches in 1958 reached up to 825 kilometers altitude. First Launch: 1958-08-20. Last Launch: 1958-09-02. Number: 6 .
Ramjet - Category of engines.
Ramon - Israeli pilot payload specialist astronaut 1997-2003. First Israeli astronaut. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. Status: Deceased; Active 1997-2003. Born: 1954-06-20. Died: 2003-02-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.93 days.
Rand - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Rand, Santa Monica, CA, USA.
Ranger - Ranger was originally to be a program of five unmanned lunar crasher spacecraft, intended to quickly obtain information on the lunar surface. The scientific objective would be to acquire and transmit a number of images of the lunar surface prior to impact, and to obtain data from a survivable package incorporating a lunar seismometer. The resulting spacecraft was much too ambitious for its period. After five consecutive failures, a simpler, picture-return-only spacecraft made three successful flights, returning the first close-up pictures of the lunar surface years behind schedule.
Ranger 1-2 - American lunar impact probe. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-08-23. Last Launch: 1961-11-18. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 305 kg (672 lb).
Ranger 3-4-5 - American lunar lander. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-01-26. Last Launch: 1962-10-18. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 331 kg (729 lb).
Ranger 6-7-8-9 - American lunar impact probe. After a series of failures with the more ambitious early Ranger spacecraft, the design was simplified and the lander was deleted. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-01-30. Last Launch: 1965-03-21. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 364 kg (802 lb).
RapidEye - RapidEye AG of Brandenberg launched a constellation of five environmental monitoring satellites in a single launch, each with a mass of 152 kg including 12 kg of propellant. The satellites had an optical resolution of 6 meters, and were designed to provide on-demand images for agricultural storm damage assessment and support of emergency services. The spacecraft used the SSTL-150 bus and were individually named Tachys, Mati, Choma, Choros, and Trochia.
RapidStar-1 - ?National Security satellite bus for use in ?LEO orbit and launch by ?Pegasus or Minotaur I. Lifetime ?1-5 years and delivery possible ?12-18 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 75W Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb).
RapidStar-2 - ?National Security satellite bus for use in ?LEO orbit and launch by ?Pegasus or Minotaur I, IV or C. Lifetime ?1-5 years and delivery possible ?16-36 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 750W Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Rapp - German manufacturer. Rapp, Germany.
Rarotonga - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1965-05-30. Last Launch: 1965-05-30. Number: 5 .
RAS - Abbreviation for Royal Astronomical Society
RASA - Second name of RAKA.
Rasad - Satellite with an imaging payload. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-06-15. Last Launch: 2011-06-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 15 kg (33 lb).
RASAT - Turkish Earth observation satellite with a Korean-built imager, built for TUBITAK, the Turkish science research council and UZAY, the Space Technology Research Insitute in Ankara. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-08-17. Last Launch: 2011-08-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 95 kg (209 lb).
RASC - Abbreviation for Royal Astronomical Society of Canada
Rascal - American air-to-surface missile, development started in 1946. Program cancelled in 1958. Project originated as Bell Aircraft Corp / AAF / Project MX-776. Requirement for a 160 km range air-launched guided missile was overcome by other technology during its protracted development. Status: Cancelled 1958. Gross mass: 8,250 kg (18,180 lb). Thrust: 52.90 kN (11,892 lbf).
Rascal SLV - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Expendable rocket air-launched from a supersonic aircraft with engines modified using a technology called Mass Injected Pre-Compressor Cooling (MIPCC), where a coolant such as water or liquid oxygen was added to the air at the engine inlet, allowing the engine to operate at higher altitudes than normally possible. Status: Cancelled 2005.
Rascom - Series of satellites to provide telecommunications, broadcasting and internet service to Africa for the Regional African Satellite Communications Organization using the Spacebus 4000 bus.
Rascom -
RascomStarQAF - RascomStarQAF, Mauritius.
Rashkov - Alternate designation for Rashkov bureau.
Rashkov - Soviet Engineer. Soviet rocket engineer.
Rashkov bureau - Russian manufacturer of missiles based on WWII Germand designs, Kaliningrad, Russia.
Raspletin - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1953-1967 of KB-1. Contributed to the RORSAT, EORSAT, and ASAT programs. Born: 1908-08-25. Died: 1967-01-01.
Rassvet - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-7.
raster - A geometric pattern followed by the sending element of a detector system or by the electron beam of a television transmitter or receiver.
rate gyro - A gyroscope with one free gimbal axis ( precession axis ) . Motion around this axis is constrained by a spring. The second gimbal axis is tied to the spacecraft. An angular motion of the spacecraft around this axis produces an angular excursion of the precession axis against the spring force; the angle of excursion is proportional to the rate of angular rotation in radians per second.
Ratler - American earth rover. Tested 1995. Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover demonstrated the use of existing technology for lunar exploration missions. Status: Tested 1995.
RATO - Alternate designation for JATO.
RATO - Abbreviation for Rocket-assisted takeoff
Ratsat - Payload for the first successful launch of low-cost Falcon launch vehicle. The second stage demonstrated restart. The payload was a dummy mass which remained attached to the stage. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-09-28. Last Launch: 2008-09-28. Number: 1 .
Rau - German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Raushenbakh - Russian engineer. Department Chief 1960-1973 of Korolev design bureau. Specialized in guidance systems. Born: 1915-01-18.
Raven - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle, flown by the Office of Naval Research from White Sands in 1963, apparently using the RPI Hopi motor. Status: Retired 1964. First Launch: 1963-01-01. Last Launch: 1964-01-01. Number: 25 . Thrust: 8.00 kN (1,798 lbf).
Raven 1 - RO solid rocket engine. Skylark 1 first stage. Status: Retired 1978. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 240 kg (520 lb). Thrust: 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Raven 11 - RO solid rocket engine. Skylark 12 second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 290 kg (630 lb). Thrust: 105.00 kN (23,604 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Raven 2 - RO solid rocket engine. Skylark 2 first stage. Status: Retired 1962. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 240 kg (520 lb). Thrust: 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Raven 5 - RO solid rocket engine. Skylark 5 first stage. Status: Retired 1970. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 240 kg (520 lb). Thrust: 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Raven 6 - RO solid rocket engine. Skylark 3 second stage. Status: Retired 1990. Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 242 kg (533 lb). Thrust: 52.50 kN (11,802 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Raven 7 - RO solid rocket engine. Skylark 7C second stage. Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 240 kg (520 lb). Thrust: 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Raven 8 - RO solid rocket engine. Skylark 4 second stage. Status: Retired 1989. Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 230 kg (500 lb). Thrust: 50.10 kN (11,263 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Raven satellite - First Launch: 1994-05-03. Last Launch: 2008-03-13. Number: 5 .
RAX - Radio Aurora Explorer, a National Science Foundation 3U Cubesat, built by the University of Michigan, to study the aurora by picking up ground-based radar signals.
Raynor - American engineer, at North American 1945-1963. Under his leadership the Apollo manned spacecraft was taken through the crucial first 18 months of design and development.
Raytheon - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Raytheon, USA.
Razaksat - Malaysian imaging satellite. Used Satrec bus.
RB-211-22B - Rolls Royce turbofan engine. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Used on L1011 launch aircraft for Pegasus, Pegasus XL. First flight 1990. Number: 117 . Unfuelled mass: 4,180 kg (9,210 lb). Thrust: 29.40 kN (6,609 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
RB545 - Rolls Royce air augmented rocket engine. Used Liquid Air/LOx/LH2. Development ended 1985. Used on HOTOL launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1985. Thrust: 367.70 kN (82,662 lbf). Propellants: Liquid Air/Lox/LH2.
RBCC - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Isp>400s. Rocket Based Combined-Cycle A5 Development Engine; integrated rocket, air-augmented rocket, ramjet, and scramjet propulsion elements into a single flow path. Date: 1999. Thrust: 111.16 kN (24,989 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RBSP - NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes deployed a series of booms include electric field antennae spanning 100 meters. The instruments studied energetic particles, thermal plasma, ionospheric composition and electromagnetic fields and waves. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-08-30. Last Launch: 2012-08-30. Number: 2 .
RBSS - American winged orbital launch vehicle. The Recoverable Booster Space System was a plan circulated in the early 1960's to use the XB-70 as a recoverable supersonic first stage for a range of systems. The XB-70 would be capable of orbiting a 6800 kg payload, or an X-20 manned space glider. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 230,000 kg (500,000 lb). Payload: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Thrust: 519.00 kN (116,675 lbf).
RBV - Abbreviation for Return-beam-vidicon camera
RC Artilery - Royal Canadian Artillery, Canada.
RCA - American manufacturer of spacecraft. RCA, USA.
RCA Alas - American agency. RCA Alas, USA.
RCA Amer - American agency. RCA America, USA.
RCA Astro Electronics (1958-1986) - First name of East Windsor.
RCA Astro Electronics (Astro Space) - Alternate name for RCA.
RCAF - Royal Canadian Air Force
RCI - Rodent Cage Interface (for SLS mission)
RCS - Abbreviation for Reaction Control System
RD- - Rocket engine (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
RD R-21 - SKB-385 N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD R-27 - Makeyev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD R-29 (1) - Makeyev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Thrust: 682.00 kN (153,319 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD R-29 (2) - Makeyev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD R-29R (1) - Makeyev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Thrust: 682.00 kN (153,319 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD R-29R (2) - Makeyev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD R-29RM (2) - Makeyev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD R-29RM (3) - Makeyev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD RT-1-3 - OKB-1 solid rocket engine. RT-1 third stage. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 240.00 kN (53,950 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RD RT-15-2 - OKB-1 solid rocket engine. RT-1 second stage. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 500.00 kN (112,400 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RD RT-21 (1) - MITT solid rocket engine. Temp-2S first stage. Status: Retired 1991. Gross mass: 26,600 kg (58,600 lb). Propellants: Solid.
RD RT-21-2 - MITT solid rocket engine. Pioner second stage. Status: Retired 1991. Gross mass: 8,700 kg (19,100 lb). Propellants: Solid.
RD RT-21-3 - MITT solid rocket engine. Temp-2S third stage. Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 8,700 kg (19,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 245.00 kN (55,078 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RD-0100 engine series -
RD-0101 - Kosberg LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. E-50A aircraft by Mikoyan. Out of Production. Chamber pressure 42,7 - 22,1 bar. Specific impulse 255 - 248,5 sec. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1954-58. Thrust: 39.20 kN (8,813 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
RD-0102 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Yak-27V aircraft by Yakovlev. Out of Production. Based on RD-0101. Two ignitions possible. Chamber pressure 41,2 - 16,4 bar. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1954-58. Thrust: 39.20 kN (8,813 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0103 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. T-3, P-1 aircraft by Sukhoi. Out of Production. Based on RD-0102. Chamber pressure 37.3 - 15.7 bar. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1957. Thrust: 34.60 kN (7,778 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0105 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Luna 8K72, Vostok 8K72 upper stage. Out of production. Developed jointly with OKB-1 in nine months on the basis of OKB-1's steering chamber from the RD-107 engine. First flight 1958. Status: Out of production. Date: 1957-59. Number: 13 . Unfuelled mass: 125 kg (275 lb). Thrust: 49.40 kN (11,106 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0106 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. R-9 stage 2. Gas generator cycle. First flight 1961. Date: 1959-62. Number: 69 . Thrust: 304.00 kN (68,341 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0107 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. R-9, Molniya 8K78, Voskhod 11A57 stage 3. Out of Production. Gas generator cycle. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1958-62. Unfuelled mass: 410 kg (900 lb). Thrust: 297.90 kN (66,971 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0108 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Voskhod 11A57, Molniya 8K78 stage 3. First flight 1960. Date: 1961-65. Number: 326 . Unfuelled mass: 410 kg (900 lb). Thrust: 297.90 kN (66,971 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0109 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. 8A92 Vostok stage 3, 8K72K stage 3 (block E-Vostok). Out of production. Developed in 15 months. First flight 1960. Status: Out of production. Date: 1959-60. Number: 154 . Unfuelled mass: 121 kg (266 lb). Thrust: 54.52 kN (12,257 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0110 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Soyuz 11A511, Molniya-M 8K78M. Precursor RD-0107 used in 11A57 Voskhod stage 2. Modified to increase reliability. First flight 1964. Date: 1964-69. Number: 1136 . Unfuelled mass: 408 kg (899 lb). Thrust: 297.90 kN (66,971 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0110MD - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. Developed 1994-on. Prototype engine for tests with propellants LOX/liquefied natural gas. Tests performed from 30 April 1998 on, test duration 20s. Status: Developed 1994-on. Date: 1994-. Thrust: 245.00 kN (55,078 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-012 - Alternate designation for RD-012U.
RD-0120 - Kosberg engine used in the Energia core stage. In 1987 it became the first operational Russian LOx/LH2 engine system, built to the same overall performance specifications as America's SSME, but using Russian technology. Status: Design 1987. Date: 1976-90. Number: 10 . Unfuelled mass: 3,450 kg (7,600 lb). Thrust: 1,961.00 kN (440,850 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-0120-CH - Kosberg LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of the RD-0120 engine using liquid methane instead of hydrogen as propellant. Status: Design concept 1990's. Unfuelled mass: 2,370 kg (5,220 lb). Thrust: 1,576.00 kN (354,298 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-0120M - Kosberg LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Energia-M core stage. Development ended 1993. From 1987 KBKhA worked on upgrading the 11D122 (RD-0120) engine for Energia-M launcher, including the possibility to throttle the engine down to 28% thrust. Status: Development ended 1993. Date: 1987-1991. Number: 8 . Unfuelled mass: 3,450 kg (7,600 lb). Thrust: 1,961.00 kN (440,850 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-0120M-CH - Kosberg LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of the RD-0120M engine using liquid methane instead of hydrogen as propellant. Status: Design concept 1990's. Unfuelled mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Thrust: 1,720.00 kN (386,670 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-0120TD - Kosberg tri-propellant (LOx/LH2/kerosene) rocket engine. Developed 1990's. 452s. Experimental version of the RD-0120 engine. Tested by supply of high-pressure kerosene from test bench or adapted existing kerosene pump for tests. Status: Developed 1990's. Thrust: 1,317.00 kN (296,073 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene/LH2, Lox/LH2.
RD-0122 - Kosberg LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Energia-M core stage. Planned for Angara central stage. Developed 1990-. Upgrade of RD-0120 engine for Energia-M launcher with increased thrust. Prototype from RD-0120 hardware. Status: Developed 1990-. Date: 1990-. Thrust: 2,313.00 kN (519,983 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-0124 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. In development. Engine to succeed RD-0110 in second stage of Soyuz. Used staged combustion; chamber pressure increased from 70 to 160 bar, specific impulse from 326 to 359 seconds. First flight 2001. Proposed for small launcher Kvant-1 by RKK Energia for stage 1 steering engine. Also proposed by RKK Energia in initial studies in 1993 for Angara upper stage. Status: In development. Date: 1993-. Number: 19 . Unfuelled mass: 480 kg (1,050 lb). Thrust: 294.30 kN (66,161 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0124-14D23 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Proposed in 1993 for Angara stage 2 verniers, Kvant-1 stage 1 vernier. Designed 1986-1990. Variant of RD-0124 with shortened nozzle for sea-level operation. Status: Designed 1986-1990. Thrust: 298.64 kN (67,137 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0124M - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Developed 1998-. Proposed single chamber variant of RD-0124. Obviously same turbopumps, but one single chamber. Status: Developed 1998-. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 360 kg (790 lb). Thrust: 294.30 kN (66,161 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0124M1 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Developed 1998-. Proposed single chamber variant of RD-0124. Obviously same turbopumps, but one single chamber with larger nozzle extension compared to RD-0124M. Status: Developed 1998-. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 393 kg (866 lb). Thrust: 294.30 kN (66,161 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0126 - Kosberg LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Space tugs or upper stage for Onega or Yastreb versions of Soyuz. Single annular chamber with expansion-deflection nozzle, separate turbopumps. Design concept 1993. Hot-tests in 1998. Status: Design concept 1993-. Date: 1993-. Unfuelled mass: 320 kg (700 lb). Thrust: 39.20 kN (8,813 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-0126A - Kosberg LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Upper stages. Design concept 1996-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. Single annular chamber with expansion-deflection nozzle, common turbopump. Status: Design concept 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-0126E - Kosberg LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Upper stages. Design concept 1998-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. Single annular chamber with straight expansion nozzle, common turbopump. Status: Design concept 1998-. Date: 1998-. Thrust: 39.20 kN (8,813 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-0128 - Kosberg LOx/LH2 rocket engine. upper stage. Design concept 1996-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. One single chamber with bell nozzle, separate turbopumps. Status: Design concept 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 370 kg (810 lb). Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-0129 - Kosberg LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Developed 1990s. Status: Developed 1990s. Date: 1990s. Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-012U - Bondaryuk ramjet engine. Burya. Out of production. 1.2 m diameter ramjet to be used in Burya cruise missile. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. First flight 1957. Status: Out of production. Number: 18 . Thrust: 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
RD-0131 - Kosberg LOx/LH2 rocket engine. upper stage. Design concept 1996-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. Single annular chamber with expansion-deflection nozzle, common turbopump. Status: Design concept 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-0132 - Kosberg LOx/LH2 rocket engine. upper stage. Design concept 1996-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. Derived from RD-0131, but four chambers with bell nozzles, common turbopump. Status: Design concept 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 370 kg (810 lb). Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-0132M - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. Vozdushnyy Start stage 2. Design concept 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0132, replacing hydrogen by liquid natural gas. Initially selected for stage 2 of Vozdushnyy Start project by Kompomash. Status: Design concept 1998-. Date: 1998-. Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0133 - Kosberg LOx/LH2 rocket engine. upper stage. Design concept 1996-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. Four chambers with bell nozzles, common turbopump. Status: Design concept 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 390 kg (850 lb). Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-0134 - Alternate designation for RD-0149.
RD-0134 - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. stage 1. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle variant of RD-0139. Status: Developed 1998-on. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 2,038.00 kN (458,160 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0139 - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. stage 1. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Gas generator cycle with turbine gas injection into supersonic nozzle. Status: Developed 1998-on. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 1,544 kg (3,403 lb). Thrust: 2,038.00 kN (458,160 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0140 - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. stage 2. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Gas generator cycle with turbine gas injection into supersonic nozzle. Status: Developed 1998-on. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 1,689 kg (3,723 lb). Thrust: 2,086.00 kN (468,951 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0141 - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. stage 1. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle. Obviously variant of RD-0141 with larger nozzle. Status: Developed 1998-on. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 1,973 kg (4,349 lb). Thrust: 2,251.00 kN (506,044 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0142 - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. stage 2. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle. Obviously variant of RD-0141 with larger nozzle. Status: Developed 1998-on. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 2,058 kg (4,537 lb). Thrust: 2,353.00 kN (528,975 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0143 - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. Vozdushnyy Start stage 2. Design concept 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0124, replacing kerosene by liquid natural gas. Selected for stage 2 of Vozdushnyy Start project by Kompomash. Status: Design concept 1998-. Date: 1998-. Thrust: 343.00 kN (77,109 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0143A - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. Vozdushnyy Start stage 1. Design concept 1998-. Proposed single chamber variant of RD-0143. Selected for stage 1 of Vozdushnyy Start project by Kompomash. Status: Design concept 1998-. Date: 1998-. Thrust: 343.00 kN (77,109 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0144 - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. upper stage. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle. Radiation cooled nozzle extension. Status: Developed 1998-on. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Thrust: 147.00 kN (33,046 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0145 - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. upper stage. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle. Four-chamber variant of RD-0144. Status: Developed 1998-on. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 282 kg (621 lb). Thrust: 147.00 kN (33,046 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0146 - Kosberg LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Centaur upper stage (Atlas); high performance upper stages for Onega, Proton, Angara launch vehicles. Design concept 1998-. Status: Design concept 1998-. Date: 1998-. Thrust: 98.10 kN (22,054 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-0149 - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. upper stage. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle. Variant of RD-0141 with larger nozzle. Status: Developed 1998-on. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 49.00 kN (11,015 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0154 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept 2007. Engine proposed to replace RD-110 in Avrora improved version of Soyuz launch vehicle. The single chamber engine had a deployable nozzle extension for improved vacuum specific impulse. Status: Design concept 2007. Date: 1998-. Thrust: 294.30 kN (66,161 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0155 - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Engine proposed to replace RD-107 in Onega and Avrora versions of the Soyuz launch vehicle. Status: Design concept 2007. Date: 1998-. Thrust: 902.50 kN (202,890 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-018 - Bondaryuk ramjet engine. Buran missile, early version. Out of Production. 1.8 m diameter ramjet engine initially considered for Buran M-42. RD-020 adopted later during development. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
RD-020 - Bondaryuk ramjet engine. Buran M-42. Development ended 1957. Ramjet for Buran cruise missile. 8,500 km cruise at Mach 3.1 at 18-20 km altitude. Status: Development ended 1957. Thrust: 103.00 kN (23,155 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
RD-0200 - Kosberg Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Lavochkin SAM, flew 1960. Out of Production. First liquid rocket engine by OKB-154, evolution of Isayev S2.1200 transferred to Kosberg. Thrust range 59 - 5.9 kN. Sea level specific impulse 230 - 166 sec Status: Out of Production. Date: 1957-62. Unfuelled mass: 86 kg (189 lb). Thrust: 58.80 kN (13,219 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
RD-0201 - Kosberg Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. SAM V1100 by Grushin stage 3. Out of Production. Thrust range 59 - 28 kN. First flight 1960. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1957-60. Unfuelled mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 58.06 kN (13,052 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
RD-0202 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-200 stage 1. Engine unit (DU - dvigatelnaya ustanovka) consisting of 1 RD-0204 for tank pressurization and three RD-0203. First flight 1963. Date: 1961-64. Number: 9 . Unfuelled mass: 1,525 kg (3,362 lb). Thrust: 2,236.00 kN (502,672 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0203 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-200 stage 1. Hardware. DU consisting of 4 RD-0204 gimbaled motors. Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1964. Status: Hardware. Date: 1961-64. Gross mass: 1,961 kg (4,323 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,525 kg (3,362 lb). Thrust: 559.00 kN (125,668 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0204 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-200 stage 1. Hardware. Diameter is per chamber. Staged combustion cycle. Variant of RD-0203 with additional pressure sensor. First flight 1964. Status: Hardware. Date: 1961-64. Gross mass: 1,961 kg (4,323 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,524 kg (3,359 lb). Thrust: 559.00 kN (125,668 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0205 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-200 stage 2. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0206 main engine and 4 RD-0207 vernier/steering engines. Version of 8D44 and 8D45 with extended nozzle. Developed 1961. First flight 1963. Date: 1961-64. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 622 kg (1,371 lb). Unfuelled mass: 552 kg (1,216 lb). Thrust: 606.40 kN (136,324 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0206 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-200 stage 2. Developed 1961-64. Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1964. Status: Developed 1961-64. Date: 1961-64. Thrust: 575.50 kN (129,378 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0207 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-200 stage 2 vernier. Developed 1961-64. Gas generator cycle. Four vernier thrusters. First flight 1964. Status: Developed 1961-64. Date: 1961-64. Thrust: 30.90 kN (6,947 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0208 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-200 stage 1. Developed 1961-65. Stage 1 had three RD-0208 plus one RD-0209. Further developed into RD-0210. Status: Developed 1961-65. Date: 1961-65. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0209 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-200 stage 1. Developed 1961-65. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0211 for tank pressurization and three RD-0210. Modification of RD-0208 with tank pressurization. Further developed into RD--0211. First flight 1965. Status: Developed 1961-65. Date: 1961-65. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0210 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Cluster of four similar engines used in second stage of Proton - one providing tank pressurization (8D412K/RD-0211) and three (8D411K/RD-0210). Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1965. Date: 1962-65. Number: 1240 . Unfuelled mass: 566 kg (1,247 lb). Thrust: 582.10 kN (130,861 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0210-HC - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of RD-0210 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Status: Design concept 1990's. Unfuelled mass: 570 kg (1,250 lb). Thrust: 592.00 kN (133,086 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0211 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Proton stage 2. Out of Production. Variant of RD-0210 providing tank pressurization. Staged combustion cycle. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962-65. Unfuelled mass: 566 kg (1,247 lb). Thrust: 582.10 kN (130,861 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0212 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Proton stage 3. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0213 main engine and 4 RD-0214 vernier/steering engines. 8D48 essentially similar to 8D411 and 8D412 and has the same combustion chamber. First flight 1967. Date: 1962-68. Number: 306 . Thrust: 613.00 kN (137,807 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0213 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Proton stage 3. Design 1962. Version of RD-0210. Staged combustion cycle (Oxidizer pre-burner gas routed to main chamber after driving turbine). Main engine for Proton Stage 3 in system RD-0212. Status: Design 1962. Date: 1962-68. Thrust: 582.10 kN (130,861 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0214 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Proton stage 3 vernier. In Production. Based on RD-0207. Four used as steering engines for Proton Stage 3 in system RD-0212. First flight 1967. Status: In Production. Date: 1962-68. Thrust: 30.98 kN (6,965 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0215 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Developed 1962-65 for heavy Chelomei launcher (UR-900?) stage 1. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0217 for tank pressurization and three RD-0216. Hardware not hot-tested. Status: Developed 1962-65. Date: 1962-65. Thrust: 2,450.00 kN (550,780 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0216 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-100 stage 1. Staged combustion cycle. Includes tank pressurization system (RD-0217 without tank press.). First launch November 1963, manufactured until 1974, operational until 1991. First flight 1965. Status: Design 1964. Date: 1963-66. Number: 1128 . Thrust: 219.00 kN (49,233 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0217 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-100, UR-100K stage 1. Out of Production. Staged combustion cycle. Version of RD-0216 without tank pressurization system. Manufacturing until 1974, operational use until 1991. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1963-66. Thrust: 219.00 kN (49,233 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0221 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. upper stage of unnamed missile by Mishin. Developed 1965-70. Status: Developed 1965-70. Date: 1965-70. Unfuelled mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 78.00 kN (17,535 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0225 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Almaz space station orbital maneuvering. Hardware. Originally designed for UR-100 follow-on spaceships. Two engines used on Almaz space station for orbital maneuvering, Pressure fed. First flight 1974. Status: Hardware. Date: 1966-71. Unfuelled mass: 23 kg (50 lb). Thrust: 3.92 kN (882 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0228 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M / RS-20A (SS-18 mod-1) stage 2. Out of Production. Comprises single-chamber main engine RD-0229 plus four-chamber steering engine RD-0230. Further developed to RD-0255. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1967-75. Thrust: 755.00 kN (169,730 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0229 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M / RS-20A (SS-18 mod-1) stage 2. Out of Production. Main engine. Staged combustion cycle. Used on Ikar launch vehicle. First flight 1974. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1967-75. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0229M - Kosberg LOx/LNG rocket engine. Vozdushnyy Start stage 1. Developed 1997. Derivative of RD-0229 for the propellants LOX and liquid natural gas (methane). Initial candidate for stage 1 propulsion of Vozdushnyy Start project by Kompomash. Status: Developed 1997. Date: 1997. Thrust: 883.00 kN (198,506 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-0230 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M / RS-20A (SS-18 mod-1) stage 2 vernier. Out of Production. Vernier engine. Gas generator cycle. First flight 1974. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1967-75. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0231 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. P-700 Granit. Out of Production. Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1970. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1968-70. Unfuelled mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Thrust: 29.00 kN (6,519 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0232 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-100N / Rokot Stage 1. Engine unit (DU - dvigatelnaya ustanovka) consisting of 1 RD-0234 for tank pressurization and three RD-0233. First flight 1972. Number: 1260 . Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0232? - Manufacturer's designation of RD-0232 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
RD-0233 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-100N / RS-18 (SS-19) stage 1. Out of Production. Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1974. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1969-74. Thrust: 520.00 kN (116,900 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0234 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-100N / RS-18 (SS-19) stage 1. Out of Production. Staged combustion cycle. Modification of RD-0233 including tank pressurization system. First flight 1974. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1969-74. Thrust: 520.00 kN (116,900 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0234-CH - Kosberg LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Developed 1996-. Proposed variant of RD-0234 engine using LOX-liquid methane instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Status: Developed 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 390 kg (850 lb). Thrust: 442.00 kN (99,365 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-0234-HC - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Developed 1996-. Proposed variant of RD-0234 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Status: Developed 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 390 kg (850 lb). Thrust: 516.00 kN (116,001 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0235 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-100N / RS-18 (SS-19) stage 2. Main engine based on RD-0217 with larger nozzle for altitude operation. Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1972. Date: 1969-74. Number: 315 . Thrust: 240.00 kN (53,950 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0236 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-100N / RS-18 (SS-19) stage 2 vernier. Out of Production. Developed in 1969-1974 / problems not solved until 1978. Vernier engines. Gas generator cycle. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1969-74. Thrust: 15.76 kN (3,543 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0237 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-100N / RS-18 (SS-19) stage 3. MIRV service block. Open cycle. Analogous to RD-0225, pressure fed. Steering engine for space vehicles gimbaling +/- 45 degree. First flight 1972. Date: 1969-74. Number: 152 . Thrust: 4.90 kN (1,102 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0242 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. sea-based missile booster stage developed 1977-83 (Burlak ?). First concept planned N2O4/kerosene as propellant, but changed to N2O4/UDMH. Single ignition, 297 development tests. 50 engines for sale. Status: Developed 1977-83. Date: 1977-83. Unfuelled mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 123.60 kN (27,786 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0242-HC - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Developed 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0242 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Status: Developed 1998-. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 125.00 kN (28,101 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0242M - Kosberg N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Design concept 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0242 engine for upper stages using MMH in place of UDMH. Reusable for 6 ignitions total. Throttling to 80%. Status: Design concept 1998-. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 185 kg (407 lb). Thrust: 98.10 kN (22,054 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RD-0242M1 - Kosberg N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Design concept 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0242 engine for upper stages using MMH in place of UDMH (adaptation to western market ?). Reusable for 6 ignitions total. Throttling to 80%. Status: Design concept 1998-. Date: 1998-. Unfuelled mass: 229 kg (504 lb). Thrust: 98.10 kN (22,054 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RD-0243 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-29RM stage 1. Out of Production. Consisted of single-chamber main engine RD-0244 plus four-chamber steering engines RD-0245 driven by turbine exhaust gas. Engine submerged in propellant tank. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1977-85. Unfuelled mass: 853 kg (1,880 lb). Thrust: 825.80 kN (185,647 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0244 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-29RM / RSM-54 (SS-N-23) stage 1. Out of Production. Main engine in system RD-0243. Staged combustion cycle. Submerged in propellant tank. First flight 1985. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1977-85. Thrust: 682.00 kN (153,319 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0244 KD - Alternate designation for RD-0244-HC LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
RD-0244-HC - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of RD-0244 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Status: Design concept 1990's. Unfuelled mass: 540 kg (1,190 lb). Thrust: 690.00 kN (155,110 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0245 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-29RM / RSM-54 (SS-N-23) stage 1 vernier. Out of Production. Four-chamber steering engine in system RD-0243 driven by turbine exhaust gas. First flight 1985. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1977-85. Thrust: 211.00 kN (47,434 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0245-HC - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of RD-0245 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Status: Design concept 1990's. Unfuelled mass: 290 kg (630 lb). Thrust: 214.00 kN (48,109 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0246 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Design concept. Project for further development of RD-0243. Status: Design concept. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0250 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Further development of RD-0235 main engine for projected modification of stage 2 of classified Chelomei rocket. Development ceased during study phase. Staged combustion cycle. Status: Design concept. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0251 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Further development of RD-0236 steering engine for projected modification of stage 2 of classified Chelomei rocket. Development ceased during study phase. Gas generator cycle. Status: Design concept. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0255 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M2 / RS-20V (SS-18 Mod-4) stage 2. Comprises of single-chamber main engine RD-0256 plus four-chamber steering engines RD-0257. Development based on RD-0228 with thrust increase by 11%. First flight 1986. Date: 1983-89. Number: 42 . Thrust: 755.00 kN (169,730 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0256 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M2 / RS-20V (SS-18 Mod-4) stage 2. Out of Production. Main engine of system RD-0255. Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1987. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1983-89. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0256-HC - Kosberg LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept 1996-. Proposed variant of RD-0256 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Status: Design concept 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Thrust: 820.00 kN (184,340 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-0256-Methan - Manufacturer's designation of RD-0256-Methane LOx-LCH4 rocket engine.
RD-0256-Methane - Kosberg LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Design concept 1996-. Proposed variant of RD-0256 engine using LOX-liquid methane instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Status: Design concept 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Thrust: 836.00 kN (187,940 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-0257 - Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M2 / RS-20V (SS-18 Mod-4) stage 2 vernier. Out of Production. Steering engine of system RD-0255. Gas generator cycle. First flight 1987. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1983-89. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-0410 - Kosberg nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Experimental nuclear engine, propellant LH2. Developed 1965-94. Tested at Semipalatinsk test range in 1980s and was "the only operational nuclear engine in the USSR". First flight 1985. Status: Developed 1965-94. Date: 1965-94. Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 35.30 kN (7,936 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
RD-0411 - Kosberg nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Full-size nuclear thermal engine. Design concept 1965-94. Planned full-size nuclear thermal engine for Mars expeditions. Never progressed beyond study stage. Status: Design concept 1965-94. Date: 1965-94. Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
RD-0600 - Kosberg laser rocket engine. Space station "Skif". Developed 1970-85. Gas dynamic laser. Working medium gaseous carbon monoxide + air + nitrogen + ethanol. Flow rate up to 100 kg/s. Tests were performed at NII TP. Status: Developed 1970-85. Date: 1970-85. Unfuelled mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Propellants: Gas Dynamic Laser/CO+Air+N2+C2H5OH.
RD-0650TF - Alternate designation for RD-0750 LOx-Kerosene-LH2 rocket engine.
RD-0750 - Kosberg LOx/LH2/kerosene rocket engine. Alternative for Angara central stage, MAKS. Developed 1997-. Tripropellant derivative of RD-0120. Some components tested in RD-0120TD technology demonstration in cooperation with Aerojet. Status: Developed 1997-. Date: 1997-. Thrust: 1,412.00 kN (317,430 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene/LH2, Lox/LH2.
RD-1 - Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. Used for JATO take-off acceleration of Pe-2, La-7, Yak-3, Su-6 airplanes. Developed 1941-45. First Russian liquid propellant rocket engine. Production 1944-45. Ignition was by an ethane-air mixture. Status: Developed 1941-45. Date: 1941-45. Unfuelled mass: 56 kg (123 lb). Thrust: 2.94 kN (661 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-100 - Glushko LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. R-1, V-1A. Russian copy of the V-2 engine using Russian materials - which made it very difficult! German rocket scientists assisted in its development. First flight 1948. Date: 1946-50. Number: 184 . Unfuelled mass: 885 kg (1,951 lb). Thrust: 304.00 kN (68,341 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
RD-101 - Glushko LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. R-2 and V-2A. Developed simultaneously with the RD-100 but with no German involvement. More compact, increased thrust, increased chamber pressure and higher alcohol concentration. First flight 1949. Date: 1946-51. Number: 78 . Unfuelled mass: 888 kg (1,957 lb). Thrust: 404.00 kN (90,822 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
RD-102 - Glushko LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. R-3A. Development ended 1951. Project for R-3A experimental missile. Stopped in favor of RD-103. Status: Development ended 1951. Thrust: 428.00 kN (96,218 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
RD-102? - Alternate designation for RD-3A rocket engine.
RD-103 - Glushko LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. R-5. Out of Production. Final extrapolation of the V-2 rocket engine in Russia. First flight 1953. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1947-53. Unfuelled mass: 870 kg (1,910 lb). Thrust: 500.00 kN (112,400 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
RD-103M - Glushko LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. R-5M 8K51. First flight 1953. Date: 1950-55. Number: 134 . Unfuelled mass: 867 kg (1,911 lb). Thrust: 500.10 kN (112,427 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
RD-103RD - Glushko LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. M5RD. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1954-56. Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
RD-105 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. R-7 ICBM stage 1 (strap-on) initial project. Out of Production. Single chamber engine intended for the R-7 strap-ons in mid-1950s. Subsequently replaced by the 4 chamber RD-107. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1952-54. Unfuelled mass: 782 kg (1,724 lb). Thrust: 627.60 kN (141,090 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-106 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. R-7 ICBM stage 2 (core) initial project. Out of Production. Single chamber engine intended for the R-7 sustainer. Version of RD-105 with larger nozzle. Subsequently replaced by the 4 chamber RD-108. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1952-54. Unfuelled mass: 802 kg (1,768 lb). Thrust: 645.30 kN (145,069 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-107 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine family used on R-7 and subsequent booster stages (including Molniya, Soyuz in 21st Century). First flight 1957. Used four combustion chambers fed by single turbopump to circumvent combustion instability problems with larger chambers 1950's.
RD-107-11D511 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Soyuz 11A511-0, Soyuz 11A511U-0. Design 2000. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1965. Status: Design 2000. Number: 3008 . Unfuelled mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Thrust: 992.00 kN (223,010 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-107-11D511P - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Soyuz 11A511U2-0. Out of production. OKB Glushko. Used on 11A511U2 Stage 0. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / LOx. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1982. Status: Out of production. Number: 368 . Thrust: 996.40 kN (224,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-107-8D728 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Molniya 0, Molniya 8K78M-0. OKB Glushko. Used on Molniya 8K78M and 11A57 Stage 0. Propellants kerosene (RG-1 or T-1) / LOx. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1964. Number: 1176 . Unfuelled mass: 1,145 kg (2,524 lb). Thrust: 996.00 kN (223,909 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-107-8D74 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. R-7 8K71, Vostok 8K72, Vostok 8K72K strap-ons. First flight 1957. Used four combustion chambers fed by single turbopump to circumvent combustion instability problems with larger chambers 1950's. Number: 140 . Unfuelled mass: 1,155 kg (2,546 lb). Thrust: 971.00 kN (218,289 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-107-8D74-1958 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Luna 8K72-0. Out of production. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1958. Status: Out of production. Number: 36 . Unfuelled mass: 1,155 kg (2,546 lb). Thrust: 996.00 kN (223,909 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-107-8D74-1959 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Diameter is per chamber. Used on Vostok 8K72K launch vehicle. First flight 1960. Status: Out of production. Number: 52 . Unfuelled mass: 1,155 kg (2,546 lb). Thrust: 996.00 kN (223,909 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-107-8D74K - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Developed in 1957-1960. Used in strap-ons for Molniya 8K78, R-7A 8K74, Voskhod 11A57, Vostok 8A92, Vostok 8A92M. Fuel T-1 or RG-1 kerosene. First flight 1959. Number: 1952 . Unfuelled mass: 1,145 kg (2,524 lb). Thrust: 996.00 kN (223,909 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-107-8D74PS - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Sputnik 8K71PS-0. Out of Production. OKB Glushko. Used on 8K71PS Stage 0. Developed in 1956-1957. Flown 1957-1958. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / LOx. Diameter is per chamber. Status: Out of Production. Number: 32 . Unfuelled mass: 1,155 kg (2,546 lb). Thrust: 971.00 kN (218,289 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-107-8D76 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Sputnik 8A91-0. Out of Production. OKB Glushko. Used on 8A91 Stage 0. Developed in 1956-1957. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / LOx. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1958. Status: Out of Production. Number: 8 . Unfuelled mass: 1,155 kg (2,546 lb). Thrust: 971.00 kN (218,289 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-108 - Alternate name for RD-108-8D727.
RD-108-11D512 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Soyuz 11A511-1, Soyuz 11A511U-1. Design 2000. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1965. Status: Design 2000. Number: 752 . Unfuelled mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 997.00 kN (224,134 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-108-11D512P - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Soyuz 11A511U2-1. Out of production. A 1-2 second specific impulse increase was made possible by the use of synthetic fuel Sintin and a modified mixing head. First flight 1982. Status: Out of production. Number: 92 . Thrust: 1,011.00 kN (227,281 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-108-8D727 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Molniya 1, Molniya 8K78M-1. OKB Glushko. Used on Molniya 8K78L, 8K78M and 11A57 Stage 1. Propellants kerosene (RG-1 or T-1) / LOx. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1964. Number: 294 . Unfuelled mass: 1,230 kg (2,710 lb). Thrust: 977.00 kN (219,638 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-108-8D727K - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Molniya 8K78-3. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: -1962. Thrust: 976.00 kN (219,413 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-108-8D75 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. R-7 8K71-1, Vostok 8K72-1, Vostok 8K72K-1. OKB Glushko. Used on 8K71 R-7 Stage 1. Developed in 1954-1955. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / LOx. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1957. Number: 35 . Unfuelled mass: 1,278 kg (2,817 lb). Thrust: 912.00 kN (205,025 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-108-8D75-1958 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Luna 8K72-1. Out of production. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1958. Status: Out of production. Number: 9 . Unfuelled mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Thrust: 941.00 kN (211,545 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-108-8D75-1959 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Further development of 8D74-1958, 1958-1959. Diameter is per chamber. Used on Vostok 8K72K launch vehicle. First flight 1960. Status: Out of production. Number: 13 . Unfuelled mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Thrust: 941.00 kN (211,545 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-108-8D75K - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Molniya 8K78-1, R-7A 8K74-1, Voskhod 11A57-1, Vostok 8A92-1, Vostok 8A92M-1. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1959. Number: 488 . Unfuelled mass: 1,252 kg (2,760 lb). Thrust: 941.00 kN (211,545 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-108-8D75PS - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Sputnik 8K71PS-1. Out of Production. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1957. Status: Out of Production. Number: 32 . Unfuelled mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Thrust: 912.00 kN (205,025 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-108-8D77 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Sputnik 8A91-1. Out of Production. Diameter is per chamber. First flight 1958. Status: Out of Production. Number: 2 . Unfuelled mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Thrust: 804.00 kN (180,746 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-109 - Glushko LOx/UDMH rocket engine. Developed 1957-60. Intended for second stage of LOx/UDMH 8K73 version of R-7. Abandoned because of Korolev's refusal to use such a toxic fuel. Later basis for RD-119 used on the Kosmos space launcher. Status: Developed 1957-60. Date: 1957-60. Unfuelled mass: 210 kg (460 lb). Thrust: 101.60 kN (22,841 lbf). Propellants: Lox/UDMH.
RD-110 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Development ended 1949. For R-3 IRBM, 19 ED-140 7 metric ton chambers used as preburners to feed a main mixing chamber, a scale-up of the V-2 production motor. Tested, but technical problems too severe. Status: Development ended 1949. Date: 1947-51. Thrust: 1,374.00 kN (308,887 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-111 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. R-9 stage 1. Developed for R-9 ICBM. It had special flexible pipelines and gimbals, allowing LOx loading in 20 minutes. First flight 1961. Date: 1959-62. Number: 69 . Unfuelled mass: 1,492 kg (3,289 lb). Thrust: 1,628.00 kN (365,988 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-112 - Glushko LOx/UDMH rocket engine. ICBM stage 1 (stage 2 was RD-113). Developed 1960. Status: Developed 1960. Date: 1960. Unfuelled mass: 790 kg (1,740 lb). Thrust: 1,089.00 kN (244,816 lbf). Propellants: Lox/UDMH.
RD-113 - Glushko LOx/UDMH rocket engine. ICBM stage 2 (stage 1 was RD-112). Developed 1960. Upper stage version of RD-112 with larger nozzle. Status: Developed 1960. Date: 1960. Unfuelled mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 1,138.00 kN (255,832 lbf). Propellants: Lox/UDMH.
RD-114 - Glushko LOx/UDMH rocket engine. Used in ICBM stage 1 (stage 2 was RD-115). Developed 1961-65. Status: Developed 1961-65. Date: 1961-65. Unfuelled mass: 990 kg (2,180 lb). Thrust: 1,653.00 kN (371,609 lbf). Propellants: Lox/UDMH.
RD-115 - Glushko LOx/UDMH rocket engine. ICBM stage 2 (stage 1 was RD-114). Developed 1961-65. Upper stage version of RD-114 with larger nozzle. Status: Developed 1961-65. Date: 1961-65. Unfuelled mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Thrust: 1,726.00 kN (388,020 lbf). Propellants: Lox/UDMH.
RD-117 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Soyuz ST stage 1. In production. Update of RD-107. Little performance change from RD-107, changes may mainly relate to use of all-Russian components. First flown 2001. Status: In production. Number: 76 . Thrust: 1,021.10 kN (229,552 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-117PF - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. manned Soyuz-launcher stage 1. Design concept. Update of RD-107. Probably version using Sintin instead of kerosene. Status: Design concept. Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-118 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. In production. Update of RD-107, used in Soyuz ST launcher. Little performance change from RD-107, changes may mainly relate to use of all-Russian components. First flight 2001. Status: In production. Number: 19 . Thrust: 999.60 kN (224,719 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-119 - Glushko LOx/UDMH rocket engine. Kosmos 1 stage 2. Out of production. Derived from RD-109 motor originally intended for the second stage of a LOx/UDMH version of the R-7. First flight 1961. Status: Out of production. Date: 1958-63. Number: 165 . Unfuelled mass: 168 kg (370 lb). Thrust: 105.50 kN (23,717 lbf). Propellants: Lox/UDMH.
RD-120 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Zenit stage 2. In production. High altitude engine used in the Zenit second stage. First production Russian engine to be test fired in the United States (3 test burns were made). First flight 1985. Status: In production. Date: 1976-85. Number: 60 . Unfuelled mass: 1,125 kg (2,480 lb). Thrust: 833.00 kN (187,265 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-120.01 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept. Status: Design concept. Thrust: 784.00 kN (176,250 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-120.03 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept. Status: Design concept. Thrust: 882.00 kN (198,281 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-120K - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Soyuz M stage 1, 2. Proposed for X-34. Sea-level variant of RD-120. As of 1996 RD-120 prototype with 1.8 m diameter had been built, development time estimated for three years. Status: Design 1994. Unfuelled mass: 1,433 kg (3,159 lb). Thrust: 873.00 kN (196,258 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-120M - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. PacAstro-2 stage 1. Out of Production. Sea-level variant of RD-120 engine, similar to RD-120K. Gimbaling +/- 6 degree in two planes. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1995. Unfuelled mass: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb). Thrust: 850.40 kN (191,178 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-120M - Alternate designation for RD-182 LOx-LCH4 rocket engine.
RD-123 - Alternate designation for RD-146.
RD-123 - Alternate designation for RD-120K.
RD-123 - Alternate designation for RD-134R [RD-134R] and [RD-134R] LOx-Kerosene rocket engines.
RD-127 - Yuzhnoye solid rocket engine. Maneuvering vehicle bang-bang propulsion, consisted of 25 small solid-propellant motors, probably for homing vehicles or multiple warhead dispensing applications. Propellants: Solid.
RD-134 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. upper stage. Design concept. Proposed upper stage kerosene engine. Gimbaling +/- 3 degree in two planes. Four chamber s with one common turbopump. Nozzle expansion ratio is 170/0.05=3400. Status: Design concept. Unfuelled mass: 540 kg (1,190 lb). Thrust: 343.00 kN (77,109 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-134R - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Angara stage 2 vernier. Design concept 1993-on. Proposed in initial study for Angara by RKK Energia in1993. Steering engines for Angara upper stage. Kerosene RG-1. Status: Design concept 1993-on. Date: 1993. Thrust: 343.00 kN (77,109 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-135 - Glushko LOx/LH2 rocket engine. upper stage. Developed -1976. Experimental cryogenic engine. (Ref. May be not correct.) Status: Developed -1976. Date: -1976. Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-146 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Angara stage 2. Design concept 1993-on. Sea-level variant of RD-120 engine. Proposed in initial study for Angara by RKK Energia in1993. Kerosene RG-1. Status: Design concept 1993-on. Date: 1993. Thrust: 883.00 kN (198,506 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-160 - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Upper stage. Developed 1993-1996. Methane version of LOx / kerosene upper stage engine RD-161. Gimbaling +/- 6 degree in two planes. Status: Developed 1993-. Date: 1993-. Unfuelled mass: 129 kg (284 lb). Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-161 (1) - Manufacturer's designation of RD-161-1 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
RD-161 (2) - Manufacturer's designation of RD-161-2 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
RD-161-1 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Development ended 2000. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3. Basic version. Engine Cycle: closed gas generator. Feed Method: turbopump. Status: Development ended 2000. Unfuelled mass: 119 kg (262 lb). Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-161-2 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept 1990's. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3. Version with uncooled nozzle extension. Engine Cycle: closed gas generator. Feed Method: turbopump. Status: Design concept 1990's. Unfuelled mass: 141 kg (310 lb). Thrust: 19.90 kN (4,474 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-161P - Glushko H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Soyuz M stage 3 (block LM). Developed 1993-. Two thrust levels. Minimum 1500 kgf. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3. Version for H2O2 fuel, concentration 96-98%. Status: Developed 1993-. Date: 1993-. Unfuelled mass: 105 kg (231 lb). Thrust: 24.50 kN (5,508 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
RD-167 - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Upper stage. Design concept 1990's. Proposed upper stage engine, a methane variant of RD-134. Gimbaling +/- 3 degree in two planes. Four chambers with one common turbopump. Status: Design concept 1990's. Unfuelled mass: 570 kg (1,250 lb). Thrust: 353.00 kN (79,357 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-169 - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Riksha-0 stage 1. Design concept 1990's. LOX/Methane engine derived from RD-120. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. In 1996 prototype development was estimated to take four years from go-ahead. Status: Design concept 1990's. Unfuelled mass: 215 kg (473 lb). Thrust: 167.00 kN (37,543 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-170 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Energia strap-on. Developed 1973-1985. First flight 1987. Used one-plane gimballing versus the two-plane gimballing required on the RD-171 of the Zenit launch vehicle. Designed for 10 reuses. Status: Development ended 1976. Date: 1981-93. Number: 12 . Unfuelled mass: 9,750 kg (21,490 lb). Thrust: 7,903.00 kN (1,776,665 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-171 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Zenit stage 1. In production. RD-171 used two-plane gimballing versus one-plane gimballing on RD-170 developed in parallel for Energia. First flight 1985. Status: In production. Date: 1976-86. Number: 60 . Unfuelled mass: 9,500 kg (20,900 lb). Thrust: 7,903.00 kN (1,776,665 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-172 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Zenit-3 stage 1 (?). Developed -1994. Uprated version of RD-171. To have been qualified for flight 1994. Status: Developed -1994. Date: -1994. Unfuelled mass: 11,703 kg (25,800 lb). Thrust: 8,354.00 kN (1,878,053 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-173 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Zenit-3 stage 1 (?). Design concept 1990's. Uprated version of RD-171 with 4 chambers, 1 turbo-pump and 2 gas generators. Intended for uprated Zenit named Zenit 3 Status: Design concept 1990's. Thrust: 8,181.00 kN (1,839,161 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-174 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Angara stage I. Developed 1995-. Status: Developed 1995-. Date: 1995-. Thrust: 7,905.00 kN (1,777,114 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-180 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Atlas III, Atlas V stage 1. In production. First flight 2000. Two-thrust-chamber derivative of the four-chamber RD-170 used on Zenit. Status: In production. Date: 1993-99, 1992-. Number: 14 . Unfuelled mass: 5,480 kg (12,080 lb). Thrust: 4,152.00 kN (933,406 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-182 - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Riksha (-1, -2) stage 1. Developed 1994-. Methane variant of RD-120K engine. Thrust range and Isp range due to throat diameter and chamber pressure. Gimbaling +/- 6 degree in two planes. Status: Developed 1994-. Date: 1994-. Unfuelled mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 902.00 kN (202,777 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-182M - Glushko LOx/LNG rocket engine. Vozdushnyy Start stage 1. Developed 1998-. Variant of RD-182 engine for liquid natural gas (mainly CH4). Proposed initial candidate for project Vozdushnyy Start of Kompomash. Status: Developed 1998-. Date: 1998-. Thrust: 882.00 kN (198,281 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-183 - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Developed 1996-. Main engine for apogee stage of Riksha-1 launcher project. Gimbaling +/- 10 degree in two planes. Nozzle expansion ratio is 75/0.055=1364. Status: Developed 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Thrust: 9.80 kN (2,203 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-184 - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Developed 1996-on. Attitude correction engine for apogee stage of Riksha-1 launcher project (together with RD-183). Gimbaling +/- 20 degree in two planes. Status: Developed 1996-on. Date: 1996-. Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-185 - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Riksha-0 stage 2. Developed 1996-. Upper stage version of RD-169 with larger nozzle. Gimbaling +/- 4 degree in two planes. Status: Developed 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 415 kg (914 lb). Thrust: 179.00 kN (40,240 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-190 - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Riksha-0 stage 1. Developed 1996-. The RD-190 consists of 6 RD-169 engines. Each chamber can be gimbaled individually in two planes by +/- 8 degree. Status: Developed 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 1,470 kg (3,240 lb). Thrust: 1,000.00 kN (224,800 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-191 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Proposed for stage 1 of Angara. Single chamber from 4-chamber RD-170 would have been cheap and fast to develop. Only reached the draft project stage by 2003. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. Status: In development. Date: 1996-. Number: 132 . Unfuelled mass: 3,230 kg (7,120 lb). Thrust: 2,079.00 kN (467,377 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-191M - Alternate designation for RD-191.
RD-191M - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Angara stage I. Developed 1996-. Single chamber version of the RD-170 / RD-171. Status: Developed 1996-. Date: 1996-. Thrust: 1,976.00 kN (444,222 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-192 - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Proposed methane-variant of RD-191. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. In 1996 prototype development was estimated to take four years from go-ahead. Nozzle expansion ratio is 262/0.75=349. Status: Developed 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 3,300 kg (7,200 lb). Thrust: 2,138.00 kN (480,641 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-192.2 - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Developed 1996-on. Proposed variant of RD-192. Staged combustion cycle with fuel-rich gas generator. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. Status: Developed 1996-on. Date: 1996-. Thrust: 1,942.00 kN (436,578 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-192.3 - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Developed 1996-on. Proposed variant of RD-192. Gas generator cycle. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. Status 1998 was project based on RD-191 prototype, development estimated for four years. Status: Developed 1996-on. Date: 1996-. Thrust: 2,089.00 kN (469,625 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-192S - Glushko LOx/LCH4 rocket engine. Developed 1996-on. Proposed variant of RD-192. Staged combustion cycle with oxidizer-rich gas generator. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. Status: Developed 1996-on. Date: 1996-. Thrust: 2,128.00 kN (478,393 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
RD-1KhZ - Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. take-off acceleration of Pe-2R, La-7R, Yak-3, Su-6, Su-7, La-120R airplanes. Developed 1941-46. The RD-1KhZ was a variant of the RD-1 engine with chemical ignition. Production 1944-45. Status: Developed 1941-46. Date: 1941-46. Unfuelled mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Thrust: 2.94 kN (661 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-2 - Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. experimental. Developed 1945-47. The RD-2 was based on the RD-1 engine. Used chemical ignition. Status: Developed 1945-47. Date: 1945-47. Unfuelled mass: 71 kg (156 lb). Thrust: 6.00 kN (1,349 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-200 - Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. vertical sounding rocket. Developed -1951. Status: Developed -1951. Date: -1951. Unfuelled mass: 218 kg (480 lb). Thrust: 98.51 kN (22,145 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-210 - Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. vertical sounding rocket. Developed -1954. Status: Developed -1954. Date: -1954. Unfuelled mass: 81 kg (178 lb). Thrust: 29.85 kN (6,711 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-211 - Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. long-distance missile. Developed 1952-55. Original four-chamber engine design planned for use on the R-12 IRBM. Abandoned due to limited thrust and the RD-214 was developed in its place. Status: Developed 1952-55. Date: 1952-55. Unfuelled mass: 635 kg (1,400 lb). Thrust: 642.30 kN (144,395 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-212 - Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. Developed 1952-56. Original four-chamber engine design planned for the booster stage of the Buran intercontinental ramjet missile. Abandoned due to limited thrust; RD-213 was developed instead. Status: Developed 1952-56. Date: 1952-56. Unfuelled mass: 642 kg (1,415 lb). Thrust: 623.00 kN (140,055 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-213 - Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. Winged rocket M-40 (2). Development ended 1957. Two thrust levels. Ignition with propellant TG-02. Chamber pressure 233,8 / 46,6 bar. Specific impulse 223 / 231 sea level. Status: Development ended 1957. Date: 1956-57. Unfuelled mass: 625 kg (1,377 lb). Thrust: 755.00 kN (169,730 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-214 - Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. R-12, Kosmos 11K63 stage 1. Single turbopump driven by H2O2 gas generator feeding four fixed chambers. Ignition with propellant TG-02. First flight 1957. Date: 1955-59. Number: 181 . Unfuelled mass: 655 kg (1,444 lb). Thrust: 730.00 kN (164,110 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-215 - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. R-14, Kosmos 11K63 stage 1. Out of Production. Original intended use unknown. Two RD-215 clustered to make RD-216. First flight 1966. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1958-60. Unfuelled mass: 675 kg (1,488 lb). Thrust: 864.00 kN (194,234 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-216 - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. R-14, Kosmos 11K65 stage 1. RD-216 was an assembly of 2 RD-215's with 2 combustion chambers and 2 turbines. Two sets of these were in turn used in the first stage of the R-14. First flight 1964. Date: 1958-60. Number: 788 . Unfuelled mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Thrust: 1,728.00 kN (388,469 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-216M - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Kosmos-3M stage I. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1960s. Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-217 - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. R-16 stage 1. Out of Production. Original intended use unknown. Three RD-217 clustered to make RD-218. First flight 1961. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1958-61. Unfuelled mass: 980 kg (2,160 lb). Thrust: 865.00 kN (194,459 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-218 - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. R-16 stage 1. Consisted of three RD-217; had 6 combustion chambers and 3 turbines; powered the R-16 ICBM. First flight 1960. Date: 1958-61. Number: 212 . Unfuelled mass: 1,960 kg (4,320 lb). Thrust: 2,592.00 kN (582,704 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-219 - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. R-16 stage 2. Derivative of RD-217 with a truss and piping changes. Despite higher expansion ratio, engine was shorter than first stage version, with relatively low performance. Flown 1960-1972. Date: 1958-61. Number: 212 . Unfuelled mass: 760 kg (1,670 lb). Thrust: 883.00 kN (198,506 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-220 - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. missile stage 1 (stage 2 used RD-221). Developed 1960-. Status: Developed 1960-. Date: 1960-. Unfuelled mass: 760 kg (1,670 lb). Thrust: 1,074.00 kN (241,444 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-221 - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. missile stage 2 (stage 1 used RD-220). Developed 1960-. Status: Developed 1960-. Date: 1960-. Unfuelled mass: 1,070 kg (2,350 lb). Thrust: 1,118.00 kN (251,336 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-222 - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. missile stage 1 (stage 2 used RD-223). Developed 1960-61. Precursor to RD-253. Status: Developed 1960-61. Date: 1960-61. Unfuelled mass: 980 kg (2,160 lb). Thrust: 1,634.00 kN (367,337 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-223 - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. missile stage 2 (stage 1 used RD-222). Developed 1960-61. Precursor to RD-253. Status: Developed 1960-61. Date: 1960-61. Unfuelled mass: 1,240 kg (2,730 lb). Thrust: 1,697.00 kN (381,500 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-224 - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. R-26 stage 1. Out of production. RD-224 is a block of 2 RD-225s. An upper stage thrust chamber was developed under designation U102-000. First flight 1961. Status: Out of production. Date: 1960-62. Unfuelled mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Thrust: 1,778.00 kN (399,710 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-225 - Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. R-26 stage 1. Out of Production. Two clustered together to make RD-224. First flight 1961. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1960-62. Thrust: 889.00 kN (199,855 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-226 ? - Alternate designation for U102-000 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
RD-250 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36-0 stage 1, Tsyklon 2 stage 1. Out of Production. Assembly of 3 RD-250 units make RD-251. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1960-65. Unfuelled mass: 576 kg (1,269 lb). Thrust: 881.00 kN (198,056 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-251 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36-0 stage 1, Tsyklon 2 stage 1. In production. Assembly of 3 RD-250-type units. First flight 1965. Status: In production. Date: 1961-65. Number: 131 . Unfuelled mass: 1,729 kg (3,811 lb). Thrust: 2,643.00 kN (594,170 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-252 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36-0 stage 2; Tsyklon 2 stage 2. In production. Used modified chamber from RD-219, nozzle is conventional, so performance is higher. First flight 1965. Status: In production. Date: 1961-66. Number: 131 . Unfuelled mass: 715 kg (1,576 lb). Thrust: 940.50 kN (211,433 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-253 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In Production. Version of RD-253 with thrust increased by 7%. Included an additional gas generator for tank pressurization. First flight 1986. Status: In Production. Date: -1986. Thrust: 1,745.00 kN (392,291 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-253-11D48 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Six gimbaled single chamber RD-253s provide the first stage power for the UR-500 Proton launch vehicle and the third stage of the planned UR-700 moon launcher. First flown in 1965. Number: 1836 . Unfuelled mass: 1,280 kg (2,820 lb). Thrust: 1,635.00 kN (367,562 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-253-14D14 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Proton KM-1. In production. Developed in 1990s. First flight 1999. Status: In production. Date: 1990-99. Number: 24 . Unfuelled mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 1,746.00 kN (392,516 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-253-UR-700 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Designed 1964-1968. UR-700 Stage 3. Development of RD-253 with increased expansion ratio for upper stage use. Status: Designed 1964-1968. Thrust: 1,745.00 kN (392,291 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-254 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. N-1 upper stage, UR-700 stage 3. Proposed for use in N-1. High altitude version of RD-253 for 2nd stages. Later proposed for R-56 and UR-700 upper stages. Status: Study 1961. Date: 1962-66. Thrust: 1,716.00 kN (385,772 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-261 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Tsyklon 3 stage 1. In production. Based on RD-251 First flight 1977. Status: In production. Date: 1967-69. Number: 121 . Unfuelled mass: 1,764 kg (3,888 lb). Thrust: 3,032.00 kN (681,620 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-262 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Tsyklon 3 stage 2. In production. Based on RD-252 First flight 1977. Status: In production. Date: 1967-69. Number: 121 . Unfuelled mass: 728 kg (1,604 lb). Thrust: 941.00 kN (211,545 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-263 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M / RS-20A (SS-18 Mod 1) stage 1. Out of Production. Four RD-263 engines combined into RD-264 system. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1969-73. Thrust: 1,155.00 kN (259,654 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-263F - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Developed 1980. Project to upgrade RD-263. Upgrade was realized in RD-273 engine. Status: Developed 1980. Date: 1980. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-264 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M / RS-20A (SS-18 Mod 1) stage 1. Consists of four RD-263 engines. Used on Dnepr launch vehicle. First flight 1986. Date: 1969-73. Number: 42 . Unfuelled mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Thrust: 4,521.00 kN (1,016,361 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-268 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. MR-UR-100 / RS-16 (SS-17) stage 1. Out of Production. First flight 1976. Modification of RD-263 engine. First flight 1990. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1969-76. Unfuelled mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Thrust: 1,236.00 kN (277,863 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-270 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-700, R-56 stage 1. Development ended 1968. Developed 1962-1971, largest rocket engine ever built in the Soviet Union, answer to F-1. Tested but cancelled before combustion instability problems solved. Status: Development ended 1968. Date: 1962-71. Unfuelled mass: 4,470 kg (9,850 lb). Thrust: 6,713.00 kN (1,509,142 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-270M - Glushko exotic N2O4/Pentaborane rocket engine. In 1962-1970 Glushko studied use of Pentaborane 'zip' propellants in his monster RD-270 engine. Created immense toxicity problems but increased specific impulse of the engine by 42 seconds. Status: Study 1962-1970. Date: 1962-70. Thrust: 7,159.00 kN (1,609,407 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Pentaborane.
RD-273 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Developed 1975-82. Upgrade of RD-263 in 1982 based on RD-263F project. Status: Developed 1975-82. Date: 1975-82. Thrust: 1,238.00 kN (278,313 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-274 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Developed 1975-85. Upgrade of RD-264 engine with increased chamber pressure and thrust. Development stopped due to problems with turbopump shaft balance. Status: Developed 1975-85. Date: 1975-85. Thrust: 4,952.00 kN (1,113,253 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-275 - Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Proton stage 1. In Production. Uprated version of RD-253, developed in the 1980's. First flight 1986. Status: In Production. Date: 1980's. Number: 438 . Unfuelled mass: 1,280 kg (2,820 lb). Thrust: 1,745.00 kN (392,291 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-275 - Manufacturer's designation of RD-253 rocket engine.
RD-280 - Glushko N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Experimental engine. Study 1961. Experimental engine using Aerozine 50 (50% UDMH + 50% hydrazine) as fuel. Status: Study 1961. Date: 1963-65. Unfuelled mass: 174 kg (383 lb). Thrust: 117.60 kN (26,438 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
RD-293 - Yuzhnoye rocket engine. Maneuvering vehicle axial maneuvering. Thrust: 56.00 kN (12,589 lbf).
RD-2MZV - Dushkin Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. I-270. Developed 1944-47. Thrust variable 0.1-0.3 metric tons / 0.35-1.4 metric tons. Status: Developed 1944-47. Date: 1944-47. Thrust: 13.70 kN (3,080 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-2MZV-F - Dushkin Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. Samolet 5. Developed 1946. Status: Developed 1946. Date: 1946. Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-3 - Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. experimental. Developed 1950's. The RD-3 was a cluster of three RD-1 engines with a new common turbopump. Ignition was by an ethane-air mixture. Status: Developed 1950's. Unfuelled mass: 190 kg (410 lb). Thrust: 9.00 kN (2,023 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RD-301 - Glushko exotic LF2/Ammonia rocket engine. Proton K stage 4. Developed 1965-77. Developed by Glushko beginning in 1965. Planned for use in Proton K-4H high energy upper stage. Motor tested in 1977 but never flown. Status: Developed 1965-77. Date: 1965-77. Unfuelled mass: 183 kg (403 lb). Thrust: 96.67 kN (21,732 lbf). Propellants: LF2/Ammonia.
RD-302 - Glushko exotic LF2/Ammonia rocket engine. Developed 1960-69. Successor to RD-303 and predecessor to RD-301. Staged combustion cycle. Status: Developed 1960-69. Date: 1960-69. Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). Propellants: LF2/Ammonia.
RD-303 - Glushko exotic LF2/Ammonia rocket engine. Developed 1960-65. Predecessor to RD-302 and RD-301. Status: Developed 1960-65. Date: 1960-65. Propellants: LF2/Ammonia.
RD-350 - Glushko exotic LF2/LH2 rocket engine. Design concept 1963-. Studied by Glushko as engine concept with high-energy propellants. Status: Design concept 1963-. Date: 1963-. Thrust: 98.00 kN (22,031 lbf). Propellants: LF2/LH2.
RD-36 - Alternate designation for RD-36-41.
RD-36-41 - Lyulka turbojet engine. T-4. Out of Production. Used in Sukhoi March 3 aircraft. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 158.40 kN (35,610 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
RD-3A - Glushko LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. R-3A. Out of Production. Project for R-3A experimental missile. Stopped in favor of RD-103. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1951-53. Unfuelled mass: 885 kg (1,951 lb). Thrust: 390.00 kN (87,670 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
RD-3A - Alternate designation for RD-102 LOx-Alcohol rocket engine.
RD-410 - Glushko nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. UR-700M concept. Developed 1960s. Status: Developed 1960s. Date: 1960s. Thrust: 68.00 kN (15,287 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
RD-428 - Alternate name for RD-0105.
RD-448 - Alternate name for RD-0109.
RD-448, RO-7 - Alternate designation for RD-0109 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
RD-461 - Alternate designation for RD-0108.
RD-461 - Alternate designation for RD-0107.
RD-461 - Alternate designation for RD-0110 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
RD-461, 11D55, 8D715K, RO-8 - Alternate designation for RD-0108 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
RD-461, RO-9 - Alternate designation for RD-0107 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
RD-465 - Alternate name for RD-0210.
RD-465, 8D49 - Alternate designation for RD-0210 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
RD-468 - Alternate designation for RD-0211 N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
RD-473 - Alternate designation for RD-0213.
RD-473 - Alternate designation for RD-0212 and [RD-0212] N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
RD-502 - Glushko H2O2/Pentaborane rocket engine. Experimental upper stage engine. Developed 1960-66. Experimental upper stage engine. Program stopped due to toxicity of propellants. Intended for Proton upper stage. First flight 1966. Status: Developed 1960-66. Date: 1960-66. Unfuelled mass: 132 kg (291 lb). Thrust: 98.10 kN (22,054 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Pentaborane.
RD-510 - Glushko H2O2/CxHy rocket engine. Developed 1965-75. First flight 1975. Status: Developed 1965-75. Date: 1965-75. Propellants: H2O2/CxHy.
RD-510T - Glushko H2O2/CxHy rocket engine. Developed 1965-75. First flight 1975. Status: Developed 1965-75. Date: 1965-75. Propellants: H2O2/CxHy.
RD-511 - Glushko H2O2/CxHy rocket engine. Developed 1965-75. First flight 1975. Status: Developed 1965-75. Date: 1965-75. Propellants: H2O2/CxHy.
RD-54 - Lyulka LOx/LH2 rocket engine. N1 concept stage III. Developed 1960-75. Status: Developed 1960-75. Date: 1960-75. Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-550 - Glushko exotic rocket engine. Experimental upper stage engine. Developed 1963-70. Propellants LOx/30% Beryllium+Pentaborane in 70% Hydrazine. Status: Developed 1963-70. Date: 1963-70. Thrust: 98.06 kN (22,045 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Beryllium+Pentaborane in Hydrazine 30%/70%.
RD-56 - Isayev LOx/LH2 rocket engine. N1 block R. Development ended 1971. Oxygen-hydrogen engine for cryogenic upper stage. Developed but never flown. Design sold to India in 1990's for GSLV. Status: Development ended 1971. Date: 1960-77. Unfuelled mass: 282 kg (621 lb). Thrust: 69.60 kN (15,647 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-56M - Isayev LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Originally developed for Proton and Angara upper stage KVRB with planned first flight 1995. Finally flown on 12KRB upper stage for India's GSLV. First flight 2001. Status: In development. Date: 1994-. Number: 4 . Thrust: 73.58 kN (16,541 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-56M LNG - Isayev LOx/LNG rocket engine. Vozdushnyy Start stage 2. Developed 1996-. Variant of RD-56M using liquid natural gas in place of hydrogen. First engine tests performed in 1998. Status: Developed 1996-. Date: 1996-. Thrust: 73.50 kN (16,523 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LNG.
RD-57 - Lyulka LOx/LH2 rocket engine. N1 Block S (N-1M). Study 1965. One to have been used in N1 Block S. In fixed chamber version, 3 to 6 to have been used in N1 Block V-III. Engine system includes roll control thruster with 1.29 kN thrust. Status: Study 1965. Date: 1960-77. Unfuelled mass: 840 kg (1,850 lb). Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-57A-1 - Lyulka LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Developed 1995-98. New version of RD-57M for SSTO-demonstrator proposed by Aerojet. Optimized nozzle contour for performance increase, new chamber material for weight reduction. Status: Developed 1995-98. Date: 1995-98. Unfuelled mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Thrust: 395.00 kN (88,799 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-57M - Lyulka LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Vulkan Blok V. Development ended 1976. Version with extendible nozzle. Length 4.06 / 2.61 m. Specific impulse 461 / 448 sec. Area ratio 170 / 87.6. Status: Development ended 1976. Date: 1960-74. Unfuelled mass: 874 kg (1,926 lb). Thrust: 397.00 kN (89,249 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RD-58 - Korolev LOx/Kerosene rocket engine family. High-performance upper-stage engine developed for N1 lunar crasher stage, but saw general use as restartable Block D upper stage of Proton launch vehicle. First flight 1967. Also proposed for N12RA, Proryv, LM, 315GK for Zenit, Angara, Energia-M. Date: 1964-68. Number: 45 . Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 83.40 kN (18,749 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-58M - Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Proton 8K824K / 11S824M; 11S824F; 11S86; 11S861; 17S40 stage 4 (block DM). In production. First flight 1974. Status: In production. Date: 1970-74. Number: 212 . Unfuelled mass: 230 kg (500 lb). Thrust: 83.40 kN (18,749 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-58MF - Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. In Production. Multi-function variant of RD-58 for uprated upper stages applications (Zenit stage 3, Angara). Block-DM-SL for Sea-Launch may have used RD-58M. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 230 kg (500 lb). Thrust: 83.40 kN (18,749 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-58S - Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Proton 8K82K / 11S861-01 stage 4 (block DM). Version 17D12 for Buran OMS. Version uses synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') for higher specific impulse. First flight 1994. Date: 1982-86. Number: 43 . Unfuelled mass: 230 kg (500 lb). Thrust: 86.30 kN (19,401 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-58Z - Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Zenit stage 3. Developed 1981-1990. Status: Developed 1981-1990. Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 71.00 kN (15,961 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-600 - Glushko nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Gas core nuclear engine worked developed 1962-1970 for use in second stage of two-stage interplanetary rockets. Status: Developed 1962-70. Date: 1962-70. Thrust: 1,960.00 kN (440,620 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
RD-68 - Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. R-16 stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1956-61. Thrust: 380.00 kN (85,420 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-68M - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36 stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. 4 nozzles, maximum 42 degree gimbal angle. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962-1966. Unfuelled mass: 326 kg (718 lb). Thrust: 285.00 kN (64,070 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-69 - Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. R-16 stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1956-61. Thrust: 49.20 kN (11,061 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-69M - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36 stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. 4 nozzles, maximum 50 degree gimbal angle. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962-1966. Unfuelled mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Thrust: 54.30 kN (12,207 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-701 - Glushko tripropellant (Lox/LH2/Kerosene) engine developed for the 22 metric ton MAKS spaceplane, which was to have been launched at an altitude of 8 kilometers from the back of a behemoth An-225 Mriya transport. Development ended 1988, at which time a first flight in 2001 was expected. Status: Development ended 1988. Date: 1988-. Unfuelled mass: 3,670 kg (8,090 lb). Thrust: 4,003.00 kN (899,910 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene/LH2, Lox/LH2.
RD-704 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene/LH2 tripropellant engine. Developed 1990's. 452 s. Tripropellant engine, single chamber, derived from RD-701 project. Chamber pressure 294 / 124 bar. First flight 1999. Status: Developed 1990's. Date: 1990's. Unfuelled mass: 2,422 kg (5,339 lb). Thrust: 1,966.00 kN (441,974 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene/LH2, Lox/LH2.
RD-8 - Yuzhnoye LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Zenit stage 2 attitude control engine. In Production. Four-chamber pump-fed single-run engine operated in a staged combustion scheme with afterburning of the generator gas. Development began in 1976. Status: In Production. Date: 1976-85. Unfuelled mass: 380 kg (830 lb). Thrust: 78.40 kN (17,625 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-802 - Yuzhnoye LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Upper stages. Design concept 2007. Derivative of the RD-8 Zenit-2 second stage vernier thrust engine combustion chamber for use in launch vehicle upper stages. Status: Design concept 2007. Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-809 - Yuzhnoye LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Upper stages. 2007 design concept for a four-chamber restartable main engine for launch vehicle upper stages. Status: Design concept 2007. Thrust: 88.00 kN (19,783 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RD-851 - Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. R-16 (SS-7) stage 1 attitude control engine . Out of Production. Four thrusters are each gimbaled in one single axis. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1958-63. Unfuelled mass: 403 kg (888 lb). Thrust: 32.48 kN (7,302 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-852 - Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. R-16 (SS-7) stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Four thrusters are each gimbaled in one single axis. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1958-63. Unfuelled mass: 133 kg (293 lb). Thrust: 48.25 kN (10,847 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-853 - Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Stage 2, no application. Developed 1960-63. Designed for second stage, no application. Two thrust levels. Thrust 467.6 kN + 11.8 kN / 7.65 kN. Status: Developed 1960-63. Date: 1960-63. Unfuelled mass: 485 kg (1,069 lb). Thrust: 467.60 kN (105,121 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RD-854 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36orb (SS-X-10) orbital stage. Out of Production. Thrust vector control by 4 nozzles fed from gas generator. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962-67. Unfuelled mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 75.50 kN (16,973 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-855 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Tsyklon stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Four-chamber pump-fed single-run engine burned hypergolic propellants in a gas generator scheme. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962-67. Unfuelled mass: 320 kg (700 lb). Thrust: 328.00 kN (73,737 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-856 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Tsyklon stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Autonomous four-chamber pump-fed single-run engine burned hypergolic propellants in a gas generator scheme. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1962-67. Unfuelled mass: 113 kg (248 lb). Thrust: 54.23 kN (12,191 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-857 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. RT-20P missile stage 2. Out of production. Designed for second stage of mixed propulsion missile, only flight tests. Thrust vector control by secondary gas injection into nozzle. First flight 1967. Status: Out of production. Date: 1963-67. Number: 12 . Unfuelled mass: 190 kg (410 lb). Thrust: 137.30 kN (30,866 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-858 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Primary engine for LK manned lunar lander. Propulsion cluster provided the variable thrust needed for a soft landing onto the lunar surface, then restarted for injection into lunar orbit. Flown 1970. Status: Hardware. Date: 1964-72. Unfuelled mass: 53 kg (116 lb). Thrust: 20.10 kN (4,519 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-859 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. LK lunar lander reserve engine. Hardware. Backup engine for the LK manned lunar lander in the event the primary RD-858 engine failed. Restart within three seconds after shut down. Flight tests 1970. Status: Hardware. Date: 1964-72. Unfuelled mass: 57 kg (125 lb). Thrust: 20.05 kN (4,507 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-860 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Upper stages. Developed 1972. Engine used a novel scheme combining an existing proven combustion chamber but using a pneumatic pump for propellant supply. Status: Developed 1972. Date: Developed late 1960's. Thrust: 5.90 kN (1,326 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-861 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Tsyklon 2 and 3 stage 3; Ikar. In production. Based on RD-854. Thrust vector control by 4 nozzles (thrust 98 N each) fed from a gas generator. First flight 1965. Status: In production. Date: 1968-72. Number: 229 . Unfuelled mass: 123 kg (271 lb). Thrust: 78.71 kN (17,695 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-861G - Yuzhnoye, Fiat Avio N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Vega upper stage. Developed 1996-. Proposed uprate of RD-861 engine. Thrust vector control by gimbal, roll control by 4 nozzles (thrust 29 N each). Status: Developed 1996-. Date: 1996-. Unfuelled mass: 185 kg (407 lb). Thrust: 76.45 kN (17,187 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-861K - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Tsyklon 2 and 3 stage 3; Ikar. Developed 2005. High pressure fuel was used to gimbal the engine in two planes, replacing four thrust vector engines on the basic RD-861. Status: Developed 2005. Date: 2003. Thrust: 77.63 kN (17,452 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-862 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. MR-UR-100 / RS-16 (SS-17) stage 2. Out of Production. Based on RD-857. Thrust vector control by secondary gas injection into nozzle. Roll control via special small jet nozzles. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1969-72. Unfuelled mass: 192 kg (423 lb). Thrust: 142.63 kN (32,064 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-863 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. MR-UR-100 / RS-16 (SS-17) stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1970-73. Unfuelled mass: 310 kg (680 lb). Thrust: 276.84 kN (62,236 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-864 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine.

Application: R-36M UTTKh / RS-20B (SS-18 Mod 2) vehicle bus. Out of Production. Two thrust levels. The four thruster swing out of the stage housing before use. Chamber pressure 41 / 17 bar. Specific impulse 309 / 298 sec. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1976-78. Unfuelled mass: 199 kg (438 lb). Thrust: 20.20 kN (4,541 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.


RD-866 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. RT-23 MIRV-bus. Out of Production. Engine consisted of two turbopumps with gas generators and two feeders; a single chamber main engine; and 16 liquid thrusters for attitude control and translation. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1980-83. Unfuelled mass: 125 kg (276 lb). Thrust: 5.20 kN (1,169 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-868 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Apogee stage. Developed 1983-. In development in 1996. One main and an unknown number of control thrusters. 23.25 + 0.03 kN. Chamber pressure 91.5 / 6.9 bar. Specific impulse 325 / 230 sec. Status: Developed 1983-. Date: 1983-. Unfuelled mass: 203 kg (447 lb). Thrust: 23.25 kN (5,227 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RD-869 - Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M2 vehicle bus. Based on RD-864. Two thrust levels. The four thrusters swing out of the stage housing before use. Chamber pressure 41 / 17 bar. Diameter 3,0 / 4,02 m. First flight 1986. Date: 1983-85. Number: 42 . Unfuelled mass: 196 kg (432 lb). Thrust: 8.58 kN (1,929 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RDD - Russian tactical ballistic missile. The RDD - Long range rocket - was assigned to Korolev in November 1944 in response to the German V-2. Korolev was given charge of a team of 60 engineers and required to provide a draft project in three days. The resulting two-stage design used LOx/Alcohol propellants and an autopilot for guidance. It was proposed that a 5 metric ton thrust rocket, 110 mm in diameter, would be available by 1945. A 250 metric ton thrust, solid fuelled, 280 mm diameter, 4 m long rocket would be ready by 1949. These designs evolved into the more refined D-1 and D-2 before being overtaken by the post-war availability of V-2 technology. Status: Cancelled 1945.
RDKS engine series -
RDKS-1 - Russian rocket engine. Developed End 40's. Single chamber with turbopump propellant feed. Status: Developed End 40's. Date: End 40's.
RDKS-100 - Dushkin LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Sanger. Developed 1946-51. Status: Developed 1946-51. Date: 1946-51. Thrust: 980.00 kN (220,310 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RDMT engine series -
RDMT-0.4 X - NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In Production. Experimental low-thrust thruster. Chamber from niobium alloy. Chamber pressure 41 / 17 bar. Specific impulse 313 / 302,3 sec. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.10 kg (0.22 lb). Thrust: 0.40 N (0.08 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RDMT-0.8 - Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.10 kg (0.22 lb). Thrust: 0.80 N (0.17 lbf). Propellants: Nitrogen+Helium.
RDMT-100 - NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Salyut, Mir, Soyuz-T and -TM, Progress, Kosmos-satellites. In Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.20 kg (2.60 lb). Thrust: 100 N (20 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RDMT-12 - Isayev / NII Mash N2O4/UDMH 12-13 N low-thrust attitude control thruster. Used on Almaz, Kvant, Kristall, Spektr, and Priroda spacecraft; and in Briz and Briz-M upper stages. In Production. Predecessor was RDMT-400. Thrust given as 0.0133 N / Isp = 247 and 270 sec in S5.98M Briz, Briz-M upper stage application. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.55 kg (1.21 lb). Thrust: 12 N (2 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RDMT-135 - NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Salyut, Mir, Soyuz-T and -TM, Progress, Kosmos-satellites. In Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.20 kg (2.60 lb). Thrust: 135 N (30 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RDMT-200 - NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Almaz. In Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Thrust: 200 N (40 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RDMT-200K - NII Mash GOX/Kerosene rocket engine. Buran. Out of Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Mass in ref. NIIMash 95 given as only 2.5 kg. Status: Out of Production. Unfuelled mass: 5.50 kg (12.10 lb). Thrust: 200 N (40 lbf). Propellants: GOX/Kerosene.
RDMT-2600 - NII Mash GOX/Alcohol rocket engine. Developed 1980's. Experimental low-thrust thruster. Status: Developed 1980's. Unfuelled mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Thrust: 2.60 kN (585 lbf). Propellants: GOX/Alcohol.
RDMT-400 - NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Almaz, Kvant, Kristall, Spektr, Priroda. In Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Used in Isayev 11D458 engine. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 2.50 kg (5.50 lb). Thrust: 400 N (80 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RDMT-400 X - NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Developed 1980's. Experimental low-thrust thruster. Carbon combustion chamber. Mass may be chamber only. Status: Developed 1980's. Unfuelled mass: 0.13 kg (0.28 lb). Thrust: 400 N (80 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RDMT-400A - NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Developed 1980's. Experimental low-thrust thruster. Niobium combustion chamber with coating. Status: Developed 1980's. Unfuelled mass: 2.80 kg (6.10 lb). Thrust: 400 N (80 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RDMT-5 - Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.35 kg (0.77 lb). Thrust: 5.00 N (1.10 lbf). Propellants: Air.
RDMT-50 - NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Kosmos satellites. In Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Thrust: 50 N (11 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RDMT-8 X - NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Developed 1980's. Experimental low-thrust thruster. Status: Developed 1980's. Unfuelled mass: 0.0250 kg (0.0550 lb). Thrust: 8.00 N (1.70 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RDMT-XX - Alternate designation for NII 612 kgf N2O4-UDMH rocket engine.
RDS-37 - Alternate designation for R-7A.
RDX - Abbreviation for Nitramine
RE - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory space debris tracking experiment Cubesat.
Re/STARE - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory space debris tracking experiment Cubesat.
REA 10 - Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 0.89 N (0.20 lbf).
REA 16 - Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 20 N (4 lbf).
REA 17-12 - Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 4.45 N (1.00 lbf).
REA 17-6 - Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 2.22 N (0.49 lbf).
REA 20-4 - Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 556 N (124 lbf).
REA 22-16 - Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 130 N (20 lbf).
REA 22-17 - Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 178 N (40 lbf).
REA 22-2 - Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 90 N (20 lbf).
REA 22-5 - Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 50 N (11 lbf).
REA 39-2 - Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 2.22 N (0.49 lbf).
REA engine series -
Reaction Motors - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Reaction Motors Incorporated, USA.
Readdy - American test pilot astronaut 1987-2005. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-2005. Born: 1952-01-24. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 28.03 days.
Reagan - American politician, president of the USA 1981-1989. Initiated 'Star Wars' strategic defenses and Space Station Freedom. Confronted the Soviet Union with a heavy aerospace buildup which they could not match, contributing to their collapse. Born: 1911-02-06. Died: 2004-06-05.
Rebrov - Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1965-1974. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1974. Born: 1931-07-03. Died: 1998-04-24.
Rechitsa - Base for units deployed with six Pioner missile launchers.
Recknagel - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Recommended - Books that should be on your bookshelf...
Recoverable Booster Space System - Alternate designation for RBSS.
Recoverable Booster Systems for Orbital Logistics - American winged orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed investigated the economics of reusable launch vehicles for crews and light space station cargo during the early 1960s. Anticipated manned space activities in the 1970s included a two-phase Earth-orbital space station program, a lunar base, an early Mars mission, plus later Mars/Venus missions. Lockheed proposed four possible launch systems to support the scenario, ranging from System I, a 6-man Apollo CSM/Saturn-IB vehicle, to a fully reusable System IV with a ramjet-rocket booster. Status: Study 1963.
Recoverable Test Satellite - Alternate designation for FSW military surveillance satellite.
Recruit - American sounding rocket. The Recruit motor was usually used as an upper stage, but in this air-launched vehicle was used for re-entry vehicle heat transfer and aerodynamic stability tests. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1956-11-06. Last Launch: 1959-01-01. Number: 3 .
Recruit T55 - American sounding rocket. The Recruit motor was the first stage of this larger booster, dropped from a B-57 for re-entry vehicle heat transfer tests. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1957-01-01. Last Launch: 1958-09-12. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb).
Red Army - Red Army.
Red Duster - Alternate designation for Bloodhound Mk. 1.
Red Lake - Sounding rocket range, known to have been used for 23 launches in 1979, reaching up to 215 kilometers altitude.
Red Lake CHK - Tomahawk Sandia, Nike, Loki, Honest John, Hawk, Black Brant, Arcas launch complex. Chukuni Range First Launch: 1979-02-24. Last Launch: 1979-02-27. Number: 15 .
Red Lake MCM - Astrobee launch complex. McMarmac Site First Launch: 1979-02-26. Last Launch: 1979-02-27. Number: 2 .
Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor - Alternate designation for Shuttle RSRM rocket stage.
Redesigned SRM - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Replacement shuttle solid rocket booster with redesigned field joints to prevent failure that caused the Challenger disaster. Status: In Production. Gross mass: 569,893 kg (1,256,398 lb). Unfuelled mass: 66,406 kg (146,400 lb). Thrust: 11,520.00 kN (2,589,790 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Redmond - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Redmond, USA.
Redondo Beach - American manufacturer. Redondo Beach, USA.
Redstone - Alternate designation for Jupiter A stage.
Redstone - Redstone was the first large liquid rocket developed in the US using German V-2 technology. Originally designated Hermes C. Redstones later launched the first US satellite and the first American astronaut into space. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1953-08-20. Last Launch: 1965-12-01. Number: 53 . Gross mass: 27,980 kg (61,680 lb). Payload: 3,580 kg (7,890 lb). Thrust: 367.50 kN (82,617 lbf).
Redstone Mercury - LOx/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Used for Jupiter-C satellite missions, and greatly modified, for Mercury manned positions. For Jupiter-C missions, used Hydyne fuel, which was toxic but increased specific impulse. Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 28,440 kg (62,690 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,125 kg (6,889 lb). Thrust: 414.34 kN (93,147 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
Redstone MRLV - American suborbital launch vehicle. Greatly modified Redstone rocket used to launch the Mercury manned spacecraft on a suborbital trajectory, typically 380 km downrange, 220 km altitude, and a speed of 6800 kph. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1960-11-21. Last Launch: 1961-07-21. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 28,400 kg (62,600 lb). Thrust: 357.00 kN (80,256 lbf).
redundancy - Originally "exceeding what is necessary or normal"; technically a back-up system which takes over when the prime system fails.
Reeder - American test pilot. Flew the X-5 # 1. Status: Inactive.
Re-Entry Escape System - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. One crew lifting re-entry capsule. No abort capability. Mass per crew 1171 kg. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,171 kg (2,581 lb).
Re-Entry Glider - Alternate designation for Re-Entry Glider-Six Crew.
Re-Entry Glider-Six Crew - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. A six-man parasail escape system was studied as an elaboration of the single-crew system. It was to provide rescue from manned spacecraft as well as stations. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 3,514 kg (7,747 lb).
Reentry Module - Alternate name for Gemini LSRS RM.
Reentry Module - Alternate name for Gemini LORV RM.
Reentry Module - Alternate name for Gemini B RM.
Reentry Module - Alternate name for Gemini RM.
Reentry Module - Alternate name for Gemini Ferry RM.
Reentry Module - Alternate name for Gemini Lunar RM.
Reentry Vehicle - Alternate designation for Big Gemini RV manned spacecraft module.
Re-entry vehicle technology satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Rees - German-American engineer, von Braun's right hand man, in charge of manufacturing 1940-1969 for V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and rockets stages for Saturn LVs that took America to the moon. Succeeded von Braun as Director at Huntsville 1970-1973. Born: 1908-04-28. Died: 1998-04-02.
Reflektor - Russian technology satellite. The 8 kg Reflektor was built by NII KP in Russia for space debris studies in a joint experiment with the Air Force Research Lab. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-12-10. Last Launch: 2001-12-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
Regener - German physical chemist during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war. Born: 1881. Died: 1955-01-01.
Reggane - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1961-12-06. Last Launch: 1965-06-24. Number: 12 .
Regulus - American supersonic sub-to-surface intermediate-range cruise missile, development started in 1953 family.
Regulus 1 - American intermediate range subsonic cruise missile. The Regulus was the first strategic long-range nuclear-armed guided missile deployed by the US Navy. Status: Retired 1964. Gross mass: 6,584 kg (14,515 lb). Payload: 1,810 kg (3,990 lb). Thrust: 293.20 kN (65,914 lbf).
Regulus 2 - American supersonic sub-to-surface intermediate-range cruise missile, development started in 1953. Program cancelled in 1958 in deference to Polaris project. Status: Cancelled 1958. Gross mass: 10,200 kg (22,400 lb). Payload: 910 kg (2,000 lb). Thrust: 510.90 kN (114,855 lbf).
Regulus I - Alternate designation for RGM-6B.
Regulus I - Alternate designation for BQM-6C.
Regulus I - Alternate designation for RGM-6A.
Reichelderfer - American meteorologist. Head of US Weather Bureau, 1938-1963. At the end of his tenure the first weather satellite was designed and orbited. Born: 1895. Died: 1983-01-01.
Reid - American engineer, at NASA 1921-1961, designed basic instruments for flight research. Born: 1895-08-20. Died: 1968-07-01.
Reiff - German expert in the V-2 missile during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Reightler - American test pilot astronaut 1987-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1995. Born: 1951-03-24. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 13.65 days.
Reilly - American geologist mission specialist astronaut 1994-2008. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2008. Born: 1954-03-18. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 35.44 days.
Reimei - Japanese technology satellite. Plasma Science Technology. INDEX, renamed Reimei ("Dawn") after launch, was a test satellite with new lightweight satellite components, and a demonstration auroral imager payload. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-08-23. Last Launch: 2005-08-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb).
Reinhard - German designer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61. Born: 1919-02-11.
Reisig - German engineer. Expert in guided missile guidance, telemetry, and control, working for von Braun from 1937. Worked for Dornberger on Wasserfall SAM from 1943. Member of von Braun's Rocket Team in the US from 1947. Born: 1910-03-03. Died: 2005-03-14.
Reisman - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1998-2011. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2011. Born: 1968-02-10. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 107.14 days.
Reiter - German test pilot cosmonaut 1992-2007. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2007. Born: 1958-05-23. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 350.23 days.
Reitsch - German test pilot. Famed German aviatrix, glider and test pilot during WW2. She flew the womanned version of the V-1 cruise missile Born: 1912. Died: 1979-01-01.
Relay - American communications technology satellite. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-12-13. Last Launch: 1964-01-21. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 78 kg (171 lb).
Relay Mirror Experiment - Alternate designation for RME military strategic defense satellite.
Relek - Carried magnetosphere instruments. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-07-08. Last Launch: 2014-07-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 250 kg (550 lb).
REM - Rat Enclosure Module (for SLS mission)
Remek - Czech pilot cosmonaut 1976-1978. First Czech astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1976-1978. Born: 1948-09-26. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.93 days.
Remova - Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. Remova was a Soviet Manned Maneuvering Unit design that first appeared in a German book in 1967. It was said that the study was made at the beginning of the 1960's. Status: Study 1962.
Ren Xinmin - Chinese Engineer. Chief Designer of Chinese storable propellant rocket engines. Replaced Wu Xiji in developing CZ-1 launch vehicle. Chief Designer for CZ-3 launch vehicle, DFH, Fengyun, and SJ series satellites.
Rendezvous Evaluation Pod - Alternate name for Gemini REP.
Rendezvous technology satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Renova - Alternate designation for Nova MM R10R-2.
REP - Abbreviation for Rendezvous evaluation pod
Republic - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Republic, USA.
Republic Moon Suit - American pressure suit, tested 1966. This was a Republic Aviation design for a hard space suit for extended operations on the lunar surface. Status: tested 1966.
Republic Project 7969 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Republic's studies for the Air Force or NACA initial manned space project started at the beginning of 1958. Their unique concept was a lifting re-entry vehicle, termed the Ferri sled. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
RESA-2 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Pitch Control Propulsion Module. Pressure-fed. Date: 1968. Thrust: 215 N (48 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RESA-5 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Date: 1969. Thrust: 7.11 kN (1,598 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Rescue - In the early 1960's, in the hey-day of the X-20 Dynasoar, it seemed that the US military would naturally keep building military aerospacecraft that would just keep going higher and faster. It was also supposed that the pilot would have to be given the equivalent of an ejection seat - some means of bailing out of the spacecraft in case of catastrophic failure or enemy attack.
Rescue Ball - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1984. The Personal Rescue Enclosure (PRE) Rescue Ball was an 86 cm diameter high-tech beach ball for transport of astronauts from a spacecraft in distress to the space shuttle. Status: Study 1984.
Rescue Gemini - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. A version of Gemini was proposed for rescue of crews stranded in Earth orbit. This version, launched by a Titan 3C, used a transtage for maneuvering. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 12,300 kg (27,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Thrust: 71.17 kN (15,999 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Research Payload Module 481 - USAF heat pipe experiment. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-04-06. Last Launch: 1967-04-06. Number: 1 .
Reshetnev - Alternate designation for Reshetnev bureau.
Reshetnev - Russian engineer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1961-1996 of OKB-10, primary Soviet designer of communications and navigation satellites. Born: 1924-11-10. Died: 1996-01-26.
Reshetnev bureau - Russian manufacturer of launch vehicles and spacecraft, Krasnoyarsk-26/Zhelenogorsk, Russia.
Resnik - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1978-1986. Engineer. Died in Challenger accident. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1986. Born: 1949-04-05. Died: 1986-01-28. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 6.04 days.
Resolute Bay - Sounding rocket launch location. Magnetic North Pole Station. First Launch: 1966-07-19. Last Launch: 1971-09-05. Number: 17 .
resolving power (light) - The ability of an optical system to separate adjacent points and lines in the image and to show fine detail of the target.
Resourcesat - Alternate name for IRS.
Resupply Module - Alternate designation for Apollo RM logistics spacecraft.
Resurs - Zenit-derived satellites used for earth resources studies as part of the 'Resurs' and 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.
Resurs - Series of Russian satellites for investigation of the natural resources of the earth using the Resurs F1-14F43 bus.
Resurs F1-14F40 - Russian earth land resources satellite. The Resurs-F earth resource satellite was based on the recoverable Zenit-4 spy satellite. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-07-10. Last Launch: 1988-02-18. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Resurs F1-14F43 - Russian earth land resources satellite. A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-05-31. Last Launch: 1993-08-24. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Resurs F1-17F41 - Russian earth land resources satellite. The 17F41 was the first of 4 models of the Resurs-F to fly. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-09-05. Last Launch: 1986-05-28. Number: 29 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Resurs F1M - Russian earth land resources satellite. Variant of the Resurs-F recoverable earth resources satellite. See Resurs F1-17F40 for a full technical description. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-11-18. Last Launch: 1999-09-28. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Resurs F2 - Russian earth land resources satellite. Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for remote sensing. Status: Operational 1987. First Launch: 1987-12-26. Last Launch: 1995-09-26. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb).
Resurs-O1 - Russian earth land resources satellite. A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-10-03. Last Launch: 1998-07-10. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
Resurs-O2 - Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. Study 1980. Status: Study 1980. Gross mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb).
Resurs-OE - Russian earth land resources satellite. Modified Meteor; prototype for Resurs-O1. Status: Operational 1980. First Launch: 1980-06-18. Last Launch: 1983-07-24. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Resurs-Spektr - Russian civilian surveillance satellite. Study 1994. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-06-25. Last Launch: 2014-12-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb).
Resurs-T - Alternate designation for Zenit-8.
Resurs-T - Designation for civilian missions of Zenit-2M satellite and [Zenit-2M] military surveillance satellites.
Retro and Correction Stage - Alternate designation for Block D rocket stage.
Retropack - Alternate designation for Mercury Retropack manned spacecraft module.
Reusable One stage Orbital Space Truck - Alternate designation for ROOST.
Reusable One stage Orbital Space Truck - Alternate designation for ROOST ISI.
Reusable Orbital Carrier - American sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. The Reusable Orbital Carrier (ROC) was a 1964 Lockheed study of a sled-launched HTHL TSTO. The booster's rocket engines would burn liquid oxygen and jet fuel while small turbojets would be used for landing approach. The 2nd stage orbiter rocketplane would make an unpowered glide return and landing. LOX, LH2 rocket propulsion would be used on the second stage. The gross liftoff weight would be about 453t and the vehicle could deliver ten passengers+3000kg to a space station. Alternatively, an unmanned 11,340kg payload could be carried. Status: Study 1964. Gross mass: 453,000 kg (998,000 lb). Payload: 11,340 kg (25,000 lb).
Reusable Orbital Module-Booster & Utility Shuttle - Alternate designation for Rombus.
Reusable Transport Spacecraft - Vertical Landing - Alternate designation for MTKVA manned spaceplane.
Revere - American manufacturer. Revere, USA.
Revin - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1996-on. Status: Active 1996-on. Born: 1966-01-12.
Revolutionary Guards - Iranian agency. Revolutionary Guards, Iran.
REX - American earth ionosphere satellite. The REX satellites were designed to study scintillation effects of the Earth's atmosphere on RF transmissions. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-06-29. Last Launch: 1996-03-09. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 85 kg (187 lb).
REXS - Ionospheric experiments. Scientific observations in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Interjection point 31 deg 15' N 11 deg 05' E. Used SS bus.
RF - Russian Federation (Russian abbreviation); or Radio Frequency
RFI - Abbreviation for Radio Frequency Interference
RFNA - Abbreviation for Red Fuming Nitric Acid
RFP - Request for proposal
RGM-15 - Alternate designation for Regulus 2.
RGM-165 - Alternate designation for LASM.
RGM-59 - Alternate designation for Taurus RGM-59.
RGM-6 - Alternate designation for Regulus 1.
RGM-6A - American intermediate range cruise missile.
RGM-6B - American intermediate range cruise missile.
RGM-8H - American tactical cruise missile.
RGM-8J - American tactical cruise missile.
RGMS - Rosgidromet NITs Planeta
RH - Indian solid propellant sounding rocket family using indigenous rocket motors derived from French Belier / Jericho rocket engine technology.
RH-125 - Indian ISRO VSSC sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1970-01-01. Last Launch: 1971-10-09. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11 kg (24 lb). Thrust: 8.40 kN (1,888 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RH-125S - ISRO VSSC solid rocket engine. Menaka II second stage. Status: Retired 1977. Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Thrust: 1.30 kN (292 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RH-200 - Indian ISRO sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x RH-200 + 1 x RH-125 Status: Active. First Launch: 1979-01-01. Last Launch: 2011-05-18. Number: 1044 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 16.90 kN (3,799 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RH-200SV - Indian sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 2003-03-20. Last Launch: 2008-03-28. Number: 6 .
RH-300 - Alternate designation for RH-300 engine.
RH-300 - Indian sounding rocket. Sounding rocket derived from French Belier rocket engine technology. Status: Active. First Launch: 1975-01-01. Last Launch: 1999-11-01. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 38.00 kN (8,542 lbf).
RH-300 engine - ISRO solid rocket engine. RH-300 first stage. Status: Retired 1993. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 79 kg (174 lb). Thrust: 33.30 kN (7,486 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RH-300 Mk II - Indian single stage sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 1987-06-08. Last Launch: 2010-01-15. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 39.00 kN (8,767 lbf).
RH-300 Mk II-1 - Alternate name for RH-300-II.
RH-300 TV - Indian sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x RH-300 + 1 x RH-200 + 1 x RH-200 Status: Retired 1985. First Launch: 1985-11-01. Last Launch: 1985-11-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 38.00 kN (8,542 lbf).
RH-300/RH-200/RH-200 - Alternate designation for RH-300 TV.
RH-300-1 - Alternate name for RH-300 engine.
RH-300-II - ISRO solid rocket engine. RH-300 Mk II first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 39.10 kN (8,790 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RH-560 - Alternate designation for RH-560 engine.
RH-560 - Indian sounding rocket. 2 stage vehicle derived from French Stromboli engine technology. Status: Active. First Launch: 1974-04-24. Last Launch: 2010-03-03. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf).
RH-560 engine - ISRO/Antrix solid rocket engine. RH-560B second stage. Status: Retired 1998. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Unfuelled mass: 277 kg (610 lb). Thrust: 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RH-560/300 Mk II - Indian two-stage sounding rocket derived from French Stromboli engine technology. Status: Active. First Launch: 1995-08-16. Last Launch: 2010-01-15. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf).
RH-560B-2 - Alternate name for RH-560 engine.
RH-75 - Indian ISRO sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1967-11-20. Last Launch: 1968-09-16. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Rheinbote - German surface-to-surface missile. Director Klein and Doctor Vuellers at Rheinmetall in Leba had developed this unguided bombardment weapon. It was a four-stage powder rocket of minimum weight but a range of 120 km. Status: Cancelled 1945. Gross mass: 1,650 kg (3,630 lb). Payload: 40 kg (88 lb).
Rheinmetall - German manufacturer of rockets. Rheinmetall, Germany.
Rheintochter - German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II, but never completed development. The name translates as 'Rhine Maiden'. Status: Cancelled 1945. Gross mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Thrust: 13.70 kN (3,080 lbf).
Rhode - American engineer, at NASA 1925-1967, involved with air and launch vehicle research and advanced design criteria. Born: 1904-03-02. Died: 1994-11-13.
Rhyolite - American military signals intelligence satellite. Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-06-19. Last Launch: 1978-04-07. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
RIACS - Abbreviation or acronym for Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science
Rib Stiffened Expandable Escape System - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1968. This Rockwell concept was stowed in a canister. In an emergency, the articulated rib-truss structure would be deployed into a mechanically rigid aeroshell shape. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 660 kg (1,450 lb).
Rice - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Rice, USA.
Rice University - Alternate name for Rice.
Richards - American test pilot astronaut 1980-1995. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1995. Born: 1946-08-24. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 33.90 days.
Richards, Paul - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1996-2002. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2002. Born: 1964-05-20. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.83 days.
Rickhey - German Engineer. Engineer and general manager of Mittelwerk during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
Ride - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1978-1987. Physicist, first American woman in space. Was married to astronaut Steven Alan Hawley. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1987. Born: 1951-05-26. Died: 2012-07-23. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 14.32 days.
Ride Report - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1987. Former astronaut Sally Ride was asked to head a task force to formulate a new NASA strategic plan in August 1986. Status: Study 1987.
Ridenour - American physicist, served in leading academic, industry, and government positions, notably as chief scientist with the US Air Force in the early 1950s. Born: 1911-11-11. Died: 1959-05-21.
Ridley - American test pilot. Technical lead for pioneering rocketplanes at Edwards AFB 1946-1956. Killed in transport aircraft crash, 1957. Status: Deceased. Born: 1915-06-16. Died: 1957-03-12.
Riedel, Klaus - Talented German engineer, instrumental in developing the first liquid propellant rocket engines in Germany at VfR and in design and debugging of the V-2's engine. Unrelated to contemporary rocket engineers Walter Riedel and Walther Riedel. Killed in an automobile crash near Karlshagen, Germany. Born: 1907. Died: 1944-08-09.
Riedel, Walter - German rocket engineer; worked for Heylandt, then von Braun; involved in development of V-2 engine. Disliked von Braun; left rocketry in 1946. Not to be confused with Walther Riedel or Klaus Riedl, two other contemporary rocket engineers. Born: 1902. Died: 1968-01-01.
Riedel, Walther - German manager and engineer who managed development of V-2 rocket engine after the death of Thiel. In the US he transferred this technology to Rocketdyne, which led to the engines for the Redstone, Thor, Jupiter, Atlas, and Saturn I rockets. Born: 1903-01-23. Died: 1974-11-16.
Rif - Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-39 SLBM adapted for use as suborbital test vehicle or orbital launch vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1980-01-01. Last Launch: 1999-11-17. Number: 81 . Gross mass: 84,000 kg (185,000 lb). Thrust: 2,060.00 kN (463,100 lbf).
Rif - Alternate designation for S-300F.
Rif-3 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Rif-M - Alternate designation for R-39.
Rif-M - Alternate designation for S-300FM.
Rif-Ma - Alternate designation for 3M65.
Rif-MA - Russian orbital launch vehicle. Orbital launch vehicle derived from R-39 SLBM. Air-launched from An-124. Ignition mass 79 metric tons. Status: Out of production. Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
Rif-Ma - Alternate designation for 3M20.
Rigel - Argentinian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1969-09-12. Last Launch: 1973-11-19. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 330 kg (720 lb). Payload: 30 kg (66 lb).
Rigel SSM-N-6 - American Navy pioneering cruise missile project. Development started in 1943. Program cancelled in 1953. Status: Cancelled 1953. Gross mass: 11,800 kg (26,000 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 142.10 kN (31,945 lbf).
Rigidsphere - American military target satellite. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-08-07. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb).
Rij - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Served at Onizuka AFB, California. Retired from the Air Force in 1995. Thereafter worked in private industry in Virginia. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1985. Born: 1950-02-23.
Riksha - Russian orbital launch vehicle. New design launch vehicle based on SLBM technology. Status: Design 1994. Payload: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
RIM-156 - Alternate designation for SM-2-IV.
RIM-156 - Alternate designation for Standard SM-2ER Block IV.
RIM-161A - Alternate designation for SM-3.
RIM-161A - Alternate designation for Standard SM-3.
RIM-2 - Alternate designation for Terrier.
RIM-2A - American surface-to-air missile.
RIM-2B - American surface-to-air missile.
RIM-2C - American surface-to-air missile.
RIM-2D - American surface-to-air missile. Nuclear warhead. Payload: 166 kg (365 lb).
RIM-2F - American surface-to-air missile.
RIM-67 - Alternate designation for Standard-ER.
RIM-67A - American surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Payload: 61 kg (134 lb).
RIM-67B - American surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 1,358 kg (2,993 lb). Payload: 61 kg (134 lb).
RIM-67C - American surface-to-air missile. Standard SM-2 ER Gross mass: 1,436 kg (3,165 lb). Payload: 97 kg (213 lb).
RIM-67D - American surface-to-air missile. Command/inertial, semi-active RF terminal guided. 2 stage vehicle. Gross mass: 1,359 kg (2,996 lb).
RIM-8 - Alternate designation for Talos.
RIM-8A - American surface-to-air missile.
RIM-8B - American surface-to-air missile.
RIM-8C - American surface-to-air missile.
RIM-8D - American surface-to-air missile.
RIM-8E - American surface-to-air missile.
RIM-8F - American surface-to-air missile.
RIM-8G - American surface-to-air missile.
Rimsat - Rimsat Corp, USA
Risat - Tecsar-class radar imaging satellite series bought by India from Israel.
RISING - Microsatellite for Tohoku University mission for studies of lightning with visible and mid-IR imagers and a VLF receiver. Used Raijin bus.
RISP - American lunar flyby probe. Study 1959. The Recoverable Interplanetary Space Probe was a 1957 proposal of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. Status: Study 1959.
Rita 2 - Alternate designation for Rita II.
Rita 2 - Alternate designation for MSBS M2-2 rocket stage.
RITA C - American nuclear-powered single-stage-to-orbit booster. Same engine chamber used to burn liquid oxygen and hydrogen for boost phase, switching to pure nuclear thermal engine for high-performance final acceleration. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 4,399,000 kg (9,698,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 880,000 kg (1,940,000 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 59,572.37 kN (13,392,402 lbf).
Rita II - Sud/SEP solid rocket engine. MSBS M2 second stage. Status: Retired 1993. Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 320.00 kN (71,930 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RJ47 - Wright ramjet engine. Development ended 1958. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. Used on Navaho G-38 launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1958. Thrust: 44.60 kN (10,026 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
RK - Alternate designation for the Iskra.
RK- - Cruise missile (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
RKA - Alternate designation for RAKA.
RKA - Russian Space Agency, Moscow, Russia.
RKDS-100 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Keldysh Bomber. Design 1946. Nominal design engine for 1946 Keldysh bomber design. The Soviet Union would not produce an engine with these propellants and thrust levels until nearly 20 years later. Status: Design 1946. Date: 1946. Unfuelled mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 980.00 kN (220,310 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RKK - Rocket-Space Corporation or Rocket-spacecraft complex (Russian abbreviations)
RKK Energia - Manufacturer's designation for Marpost manned mars expedition.
RKK Energia (1976) - Fifth name of Korolev bureau.
RKO - Orbital Radio Control Station (Russian abbreviations)
RKS - Adjustment of Apparent Velocity (Russian abbreviation)
RKV- - Air-launched cruise missile (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviations); or Rose Knot Victor tracking ship
RL- - Liquid rocket (designation numbering series, Pratt and Whitney)
RL-10 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine family. First flight 1961. Originally planned for use in Centaur upper stage for Atlas, but earliest successful flights in Saturn IV stage for Saturn I. Throttleable version designed for direct-landing Apollo mission, but cancelled. Sea-level version used in DC-X SSTO test vehicle. Numerous developed versions used in Atlas, Atlas V, Delta IV upper stages. Only production American upper-stage LOx/LH2 engine. Specifications are for early version as proposed for Nova A, Nova B, Saturn B-1, Saturn C-2, Saturn C-3, Saturn I. First flight 1961. Number: 60 . Unfuelled mass: 131 kg (288 lb). Thrust: 66.70 kN (14,995 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10A-1 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Version used on Atlas Centaur LV-3C, and proposed for various early Saturn launch vehicle designs. First flight 1961. Number: 44 . Unfuelled mass: 131 kg (288 lb). Thrust: 66.70 kN (14,995 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10A-3 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. First flight 1967. Status: First flight 1967.. Number: 112 . Unfuelled mass: 131 kg (288 lb). Thrust: 65.60 kN (14,747 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10A-3A - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Used on Centaur stage atop Atlas G, Atlas I, Atlas II, Titan 4. First flight 1984. Number: 134 . Unfuelled mass: 141 kg (310 lb). Thrust: 73.40 kN (16,501 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10A-4 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Out of production. Centaur stage for Atlas IIA, Atlas IIAS. First flight 1992. Status: Out of production. Number: 106 . Unfuelled mass: 168 kg (370 lb). Thrust: 92.50 kN (20,795 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10A-4-1 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Atlas IIIA launch vehicle. First flight 2000. Version with one of engines removed; remaining engine re-positioned to center-mount; new electro-mechanical gimbals. Status: Out of production. Number: 2 . Unfuelled mass: 167 kg (368 lb). Thrust: 99.10 kN (22,279 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10A-4-2 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. In production. Used on Atlas IIIB launch vehicle. First flight 2002. Two engines; electro-mechanical thrust vector control actuators replaced earlier hydraulically actuated system. Status: In production. Number: 16 . Unfuelled mass: 167 kg (368 lb). Thrust: 99.10 kN (22,279 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10A-5 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Throttleable to 30% of thrust, sea level version of RL10. Four engines were built and were used on the DC-X and the upgraded DC-XA VTOVL SSTO launch vehicle demonstrators. First flight 1993. Number: 48 . Unfuelled mass: 143 kg (315 lb). Thrust: 64.70 kN (14,545 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10A-5KA - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Kistler proposal. Design 1992. Throttleable to 30% of thrust, sea level version of RL10 with extendable nozzle for high altitude operation. Status: Design 1992. Unfuelled mass: 145 kg (319 lb). Thrust: 100.49 kN (22,591 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10B-2 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. In production. Used on Delta 3 , Delta IV launch vehicles. First flight 1998. Extendable exit cone for increased specific impulse; electromechanical actuators replace hydraulic systems. Status: In production. Number: 10 . Thrust: 110.00 kN (24,720 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10B-X - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design concept 1994. Status: Design concept 1994. Unfuelled mass: 317 kg (698 lb). Thrust: 93.40 kN (20,997 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10C - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. In Production. Used in Delta 3 - 2. First flight 1998. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 317 kg (698 lb). Thrust: 155.70 kN (35,003 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-10C-X - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design concept 1994. Status: Design concept 1994. Unfuelled mass: 317 kg (698 lb). Thrust: 110.80 kN (24,909 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-50 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Development. Advanced, high-performance upper-stage rocket engine proposed by Pratt & Whitney for both domestic and international launch vehicles. Status: Development. Unfuelled mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 290.00 kN (65,190 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RL-60 - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design. Upper stage engine to have been developed by Pratt and Whitney with several international partners. Same dimensions as the RL-10, but over twice the thrust. Status: Design. Unfuelled mass: 499 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 289.10 kN (64,992 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RLA - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The RLA (Rocket Flight Apparatus) family of modular, LOx/kerosene powered vehicles were designed by Glushko in 1974 to meet the Soviet military's third-generation space launch requirements. The approach was rejected by 1976 in favor of the Zenit/Energia family using both LOx/kerosene and LOx/hydrogen stages. Status: Study 1974.
RLA-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Empty mass, specific impulses, length estimated by comparison to smaller Zenit successor design. Status: Design 1974. Gross mass: 800,000 kg (1,760,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 45,000 kg (99,000 lb). Thrust: 11,700.00 kN (2,630,200 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RLA-120 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Medium booster concept with a payload to low earth orbit of 30 metric tons using the RLA-120 core and a 150 metric ton upper stage. Glushko proposed that the RLA-120 would boost reconnaissance satellites and modules of his POS Permanent Orbital Station into a sun synchronous orbit beginning in 1979. The government rejected the RLA concept, but this design led directly to the successful Zenit-2 booster. Status: Design 1974. Gross mass: 980,000 kg (2,160,000 lb). Payload: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Thrust: 11,000.00 kN (2,472,000 lbf).
RLA-1200 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design 1974. Proposed engines for the RLA series launch vehicles. This version would use four chambers. 'Down-sized' to 200 metric tons thrust for Energia. Status: Design 1974. Date: 1972-1975. Thrust: 12,700.00 kN (2,855,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RLA-135 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Heavyweight booster concept with a payload to low earth orbit of 100 metric tons using two modules as the first stage and the RLA-120 core. Glushko proposed that the booster could launch a Soviet manned lunar landing by 1981. The government rejected the RLA concept, but it did lead to the Zenit-2 and Energia boosters of the 1980's. Status: Design 1974. Gross mass: 2,650,000 kg (5,840,000 lb). Payload: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Thrust: 32,000.00 kN (7,193,000 lbf).
RLA-150 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Super-booster concept with a payload to low earth orbit of 250 metric tons using six modules as the first stage and the RLA-120 core. Glushko proposed that the booster could launch a Soviet manned Mars landing by 1983. The government rejected the RLA concept, but it did lead to the Energia booster of the 1980's. Status: Design 1974. Gross mass: 6,000,000 kg (13,200,000 lb). Payload: 250,000 kg (550,000 lb). Thrust: 65,000.00 kN (14,612,000 lbf).
RLA-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Empty mass, specific impulses, length estimated by comparison to smaller Zenit successor design. Status: Design 1974. Gross mass: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 2,940.00 kN (660,930 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RLA-300 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design 1974. Proposed for the RLA series launch vehicles and the UR-700M Mars booster. Following rejection of RLA, design 'down-sized' to 200 metric tons thrust for Energia and Zenit. Status: Design 1974. Date: 1972-1975. Thrust: 3,187.00 kN (716,466 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RLA-600 - Glushko LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design 1972. Two-chamber version of RLA-300. Proposed for the RLA series launch vehicles and the UR-700M Mars booster. Status: Design 1972. Date: 1972-1975. Thrust: 6,370.00 kN (1,432,030 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RM - American earth micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1970-11-09. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 46 kg (101 lb).
RM-01 - Date: 1969. Thrust: 0.0441 N (0.0099 lbf).
RM-05 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Satellite Reaction Control System. Pressure-fed. Date: 1966. Thrust: 20 N (4 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RM-10 - American test vehicle. Two-stage test vehicle to make heat transfer studies at high speed in free flight, launched from NACA's Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va. Vehicle was developed by PARD of Langley Laboratory. Status: Retired.
RM-100A - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Date: 1967. Thrust: 441 N (99 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RM-100B - Rocketdyne Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Satellite Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Date: 1967. Thrust: 441 N (99 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
RM-100T - Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Lunar Flyer. Pressure-fed. Date: 1967. Thrust: 441 N (99 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
RM-1-1 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Satellite Reaction Control System. Pressure-fed. Date: 1967. Thrust: 4.41 N (0.99 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RM-1100 - Cooper solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Thrust: 26.00 kN (5,845 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RM-1-2 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Satellite Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Date: 1967. Thrust: 4.41 N (0.99 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RM-1400 - Cooper solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 94 kg (207 lb). Unfuelled mass: 27 kg (59 lb). Thrust: 12.70 kN (2,855 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RM-1500H - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Propulsion. Pressure-fed. Date: 1971. Thrust: 6.66 kN (1,497 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RM-1600 - Manufacturer's designation of RESA-5 N2O4-MMH rocket engine.
RM-205 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Drone version.
RM-207 - Russian target drone. Retired 207A missiles converted to use as target drones were given this designation and the code name Belka.
RM-217 - Russian surface-to-air missile. Drone version.
RM-217M - Russian target drone. Retired 217M missiles converted to use as target drones were given this designation and used in a large number of versions (code named Zvezda-1, -2, -3, -4, -4MV, -5, -5F).
RM-25 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Date: 1967. Thrust: 107 N (24 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RM-25-1 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Date: 1967. Thrust: 107 N (24 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RM-3141 - GCR solid rocket engine. Jaguar third stage. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Thrust: 8.60 kN (1,933 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RM-50 - Manufacturer's designation of RESA-2 N2O4-MMH rocket engine.
RM-81 - Alternate designation for Agena A rocket stage.
RM-900 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Shuttle Orbiter Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Date: 1972. Thrust: 4.00 kN (899 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RME - American military strategic defense satellite. USA 52. The Relay Mirror Experiment (RME) was launched as a dual payload with LACE. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-02-14. Last Launch: 1990-02-14. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,040 kg (2,290 lb).
RMS - Abbreviation for Remote Manipulator System
RMU - Abbreviation for Remote maneuvering unit
RN - Royal Navy, UK.
RN-6 - Rocketdyne nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Nuclear Deep Space. Nuclear. Date: 1966. Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
RNAF - Royal Netherlands Air Force
RNGC - Abbreviation for Revised New General Catalog
RNII - Reactive Propulsion Scientific-Research Institute (Russian abbreviation)
RNII Sounding Rocket - Alternate designation for Ivanov.
RO - Romania
RO-1 - Manufacturer's designation of S2.1200 rocket engine.
RO1-154 - Alternate designation for RD-0200 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
RO-200 - Alternate designation for RD-0120 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
RO-31 - Kosberg nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. UR-700 Third Stage. Study 1967. Engine proposed for UR-700 third stage to achieve 250 metric ton payload to low earth orbit. Probably closely related to RD-0411. Status: Study 1967. Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
RO-5 - Alternate name for RD-0105.
RO-5, RD-428 - Alternate designation for RD-0105 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
RO-7 - Alternate name for RD-0109.
RO-8 - Alternate name for RD-0108.
RO-9 - Alternate name for RD-0107.
RO-97 - Alternate designation for RD-0126 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
RO-97A - Alternate designation for RD-0126A LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
RO-97E - Alternate designation for RD-0126E LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
Road to the Stars - One man in Russia filmed the future - before Sputnik! Did Kubrick copy his work?
Roberts - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1987. Born: 1954-06-25.
Roberts, Walter - American astronomer, heavily involved in the debate over "nuclear winter" and the possibility of the "Greenhouse Effect" on the Earth in 1980s. Born: 1915. Died: 1990-01-01.
Robins AFB - Originally known as the Georgia Air Depot, this major Air Force maintenance facility was established in 1941.
Robinson - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1994-2012. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2012. Born: 1955-10-26. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 48.41 days.
Robo - American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1955. Hypersonic manned rocket bomber project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar. Status: Study 1955.
Robotic Satellite Servicer - American logistics spacecraft. Studied for ISS, but cancelled when the station's free-flying space platforms were deleted.
ROBUSTA - Student 1U Cubesat from the Universite' de Montpellier. Mission: Radiation effects on bipolar-transistor-based circuits. Status: Failed. First French CubeSat
Rockair - American sounding rocket. The Rockair technique (research rocket launched from aircraft) was developed by the Office of Naval Research and the University of Maryland. A 2.75-inch FFAR rocket was fired from a Navy F2H-2 Banshee aircraft to an altitude of approximately 60,000 m. Status: Retired 1955. First Launch: 1955-08-16. Last Launch: 1955-11-01. Number: 5 . Thrust: 3.00 kN (674 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Rockair-1 - Alternate name for FFAR engine.
Rockaire - American air-launched sounding rocket. This USAF version of the Navy Rockair (research rocket launched from aircraft) vehicle consisted of a Deacon rocket launched from an F-86D Sabrejet fighter. Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1956-12-13. Last Launch: 1956-12-19. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 30.00 kN (6,744 lbf).
Rocket belt - American test vehicle. In the 1960's Bell Aerosystems caught the public imagination with a series of rocket and jet-powered rocket belts. Rocket belt-equipped fliers became a symbol of the future and a fixture at World Fairs, football games, etc. But the technology was too expensive and limited to ever be adopted for military or civilian terrestrial purposes. Status: Active.
Rocket Bomber - Alternate designation for Robo manned combat spacecraft.
Rocket Chair - American manned lunar lander. Study 2005. In 2005 SpaceDev resurrected the 1960 NASA Langley individual crew lunar lander concept. Status: Study 2005.
Rocket Power Inc. - Alternate name for RPI.
Rocket Research - First name of Redmond.
Rocketdyne - Rocketdyne, USA.
Rocketdyne - First name of Pratt and Whitney.
Rocketdyne Division of North American (1955) - Second name of Rocketdyne.
RocketLab - RocketLab.
Rocketplane - Category of launch vehicles and spacecraft.
Rocketplane XP - American manned spaceplane. Study 2015. The Rocketplane XP Vehicle was a proposed suborbital manned spaceplane with accommodations for four crew. Status: Study 2015. Gross mass: 8,840 kg (19,480 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,340 kg (9,560 lb). Thrust: 160.00 kN (35,960 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Rocketsonde - American sounding rocket. Meteorological sounding rockets that could use Loki Datasonde, Arcas, or Deacon rockets as the booster. Status: Retired 2000. First Launch: 1969-01-02. Last Launch: 2000-06-15. Number: 21377 .
Rocketsonde-1 - Solid rocket stage. Status: Retired 2000. Unfuelled mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Rockoon - American air-launched sounding rocket. The Rockoon (balloon-launched rocket) consisted of a small high-performance sounding rocket launched from a balloon above most of the atmosphere. The Rockoon low-cost technique was conceived during an Aerobee firing cruse of the Norton Sound in March 1949. Rockoons were first launched from icebreaker Eastwind off Greenland by an ONR group under James A. Van Allen. They were later used by ONR and University of Iowa research groups in 1953-55 and 1957, from ships in sea between Boston and Thule, Greenland. A variety of upper stage rocket stages were used. Status: Retired 1992.
Rocksonde - Alternate designation for PWN-5.
Rockwell - Second name of Seal Beach.
Rockwell - First name of North American.
Rockwell International Corp - Fifth name of North American.
Rockwell Rocketdyne (1966?) - Third name of Rocketdyne.
Rockwell SHS - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. The Rockwell Spherical Heat Shield escape concept used a return capsule shell like a Vostok capsule cut in half. Two crew could be returned in a pressurized environment. Mass per crew 220 kg. Status: Study 1976. Gross mass: 445 kg (981 lb).
ROCSAT - Taiwanese earth sea satellite. Taiwan's ROCSAT (Republic of China Satellites) were built for Taiwan's National Space Program Office. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-01-27. Last Launch: 2008-10-01. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb).
Rodimov - Russian officer. Colonel-General, professor, Chief of Mozhaiskiy Academy in Leningrad 1947-1969. Entered military in 1923. Graduated Zhukovskiy Academy 1932. After the war deputy commander of the 16th Air Army for Engineering Service. Born: 1902. Died: 1996-01-01.
Rodnik - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-26.
Rodnik (Spring - water spring) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-15.
Rodnik (Spring - water spring) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-5.
Rodnik (Spring - water spring) - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-9.
ROentgen SATellite - Alternate designation for ROSAT x-ray astronomy satellite.
Rogers - American test pilot astronaut, 1962-1963. Status: Deceased; Active 1962-1963. Born: 1928-04-12. Died: 1967-09-13.
Rogers, William - American politician, chair of the presidentially-mandated blue ribbon commission investigating the Challenger accident in January 1986 Born: 1913. Died: 2001-01-02.
Rohini - Series of Indian technology test and earth land resources satellite. Status: Operational 1980. First Launch: 1980-07-18. Last Launch: 1983-04-17. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 41 kg (90 lb).
Rohini 1A - Indian technology satellite. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-08-10. Last Launch: 1979-08-10. Number: 1 .
Rohini 2 - Indian technology satellite. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-05-31. Last Launch: 1981-05-31. Number: 1 .
Rokot - Russian all-solid orbital launch vehicle, consisting of decommissioned UR-100N ICBMs with a Briz-KM upper stage. Status: Active. First Launch: 1990-11-20. Last Launch: 2015-09-23. Number: 27 . Gross mass: 107,000 kg (235,000 lb). Payload: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Thrust: 1,850.00 kN (415,890 lbf).
Rokot - Alternate designation for UR-100N.
Rokot K - Russian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Version with Briz-K upper stage. Gross mass: 107,000 kg (235,000 lb). Payload: 1,850 kg (4,070 lb). Thrust: 1,870.00 kN (420,390 lbf).
Rokot-3 Briz - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. High performance storable liquid engine. The basic stage can be adapted with 'wrap-around' propellant tanks for Proton booster applications. Status: Active. Gross mass: 6,565 kg (14,473 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Thrust: 19.60 kN (4,406 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Roksonde - Alternate designation for PWN-5.
roll - The rotational or oscillatory movement of a spacecraft or similar body about a longitudinal axis through the spacecraft.
Rolls Royce - British manufacturer of rocket engines. Rolls Royce, UK.
ROM - Rough order of magnitude
Romanenko - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1970-1988. Father of cosmonaut Roman Romanenko. 430 cumulative days in space. Status: Inactive; Active 1970-1988. Born: 1944-08-01. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 430.76 days.
Romanenko, Roman - Russian pilot cosmonaut 1997-on. Son of cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko. Graduated from Chernigov Higher Military Air School of Pilots, 1992 Russian Air Force. Cosmonaut training completed November 19. 1999. Status: Inactive; active 1997-2014. Born: 1971-08-09. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 333.46 days.
Romania - Romania
Romanian AF - Romanian AF.
Romanov - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Graduated from Bauman-Higher School, Moscow, 1970 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Worked with NPO Salyut. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1987. Born: 1946-08-18. Died: 2014-09-18.
Romashka - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Pad-launched version. Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Thrust: 1,385.00 kN (311,360 lbf).
Romb - Russian military target satellite. Study 1971. Radar reflective subsatellites, released by Taifun-1, Taifun-2, and Taifun-3 spacecraft, for calibration of PVO air and space defense radars. Status: Study 1971.
Romb - Alternate designation for Taifun-2 military target satellite.
Rombus - Alternate designation for Rombus core.
Rombus - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Bono original design for ballistic single-stage-to-orbit (not quite - it dropped liquid hydrogen tanks on the way up) heavy lift launch vehicle. The recoverable vehicle would re-enter, using its actively-cooled plug nozzle as a heat shield. Status: Study 1964. Gross mass: 6,363,000 kg (14,028,000 lb). Payload: 450,000 kg (990,000 lb). Thrust: 79,769.00 kN (17,932,784 lbf).
Rombus core - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. 36 x plug-nozzle engines (20 atm chamber pressure, 7:1 mixture ratio). Status: Study 1964. Gross mass: 5,102,041 kg (11,248,075 lb). Unfuelled mass: 306,175 kg (675,000 lb). Thrust: 101,900.00 kN (22,908,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Rombus Tank - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket drop tank. . Eight of these liquid hydrogen tanks would be mounted around the core of Rombus and stage in pairs at 130 seconds, 196 seconds, and 300 seconds after launch. Status: Study 1964. Gross mass: 107,501 kg (236,999 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18,143 kg (39,998 lb). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Rominger - American test pilot astronaut 1992-2006. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-2006. Born: 1956-08-07. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 67.12 days.
Romny - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1992. Probably an R-12 missile base.
Ronney - American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1996-1997. Alternate Payload Specialist for STS-83 Mission MSL-1. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-1997. Born: 1957-05-01.
Rook - Alternate designation for Rook engine.
Rook - British test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of a Rook solid rocket motor. Used initially for supersonic tests of aircraft models. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1959-06-29. Last Launch: 1972-06-22. Number: 15 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Rook engine - Royal Ordnance solid rocket single stage vehicle consisting of a Rook solid rocket motor. Used initially for supersonic tests of aircraft models. The motor was a fast-burning version of Raven. Rook was fired 70 times altogether, in 65 flights and 16 different vehicle designs. Status: Out of production. Date: 1960. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,057 kg (2,330 lb). Unfuelled mass: 186 kg (410 lb). Thrust: 300.00 kN (67,440 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Rook II - Alternate name for Rook engine.
Rook IIIA - Alternate designation for Rook engine.
Rook IIIA - British test vehicle. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1965-05-12. Last Launch: 1971-07-03. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Rook IIIB - Alternate name for Rook engine.
Roosa - American test pilot astronaut 1966-1976. Died of viral pneumonia, a complication of pancreatitis. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1976. Born: 1933-08-16. Died: 1994-12-12. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 9.00 days.
ROOST - Alternate designation for ROOST stage.
ROOST - American SSTO orbital launch vehicle. Bono's first design for a reusable single stage to orbit LH2/LOx booster, using conventional engines. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 11,443,400 kg (25,228,300 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 139,218.40 kN (31,297,541 lbf).
ROOST ISI - Alternate designation for ROOST ISI stage.
ROOST ISI - American SSTO orbital launch vehicle. Bono's first design for a reusable single stage to orbit LH2/LOx booster, using Improved Specific Impulse approach: many engines feeding into single large nozzle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 6,763,400 kg (14,910,700 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 81,697.40 kN (18,366,306 lbf).
ROOST ISI stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 6,218,000 kg (13,708,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 435,000 kg (959,000 lb). Thrust: 101,842.00 kN (22,894,992 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
ROOST stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,898,000 kg (24,025,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 608,000 kg (1,340,000 lb). Thrust: 165,447.00 kN (37,193,965 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Rooster - American sounding rocket. Rooster was a variant of the Arcas sounding rocket. Instead of a temperature transmitter, it used a ROBIN (Rocket Balloon Instrument) inflatable falling sphere as its payload.
RORSAT - Soviet military nuclear-reactor powered radar naval reconnaissance satellite network.
ROS-17K - Manufacturer's designation for Multipurpose Satellite Gals earth resources radar satellite.
Rosamund - Alternate name for Rosamund Dry Lake DZ.
Rosamund Dry Lake DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone, Rosamund Dry Lake, California
ROSAT - German x-ray astronomy satellite. West German extreme UV, X-ray telescope; all-sky survey. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-06-01. Last Launch: 1990-06-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,426 kg (5,348 lb).
Rosaviakosmos (Rossiskoe aviatsionno-kosmicheskoe agentstvo) - Alternate name for RAKA.
Rosen, Harold - American Hughes Engineer. Harold A. Rosen was one of the key scientists at the Hughes Aircraft Company who developed Syncom, the first geosynchronous communications satellite, for NASA. He received the National Medal of Technology in 1985. Born: 1926.
Rosen, Herbert - American engineer, deputy director of the office of public information in NASA in early 1960.
Rosen, Milton - American engineer, at NRL 1940-1957. Supervised Viking rocket 1947-1955, Vanguard rocket 1955-1958. Took the fall for Vanguard's loss of space race to Sputnik. At NASA 1958-1974, involved in key launch vehicle decisions 1958-1963. Born: 1915-07-25. Died: 2014-12-30.
Rosenbaum - American engineer. After graduation from MIT, at Convair from 1935. Vice President of Engineering for the Atlas program, 1955-1969. Born: 1914-04-18. Died: 2009-05-18.
Rosetta - European comet probe. European comet orbiter/landing mission. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-03-02. Last Launch: 2004-03-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,322 kg (2,914 lb). Payload: 159 kg (350 lb).
Rosinski - German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. Born: 1914-09-23. Died: 2000-05-14.
Ross - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1980-2012. Shared world record of seven spaceflights. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-2012. Born: 1948-01-20. Spaceflights: 7 . Total time in space: 58.04 days.
Ross, Chan - American engineer. Director of numerous advanced projects at Aerojet (including Aerotojet, Aerorocket, NERVA). Born: 1913-04-29. Died: 1991-09-07.
Ross, H E - British engineer, leader of the British Interplanetary Society from 1933. Originated 1939 article that outlined a method of accomplishing a manned lunar mission.
Rosselevich - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1954-1983 of Nll-380. Specialized in television systems for spacecraft Born: 1918. Died: 1991-01-01.
Rossi - Alternate name for XTE.
Rossiskoe aviatsionno-kosmicheskoe agentsvo (Rosaviakosmos) - Alternate name for RKA.
Rossiskoye Kosmicheskoye Agentsvo (Russian Space Agency) - First name of RAKA.
Rossiskoye Kosmicheskoye Agentsvo (Russian Space Agency) - Alternate name for RAKA.
Rossitto - Italian physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1986. Status: Deceased; Active 1984-1986. Born: 1940-02-01. Died: 2015-05-06.
Rossmann - German expert in weapons during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
ROSTO RS - Alternate name for Radio.
Rostow - American economist, assistant to presidents Kennedy and Johnson for national security affairs. Born: 1916-10-07. Died: 2003-02-13.
Roswell - First Launch: 1931-09-29. Last Launch: 1941-05-08. Number: 29 .
Rotary Rocket - XCOR LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. First stages. Developed in 1990's. Developed and tested by Rotary Rocket for their launcher before its cancellation. Status: Developed in 1990's. Date: 2000-2004. Thrust: 22.25 kN (5,002 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Roth - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1909-06-10. Died: 1967-11-01.
Rothe - German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. Born: 1907-02-02. Died: 2005-01-01.
Rothera - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1998-01-04. Last Launch: 1998-02-27. Number: 26 .
Roton - The American Roton company developed this unique manned SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle until it was cancelled in 2000. The Roton was a piloted commercial space vehicle design intended to provide rapid and routine access to orbit for both its two-person crew and their cargo. Status: Cancelled 2000. Gross mass: 180,000 kg (390,000 lb). Payload: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb).
Rotor - Code name for Zenit-4M military surveillance satellite.
ROUS - Rodents Of Unusual Size (I don't believe they exist)
Rover - Alternate designation for Nerva rocket stage.
Rover First - American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. Boeing updated their Apollo-era MOLAB pressurized rover concept in 1992. The concept, dubbed "Rover First," was smaller than the traditional pressurized rovers, and did not require a separate landing vehicle. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 4,300 kg (9,400 lb).
Rover, Project - NASA-AEC research and development program of nuclear reactor propulsion for rockets
Royal Aerospace Establishment - Royal Aerospace Establishment, British agency overseeing development of aircraft, rockets and spacecraft.
Royal Air Force Bomber Command - Alternate name for RAF.
Royal Aircraft Establishment - Alternate name for Royal Aerospace Establishment.
Royal Artillery Guided Weapons Range - Alternate name for South Uist.
Royal Malaysia AF - Royal Malaysia AF.
Royal Navy Submarine Service, HMS Neptune, Faslane Naval Base - Alternate name for RN.
Royal Ordnance - British manufacturer of rocket engines. Royal Ordnance, UK.
Rozhdestvensky - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1965-1986. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1986. Born: 1939-02-13. Died: 2011-08-31. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 2.00 days.
RP - Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1985. For interception of enemy ICBM's during boost phase NPO Energia developed a space based rocket interceptor (RP) similar to American 'Brilliant Pebble' systems. Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb).
RP-318 - Russian manned rocketplane. Korolev adapted his SK-9 glider in 1936 as the first rocked-powered aircraft in the Soviet Union. Status: Operational 1936. Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Unfuelled mass: 625 kg (1,377 lb). Thrust: 1.37 kN (308 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene.
RPD-04 - Dushkin LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of Production. Status: Out of Production. Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RPI - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. RPI, USA.
RPM - Abbreviation for Revolutions Per Minute, also Roll Positioning Mechanism
RPP - National Reconnaissance Office Rapid Pathfinder Program technology satellites were built in less than two years, for under $20 million, to test classified sensors. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-02-06. Last Launch: 2011-02-06. Number: 1 .
RPRV - Abbreviation for Remotely piloted research vehicle
RR - Abbreviation for Rendezvous radar
RRFV - Reentry Return Flight Vehicle, portion of the Chang'e-5 Test Mission.
RRSS - German manufacturer. Return and Rescue Space Systems, Germany.
RS - Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Soviet Mach 3 manned air-launched ramjet aircraft, developed in 1954-1961, but cancelled before the first full-scale test article could be flown. Status: Cancelled 1961.
RS - Alternate designation for the Radio.
RS- - Strategic missile (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviations); or Rocket shell (Russian abbreviations)
RS-10 - Alternate designation for UR-100.
RS-10 - Alternate designation for UR-100M.
RS-10M - Alternate designation for UR-100K.
RS-10MUTTKh - Alternate designation for UR-100U.
RS-12 - Alternate designation for RT-2.
RS-12M - Alternate designation for Topol'.
RS-12M - Alternate designation for Topol.
RS-12M1 / RS-12M2 - Alternate designation for Topol'-M.
RS-12M1 / RS-12M2 - Alternate designation for Topol M.
RS-12UTTKh - Alternate designation for RT-2P.
RS-14 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Minuteman Postboost Velocity Control. Pressure-fed. First flight 1970. Date: 1966. Thrust: 1.39 kN (313 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-14 - Alternate designation for Temp-2S.
RS-1402 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Minuteman Pitch, Yaw & Roll Control. Pressure-fed. Technology engine, developed, but not produced. Led to RS-14 production engines. Date: 1966. Thrust: 98 N (22 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-1403 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Minuteman Pitch, Yaw & Roll Control. Pressure-fed. Technology engine, developed, but not produced. Led to RS-14 production engines. Date: 1966. Thrust: 78 N (18 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-16 - Alternate designation for MR-UR-100.
RS-16B - Alternate designation for MR-UR-100U 15A16.
RS-17 - Manufacturer's designation of AMPS-1 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
RS-18 - Alternate designation for Strela launch vehicle.
RS-18 - Alternate designation for Rokot.
RS-18 - Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Apollo Lunar Ascent Module Engine. Pressure-fed. Date: 1967. Thrust: 15.56 kN (3,499 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
RS-18A - Alternate designation for UR-100N.
RS-18B - Alternate designation for UR-100NU 15A35.
RS-18B - Alternate designation for UR-100NU.
RS-19 - Rocketdyne exotic ClF3/Hydrazine rocket engine. Condor Development Booster Air-to-Ground Missile. Pressure-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. Date: 1967. Thrust: 3.11 kN (699 lbf). Propellants: ClF3/Hydrazine.
RS-20 - Alternate name for R-36M2-1.
RS-20A - Alternate designation for R-36M 15A14.
RS-20B - Alternate designation for R-36MU 15A18.
RS-20K - Alternate designation for Dnepr.
RS-20V - Alternate designation for R-36M2 15A18M.
RS-21 - Manufacturer's designation of RS-2101C and [RS-2101C] N2O4-MMH rocket engine.
RS-2100 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Next Generation Launch Vehicle Booster. Full flow staged combustion, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. Date: 1999. Thrust: 2,047.60 kN (460,319 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RS-2101 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Derivative of RS-14 Minuteman engine.
RS-2101A - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Mars Mariner. Pressure-fed. Derivative of RS-14 Minuteman engine. First flight 1971. Date: 1968. Thrust: 1.33 kN (300 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-2101C - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Viking. Pressure-fed. Derivative of RS-14 Minuteman engine. First flight 1975. Date: 1968. Thrust: 1.33 kN (300 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-22 - Manufacturer's designation of FLEXEM ClF3-Hydrazine rocket engine.
RS-22 - Alternate designation for RT-23 15Zh52.
RS-2200 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Development cancelled 1999. Linear Aerospike Engine developed for use on the Lockheed Reusable Launch Vehicle, the production follow-on to the X-33. Status: Development cancelled 1999. Date: 1998. Thrust: 2,201.00 kN (494,804 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RS-22A - Alternate designation for RT-23U 15Zh60.
RS-22B - Alternate designation for RT-23U 15Zh61.
RS-23 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Space Shuttle Orbiter Orbit Maneuvering System. Pressure-fed. First flight 1981. Date: 1972. Thrust: 26.67 kN (5,996 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-24 - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. New mobile, solid-propellant ICBM, heavier than the Topol-M, designed to carry up to ten MIRV warheads and to replace the R-36M2 and UR-100N liquid propellant missiles. Status: Development.
RS-24 - Alternate designation for SSME LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
RS-25 - Manufacturer's designation of SSME LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
RS-27 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Consisted of RS2701A/B main engine, and twin LR101-NA-11 verniers. Introduced in 1974 on the McDonnell Douglas' Delta 2000 series launcher; replaced the MB-3. First flight 1972. It completed its Delta service on the 6000 model in 1992, then continued as part of the Atlas MA- 5A powerplant until the retirement of the Atlas. Status: Out of production. Date: 1971. Number: 108 . Unfuelled mass: 1,027 kg (2,264 lb). Thrust: 1,023.00 kN (229,979 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RS-27A - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. . Replaced the RS-27 as the main system for the Delta 7000 and in the MA- 5A for the Atlas. RS2701B main engine, and twin LR101-NA-11 verniers. First flight 1989. Status: First flight 1989. Date: 1987. Number: 20 . Unfuelled mass: 1,091 kg (2,405 lb). Thrust: 1,054.20 kN (236,994 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RS-27C - Rocke. First flight 1990. Number: 107 . Unfuelled mass: 1,091 kg (2,405 lb). Thrust: 1,054.20 kN (236,994 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RS-28 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Space Shuttle Orbiter Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Date: 1972. Thrust: 2.67 kN (600 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-30 - Manufacturer's designation of ASE LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
RS-300 - American technology satellite bus. Ball Aerospace's RS-300 was a small, low-cost spacecraft aimed at cost-capped principle investigator led missions for Earth or space science. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-03-09. Last Launch: 2009-12-14. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 150 kg (330 lb).
RS-32 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Upper Stage Target Engine Systems. Pressure-fed. Derived from Minuteman RS-14. Date: 1976. Thrust: 1.39 kN (313 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-32 - Manufacturer's designation of LR101-NA-7 N2O4-MMH rocket engine and [LR101-NA-7] LOx-Kerosene rocket engine. Date: 1976. Thrust: 1.39 kN (313 lbf).
RS-34 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Peacekeeper Postboost Axial Thrust. Pressure-fed. 1 main axial thruster per postboost propulsion system. First flight 1983. Date: 1978. Thrust: 11.70 kN (2,630 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-34 - Manufacturer's designation of RS-34 Attitude Control LOx-Kerosene rocket engine. Date: 1978. Thrust: 11.70 kN (2,630 lbf).
RS-34 Attitude Control - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Peacekeeper Postboost Attitude Control. Pressure-fed. 8 attitude thrusters in each postboost propulsion system. First flight 1983. Date: 1978. Thrust: 304 N (68 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RS-36 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. HOE Homing Overlay Experiment Upper Stage Axial Propulsion System. Pressure-fed. Derivative of Lance propulsion system. First flight 1983. Date: 1979. Thrust: 55.60 kN (12,499 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-36 - Manufacturer's designation of RS-36 Sustainer LOx-Kerosene rocket engine. Date: 1979. Thrust: 55.60 kN (12,499 lbf).
RS-36 Sustainer - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. HOE Homing Overlay Experiment Upper Stage Axial Propulsion System. Pressure-fed. Derivative of Lance propulsion system. First flight 1983. Date: 1979. Thrust: 9.21 kN (2,070 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RS-41 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Axial Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Date: 1981. Thrust: 11.96 kN (2,689 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-42 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Axial Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Date: 1981. Thrust: 441 N (99 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-43 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Attitude Control. Pressure-fed. Date: 1981. Thrust: 20 N (4 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-44 - Manufacturer's designation of AEC engine LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
RS-45 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Satellite Attitude Control and Stationkeeping. Pressure-fed. Date: 1982. Thrust: 4.41 N (0.99 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-47 - Manufacturer's designation of XLR132 N2O4-MMH rocket engine.
RS-51 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Axial Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Date: 1984. Thrust: 11.55 kN (2,597 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-52 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Oxygen/Hydrogen Space Station Thruster. Pressure-fed. Technology was developed with 0.1 lb thrust resistojet by using electrically heated waste for space station propulsion. Date: 1983. Thrust: 107 N (24 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RS-56-OBA - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Booster engine for Atlas II, IIA, IIAS. First flight 1991. Status: Out of production. Date: 1988. Number: 126 . Unfuelled mass: 805 kg (1,774 lb). Thrust: 1,046.80 kN (235,330 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RS-56-OSA - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Sustainer engine for Atlas II, IIA, IIAS. First flight 1991. Status: Out of production. Date: 1988. Number: 63 . Unfuelled mass: 460 kg (1,010 lb). Thrust: 386.40 kN (86,866 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RS-68 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. In production. First new large liquid-fueled rocket engine developed in America in more than 25 years. Powered the Delta IV booster. First flight 2002. Status: In production. Date: 1998. Number: 9 . Unfuelled mass: 6,597 kg (14,543 lb). Thrust: 3,312.00 kN (744,567 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RS-68 Regen - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design concept -2004. Upgrade to basic RS-68 for Delta IV Heavy growth versions. Would use a regeneratively-cooled expansion nozzle, allowing it to run hotter, with higher thrust and specific impulse. Status: Design concept -2004. Date: 2005. Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RS-68B - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design concept -2004. Upgrade (details not specified) to basic RS-68 for Delta IV Heavy growth versions. Status: Design concept -2004. Date: 2005. Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RS-69 - Manufacturer's designation of XRS-2200 LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
RS-71 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Development ended 1999. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment. Pressure-fed. Status: Development ended 1999. Date: 1998. Thrust: 31.13 kN (6,997 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RS-72 - Rocketdyne, Ottobrunn N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Aestus engine enhanced with the addition of a Boeing-Rocketdyne XLR 32 turbo-pump. Date: 1999. Thrust: 55.40 kN (12,454 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
RS-73 - Manufacturer's designation of MB-60 [MB-60] and [MB-60] LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
RS-74 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Next Generation Launch Vehicle Booster. Full flow staged combustion, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. Date: 1999. Thrust: 1,112.00 kN (249,987 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RS-76 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Space Shuttle Reusable First Stage. Ox-Rich staged combustion, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. Date: 1998. Thrust: 4,002.00 kN (899,685 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RS-77 - Rocketdyne solar/LH2 rocket engine. Solar Thermal Engine. Pressure-fed. SOTV Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicle. Date: 1999. Thrust: 176 N (39 lbf). Propellants: Solar/LH2.
RS-800 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design concept -2004. New high-thrust cryogenic engine for Delta IV Heavy growth versions. Status: Design concept -2004. Date: 2005. Thrust: 4,110.00 kN (923,960 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RS-82 - Rocketdyne H2O2/kerosene rocket engine. Next Generation Non-Toxic Upper Stage. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust: 44.46 kN (9,996 lbf). Propellants: H2O2/Kerosene.
RS-84 - Rocketdyne LOx/kerosene rocket engine. Booster stages. Development ended 2005. Design for NASA's Space Launch Initiative; borrowed extensively from Russian technology developed in the forty years since the USA abandoned the F-1. Status: Development ended 2005. Date: 2002. Thrust: 5,159.00 kN (1,159,789 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RS-88 - Rocketdyne rocket engine designed and built by Rocketdyne for use on Lockheed's Pad Abort Demonstration vehicle. In 2003, NASA tested the RS-88 in a series of 14 hot-fire tests, resulting in 55 seconds of successful engine operation. Date: 2002.
RSA - South African orbital launch vehicle. Israel and South Africa collaborated closely in rocket technology in the 1970's and 1980's. South Africa provided Israel with the uranium and test facilities it needed for its strategic weapons programs. In exchange Israel provided aerospace technology. This included the capability of building the ten-metric ton solid propellant rocket motors designed for the Israeli Jericho-2 missile. These motors were the basis of two space launchers for an indigenous 'R5b' space program. It seems that South Africa also planned to use these motors in a series of missiles to provide a nuclear deterrent. Status: Retired 1990.
RSA-1 - It is conjectured that this designation was assigned to an intermediate range single-stage ballistic missile consisting of the first stage of the RSA-3. Purported mission was to strike Cuban military concentrations from mobile launchers on South African territory. The rocket motor closely followed the design of the Israeli Jericho-2 first stage. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 412.70 kN (92,779 lbf).
RSA-2 - South African intermediate range ballistic missile. It is conjectured that this designation was assigned to an intermediate range ballistic missile consisting of the first and second stages of the RSA-3. Probably very similar to, or a licensed copy of the Israeli Jericho-2 missile. A third stage apogee kick motor was added to produce the RSA-3 space launcher. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 23,000 kg (50,000 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 412.70 kN (92,779 lbf).
RSA-3 - The RSA-3 satellite launcher began development as an IRBM in the 1980's because of the perceived Soviet threat and isolation of South Africa. It was developed with the assistance of Israel and was believed to be essentially identical to the Israeli Jericho missile/Shavit launch vehicle. The objective of the satellite launcher was to place a small surveillance satellite of 330 kg mass into a 41 degree, 212 x 460 km orbit around the earth. Development continued even after South African renunciation of its nuclear weapons. However the launcher was found not to be viable commercially and so was cancelled in mid-1994. Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1989-07-06. Last Launch: 1990-11-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 23,630 kg (52,090 lb). Payload: 330 kg (720 lb). Thrust: 412.70 kN (92,779 lbf).
RSA-3-1 - South African solid rocket engine. Out of production. Built in both Israel and South Africa for RSA-3 and Shavit. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. First flight 1988. Solid propellant rocket stage. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. Status: Out of production. Number: 5 . Thrust: 500.00 kN (112,400 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RSA-3-2 - South African solid rocket engine. In production. Built in both Israel and South Africa for RSA-3 and Shavit. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. First flight 1988. Solid propellant rocket stage. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. Empty mass includes 583 kg for payload shroud, guidance, orientation and spin-up platform that positions stage 3 and payload for final orbital insertion burn. Status: In production. Number: 9 . Thrust: 519.00 kN (116,675 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RSA-3-3 - South African solid rocket engine. In production. Israeli AUS-51 rocket motor, built in both Israel and South Africa. Upper stage engine for RSA-3, RSA-4, Shavit, Shavit 1. First flight 1988. Solid propellant rocket stage. Data accurate. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. ARC/Rafael AUS 51 is identical. Solid propellant rocket stage. Essentially identical to RSA-3 third stage. Oriented and spun up by 1000 kg avionic section/spin platform, which separates prior to ignition. RSA-4 third stage. Status: In production. Number: 9 . Thrust: 51.00 kN (11,465 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RSA-4 - South African all-solid orbital launch vehicle. The RSA-4 ICBM / satellite launcher was a planned follow-on to the RSA-3. A large new first stage optimized the vehicle and more than doubled the payload in comparison to the RSA-3. It is not known if the project reached the point of testing of the large motor, which was equivalent to the US Peacekeeper first stage. Status: Development ended 1994. Gross mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Payload: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Thrust: 2,000.00 kN (449,600 lbf).
RSA-4-1 - South African solid rocket engine. Development ended 1994. Used on RSA-4 launch vehicle. Solid propellant rocket stage. Vacuum specific impulse / thrust estimated. Sea level 139,000 kN delivered over 73 seconds. Includes 3400 kg mass of fins, interstage and upper-stage constant-diameter fairing ('sleeve') which is jettisoned after first stage burnout. Status: Development ended 1994. Thrust: 1,520.00 kN (341,700 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RSA-4-2 - South African solid rocket engine. Development ended 1994. Used on RSA-4 launch vehicle. Solid propellant rocket stage. Essentially identical to RSA-3 second stage. Includes 1000 kg upper stage avionic section / spin table, which is jettisoned prior to stage three ignition. Status: Development ended 1994. Thrust: 676.00 kN (151,970 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RSA-4-3 - Alternate name for RSA-3-3.
RSA-4-4 - Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Specific impulse estimated. Maximum propellant load indicated (hydrazine monopropellant contained in 4 x 50 l tanks). Upper stage used for orbit circularization at apogee, dispensing of dual payloads, third station nutation damping. Equipped with 2 x 200 N engines for maneuver, 4 x 200 N for roll control, and 4 x 25 N for yaw and pitch. Status: Development 1988. Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 402 N (90 lbf).
RSAF - South African Air Force
RSC - Rocket Systems Corporation
RSC Energia im S P Korolev - Alternate name for Korolev bureau.
RSC Energia imeni S P Korolev - Sixth name of Korolev bureau.
RSD- - Intermediate range strategic missile (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviations)
RSD-10 - Alternate designation for Pioner UTTKh.
RSD-10 - Alternate designation for 15Zh45.
RSM- - Sea-launched strategic missile (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviations)
RSM-25 - Alternate designation for R-27.
RSM-40 - Alternate designation for Vysota.
RSM-40 - Alternate designation for R-29D.
RSM-40 - Alternate designation for R-29.
RSM-45 - Alternate designation for R-31.
RSM-50 - Alternate designation for R-29K.
RSM-50 - Alternate designation for R-29RL.
RSM-50 - Alternate designation for Volna.
RSM-50 - Alternate designation for R-29R.
RSM-52 - Alternate designation for 3M65.
RSM-52 - Alternate designation for R-39.
RSM-52 - Alternate designation for 3M20.
RSM-52 - Alternate designation for Rif-MA.
RSM-52M - Alternate designation for R-39M.
RSM-52V - Alternate designation for R-39UTTKh.
RSM-54 - Alternate designation for Shtil'-1.
RSM-54 - Alternate designation for Shtil-3N.
RSM-54 - Alternate designation for Shtil-3A.
RSM-54 - Alternate designation for Shtil-2/2N.
RSM-54 - Alternate designation for R-29RM.
RSM-56 - Alternate designation for Bulava.
RSN - Abbreviation for Real Soon Now
RSRI - Saudi agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Riyadh Space Research Institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
RSRM - Thiokol solid rocket engine. After the Challenger disaster the redesigned solid rocket motors had a slight reduction in performance due to reliability improvements. Solid propellant rocket stage. Five-segment version of Shuttle RSRM studied in 1999-2003 to increase shuttle payload to ISS. Test fired in 2003 but not proceeded with. Another version proposed in 2005 for use as lateral boosters for the Constellation Cargo Vehicle. Solid propellant rocket stage. After the Challenger disaster the redesigned solid rocket motors had a slight reduction in performance due to reliability improvements. Status: Study 1996. Gross mass: 590,000 kg (1,300,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 88,000 kg (194,000 lb). Thrust: 11,520.00 kN (2,589,799 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RSS-40 - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. SS-18 Replacement. The designation SS-X-26 was originally assigned to the RSS-40, but the number was reused for another missile after its cancellation. Status: Cancelled 1991.
RSS-52 - Alternate designation for Buran RSS-52.
RSS-52 - Alternate designation for Buran M-44.
RSS-52 - Alternate designation for Buran M-42 and [M-42] manned rocketplanes.
RS-Systems - American manufacturer. RS-Systems, USA.
RS-X - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept -1997. Employed existing Delta and Atlas MA and RS engine hardware with a new thrust chamber assembly to generate a thrust of 1890 kN for ELV applications. Status: Design concept -1997. Thrust: 1,890.00 kN (424,880 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
RS-XXX - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design concept -2004. New high-thrust cryogenic engine concept for Next Generation Delta with 7 m diameter modules. Status: Design concept -2004. Date: 2005. Thrust: 8,230.00 kN (1,850,170 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
RT- - Solid rocket (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviations)
RT-1 - The RT-1 (RT = rocket, solid in Russian) was the first large Soviet solid propellant ballistic missile. It was developed and tested in 1959-1963, but no production was undertaken due to its poor performance. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1962-03-01. Last Launch: 1965-11-01. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 31,900 kg (70,300 lb). Payload: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Thrust: 979.00 kN (220,087 lbf).
RT-1-1 - Alternate name for RT-2-1.
RT-1-2 - Alternate name for RD RT-15-2.
RT-1-3 - Alternate name for RD RT-1-3.
RT-134 - MITT solid rocket engine.
RT-140 - OKB-1 solid rocket engine.
RT-149 - MIHT solid rocket engine.
RT-15 - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The RT-15 IRBM used the second and third stages if the RT-2 ICBM. After protracted development in 1961-1970 with a range of alternative self-propelled mobile launchers, limited numbers ('few' to 19) of two types of launchers were deployed in 1970. The various transporters tested created confusion in the West (with designations SS-14 Scapegoat and Scamp being applied). Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1965-01-01. Last Launch: 1970-03-01. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 412.00 kN (92,621 lbf).
RT-155 - Russian solid rocket engine.
RT-15M - Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Under the original resolution in 1961 starting the RT-2 program, Makeyev was to develop a submarine-launched version of the RT-15, consisting of the first and second stages of the RT-2. It did not proceed beyond the study stage.
RT-179 - MITT solid rocket engine.
RT-2 - Development of the RT-2, the Soviet Union's first solid propellant ICBM, was undertaken by Sergei Korolev and his successor from 1961-1968. It was a huge technical challenge, involving technology in which the Russians had no prior experience. The high-priority RT-2 preoccupied Korolev and his team throughout the period of the moon race, and could be considered a factor in the loss of that race to the Americans. In the end only sixty were deployed, but these provided the technical basis for Russian ballistic missiles of the 1980's and beyond. Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1966-01-01. Last Launch: 1970-01-01. Number: 41 . Gross mass: 51,000 kg (112,000 lb). Payload: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Thrust: 860.00 kN (193,330 lbf).
RT-20 - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. First and third stages of SS-13. Cancelled after 8 test firings. Claims to have been deployed briefly. Status: Cancelled 1965.
RT-20P - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Following the protracted development of Shavyrin's Gnom air-augmented ICBM, it was decided to let Yangel tackle the problem of developing a 30 metric ton gross mass ICBM using more conventional technology. At first a three-stage solid propellant design was considered. But it was found impossible to achieve the launch weight with such an approach. Yangel's solution was to propose the only mixed propulsion ICBM ever developed - a solid propellant first stage, and high performance ampulized storable liquid propellant second stage. The draft project for the missile was completed in December 1964 and a decree to proceed with development was issued on 24 August 1965. Shortly thereafter Shavyrin died and Gnom was cancelled, leaving Yangel's RT-20P the lead project for the mobile ICBM requirement. Designs for silo-launched and submarine-launched versions of the missile were to be developed as well. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1967-10-20. Last Launch: 1969-08-07. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 30,200 kg (66,500 lb). Payload: 545 kg (1,201 lb). Thrust: 600.00 kN (134,880 lbf).
RT-21 - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Project work began in 1963 on this three-stage solid propellant ICBM. Five train-launched variants were studied, as well as a silo-launched version. Studies were completed in 1966 but it was decided not to proceed with the concept. Status: Study 1966. Gross mass: 42,000 kg (92,000 lb).
RT-2-1 - OKB-1 solid rocket engine. RT-1 first stage. Status: Retired 1965. Thrust: 900.00 kN (202,320 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RT-22 - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The RT-22 was a follow-on study to the RT-21 for a train-launched solid-propellant ICBM. It reached the stage of an advanced project in 1969. The three stage rocket would have a total mass of 80 metric tons including its transport container. A train would have a total of 22 cars, six of which would be missile launchers. Status: Cancelled 1969.
RT-23 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The only rail-based ICBM ever deployed. Developed by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine was protracted, but understandable given the huge technical challenges. Twelve years of design and testing was followed by deployment from 1988. All were retired by 2003. Status: Retired 2003.
RT-23 15Zh44 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The draft project for the silo-based RT-23 with the 15F143 warhead was completed in December 1979. Trials of this basic version began at Plesetsk on 26 October 1982. The basic RT-23 was accepted for military service on 10 February 1983, but the decision was taken not to put it into production. All resources were to be devoted to an improved RT-23UTTKh. Status: Retired 1984. First Launch: 1982-10-26. Last Launch: 1984-02-16. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb).
RT-23 15Zh52 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. A draft project of the 15Zh52 MIRV train-based version of the RT-23 was completed in June 1980. The system was designed to allow the mobile launchers to conduct long-duration deployments up to 200 km from base. Status: Retired 1985. First Launch: 1984-01-18. Last Launch: 1985-04-15. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 95,000 kg (209,000 lb). Payload: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb).
RT-23-3 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Status: Retired 1998. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Thrust: 206.00 kN (46,310 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
RT-23U 15Zh60 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Design began of the silo-based version of the RT-23UTTKh on 9 August 1983. Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1982-12-05. Last Launch: 1990-05-15. Number: 21 . Gross mass: 104,500 kg (230,300 lb). Payload: 4,050 kg (8,920 lb). Thrust: 2,060.00 kN (463,100 lbf).
RT-23U 15Zh61 - Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. A decree of 9 August 1982 ordered development of an improved RT-23UTTKh, dubbed 'Molodets'. Three basing modes were to be possible using a single containerized missile: train-launched, a 'Tselina-2' road-mobile transport, or silo-based. This would be able to deploy up to ten nuclear warheads from a layered circular dispenser. Retired in 2003. Status: Retired 1998. First Launch: 1985-01-01. Last Launch: 1998-12-09. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 104,500 kg (230,300 lb). Payload: 4,050 kg (8,920 lb).
RT-25 - Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Decree 316-157 of 4 April 1961 authorized development of a family of solid propellant launch vehicles utilizing various combinations of three stages (the RT-2, RT-15, and RT-25). The RT-25 IRBM used the first and third stages of the RT-2 ICBM. M Yu Tsirulnikov at SKB-172 in Perm was responsible for development of the RT-25. However there was little interest in this variant and in 1963 further development was dropped. Status: Cancelled 1963. Gross mass: 41,000 kg (90,000 lb). Thrust: 892.00 kN (200,529 lbf).
RT-257 - SKB-350 solid rocket engine.
RT-2M - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The RT-2M was a modernized RT-2, developed under Savodskiy at Korolev's bureau beginning in the late 1960's in parallel with the RT-2P and using alternate new engines. This increased both range and payload compared to the RT-20. However the RT-2P was selected for further development. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Payload: 800 kg (1,760 lb).
RT-2M2 - Alternate designation for Topol'-M.
RT-2M2 - Alternate designation for Topol M.
RT-2P - Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Development of the improved RT-2P version of the basic missile was authorized by decree 1004-365 of 18 December 1968. The overriding concern was imminent deployment by the Americans of the Safeguard anti-ballistic missile system, and the need for the missile to have the necessary countermeasures to defeat those defenses. Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1970-01-01. Last Launch: 1987-01-29. Number: 106 . Gross mass: 51,900 kg (114,400 lb). Payload: 470 kg (1,030 lb). Thrust: 980.00 kN (220,310 lbf).
RT-2PM - Alternate designation for Topol'.
RT-2PM - Alternate designation for Start-1.
RT-2PM - Alternate designation for Start.
RT-2PM - Alternate designation for Topol.
RT-2PM2 - Alternate designation for Topol'-M.
RT-2PM2 - Alternate designation for Universal.
RTB - Rocket braking stage (Russian abbreviations); or Return to base (shuttle abort mode involving shuttle separating from booster, turning around, and landing back at the Kennedy Space Center)
RTDS - Alternate name for Musketball.
RTG - Alternate designation for RTG (abbreviation).
RTG - Space Technology Group
RTG (abbreviation) - Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (spacecraft power system) .
RTLS - Return To Launch Site (Shuttle abort plan)
RTS- - Telemetry Control System (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviations)
RTTOCV - In June 1962 NASA funded studies with several contractors on Operations and Logistics for Space Stations. This included study contracts for a "Reusable Ten Ton Orbital Carrier Vehicle"
RTV-100 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 63 kg (138 lb). Thrust: 22.00 kN (4,945 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RTV-500 - Aerojet solid rocket engine. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 223 kg (491 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RTV-A-2 - American test vehicle. Project MX-774 inaugurated by AAF with Consolidated-Vultee to study rocket capabilities with an ICBM as a final objective. Limited funds permitted a few test launches. These rockets demonstrated technologies that would later be applied to the Atlas. Status: Retired 1948. First Launch: 1948-07-14. Last Launch: 1948-12-02. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf).
RTV-A-2 - Alternate designation for Hiroc.
RTV-A-3 - Alternate designation for Nativ.
RTV-A-5 - Alternate designation for Navaho X-10.
RTV-G-1 - Alternate designation for Wac.
RTV-G-10 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-2.
RTV-G-10 - Alternate designation for Hermes C-1.
RTV-G-3 - Alternate designation for Hermes B-1.
RTV-G-4 - Alternate designation for Bumper-WAC.
RTV-G-6 - Alternate designation for Hermes B-1.
RTV-N-12 - Alternate designation for Viking sounding rocket.
RTV-N-12a - Alternate designation for Viking Type 9.
RU-013 - Dushkin rocket engine. Developed 1955-57. Status: Developed 1955-57. Date: 1955-57. Thrust: 31.00 kN (6,969 lbf).
RuAF - Russian agency. Astronautical Federation of Russia, Russia.
Rubezh - Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-09-27. Last Launch: 2015-03-18. Number: 5 .
Rubicon - American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of STC. Status: Study 2004.
Rubin - German technology microsatellite. Rubin was developed by OHB and students of the Hochschule Bremen. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-07-15. Last Launch: 2009-09-23. Number: 8 .
Rubin (Ruby ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 1.
Rubin (Ruby ) - Alternate name for Voskhod 1.
Rubin (Ruby) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 1.
Rubin (Ruby) - Alternate designation for Voskhod 1.
Rubins - American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1978-10-14.
Rubis - Alternate designation for NA801.
Rubis - Two-stage test vehicle consisting of 1 x Agate + 1 x P064. It was designed to test the upper stage and payload elements of the Diamant orbital launcher. These included fairing jettison, spin-up, release, and ignition of the P064 final stage. Six launches were used to validate the design and led to the success of the Diamant on its first flight. The last four launches were made on behalf of CNES to validate payloads for the D1 satellite and carry scientific instruments for the Paris Observatory and Max Planck Institute. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1964-06-10. Last Launch: 1967-07-05. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 186.00 kN (41,814 lbf).
Rude - American manager. Vice-President of Aerojet, 1944-1966. Born: 1890-03-29. Died: 1982-08-20.
Ruden - German expert in aeronautics during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Rudenko - Russian officer. First Deputy Commander-in-Chief of Air Force 1958-1968. Oversaw cosmonaut training. Born: 1904-10-07. Died: 1990-01-01.
Rudnev - Russian government official. Director of NII-88 1950-1952. Chaired GKOT 1958-1961. Born: 1911-06-22. Died: 1980-08-13.
Rudolph - German-American rocket engineer, with Valier in 1931, von Braun from 1934. Planned V-2 production. Program manager for Redstone, Pershing, and the Saturn V. Retired 1970, but named as a war criminal, returned to Germany in 1984. Born: 1906-11-09. Died: 1996-01-01.
Ruediger - German measurement technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. Born: 1901.
Ruehlemann - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Rukavishnikov - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1967-1987. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1987. Born: 1932-09-18. Died: 2002-10-18. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 9.88 days.
Rumba - Name one of the Cluster 2.
Runco - American meteorologist mission specialist astronaut 1987-2002. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-2002. Born: 1952-01-26. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 22.96 days.
Runge - German expert in rockets during World War II at Nordhausen. Later worked in France at LRBA as a technician in the mechanics group of the automated control loop department 1947-1952.
R-UNK - Status: Active. First Launch: 1962-07-04. Last Launch: 2013-08-15. Number: 76 .
Ruppe - German space travel expert. Born: 1929-05-09.
Rus - Alternate designation for Soyuz M.
RUSBA - Autonomous System of Manual Control (Russian abbreviations)
Rushworth - American test pilot 1958 - 1966. Selected as X-15 pilot in 1958, he made the most X-15 flights and obtained astronaut wings on X-15 Flight 87. Flew 187 combat missions in Vietnam. Status: Deceased; Active 1958-1966. Born: 1924-10-09. Died: 1993-03-17. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.0073 days.
Russia - The true history of Soviet spaceflight is predominantly the story of Soviet military space. Manned or scientific space missions could often only be justified as part of larger military projects. Less than 20% of Soviet launches were for 'national prestige' purposes (civilian manned flights, scientific and planetary).
Russia - Early Ballistic Missiles - The true configuration of the world's first ICBM, the R-7, was revealed only in 1967, ten years after its first test. The Soviet N1 moon rocket was only revealed in 1990, 21 years after its first launch. At the same time, other Russian ballistic missiles were routinely paraded before the cameras of the world press even before they went into service. The extraordinary sensitivity of the Soviet leadership over these Korolev designs may be traced to the fact that they derived from the work of the Groettrup German rocket engineering team.
Russia: Key Meetings in Soviet Spaceflight - The key meetings, the main decisions that led to the Soviet loss of the moon race and shuttle race.
Russia: Location of Russian Manned Spacecraft - Where you can see flown and unflown Russian manned spacecraft...
Russia: Soviet Manned Lunar Projects - The failed Soviet lunar program, and the follow-on lunar base projects that came to nothing.
Russia: Soviet Space History at a Glance -
Soviet Space History at a Glance

Russia: The Real Moon Landing Hoax - How the Soviet Union fooled the world into believing it wasn't in the moon race.
Russia: What did the CIA know and when did they know it? - Fifty years of declassified American National Intelligence Estimates, compared to what we now know was really happening in Soviet programs...
Russia: Why did the Soviet Union lose the Moon Race? - The reasons the Americans were first on the moon, as given by the major Soviet participants.
Russian Astronautical Federation - Alternate name for RuAF.
Russian Designations - Designations of Russian ballistic missiles, launch vehicles, and spacecraft.
Russian Mars Expeditions - Aelita was the Queen of Mars in the famous socialist parable filmed by Jakov Protazanov in 1924. It was altogether fitting that her name would be given to the leading Soviet plan for the conquest of the Red Planet. The Soviet Union's Korolev had the same original dream as Wernher von Braun - a manned expedition to Mars. In both cases this goal was interrupted by the 'side show' of the moon race of the 1960's. In both cases that race proved so costly and of so little public interest that political support for any Mars expeditions evaporated.
Russian Mars Propulsion - Nuclear Electric - Soviet Mars Propulsion - Nuclear Electric
Russian Mars Propulsion - Nuclear Thermal - Soviet Mars Propulsion - Nuclear Thermal
Russian Rocket Fighters - The Soviet Union began research and test flights of rocket-propelled research aircraft before World War II. This work was interrupted by Stalin's purges which put the leading rocket engine designers in concentration camps. After the war, German designs were built and tested. As in the United States and Britain, the extreme range limitation of the rocket fighter compared to the turbojet-powererd fighter was found to outweigh the performance advantage. None of the designs were put into production.
Russian Rocketplanes - The story of rocketplanes and spaceplanes in the Soviet Union was one of constant setbacks due to internal politics, constant struggle with little result.
Russian SAMs and ABMs - Perhaps no missiles ever produced had as much historical influence as the surface-to-air missiles of the Soviet Union. Originally conceived to provide a defense against the American bomber fleets of the early Cold War, they decisively affected the turn of events when they shot down American U-2 reconnaissance aircraft over Russia and Cuba. Soviet-provided missiles accounted for a hundred American aircraft over North Vietnam and set the terms of the air battle. A new generation of missiles presented a huge technological surprise and took an awful toll of Israeli aircraft in the 1973 war. To this day, Russian surface-to-air missiles provide the only defense available to most countries against American bombers, and Russian man-portable anti-aircraft missiles are a major part of the terrorist threat.
Russian Space Agency - Third name of RAKA.
Russian Strategic Cruise Missiles - As in America, in the 1946 assessments of German military technology, the technical problems of the intercontinental ballistic missile seemed far less than a high-speed cruise missile for the same mission. The Soviet Union developed several such missiles, counterparts to the American Navaho. As in America, it turned out that the ICBM was ready before the cruise missiles were - the navigation and propulsion issues of Mach 3 intercontinental flight were much more difficult than those for Mach 22 ballistic flight. As in America, the projects were cancelled, although they contributed greatly to the national technological base.
Russia's Space Program: Running On Empty - James Oberg's grim account of the fate of the Russian space program in the mid-1990's.
Ruzhany - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1990. Base for units deployed with R-12 and later 6 Pioner missile launchers.
RV-A-10 - Alternate designation for Hermes C-1.
RV-A-10 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-2.
RV-A-5 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-1.
RV-A-8 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-3.
RV-A-8 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-3A.
RVSN - Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Raketniye Voiska Stratigcheskovo Naznacheniya (Russian Strategic Rocket Forces), Russia.
RWDT HTHL - German winged orbital launch vehicle. Under the Future European Space Transportation Investigation Programme (FESTIP) of 1994-1999 French agencies and contractors designed a number of alternative reusable space launchers. This one was a Horizontal Takeoff / Horizontal Landing Two Stage to Orbit proposal with Mach 4 stage separation. Vehicle consisted of an unpowered 'reusable winged drop tank' and 2-engine expendable Ariane-5 upper stage. Status: Study 1990.
RX sounding rocket series -
RX-250 - Alternate designation for RX-250-LPN.
RX-250-LPN - Indonesian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1987-01-01. Last Launch: 2007-06-19. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 52.00 kN (11,690 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
RX-320 - RX-320 Status: Retired 2008. First Launch: 2008-05-18. Last Launch: 2008-07-02. Number: 2 .
RX-420 - RX-420 Status: Retired 2009. First Launch: 2009-07-02. Last Launch: 2009-07-02. Number: 1 .
RX-Series - American space suit, tested 1964. RX-1 Litton full pressure hardsuit, weighed 40 kg, rolling convolute joint technology, 2-plane enclosure, modular sizing, 1964. Followed by RX-2, 40 kg. in 1964 and RX-2A, 36 kg in 1964. Status: tested 1964. Gross mass: 27 kg (59 lb).
Ryabikov - Russian government official. Chief of Third Chief Directorate of Council of Ministers 1951-1953. Chaired Military-Industrial Commission 1955-1957and Sputnik State Commission. Born: 1907-01-14. Died: 1974-07-19.
Ryan - American manufacturer. Ryan, USA.
Ryazanskiy - Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1946-1951 and 1955-1987 of Nll-885. Specialized in missile and spacecraft radio guidance. Born: 1909-04-05. Died: 1987-08-07.
Ryazansky - Russian physician cosmonaut, 2003-on. Worked at IMBP, in the post of senior scientific researcher at the "Sensomotornoy, Fiziology i Profilaktiky" department. Cosmonaut training 16 June 2003 - 27 June 2005. Status: Active 2003-on. Born: 1974-11-13.
Ryker - American engineer, began working at Rocketdyne. Headed North American's Apollo proposal group. Assistant Chief Engineer for Apollo. President of Rocketdyne, 1976-1983, leading development and flight of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Born: 1926-12-25. Died: 2006-05-07.
Rymdtekniska Gruppen - Alternate name for RTG.
Ryori - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1970-07-15. Last Launch: 2000-12-20. Number: 779 .
Ryumin - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1973-1998. Was married to astronaut Yelena Kondakova. 371 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB Status: Inactive; Active 1973-1998. Born: 1939-08-16. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 371.73 days.
Ryusei - Post-launch name for OREX re-entry vehicle technology satellite.
Ryzhikov - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, VVS and PVO 14th Army (Novosibirsk / SibVO) Cosmonaut 2006-10-11 to . Status: Active 2006-on. Born: 1974-08-19.
RZ.2 - Rolls Royce LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Used on Europa launch vehicle. First flight 1964. Number: 22 . Unfuelled mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Thrust: 836.30 kN (188,008 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.

Home - Search - Browse - Alphabetic Index: 0- 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9
A- B- C- D- E- F- G- H- I- J- K- L- M- N- O- P- Q- R- S- T- U- V- W- X- Y- Z
© 1997-2016 Mark Wade - Contact
© / Conditions for Use