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UNKS
Russian agency. Directorate of the Commander of Space Assets, Russia.

AKA: Upravleniye Nachalnika Kosmicheskikh Sredstv. Location: Moskva.



Country: Russia. Spacecraft: Salyut 7, Mir, Buran. Flights: Soyuz T-10-1. Projects: Mars, Okean, Resurs, RORSAT, Strela, Tselina.

1982 March 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Romb - . Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1982 May 15 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-6 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Photo surveillance mission..

1982 June 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Yantar-4K1 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1982 July 22 - . 22:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ekran s/n 23L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 23L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran.

1982 August 30 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
1982 November 24 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
1982 December 24 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Raduga s/n 22L - . Payload: Raduga s/n 22L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga. Decay Date: 1982-12-24 .

1983 January 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Romb - . Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Carried Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1983 September 26 - . 19:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U. FAILURE: Launch vehicle blew up on pad.. Failed Stage: 0.
1984 July 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • BOR-5 sn 501 subscale 1:8 Buran reentry test - . Mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Buran. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: BOR-5. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Range: 2,000 km (1,200 mi). Suborbital test of 1/8 scale model of Buran. Typical trajectory: ascent to 210 km; pitch down to drive model in atmosphere at 45 degree at Mach 18.5. None were reflown but at least 4 were recovered..

1985 April 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • R&D suborbital Zenit launch vehicle test failure - . Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS.

1985 April 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • BOR-5 sn 502 subscale 1:8 Buran reentry test - . Mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Buran. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: BOR-5. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Range: 2,000 km (1,200 mi). Suborbital test of 1/8 scale model of Buran. Typical trajectory: ascent to 210 km; pitch down to drive model in atmosphere at 45 degree at Mach 18.5. None were reflown but at least 4 were recovered..

1985 October 23 - . 17:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Parus - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Parus.

1986 March 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-8 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Military cartographic mission..

1986 October 15 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: First-stage failure as a result of leakage of the tank pressurization system.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Strela-3 Nos. 5 to 10 - . Payload: Strela-3 Nos. 5 to 10. Mass: 1,320 kg (2,910 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. First attempted launch of full load of Strela-3 military store-dump communications satellite fails to reach orbit..

1986 November 29 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. FAILURE: Second stage explosion.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Almaz-T s/n 303 Failure - . Payload: Almaz-K s/n 303. Mass: 18,550 kg (40,890 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Almaz. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Almaz. Spacecraft: Almaz-T. Decay Date: 1986-12-29 . In the second half of 1986 the first Almaz-T s/n 303 was readied for launch. General V V Favorskiy ordered it to be completed and launched with a full-up lab module in place of trials equipment. Unfortunately did not reach orbit..

1986 December 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • BOR-5 sn 503 subscale 1:8 Buran reentry test - . Mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Buran. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: BOR-5. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Range: 2,000 km (1,200 mi). Suborbital test of 1/8 scale model of Buran. Typical trajectory: ascent to 210 km; pitch down to drive model in atmosphere at 45 degree at Mach 18.5. None were reflown but at least 4 were recovered..

1987 May 15 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC250. LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Energia. FAILURE: No orbital insertion due to failure of the FGB attitude control system (Energia performed perfectly). Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: P.
  • Polyus - . Payload: Skif-DM. Mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Buran. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft Bus: TKS. Spacecraft: Polyus. Decay Date: 1987-05-15 . COSPAR: F870515A.

    Due to delays in completion of the enormous static test facility at Baikonur, which could test the entire Energia vehicle stack, it was decided to launch the vehicle without the verification the tests would provide. The launch of 6SL was planned for 11 May 1987 at 21:30 Moscow time. It was delayed five days when a leak was detected in the Block 3A electrical distribution section, then by another hour due to a fault LH2 thermostat. The launch vehicle performed successfully, but the Polyus payload failed to inject itself into orbit due to a guidance system failure. Additional Details: here....


1987 June 18 - . 07:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Booster exploded on pad.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Resurs-F1 14F40 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F40 No. 105. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Resurs. Spacecraft Bus: Vostok. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F40. Pad was badly damaged and not put back into service until December 1988..

1987 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • BOR-5 sn 504 subscale 1:8 Buran reentry test - . Mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Buran. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: BOR-5. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Range: 2,000 km (1,200 mi). Suborbital test of 1/8 scale model of Buran. Typical trajectory: ascent to 210 km; pitch down to drive model in atmosphere at 45 degree at Mach 18.5. None were reflown but at least 4 were recovered..

1987 December 12 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1900 - . Mass: 4,300 kg (9,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Kosmoplan. Spacecraft: US-A. COSPAR: 1987-101xx. Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered..

1988 January 18 - . 09:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Third stage malfunction.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Gorizont s/n 25L - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 25L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont.

1988 February 17 - . 00:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Block DM-2 failure, remained in LEO..
  • Cosmos 1919 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 36L. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. COSPAR: 1988-009xx.
  • Cosmos 1918 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 37L. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. COSPAR: 1988-009xx.

1988 June 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • BOR-5 sn 505 subscale 1:8 Buran reentry test - . Mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Buran. Spacecraft Bus: Buran. Spacecraft: BOR-5. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Range: 2,000 km (1,200 mi). Suborbital test of 1/8 scale model of Buran. Typical trajectory: ascent to 210 km; pitch down to drive model in atmosphere at 45 degree at Mach 18.5. None were reflown but at least 4 were recovered..

1988 July 7 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2.
  • 1F DPS - . Payload: Dolgozhivushchaya PS. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. COSPAR: 1988-058xx.

1988 July 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
1988 July 12 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2.
  • 1F DPS - . Payload: Dolgozhivushchaya PS. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. COSPAR: 1988-059xx.
  • 1F PPS - . Payload: Prigayushchaya PS. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. COSPAR: 1988-059xx.

1988 July 27 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
1988 November 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
1988 November 15 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: Buran. Launch Vehicle: Buran launch vehicle.
  • 37KB module s/n 37070 - . Payload: 37KB s/n 37070. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Buran. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: 37K. Spacecraft: 37KB. COSPAR: 1988-100xx.

1989 June 9 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Stage 3 failure - third stage engine did not ignite for second burn.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Okean - . Payload: Okean-O1 no. 4. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: Okean-O1.

1989 September 28 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Magion 2 - . Payload: S2-AK. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: UNKS. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. USAF Sat Cat: 20281 . COSPAR: 1989-080B. Apogee: 2,441 km (1,516 mi). Perigee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 115.30 min.

    Deployed from Intercosmos 24 10/3/89; examined signal propogation from Intercosmos 24. Research of the magnetosphere and the ionosphere of the Earth. The Czechoslovak satellite Magion 2 was launched into orbit by the Soviet spacecraft Intercosmos 24. Magion 2 forms a part of the scientific programme of Intercosmos 24 (project Aktivnyj) Exe cution of the scientific programme of the 'Aktivny' project in conjunction with Intercosmos-24, permitting simultaneous spatially separating investigations of plasma processes in circumterrestrial space.


1990 April 3 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Yantar-4K1 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1990 July 3 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Yantar-4K1 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Spacecraft Bus: Yantar. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1990 August 9 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Third stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Ekran-M s/n 14L - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 14L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran-M.

1990 September 27 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • VBK Raduga - . Mass: 7,450 kg (16,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-10. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Decay Date: 1990-11-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 20824 . COSPAR: 1990-085xx. Apogee: 406 km (252 mi). Perigee: 361 km (224 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

1990 October 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/2. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: First stage engine exploded after 3 seconds.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Tselina-2 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 10. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2.

1991 March 19 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1991 June 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction - no stable orbit.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Romb - . Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1991 August 20 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1991 August 30 - . 08:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: Second stage exploded due to heating problems in main engine.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Tselina-2 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 11. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2.

1991 October 17 - . 00:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
  • VBK Raduga - . Mass: 7,450 kg (16,420 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mir. Flight: Soyuz TM-12 Mir LD-3, Soyuz TM-13. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Progress M. Decay Date: 1992-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 21746 . COSPAR: 1991-073xx. Apogee: 378 km (234 mi). Perigee: 376 km (233 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.10 min.

1991 December 18 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Magion 3 - . Payload: S2-AP. Mass: 52 kg (114 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: UNKS. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. USAF Sat Cat: 21835 . COSPAR: 1991-086E. Apogee: 2,943 km (1,828 mi). Perigee: 436 km (270 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.20 min.

    Separated from Intercosmos 25 on 12/28/91; geophysical. Research of magnetosphere nad the ionosphere of the Earth by passive and active methods. Launched on 18 Dec 1991. The Czechoslovak satellite Magion 3 forms, together with the spacecraft Intercosmos 25, part of the Apex scientific project. Magion 3 was sep arated into an autonomous orbit on 28 Dec 1991. Magion 3 was launched into orbit by the Soviet spacecraft Intercosmos 25.


1992 February 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction due to heating problems in main engine.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Tselina-2 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 12. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Tselina. Class: Surveillance. Type: Naval signals intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2.

1992 April 19 - . 21:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.

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