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Reshetnev bureau
Part of Reshetnev Family
Russian manufacturer of launch vehicles and spacecraft, Krasnoyarsk-26/Zhelenogorsk, Russia.

AKA: KBPM (1965);NPO PM;OKB-10;Reshetnev. Location: Krasnoyarsk-26/Zhelenogorsk.

The bureau had its origin as a Filial of Korolev's OKB-1, established at Plant 1001 in Krasnoyarsk on June 4, 1959. It was tasked with development of the Soviet Union's first communications satellite, the Molniya. In December 1961 the Filial was upgraded to an independent OKB-10. In 1965 it was renamed KBPM (Design Bureau of Applied Mechanics). In 1976 it was renamed the NPO of Applied Mechanics (NPO PM). Throughout its life the bureau was led by Reshetnev. Aside from one foray into launch vehicle integration (the Kosmos-1), Reshetnev's bureau was dedicated to development of communications and navigation satellites.



Country: Russia. Spacecraft: Molniya-1, Strela-1, Strela-2, Tsiklon satellite, Sfera, Ionosfernaya, Altitude Sounder, Molniya-Yu, Strela-1M, Strela-2M, Molniya-2, Romb, Raduga, Molniya-3, Parus, Molniya-1T, Ekran, Tsikada, Radio, Gorizont, Geo-IK, Estafeta, Potok, Glonass, Strela-3, Luch, Koltso, Almaz-T, Ekran-M, Taifun-3, Etalon, Raduga-1, Mayak satellite, SovCanStar, Gonets-D1, Almaz-1B, Elekon, Gals, Ekspress, Almaz-2, Gelikon, Arkos, Zeya, Gonets, Meridian. Launch Vehicles: MBR. Projects: Molniya, Strela.

1924 November 10 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Fedorovich Reshetnev - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Reshetnev bureau. Russian engineer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1961-1996 of OKB-10, primary Soviet designer of communications and navigation satellites..

1997 February 14 - . 03:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Gonets-D1 - . Payload: Gonets-D1 No. 4. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-3. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 24725 . COSPAR: 1997-006A. Apogee: 1,428 km (887 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.20 min. Six satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 2338 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 109. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 24729 . COSPAR: 1997-006E. Apogee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Perigee: 1,410 km (870 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.
  • Gonets-D1 - . Payload: Gonets-D1 No. 6. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-3. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 24727 . COSPAR: 1997-006C. Apogee: 1,414 km (878 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.
  • Cosmos 2339 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 110. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 24730 . COSPAR: 1997-006F. Apogee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.10 min.
  • Gonets-D1 - . Payload: Gonets-D1 No. 5. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-3. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 24726 . COSPAR: 1997-006B. Apogee: 1,422 km (883 mi). Perigee: 1,413 km (877 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.20 min.
  • Cosmos 2337 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 108. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 24728 . COSPAR: 1997-006D. Apogee: 1,412 km (877 mi). Perigee: 1,403 km (871 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.

1997 March 4 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.2.
  • Zeya - . Payload: Zeya No. 1. Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela. Spacecraft: Zeya. Decay Date: 1999-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 24744 . COSPAR: 1997-010A. Apogee: 472 km (293 mi). Perigee: 460 km (280 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 93.60 min.

1997 September 23 - . 16:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2346 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 24953 . COSPAR: 1997-052A. Apogee: 997 km (619 mi). Perigee: 937 km (582 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.40 min. Military navigation satellite..

1997 September 24 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-1T - . Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 24960 . COSPAR: 1997-054A. Apogee: 39,575 km (24,590 mi). Perigee: 782 km (485 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min.

1998 June 15 - . 22:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: The launch vehicle control system was misprogrammed before launch due to a malfunction of the ground instrumentation. However the satellites were in usable orbits..
  • Cosmos 2352 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 108. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25363 . COSPAR: 1998-036A. Apogee: 1,872 km (1,163 mi). Perigee: 1,313 km (815 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 118.00 min. Six Strela-3 military communications satellites launched as usual by a single launch vehicle. However the S5M third stage cut off early during its circulisation burn, leaving the satellites in elliptical 1300 x 1900 km orbits..
  • Cosmos 2354 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 110. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25365 . COSPAR: 1998-036C. Apogee: 1,869 km (1,161 mi). Perigee: 1,309 km (813 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 118.00 min.
  • Cosmos 2356 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 112. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25367 . COSPAR: 1998-036E. Apogee: 1,865 km (1,158 mi). Perigee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 117.80 min.
  • Cosmos 2353 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 109. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25364 . COSPAR: 1998-036B. Apogee: 1,867 km (1,160 mi). Perigee: 1,303 km (809 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 117.90 min.
  • Cosmos 2357 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 113. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25368 . COSPAR: 1998-036F. Apogee: 1,861 km (1,156 mi). Perigee: 1,296 km (805 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 117.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2355 - . Payload: Strela-3 no. 111. Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25366 . COSPAR: 1998-036D. Apogee: 1,865 km (1,158 mi). Perigee: 1,305 km (810 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 117.90 min.

1998 July 1 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-3-49 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 61. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2011-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 25379 . COSPAR: 1998-040A. Apogee: 39,850 km (24,760 mi). Perigee: 501 km (311 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 717.70 min.

1998 September 28 - . 23:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-1T - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,656 kg (3,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 25485 . COSPAR: 1998-054A. Apogee: 38,755 km (24,081 mi). Perigee: 1,599 km (993 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 717.80 min.

1999 February 28 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga-1 - . Payload: Raduga-1 s/n 14. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 25642 . COSPAR: 1999-010A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 10.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min.

    Geosynchronous communications satellite, stationed at 35 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 34.80 deg E drifting at 0.013 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 107.14E drifting at 0.165W degrees per day.


1999 July 8 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-3-50 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 63. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 25847 . COSPAR: 1999-036A. Apogee: 38,540 km (23,940 mi). Perigee: 1,811 km (1,125 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 717.70 min.

    The launch was from one of the three active R-7 class pads at Plesetsk (LC16/pad 2, LC43/pad 3, LC43/pad 4) and used the 8K78M launch vehicle, consisting of the 11S59 core packet, the 11S510 Block I third stage, and the Block-ML upper stage. The Block ML and the payload were placed in a 62.8 degree low parking orbit and then the ML fired to deliver the payload to a 12-hour operational orbit. This was the 52nd Molniya-3 to be launched (two were orbited under the Cosmos designation).


1999 October 27 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Failed early in second-stage burn.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Ekspress-A1 - . Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Gals. Communications satellite; failed to reach orbit..

2000 March 12 - . 04:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Ekspress 6A - . Payload: Ekspress A No. 2. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Intersputnik. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Gals. USAF Sat Cat: 26098 . COSPAR: 2000-013A. Apogee: 35,838 km (22,268 mi). Perigee: 35,736 km (22,205 mi). Inclination: 5.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    GO Kosmicheskaya Svyaz geosynchronous communications satellite, to be assigned to the Ekspress 6A slot at 80E. Replaced the first Ekspress A, lost in a launch failure in 1999. Russian satellite bus with a ommunications payload from Alcatel France. Stationed at 80 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 80.02 deg E drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 102.77E drifting at 0.018W degrees per day.


2000 April 17 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Sesat - . Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Gals. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 26243 . COSPAR: 2000-019A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Sesat (Siberia-Europe Satellite) used an MSS-2500-GSO (Gals/Ekspress) satellite bus built by NPO PM of Krasnoyarsk, with an Alcatel Espace France payload of 18 Ku-band transponders. The satellite had 8 Fakel SPD-100 plasma thrusters for stationkeeping. Eutelsat operated their Hot Bird fleet of European television broadcast satellites since the 1980's, but the venture into broadcasting to Siberia represented a new step for them. Stationed at 36 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 39 deg E in 2000. As of 4 September 2001 located at 35.97 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 35.92E drifting at 0.004E degrees per day.


2000 June 6 - . 02:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz K/M.
  • Gorizont - . Payload: Gorizont 45. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont. Completed Operations Date: 2000-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 26372 . COSPAR: 2000-029A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Communications satellite. First successful Proton/Briz-M launch. The Proton placed the Briz-M/Gorizont payload stack into a suborbital trajectory. The stage then performed four maneuvers to put the satellite into geosynchronous orbit:

    • Burn 1 placed the stack into a 200 km, 51.6 deg parking orbit probably inclined at around 51.6
    • Burn 2 raised apogee to 6000 km and changed inclination slightly
    • Burn 3, at second perigee, four hours after launch put the stack in a 369 x 34,988 km x 48.8 deg transfer orbit. The Briz-M then jettisoned its empty toroidal supplementary fuel tank.
    • Burn 4, ten hours after launch, placed Gorizont No. 45L in near-geostationary orbit.

    Gorizont No. 45L was expected to be the final launch of that model of television broadcasting satellite. It carried 6 C-band transponders, one L-band, and one Ku-band transponder. The newer Ekspress satellites are replacing the system. Stationed at 145 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 145 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 145.25 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 144.69E drifting at 0.019W degrees per day.

2000 June 24 - . 00:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Ekspress A No. 3 - . Payload: Ekspress A3 / Ekspress 3A. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Intersputnik. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Gals. USAF Sat Cat: 26378 . COSPAR: 2000-031A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Launch delayed from June 23. Geosynchronous communications satellite. Stationed at 11 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 11 deg W in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 10.99 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 11.00W drifting at 0.005E degrees per day.


2000 July 4 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2371 - . Payload: Geyzer. Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 2000-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 26394 . COSPAR: 2000-036A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 8.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Second flight using RD-0210 Phase 2 engines. Geizer military communications satellite. The Blok DM upper stage inserted the Geizer into geosynchronous orbit at 06:20 GMT on July 5. Stationed at 80 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 2000. As of 6 September 2001 located at 79.81 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.73E drifting at 0.022W degrees per day.


2000 August 28 - . 20:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga-1 - . Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 26477 . COSPAR: 2000-049A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min.

    Raduga-1 military communications satellite initially named Cosmos 2372 by the RVSN press service. Stationed at 50 deg E. As of 5 September 2001 located at 49.25 deg E drifting at 0.048 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.70E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.


2000 December 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: The S5M third stage steering unit failed and the vehicle crashed a few thousand km downrange near Wrangel Island.. Failed Stage: 3.
2001 April 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • Ekran-M No. 18 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 18L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: GPKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran-M. USAF Sat Cat: 26736 . COSPAR: 2001-014A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 1.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Direct Broadcasting satellite. Maiden flight of new version of Proton. Launch delayed from August 2000, March 16 and April 6. Ekran-M No. 18 was a UHF television broadcasting satellite which was to be stationed at 99 deg E to provided television service to the Russian Far East. The satellite had a launch mass of around 2100 kg and was to replace the recently failed Ekran-M 15 that had been operating since October 1992 at the 105 deg-E longitude orbital slot.

    The improved 3-stage Proton launch vehicle, with a new digital flight control system and enhanced first stage engines, delivered its payload section to a suborbital trajectory at 0356 GMT. The Briz-M upper stage then fired to enter a 200 km parking orbit. It appears that only two more burns were used to reach geostationary orbit: one at around 0440 GMT to enter a 200 x 35800 km GTO, after which the Briz-M toroidal drop tank was jettisoned, and one at around 1000 GMT, to circularize the orbit at geostationary altitude. Briz-M reportedly separated from its payload at 1031 GMT. Ekran was expected to reach its 99 deg E final location on around April 24. As of 5 September 2001 located at 99.27 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 99.30E drifting at 0.005W degrees per day.


2001 July 20 - . 00:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-3-51 - . Payload: Molniya-3K. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2016-12-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 26867 . COSPAR: 2001-030A. Apogee: 39,467 km (24,523 mi). Perigee: 888 km (551 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min.

    Molniya-3K military communications satellite and booster fourth stage entered a 214 x 420 km x 62.8 deg parking orbit at 0026 GMT. About half an orbit later, over the southeast Pacific, the NPO Lavochkin Block-ML fourth stage fired to put the payload into a 407 x 40831 km x 62.9 deg orbit. The Molniya-3K was an improved version of the Molniya-3 military satellite.


2001 October 6 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga-1 - . Payload: Globus 2 / Raduga 1-6. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 26936 . COSPAR: 2001-045A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    The Blok-DM2 upper stage put the Russian geosynchronous military communications satellite into a geosynchronous transfer orbit at 1755 GMT. A second burn at 2318 GMT to circularized the orbit at geostationary altitude. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 106.48E drifting at 9.104W degrees per day.


2001 October 25 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya-3-52 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2011-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 26970 . COSPAR: 2001-050A. Apogee: 40,658 km (25,263 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg.

    Launch delayed from October 11. The Molniya-3 military communications satellite and Block ML upper stage were inserted into an initial 214 x 617 km x 62.8 deg parking orbit at 1143 GMT. At apogee over the South Pacific, the BOZ ullage motor fired and separated, then the ML main engine ignited and put the Molniya-3 satellite into its 615 x 40659 km x 62.8 deg operational orbit with apogee over the northern hemisphere.


2001 December 1 - . 18:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2380 - . Payload: Glonass 790. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26987 . COSPAR: 2001-053A. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,114 km (11,876 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Three navigation satellites of the GLONASS system were launched to replenish the constellation. This was the second end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000..
  • Cosmos 2382 - . Payload: Glonass-M 711. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26989 . COSPAR: 2001-053C. Apogee: 19,156 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,104 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. First launch of the Uragan-M improved model GLONASS satellite..
  • Cosmos 2381 - . Payload: Glonass 789. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26988 . COSPAR: 2001-053B. Apogee: 19,185 km (11,920 mi). Perigee: 19,074 km (11,852 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2001 December 28 - . 03:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2384 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27055 . COSPAR: 2001-058A. Apogee: 1,432 km (889 mi). Perigee: 1,416 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.30 min.

    The Tsiklon put six military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites into a medium earth orbit. Due to a launch failure in 2000 this was the first replenishment of the Strela satellite constellation since 1998. The Tsiklon second stage burn was complete at 0329:02 UTC. The S5M stage separated and ignited at 0330 and shut down at 0332:00, placing the stage and satellite dispenser in a suborbital -550 x 1400 km orbit. A second burn at apogee at 0406:15 UTC put the stage in a 1400 km circular orbit. The three Gonets satellites separated first, beginning at 0407:28 UTC; the last of the three Kosmos/Strela satellites was ejected at 0408:33, with a perigee about 15 km higher than the first of the deployments.

  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-3. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27059 . COSPAR: 2001-058E. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,416 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.20 min. Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-3. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27060 . COSPAR: 2001-058F. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,404 km (872 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.00 min. Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Cosmos 2385 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27056 . COSPAR: 2001-058B. Apogee: 1,426 km (886 mi). Perigee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.30 min. Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-3. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27058 . COSPAR: 2001-058D. Apogee: 1,419 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.10 min. Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Cosmos 2386 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27057 . COSPAR: 2001-058C. Apogee: 1,419 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.20 min. Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..

2002 May 28 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2389 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 27436 . COSPAR: 2002-026A. Apogee: 1,017 km (631 mi). Perigee: 949 km (589 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min.

    The Kosmos-3M rocket entered a transfer orbit of about 150 x 1000 km x 83 deg at about 1823 UTC; a second burn at apogee around 1905 UTC circularized the orbit at 950 x 1016 km. The Parus navigation satellite was placed in Plane 4, probably replacing Cosmos 2336; it was between the planes of Cosmos 2366 and Cosmos 2361.


2002 June 10 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Ekspress A1R - . Payload: Ekspress A No. 4. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Gals. USAF Sat Cat: 27441 . COSPAR: 2002-029A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Launch delayed from May 2002. The Ekspress A1R Russian domestic communications satellite was built by NPO PM and Alcatel for Kosmicheskiya Svyaz, the Russian satcom operator. The Proton's parking orbit was off-nominal but the 11S861-01 Blok DM-2M upper stage corrected for this and delivered the payload to the correct orbit. Parking orbit was about 180 x 185 km x 51.6 deg; transfer orbit after the first DM-2M burn was 328 x 36133 km x 47.4 deg; orbit at spacecraft separation was 36102 x 36171 km x 0.2 deg. Two SOZ ullage motors were left in the transfer orbit. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 14.07W drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.


2002 September 26 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Nadezhda-M - . Payload: Tsikada-Kospas. Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Nadezhda. USAF Sat Cat: 27534 . COSPAR: 2002-046A. Apogee: 1,022 km (635 mi). Perigee: 987 km (613 mi). Inclination: 82.9341 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Nadezhda 7, also called Nadezhda -M, was a Russian navigational satellite. It was to participate in the international search and rescue (SAR) network known as COSPAS-SARSAT, for ships at sea..

2002 December 25 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Cosmos 2394 - . Payload: Glonass. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 27617 . COSPAR: 2002-060A. Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,124 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Three navigation satellites of the GLONASS system were launched to replenish the constellation. This was the third end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000..
  • Cosmos 2396 - . Payload: Glonass-M. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 27619 . COSPAR: 2002-060C. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 18,915 km (11,753 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 671.60 min.
  • Cosmos 2395 - . Payload: Glonass. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 27618 . COSPAR: 2002-060B. Apogee: 19,335 km (12,014 mi). Perigee: 19,130 km (11,880 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 679.80 min.

2003 April 2 - . 01:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-92 - . Payload: Molniya 1T-26 or 28. Mass: 1,660 kg (3,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 2013-05-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 27707 . COSPAR: 2003-011A. Apogee: 39,693 km (24,664 mi). Perigee: 655 km (406 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.60 min.

2003 June 4 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2398 - . Mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 27818 . COSPAR: 2003-023A. Apogee: 1,016 km (631 mi). Perigee: 970 km (600 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 105.00 min.

2003 December 10 - . 17:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz K/M.
  • Cosmos 2402 - . Payload: Glonass 794. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28112 . COSPAR: 2003-056A. Apogee: 19,314 km (12,001 mi). Perigee: 19,018 km (11,817 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 677.20 min. Three navigation satellites of the GLONASS system were launched to replenish the constellation. This was the fourth end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000..
  • Cosmos 2403 - . Payload: Glonass 795. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28113 . COSPAR: 2003-056B. Apogee: 19,102 km (11,869 mi). Perigee: 18,963 km (11,783 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 671.90 min.
  • Cosmos 2404 - . Payload: Glonass-M 701. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28114 . COSPAR: 2003-056C. Apogee: 19,104 km (11,870 mi). Perigee: 18,961 km (11,781 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 671.90 min. Improved version of the Glonass satellite..

2004 April 26 - . 20:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Ekspress AM-11 - . Mass: 2,542 kg (5,604 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Cannes, Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Gals. USAF Sat Cat: 28234 . COSPAR: 2004-015A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Delayed from April 10. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.96W drifting at 3.741W degrees per day..

2004 December 26 - . 13:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2411 - . Payload: Glonass 796. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28508 . COSPAR: 2004-053A. Apogee: 19,149 km (11,898 mi). Perigee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Inclination: 64.8500 deg. Period: 676.05 min. Three Russian navigation satellites orbited in a single launch. Two of the satellites (s/n 796 and 797) were standard Uragan satellites, while s/n 712 had an uprated Glonass-M payload. This was the fifth end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000..
  • Cosmos 2412 - . Payload: Glonass 797. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28509 . COSPAR: 2004-053B. Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,143 km (11,894 mi). Inclination: 64.8500 deg. Period: 676.05 min.
  • Cosmos 2413 - . Payload: Glonass-M 712. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28510 . COSPAR: 2004-053C. Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Inclination: 64.8500 deg. Period: 676.05 min.

2005 March 29 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Ekspress AM-2 - . Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Cannes, Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Gals. USAF Sat Cat: 28629 . COSPAR: 2005-010A. Apogee: 35,893 km (22,302 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,438.50 min. Delayed from December 2004, then moved up from March 31, 2005. Communications payload of C, Ku and L band transponders. It was to be stationed at 80 deg E. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 80.01E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day..

2005 June 21 - . 00:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Failure - Third stage propulsion. Failed Stage: 3.
2005 June 24 - . 19:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Ekspress AM-3 - . Payload: Ekspress AM. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Cannes, Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Gals. USAF Sat Cat: 28707 . COSPAR: 2005-023A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Delayed from April 2005. Satellite built by NPO PM with Alcatel C-, Ku- and L-band transponders.Stationed over 80 deg E longitude. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 139.98E drifting at 0.015W degrees per day..

2005 December 21 - . 19:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Gonets D1M 1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Strela-3. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 28908 . COSPAR: 2005-048A. Apogee: 1,447 km (899 mi). Perigee: 1,437 km (892 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.70 min. Delayed from December 15. Civilian version of Strela-3 store-dump survivable military satellite..
  • Cosmos 2416 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 28909 . COSPAR: 2005-048B. Apogee: 1,448 km (899 mi). Perigee: 1,438 km (893 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.70 min. Russian military satellite dubbed Rodnik, possibly a new design to replace the Strela-3 in the store-dump survivable communications satellite constellation..

2005 December 25 - . 05:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2417 - . Payload: Glonass 798. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28915 . COSPAR: 2005-050A. Apogee: 19,171 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,089 km (11,861 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

    The Block D upper stage delivered three GLONASS navigation satellites into their planned orbits at 08:39 GMT. These satellites were placed in GLONASS orbit plane 3. The satellites had an extended seven-year service life compared to earlier models. This was the sixth end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000. When operational they brought the total of operational GLONASS SVs in orbit to 16. The launch was part of a Russian government-funded program to replenish and expand the Glonass constellation to at least 18 operating satellites satellites by 2007 (compared to 14 satellites at the end of 2005). In 2006 launch of a new Glonass satellite design with a ten-year service was planned.

  • Cosmos 2418 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 713. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28916 . COSPAR: 2005-050B. Apogee: 19,172 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,087 km (11,860 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2419 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 714. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28917 . COSPAR: 2005-050C. Apogee: 19,165 km (11,908 mi). Perigee: 19,094 km (11,864 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2006 December 24 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1A.
  • Meridian 1 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Meridian. USAF Sat Cat: 29668 . COSPAR: 2006-061A. Apogee: 39,093 km (24,291 mi). Perigee: 1,264 km (785 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 717.80 min.

    Launch rescheduled twice due to Soyuz 2 software problems. The Meridian satellite was designed to provide communication between vessels and airplanes involved in ice surveillance in the North Sea area, and coastal stations on the ground, as well as to expand a network of satellite communications in the northern regions of Siberia and the Russian Far East.


2006 December 24 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2424 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 715. Mass: 2,480 kg (5,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 29672 . COSPAR: 2006-062C. Apogee: 19,176 km (11,915 mi). Perigee: 19,083 km (11,857 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

    Three Glonass satellites are lofted in a single launch in support of restoring the Glonass navigation satellite constellation to full military and commercial functionality. They were placed in Glonass orbit plane 2, beginning its population. At the time of launch the constellation consisted of 11 operational spacecraft, and five more on-orbit spares. A fully operational constellation would consist of 24 satellites - eight in each of three orbital planes. Only two planes were populated by 2006 - the full complement of 24 satellites was not to be reached until 2009. This was the first launch to repopulate plane 2; planes 1 and 3 had satellites operational.

  • Cosmos 2425 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 716. Mass: 2,480 kg (5,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 29670 . COSPAR: 2006-062A. Apogee: 19,187 km (11,922 mi). Perigee: 19,073 km (11,851 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2426 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 717. Mass: 2,480 kg (5,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 29671 . COSPAR: 2006-062B. Apogee: 19,183 km (11,919 mi). Perigee: 19,077 km (11,853 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2007 October 26 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2431 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 718. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32275 . COSPAR: 2007-052A. Apogee: 19,130 km (11,880 mi). Perigee: 19,128 km (11,885 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Three Uragan-M satellites were launched to replenish the Glonass navigation system, placed in GLONASS orbit plane 3. Cosmos 2431 set to operational on 4 December; plane/slot 3/17, frequency channel -1.
  • Cosmos 2432 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 719. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32276 . COSPAR: 2007-052B. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 19,121 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Set to operational; plane/slot 3/20, frequency channel 2 on 27 November..
  • Cosmos 2433 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 720. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32277 . COSPAR: 2007-052C. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 19,121 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Set to operational; plane/slot 3/19, frequency channel 3 on 25 November..

2008 January 28 - . 00:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • Ekspress AM-33 - . Mass: 2,579 kg (5,685 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Cannes, Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-4. Spacecraft: Gals. USAF Sat Cat: 32478 . COSPAR: 2008-003A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0300 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min. Stationed at 96.5 degrees east longitude to provide Internet, video, radio, and data services for at a planned 12 year life. The satellite also was earmarked to provide mobile communications for the Russian president and other top government officials..


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