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R-36
R-36 Rockets
R-36 Rockets
Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans.

AKA: 8K67;Scarp;SS-9 Mod 1. Status: Active. Payload: 5,825 kg (12,841 lb). Thrust: 2,366.00 kN (531,897 lbf). Gross mass: 183,890 kg (405,400 lb). Height: 31.70 m (104.00 ft). Diameter: 3.00 m (9.80 ft). Span: 3.35 m (10.99 ft). Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

Official development of the R-36 began with a decree on 16 April 1962. This called for development of a heavy rocket that could act as an ICBM, a FOBS 'global rocket', and a medium launch vehicle. The targets for the R-36 would be key American administrative and military-industrial centers, hardened military targets, and anti-ballistic missile facilities. The decree ordered development of three alternative launch facility designs: a hardened, above-ground launch facility like the R-9 Dolina; a silo group like the R-16 Sheksna-V; and a new isolated silo concept, with the silos operated from an individual hardened launch facility being separated by a dozen kilometers.

Yangel's approach was to develop an improved version of his existing R-16 ICBM. Just as in America the Titan 1 had been redesigned into the constant-diameter Titan 2 with a more powerful upper stage, the same concept was applied to the R-16. The missile could still use the basic silo designed for the R-16. However unlike the R-16, this would be the first Soviet missile to use nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer.

The R-36 was to join the UR-100 as the first 'ampulized' Soviet missiles. This means that the missile was loaded into the silo in its container, fuelled, and then was ready-to-launch at any time as a certified 'sealed round'. This was in contrast to earlier Soviet missiles. The R-1, R-2, and R-5 could only be held at launch readiness for 30 minutes, the R-9A for 24 hours, and the storable propellant R-12, R-14, and R-16 for thirty days. The new generation was to have a certified ready-to-launch guaranteed span of five years. The containerized missile would be transported by rail to the silo, inserted, fuelled, and then left completely unattended. The silos were to be isolated from one another by 8 to 10 km so that a single nuclear warhead could take out no more than one silo at a time.

The guidance system was to be inertial with radio update for higher accuracy. Although flight tests were made with this system, by the time the missile was deployed the pure inertial system had proved to have sufficient accuracy and the radio correction was abandoned.

The draft project was completed in June 1963, and that of the new 8F675 warhead (18 and 25 megaton versions) on 12 January 1964. By then the decision had been made to pursue only the isolated silo launch concept, in order to prevent multiple launchers being taken out by a single enemy warhead. For flight trials from Baikonur substantial new facilities designed by V P Petrov at KBTM were started in 1962 and completed in February 1963. Missiles were prepared at Area 4, then launched from a pad at LC-67, with the radio guidance system being at Area 68. These used the 8P867 launch pad, 8U225 launch gantry, and 8T178 missile transport trailer. The designs for these facilities were derived from those for the Tsiklon space booster. Countdown was automated and no personnel were required in the area during launch procedures. The 25th OIICh (Independent Engineering-Research Unit) was formed to conduct the flight tests.

For initial silo tests individual silos at LC-80, a Sheksna facility originally built for the R-16, were modified in 1964 to accommodate R-36 or UR-200 missiles. A prototype of the new command point and six-silo group planned for the R-36 were also built at Baikonur. The hardened command point for these silos was at Area 111, and the silos at LC's-102, -103, -109, -140, -141, and -142. Flight trial tests were conducted from these facilities from 28 September 1963 to 29 March 1966, with the first silo launch taking place on 14 January 1965. The first launch from LC-140 came on 27 April 1965. This was the first launch controlled and commanded via a 10 km long buried cable. At total of 130 trials launches were made.

In July 1965 the first R-36 was launched with the 'List' countermeasures system designed to confuse enemy anti-ballistic missile defenses. This system had been developed by Aksel Berg at NII-108 (originally established on 4 July 1943 to develop radar systems). The system had several components:

Trials, code-named 'Kupol', were conducted of these systems in 1962-1963, and they proved the importance of such countermeasures in assuring warhead survival in the face of enemy anti-ballistic missile systems. Development continued at NII-108 from 1965-1988 under the new Chief Designer Vitaliy Gerasimenko. They produced the countermeasure systems List, Palma (for the UR-100), Bereza, Kashtan, Magnolia, Lavr, Vyaz, and Kiparis. They also developed the TLTS heavy decoy unit. Light decoy units could be discriminated by enemy radars since they would brake more strongly once the warhead entered the upper layers of the atmosphere. The TLTS did not brake in the atmosphere, could resist high temperatures, and could perform dogleg maneuvers to mislead enemy defenses all the way to the earth's surface.

Production of the R-36 and the List countermeasures system was undertaken at the Yuzhnoye YuMZ factory in Dnepropetrovsk. The first regiment became operational on 5 November 1966 at Uzhur, and the missile was formally accepted for military service on 21 July 1967. A peak total of 260 R-36's were deployed by 1970. A total of 308 missile silos for the R-36 and its follow-on versions were built at Aleisk (30), Kartaly (46), Derzhavinsk (52), Zhangiz-Tobe (52), Dombarovskiy (64), and Uzhur (64). Operational tests were conducted periodically during service, including seven firings from silos in the Uzhur field to the Kura impact area. The final R-36's were retired in 1979, their places in the silos begin replaced by later versions. The missile was shown publicly at a Moscow parade on 7 November 1967, although to create confusion the external vernier engines of the second stage were removed and a non-standard warhead was fitted. Declassified CIA reports show that American intelligence was not fooled, although Western missile 'experts' were.

In 1965 the R-36 was selected over Korolev's GR-1 and Chelomei's UR-200 for the 'Global Rocket' and military medium launch vehicle requirements (see separate R-36-O, Tsiklon-2 and Tsiklon-3 entries). An improved silo with five times the blast resistance was studied in the 1960's but not adopted due to the expense (a super-hardened silo was finally developed in the late 1970's for the next generation of missiles).

The missile structure was of AMG-6 aluminum alloy. An avionics section was located in the intertank area of the first stage. The first stage had a fixed six-nozzle Glushko RD-251 engine, with attitude and roll control by four RD-68M verniers designed by Yuzhnoye. The second stage used a two-nozzle Glushko RD-252, with four RD-69M verniers. Four small solid rocket motors fired to back the second stage away from the warhead after burnout.

Unlike the R-16, which had its launch azimuth set by a rotating launch table, the R-36 was fixed on its launcher. Therefore after clearing the silo it had to roll to the desired target azimuth. The inertial guidance system by Vladimir Sergeyev of NII-692 had a total mass of 752 kg, and was updated just before launch by an optical data link. The first five trials flights used the radio correction system of Mikhail Borisenko, but this was abandoned as unnecessary on production models.

The warheads for the missile were developed at Chelyabinsk-70, with production at Penzensk Factory 592 (later NPO Start). These included the original 18 and 25 megaton 8F675, and later 5 and 10 megaton alternate warheads. The missile had a five year guaranteed storage life, later extended to 7.5 years with in-service testing. A missile prepared for launch (with the guidance platform spun up) could be launched in five minutes from the turn of the launch key. The OS-67 silo was designed by Yevgeni F Rudyak at GSKB Spetsmash. Each silo was 41.5 m deep, 8.3 m in diameter, and had a 4.64 m diameter interior bore. The silo was hardened to an overpressure of 20 atmospheres. Six silos, separated by 8-10 km from each other, were controlled and launched from a single command point.

Maximum range: 10,200 km (6,300 mi). Number Standard Warheads: 1. Warhead yield: 10,000 KT. CEP: 1.30 km (0.80 mi). Alternate warhead: 3,950 kg (8,700 lb). Maximum range with alternate warhead: 15,500 km (9,600 mi). Number Alternate Warheads: 1. Alternate RV: 8F675. Alternate warhead yield: 5,000 KT. Alternate warhead CEP: 1.90 km (1.10 mi). Boost Propulsion: Storable liquid rocket, N2O4/UDMH. Cruise Thrust: 940.400 kN (211,410 lbf). Cruise Thrust: 95,900 kgf. Cruise engine: RD-252. Initial Operational Capability: 1967.



Subtopics

R-36 8K67 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial ICBM version.

R-36 8K67M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile.

R-36 8K67MA Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile.

R-36 8K67P Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36P was a version of the R-36 which could deploy three separate (but not independently-targeted) warheads instead of one. The concept was to ensure a wider zone of destruction and overpressure then a single warhead detonation would create.

R-36 8K67PM Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile.

R-36O 8K69 Ukrainian orbital missile. The R-36-O was the only orbiting military nuclear weapon ever deployed, although in order to remain legal under international treaties it was a 'fractional orbital' weapon. Although American infrared early warning satellites invalidated the 'surprise attack' component of the concept, 18 missiles were operational from 1969 to 1983.

R-36O 8K69M Ukrainian orbital missile.

Tsiklon Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. On 16 March and 1 August 1961 the Central Committee and Politburo approved development of Chelomeiís UR-200 (8K81) universal rocket. The UR-200 was to orbit Chelomeiís IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT; the US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) nuclear-powered naval intelligence satellite; and the Raketoplan combat re-entry vehicle. Trial flights of the missile began on 4 November 1963.

On October 13, 1964, Khrushchev was ousted from power. The new leadership, under Brezhnev, was adverse to all projects Khrushchev had supported. These included those of Chelomei. An expert commission under M V Keldysh was directed to examine all of Chelomeiís projects and make recommendations as to which should be cancelled. Keldysh found that Yangelís R-36 rocket was superior to Chelomeiís UR-200 and that the Raketoplan was technically overly ambitious. The UR-200 and Raketoplan were accordingly cancelled, while the IS and US satellites were redesigned for launch by the R-36.

A government decree of 24 August 1965 formalised the decision and the Yangel bureau began design work in 1966. Required modifications to the R-36 were minimal; the IS and US Raketoplan-derived payloads had their own engines for insertion into final orbit. The Tsyklon 11K67 first test version was an adaptation of the 8K67 (SS-9 Mod 1) two stage ICBM and flew only briefly (1967 to 1968). It was quickly replaced by the definitive 11K69 Tsyklon 2 launch vehicle. The military project manager was L A Dolnikov.


Tsiklon-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. A government decree of 24 August 1965 ordered development by Yangel of a version of his R-36 rocket to orbit Chelomei's IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT and US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) naval intelligence satellites. The Tsyklon 2 definitive operational version replaced the 11K67 launch vehicle from 1969 and was an adaptation of the 8K69 (SS-9) two stage ICBM. The IS and US Raketoplan-derived payloads had their own engines for insertion into final orbit.

Tsiklon-2A Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Minimal modification of the R-36 ICBM used in replacement of Chelomei's cancelled UR-200 booster for initial launches of the IS ASAT and US naval radarsat. Development was authorized in late 1965 and first launch was made before the end of 1967. It flew only eight times before being replaced by the definitive Tsyklon-2 space launch vehicle.

Tsiklon-3 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The Tsyklon 3 was developed in 1970-1977 as a part of a program to reduce the number of Soviet booster types. The first two stages were derived from the 8K68 version of the R-36 ICBM, while the restartable third stage was derived from that of the R-36-O. Compared to the Tsyklon 2, the launch vehicle increased payload to 4 metric tons, provided for completely automated launch operations, and had increased orbital injection accuracy.

Tsiklon-4 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Updated version of Tsyklon 3, announced by the Ukraine in 2005 as being in design. Improved lower stages, new upper stage and a new 4.0-m diameter payload fairing. No production plans.

Family: ICBM. Country: Ukraine. Engines: RD-251, RD-855, RD-856. Spacecraft: OGCh, US-A, IS-A, IS-P, Tselina-D, US-P, Meteor-2, Taifun-2, AUOS, Magion, Radio, Okean-E, Geo-IK, SSTL-70, Okean-OE, Meteor-3, Strela-3, Okean-O1, Plazma-A, Taifun-3, Tubsat, Gonets-D1, US-PU, Temisat, MS-1. Stages: R-36-2, R-36-1. Agency: Yuzhnoye. Bibliography: 105, 114, 115, 116, 193, 2, 272, 276, 279, 290, 296, 42, 455, 474, 475, 476, 5, 552, 554, 6, 61, 69, 79, 99.
Photo Gallery

R-36 RocketsR-36 Rockets


R-36 ICBMR-36 ICBM


R-36R-36
Credit: Ukrainian Space Agency


8K67 Model8K67 Model
Credit: © Mark Wade



1963 September 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1963 December 3 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1963 December 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1964 January 16 - . 04:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1964 January 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1964 February 19 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1964 February 27 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1964 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1964 May 23 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1964 May 30 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1964 June 24 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1964 June 30 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1964 August 5 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1964 August 11 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1964 September 9 - . 02:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1964 September 25 - . 04:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1964 October 10 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1964 October 29 - . 01:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1964 December 15 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 January 12 - . LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon.
1965 January 13 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC80/17. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1965 January 30 - . 08:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 March 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69. FAILURE: Second stage propellant leak led to a fire in the silo.. Failed Stage: 2.
1965 April 27 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 May 18 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 July 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 August 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1965 August 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 August 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1965 October 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 October 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 October 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 October 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 November 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 November 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 November 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 December 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 December 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1965 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1965 December 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1966 February 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1966 March 17 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1966 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1966 April 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1966 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1966 May 20 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/22. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1966 May 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1966 June 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1966 June 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1966 September 17 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1966 September 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1966 October 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1966 October 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1966 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1966 November 2 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1966 November 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1966 December 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1967 January 25 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1967 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1967 March 22 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69. FAILURE: Failure.
1967 March 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1967 May 17 - . 16:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1967 May 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1967 June 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1967 June 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1967 June 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1967 July 1 - . LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1967 July 17 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1967 July 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. Launch Pad: PU32?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1967 July 21 - . LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon.
1967 July 31 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1967 August 8 - . 16:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1967 September 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. Launch Pad: PU31?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1967 September 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU32. Launch Pad: PU32?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1967 September 19 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1967 September 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1967 September 22 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1967 October 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1967 October 18 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1967 October 27 - . 02:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
1967 October 28 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1967 December 27 - . 11:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
1968 February 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1968 March 22 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
1968 April 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1968 April 24 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
1968 April 25 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1968 April 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1968 May 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1968 May 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1968 May 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1968 May 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1968 June 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1968 July 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1968 July 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1968 August 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1968 August 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1968 September 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1968 October 2 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1968 October 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1968 October 19 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
1968 October 20 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
1968 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1968 November 1 - . 00:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
1968 November 19 - . LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1968 December 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1968 December 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1969 January 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A. FAILURE: Payload propulsion system failed; no orbit.. Failed Stage: P.
1969 March 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1969 April 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1969 April 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1969 April 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1969 May 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1969 June 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1969 July 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1969 August 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1969 August 6 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1969 September 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1969 September 15 - . 16:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1969 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1969 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1969 October 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1969 October 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1969 November 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. Launch Pad: LC90/20?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1969 November 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1969 December 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1969 December 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1969 December 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1969 December 23 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1970 January 2 - . LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1970 January 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1970 January 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1970 January 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1970 January 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1970 February 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1970 February 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1970 February 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1970 February 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1970 March 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1970 March 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1970 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1970 April 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1970 April 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1970 April 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1970 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1970 April 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1970 June 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1970 July 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1970 July 28 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69.
1970 August 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1970 September 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1970 September 25 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69M.
1970 October 3 - . 10:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1970 October 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1970 October 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1970 October 20 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1970 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67P.
1970 October 23 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1970 October 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1970 October 30 - . 02:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1970 November 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1970 December 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1970 December 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1971 February 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1971 February 25 - . 11:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1971 April 1 - . 11:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1971 April 4 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1971 June 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1971 August 8 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC191/66. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36O 8K69M.
1971 September 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1971 September 20 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1971 October 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1971 December 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67M.
1971 December 3 - . 13:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1971 December 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1972 April 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
1972 May 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
1972 July 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
1972 August 21 - . 10:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1972 August 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
1972 September 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
1973 January 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
1973 March 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
1973 April 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67PM. FAILURE: Failure.
1973 April 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2. FAILURE: Payload propulsion system failed; no orbit.. Failed Stage: P.
1973 May 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
1973 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67PM. FAILURE: Failure.
1973 August 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67PM.
1973 October 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC161/35. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67PM. FAILURE: Failure.
1973 December 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67PM.
1973 December 27 - . 20:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1974 January 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1974 February 26 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1974 February 26 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1974 February 27 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1974 February 27 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1974 February 27 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1974 February 27 - . Launch Site: Uzhur. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1974 April 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1974 May 15 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1974 May 17 - . 06:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1974 October 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1974 October 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1974 December 24 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1975 January 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1975 January 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67. FAILURE: Failure.
1975 January 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1975 February 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
1975 February 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67MA.
1975 April 2 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1975 April 7 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1975 June 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC142/34. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1975 October 1 - . LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1975 October 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90?/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
1975 October 29 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1975 December 12 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1976 February 16 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1976 April 13 - . 17:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1976 July 2 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1976 July 21 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1976 October 17 - . 18:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1976 October 21 - . 16:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1976 November 26 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1976 December 27 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1977 May 23 - . 12:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1977 June 17 - . 07:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1977 June 24 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1977 August 24 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1977 September 16 - . 14:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1977 September 18 - . 13:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1977 September 24 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Probable failure of launch vehicle stage to reach proper orbit.. Failed Stage: 3.
1977 October 26 - . 05:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1977 December 21 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1977 December 27 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Probable failure of launch vehicle stage to reach proper orbit.. Failed Stage: 3.
1978 May 19 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1978 June 28 - . 17:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1978 October 26 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1979 February 12 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1979 April 18 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1979 April 25 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1980 January 23 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1980 March 14 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1980 April 18 - . 00:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1980 April 29 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1980 November 4 - . 15:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1981 January 23 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Payload shroud failed to separate.. Failed Stage: S.
1981 February 2 - . 02:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1981 March 5 - . 18:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1981 March 14 - . 16:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1981 March 20 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1981 April 21 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1981 August 4 - . 08:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1981 August 24 - . 16:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1981 August 24 - . 21:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1981 September 14 - . 20:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1981 September 21 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1981 September 30 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1981 December 3 - . 11:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1982 February 11 - . 01:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1982 March 25 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1982 April 29 - . 09:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1982 May 14 - . 19:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1982 June 1 - . 13:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1982 June 10 - . 17:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1982 June 18 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1982 August 30 - . 10:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1982 September 4 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1982 September 16 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1982 September 24 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1982 October 2 - . 00:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1983 April 23 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1983 May 7 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1983 June 22 - . 23:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1983 September 28 - . 07:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1983 October 29 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1983 November 24 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1983 December 15 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1984 February 8 - . 09:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1984 March 15 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1984 May 30 - . 18:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1984 June 29 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1984 July 5 - . 03:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1984 August 7 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1984 August 8 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1984 September 28 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1984 October 18 - . 17:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1984 October 31 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1984 November 27 - . 14:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Stage 3 failed to reignite.. Failed Stage: 3.
1985 January 15 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1985 January 23 - . 19:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1985 January 24 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1985 February 6 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1985 March 5 - . 15:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1985 April 18 - . 21:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1985 June 14 - . 10:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1985 July 8 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1985 August 1 - . 05:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1985 August 8 - . 11:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1985 August 23 - . 22:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1985 September 19 - . 01:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1985 October 9 - . 21:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1985 October 24 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1985 November 22 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1985 December 12 - . 15:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1985 December 26 - . 01:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1986 January 17 - . 07:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1986 February 11 - . 06:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1986 February 19 - . 23:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1986 February 27 - . 01:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1986 March 21 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1986 March 25 - . 19:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1986 May 15 - . 04:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1986 May 27 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1986 June 12 - . 04:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1986 July 28 - . 21:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1986 August 4 - . 05:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1986 August 20 - . 12:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1986 September 30 - . 18:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1986 October 15 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: First-stage failure as a result of leakage of the tank pressurization system.. Failed Stage: 1.
1986 December 2 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1986 December 10 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1986 December 18 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 January 5 - . 01:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 January 14 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 February 1 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1987 February 20 - . 04:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 March 3 - . 15:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 March 13 - . 13:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 April 8 - . 03:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1987 April 27 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 June 18 - . 21:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1987 July 1 - . 19:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 July 10 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1987 July 16 - . 04:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 August 18 - . 02:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 September 7 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 October 10 - . 21:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1987 October 20 - . 09:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1987 December 12 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1988 January 6 - . 07:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1988 January 15 - . 03:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1988 January 30 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1988 March 14 - . 14:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1988 March 15 - . 18:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1988 May 28 - . 02:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1988 May 30 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1988 June 14 - . 03:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1988 July 5 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1988 July 26 - . 05:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1988 October 11 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1988 November 18 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1988 December 23 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1989 February 10 - . 15:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1989 February 28 - . 04:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1989 June 9 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Stage 3 failure - third stage engine did not ignite for second burn.. Failed Stage: 3.
1989 July 24 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1989 August 28 - . 00:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1989 September 14 - . 09:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1989 September 27 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1989 September 28 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1989 October 24 - . 21:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1989 November 24 - . 23:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1989 December 27 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1990 January 30 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1990 February 28 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1990 March 14 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1990 June 27 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1990 July 30 - . 00:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1990 August 8 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1990 August 23 - . 16:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1990 September 28 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1990 November 14 - . 06:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1990 November 28 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1990 December 4 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1990 December 22 - . 07:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1991 January 18 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1991 April 24 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1991 May 16 - . 21:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1991 June 4 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1991 June 13 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1991 August 15 - . 09:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1991 September 28 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1991 November 12 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1991 December 18 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1992 July 13 - . 17:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1992 October 20 - . 12:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1992 November 24 - . 04:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1992 December 22 - . 12:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1992 December 25 - . 20:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1993 March 30 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1993 April 16 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1993 April 28 - . 03:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1993 May 11 - . 14:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1993 June 24 - . 04:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1993 July 7 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1993 August 31 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1993 September 17 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1994 January 25 - . 00:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1994 February 12 - . 08:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1994 March 2 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1994 May 25 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Stage 2 and 3 failed to separate due to a breakdown of the launch vehicle control system.. Failed Stage: 3.
1994 October 11 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1994 November 2 - . 01:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1994 November 29 - . 02:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1994 December 26 - . 22:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. Launch Pad: LC32/2?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1995 June 8 - . 04:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1995 August 31 - . 06:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1995 December 20 - . 00:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1996 February 19 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1996 December 11 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1997 February 14 - . 03:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
1997 December 9 - . 07:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
1998 June 15 - . 22:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: The launch vehicle control system was misprogrammed before launch due to a malfunction of the ground instrumentation. However the satellites were in usable orbits..
1999 December 26 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
2000 December 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: The S5M third stage steering unit failed and the vehicle crashed a few thousand km downrange near Wrangel Island.. Failed Stage: 3.
2001 July 31 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
2001 December 21 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
2001 December 28 - . 03:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
2004 May 28 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
2004 December 24 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Launch vehicle control system failure during third stage apogee kick burn..
2006 June 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
2009 January 30 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.

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