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Proton

Universal Rockets

Universal Rockets
Chelomei's Universal Rocket Family. From left to right: UR-100 (three variants) and UR-100N (three variants). UR-200. Original UR-500 configuration, composed of clustered UR-200's. Conventional UR-500 monoblock configuration. Selected UR-500 polyblock configuration. UR-500 two-stage configuration - ICBM version and as flown. UR-500K configuration with LK-1; with Block D upper stage and L1; with Block D upper stage for satellite launch. UR-700.
Credit: © Mark Wade

The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over fifty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers. The latest potential replacement, the Angara, may not be operational until the 2020's.

Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-12-27. Last Launch: 2014-12-27. Number: 1 .

Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes.

The Proton had its origin in the early 1960's, at a time when all Soviet rockets required military justification to be developed. At this time the military-political leadership formulated a requirement for a heavy rocket that could be used to launch large military payloads into space as well as act as a ballistic missile for nuclear warheads up to 100 MT in yield.

There were competitors for the original military Global Rocket 2 (GR-2) requirement.

The OKB-1 of S P Korolev had begun design of the enormous N1 lunar rocket, and had already put the Soviet Union first in ballistic missiles and space through use of its R-7 ICBM. Korolev was working on the successor R-9 ICBM, and the NII variant of the N1 (using the top two stages) could meet the GR-2 requirement.

M K Yangel's KB Yuzhnoye proposed creation of two related launch vehicles to fulfill the military requirement - the R-46 heavy ICBM and the R-56 launch vehicle. These would cover the entire range of military requirements. Yangel's OKB had already supplied the military with the great majority of its operational strategic rockets - the R-12 and R-14 IRBM's and the R-16 ICBM.

OKB-52, under V N Chelomei, proposed to create a related family of rockets, each designed from the beginning for dual use as ballistic missiles and space launchers - the medium UR-200, the heavy UR-500 and the huge UR-700 for lunar requirements.

By 16 March and 1 August 1961 the Central Committee and Politburo had approved development of the UR-200 (8K81) universal rocket. The UR-200 draft project was completed in July 1962.

The GR-2 project required that the factory-completed modules of the rocket be transported by rail to the launch complex, quickly assembled at the site, followed by automatic erection and launch. Approval to proceed with the UR-500 8K82 was provided in the Central Committee decree of 24 April 1962. However Chelomei had begun studies on the design considerably earlier, in the second half of 1961.

At first the launch vehicle was simply to consist of 4 two-stage UR-200 rockets lashed together, the first and second stages working in parallel in clusters. A third stage would be modified from the UR-200 second stage. (Yangel proposed a similar solution, his R-56 rockets being composed of R-46's clustered together). However study of this configuration, which included manufacturing of a dynamic test article (now in the TsNIIMASH museum), indicated that the payload capacity could not meet the military's requirements.

The selected solution was to develop a conventional tandem three-stage vehicle. The upper two stages would be modified versions of the UR-200 first and second stages. However the first stage would have to be a new design. There were two logical solutions, both of which were implemented by the Americans in their rockets of the same class: to take a two stage rocket and attach large solid fuel boosters in parallel to the central body, as was done in the Titan 3C design; or to build a new powerful first stage, as was done on the Saturn I rocket. Chelomei additionally had to consider what would be needed for his UR-700 lunar launch vehicle. His solution was to build a core module of the largest possible rail-transportable diameter (4.15 m). This could consist of an oxidizer tank, or a fuel tank with the engine installation. The design had to meet requirements from two sides. On the one hand, the maximum length and diameter of the modules was dictated by the size of rail wagons and platforms, and existing rail tunnels, waterways, and turntables. On the other hand, the size of the rocket stage, and its corresponding volume and mass, were driven by the UR-500 launch mass and characteristics of the future UR-700.

Two variants of the first stage were considered: polyblock and monoblock. The monoblock approach was that the first stage be assembled from two separate modules with the same diameter: an upper oxidizer module and a lower fuel and engine block. In assembly trials of this design it proved difficult, because of the height of the first stage, to obtain access to the upper stages and payload atop the rocket. The payload advantage of this design was relatively small compared to the alternative. This variant was studied by Chelomei's Filial Number 1, Chief Designer V N Bugayskiy, under the lead engineer M S Mishetyan.

The second (polyblock) variant consisted of a center large diameter oxidizer tank surrounded by several smaller diameter fuel tanks. This version could be assembled in a special rig with the lateral blocks being sequentially mounted on the center. This had the advantage of easier installation of the upper stages and payload due to the smaller length of the first stage. This variant was studied in Filial 1 under the lead engineer E. T. Radchenko. In January 1962 this design was chosen as most advantageous, following studies that indicated improved wind loads and bending moment characteristics compared to the monoblock design. The polyblock design received patent number 36616 in 26 July 1966. Named on the patent were V N Chelomei, V N Bugayckiy, V A Birodov, G D Dermichev, N I Yegorov, V K Karrask, Yu P Kolesnikov, Ya B Nodelman, and E T Radchenko.

Another key issue was the selection of the engine for the first stage. In order that the rocket could meet the quick response requirements of the military, it was decided that it would use storable liquid fuels. These would allow the fuelled rocket to be held in readiness for quick launch over a wide range of temperature conditions and eliminate the need for thermostatically controlled storage of the rocket. Nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) and unsymmetrical di-methyl hydrazine (UDMH) had already been selected as the propellants for the UR-200 and therefore for the corresponding upper stages of the UR-500. However the largest rocket engine developed for the UR-200 was the 50 metric ton thrust 8D45 engine of S A Kosberg's KBKhA design bureau. By the beginning of work on the UR-500 more than 700 trials of this engine had been undertaken, including 225 resource trials. The advantage of using this engine was that it could contribute to the desired short length of the first stage. However the drawback was that to achieve the required first stage thrust, 15 to 16 engines would have to be clustered, which, from the point of view of V N Chelomei, was much too many.

In November 1961 OKB-52 began to collaborate with V P Glushko's OKB-456 in developing a more appropriate engine. Glushko had completed a storable liquid engine design of 150 metric tons for use in Korolev's N1. However Korolev refused to accept this design, due to his refusal to use toxic propellants in his rockets and his belief that such propellants could never deliver the required specific impulse. Korolev insisted on development of an oxygen-kerosene engine; Glushko categorically refused to do so. As a result, the two leading Soviet rocket designers irrevocably split. Korolev had to turn for development of his N1 engines to the aviation engine OKB of N D Kuznetsov.

Since Chelomei agreed with Glushko on the selection of propellants, Glushko's N1 engine instead went into the first stage of the UR-500. In May 1962 advanced project UR-500 was published. The initial design featured four fixed Glushko engines mounted below the core, with four gimbaled Kosberg engines on the lateral tanks. The second stage of the UR-500 was a larger-diameter variant of the first stage of the UR-200, with the engines gimbaled for directional control. The third stage used the UR-200's fixed engine with a four-nozzle steering engine. In order to meet the constant diameter requirement the third stage used toroidal propellant tanks.

Development of the engines and further elaboration of the study led to modifications to the original design of the first stage. Glushko conducted tests of the new engine from 1961 to 1963, followed by tests of the clustered engine assembly from June 1963 to January 1965. Through use of a regenerative fuel pump cycle Glushko was able to improve the thrust of the engine by 12.5%. It was therefore decided to use only the large Glushko engine in the first stage. The first layout had one engine at the base of the core and 4 to 8 fuel tanks with peripheral engines. Now the center engine was abandoned and the 'clean' oxidizer tank core was surrounded by six fuel tank/engine assemblies. This had the advantage of reducing the length of the stage while increasing the dry weight fraction.

The 29 April 1962 decree ordered development of this powerful new rocket to be completed within three years. This was a difficult task, considering the factory and launch facilities that would have to be built to allow testing of the rocket to begin. Head of the original UR-500 development team was P A Ivensen. In 1962 this role was taken by Yu N Trufanov. At the project stage the technical parameters of the rocket were developed by D A Polukhin (subsequently chief of the team), V K Karrask, G D Dermichev, V A Virodov, E T Radchenko, E S Kulaga, N N Mirkin, Yu P Kolosnov, V F Gusev, and A T Tarasov.

The launch complex at Tyuratam was designed and built by GSKB Spetsmash in accordance with a decree of 26 May 1962. There were two pads, located 600 m apart and shielded against rocket explosions so that on-pad failure of a vehicle would not destroy the complex.

As payloads for the UR-500, Chelomei considered a broad spectrum of space craft, destined to solve defense, scientific investigation, and national economic tasks. These were to be called raketoplans - piloted spacecraft for solving military tasks in space. For example, orbital raketoplans were intended to fulfill intelligence, satellite inspection, and destruction tasks. For these purposes the raketoplan was to be equipped with an orbital maneuvering engine, targeting systems, rendezvous systems, and space-to-space weapons. Later raketoplans would be used for scientific tasks, including flight to the moon and return to earth, and economic exploitation of near-earth space. Due to their high lift to drag ratios, raketoplans could, after completing their tasks in space, make a guided descent into the earth's atmosphere with a landing on Soviet territory.

The draft project UR-500 was completed in 1963. The fundamental technological problems of the project had been solved by the end of 1964. In the early fall of that year, Khrushchev and the political leadership of the country visited Baikonur. Chelomei with great pride guided Khrushchev around a dummy UR-500 installed in its launch gantry at the new launch complex, presented the heavy transporters for the launch vehicle and showed a scale model of the launch silo planned for the combat version. Khrushchev's comment was 'what should we build - communism or silos for the UR-500?' It was clear that Khrushchev was not very supportive of the military version of the UR-500

Soon thereafter Khrushchev was ousted from power and the new leadership, under Brezhnev, was adverse to all projects Khrushchev had supported. This included Chelomei and his OKB-52. An expert commission under M V Keldysh was directed to examine all of Chelomei's projects and make recommendations as to which should be cancelled. Keldysh found that Yangel's R-36 universal rocket was superior to Chelomei's UR-200. The UR-200 was accordingly cancelled. The UR-500 was to continue, not as a huge ICBM but only in the space launcher role. The raketoplan was stopped, but work on the high-priority LK-1manned lunar flyby program continued.

In the spring of 1965, when Chelomei's activities were still under investigation, the Khrunichev factory completed construction of the first UR-500. In place of the third stage, an automated space physics laboratory 'Proton', for measurement of high energy particles, was built. The Proton satellites used the structural shell of the rocket's third stage.

All of the components were shipped by rail to Tyuratam for launch from the new rocket complex on the left ('Chelomeevskoy') arm of the range. The rocket was assembled in the Proton MIK assembly building at site 92 at Baikonur. The special transporter-installer took the rocket by rail from the MIK to launch site number 81, and the rockets was raised from the horizontal to the vertical position and installed on the launch table. Unlike the R-7 'Semyorka', the '500 was not suspended above the flame pit but fastened by its tail directly on the launch table. The UR-500 had a very cleanly designed compound umbilical cable which connected all services to a single coupling in the base of the core oxidizer tank. This umbilical remained connected until the rocket reached a height of 100 to 150 mm, then automatically detached and was retracted into a protective cover on the launch pad. Doors also closed on the launch vehicle, making a hermetic seal.

The first launch was not without problems. A leak in the oxidizer pipeline resulted in nitrogen tetroxide spilling on electrical wires. The question was: proceed with the launch or abort? Chelomei decided to go ahead, and on 16 July 1965 the first UR-500 successfully launched the Proton 1 satellite. In the first hours after launch specialists from OKB-52 could only receive signals in the first hours that indicated the satellite was 'alive'. However it later functioned normally and provided physics data for 45 days.

Aside from its index 8K82 and 'company' designation UR-500, at the first launch the rocket was called 'Gerkules' (other sources say 'Atlantis'), as indicated by the large symbol on the second stage skin. This name was however was not taken up. In the open press it was known only by the name of its first payload, 'Proton'.

Flight trials of the two-stage variant of the rocket went through 6 July 1966. In four launches three heavy Proton satellites reached orbit. The third launch failed when the second stage cut off, and the rocket crashed in the Akmolinsk region. The payload capacity of the Proton was given in the press as 12.2 metric tons; however this included the empty mass of the last stage. The payload of the two-stage version was really only 8.4 metric tons, only 24% more than Korolev's Soyuz rocket based on the R-7, even though the UR-500 was 75% larger. These deficiencies would be rectified in the three-stage version, fully developed in accordance with the decree of 3 August 1964.


More at: Proton.

Subtopics

Initial UR-500 While Chelomei's OKB was still preparing the UR-200 draft project, it was proposed to use this as the basis for the UR-500 heavy universal rocket, with five times the payload capacity. These initial 1961 studies consisted of 4 two-stage UR-200 rockets lashed together, the first and second stages working in parallel in clusters. A third stage would be modified from the UR-200 second stage. However analysis indicated that the payload capacity could not meet the military's requirements.

Monoblock UR-500 During UR-500 design studies, two variants of the first stage were considered: polyblock and monoblock. The monoblock approach was that the first stage be assembled from two separate modules with the same diameter: an upper oxidizer module and a lower fuel and engine block. In assembly trials of this design it proved difficult, because of the height of the first stage, to obtain access to the upper stages and payload atop the rocket. Although there was a payload advantage compared to the more compact polyblock design, this was relatively small and outweighed by the operational difficulties.

Polyblock UR-500 UR-500 design studies considered two variants of the first stage: polyblock and monoblock. The polyblock variant consisted of a center large diameter oxidizer tank surrounded by several smaller diameter fuel tanks. This version could be assembled in a special rig with the lateral blocks being sequentially mounted on the center. In January 1962 this design was chosen as most advantageous, following studies that indicated improved wind loads and bending moment characteristics compared to the monoblock design. The developed version of the design would become known as the Proton.

UR-500 The original UR-500 two stage configuration was designed as a monster ICBM. It was flown four times from 1965, but never deployed as an operational missile. The design was succeeded by three and four stage versions for launching of large payloads into space.

Proton-K Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorized in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorized development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.

Proton-K/D This four stage version of the Proton was originally designed to send manned circumlunar spacecraft into translunar trajectory. Guidance to the Block D stage must be supplied by spacecraft. The design was proposed on 8 September 1965 by Korolev as an alternate to Chelomei's LK-1 circumlunar mission. It combined the Proton 8K82K booster for the LK-1 with the N1 lunar Block D stage to boost a stripped-down Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft around the moon. The Korolev design was selected, and first flight came on 10 March 1967. The crash lunar program led to a poor launch record. Following a protracted ten year test period, the booster finally reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.

Proton-K/DM-2 This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-separation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'.

Proton-K/DM-2 DM1 Version of the 11S861 with adapter for Lockheed Martin AS 4000 bus spacecraft.

Proton-K Blok-DM3 Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Proton-K Blok-DM1 Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Proton-K Blok-DM4 Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Proton-K Blok-DM2 Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Proton-K/17S40 DM2 Version of the 17S40 with payload adapter for deployment of multiple LM 700 (Iridium) spacecraft into medium earth orbit.

Proton-K/DM-2M DM3 Version of the 11S861-01 with Saab payload adapter-separation system for insertion of Hughes HS-601 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit.

Proton-K/DM-2M DM4 Version of the 11S861-01 with Saab payload adapter-separation system for insertion of FS-1300 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit.

UR-500MK In 1975 Chelomei proposed this version of the Proton powered by LOx/kerosene NK-33 engines developed for the cancelled N1 moon booster. This would give the Soviet Union an equivalent to the all-new Zenit-2 booster being developed by Glushko, but at a fraction of the time and expense through the use of existing components. The proposal had no chance politically, and was never seriously considered.

UR-530 1976 design for an upgraded Proton, replacing the first stage with a cluster of six modular stages derived from the UR-100N first stage. Detail design to the draft project stage was undertaken in 1976-1977 but the much larger and more expensive Energia/Buran system was selected for development instead.

Proton-M/Briz-M Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cryogenic stage.

Proton-M Briz-M 2 Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Proton-M Briz-M P1 Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Proton-M Briz-M P2 Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Proton-M Briz-M P2M Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Proton-M Briz-M P3 Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Proton-M Briz-M P1M1 Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Proton-M/DM-3 Improved Proton-M, mated to the older DM-3 upper stage rather than the Briz-M for certain payloads.

Proton-M Briz-M P1M2 Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Proton-M Briz-M P4 Russian orbital launch vehicle variant.

Family: orbital launch vehicle, Soviet Space Stations, Space station, Space station orbit. People: Chelomei. Country: Russia. Engines: RD-0225. Spacecraft: Ekspress-1000, Ekspress-2000, LK-1, TGR, Almaz APOS, Molniya-1, N-4, Soyuz 7K-L1, Orlan, N-6, Luna Ye-8, Mars M-69, Luna Ye-8-5, Soyuz 7K-L1E, Salyut 1, Mars M-71, Luna Ye-8-LS, DLB Beacon Lander, Almaz OPS-2, Almaz OPS, Salyut 4, Mars M-73, Raduga, Luna Ye-8-5M, Venera 4V-1, Prognoz SPRN, Mir-2, Ekran, TKS VA, OPS + TKS, KSI, TKS, Salyut 6, Gorizont, Mars 5M, USB, 37K-Mir, Iskra, Salyut 7, Potok, Glonass, LKS, Astron, Venera 4V-2, Tselina-2, Vega 5VK, Luch, AS 4000, Vega 5VS, Mir, Almaz-T, Ekran-M, Kvant, Eurostar 2000, Fobos 1F, KS space station, Etalon, FS-1300, Raduga-1, Kvant-2, Granat, HS 601, Kristall, Tellura, Mak, Spektr - Original, Almaz-1B, Gals, Ekspress, Elektro, Spektr, Almaz-2, Priroda, Spacebus 3000, AS 2100, Mars M1, LM 700, Arkon-1, Kupon, Star bus, ISS Zarya, Yamal, LMI, HS 702, ISS Commercial Enterprise Module, ISS Zvezda, Integral, Cubesat, Spacebus 4000, Eurostar 3000, DS2000, Yakhta, Garpun. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. Launch Sites: Baikonur, Baikonur LC200/39. Agency: RVSN, Chelomei bureau, MOM, SES. Bibliography: 107, 111, 112, 118, 120, 150, 151, 154, 163, 181, 191, 193, 195, 2, 219, 23, 273, 274, 276, 279, 296, 299, 367, 376, 42, 428, 439, 443, 445, 474, 475, 476, 552, 554, 6, 67, 72, 76.
Photo Gallery

N-4 SpacecraftN-4 Spacecraft
Cutaway view of N-4 spacecraft. This heavy high-energy physics station was launched on the first four test launches of the Proton launch vehicle.
Credit: Chelomei School, Leninsk


UR-100 and UR-500UR-100 and UR-500
UR-100 and UR-500 Dynamic test models
Credit: © Mark Wade


UR-500 ICBMUR-500 ICBM
UR-500 ICBM version - cutaway drawing showing arrangement of N2O4 oxidiser tanks (green) and UDMH fuel tanks (orange). The UR-500 was designed so that its components could be rail-transported and field assembled in silos. Even Khrushchev considered the monster missile and its 100 MT warhead unaffordable - after he was deposed, the ICBM project was cancelled. The original third stage configuration with toroidal tanks was never flown.
Credit: © Mark Wade


UR-500DH2UR-500DH2
Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics, June 1994
Credit: © Dietrich Haeseler


UR-500 First ConceptUR-500 First Concept
Drawing of the original design concept for the UR-500 heavy ICBM/space launcher. This consisted of a cluster of four UR-200 ICBM's, with a modified UR-200 second stage as the final stage. Dynamic tests were conducted of a model of this configuration, but it was abandoned by Chelomei due to poor payload performance.
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton UR-500Proton UR-500
Proton two stage configuration as flown in the first four launches. This version had a shorter second stage than the UR-500K that followed and only 40% of the payload.
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton UR-500Proton UR-500
Model of the Proton UR-500 two stage configuration as first flown.
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton UR-500Proton UR-500
The very first Proton UR-500 is enclosed by its launch gantry.
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton 8K82Proton 8K82
Proton 8K82 as flown in the first four Proton launches. This version had the shorter second stage of the GR-2 ICBM version, but lacked the cancelled UR-500 third stage. Payload with just two stages was hardly better than the much smaller Soyuz 11A511 launch vehicle.
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton 8K82KProton 8K82K
Proton 8K82K launch vehicle in its original form, with Chelomei's manned LK-1 circumlunar spacecraft as the payload.
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton Launch PadProton Launch Pad
Model of the Proton launch complex. This model shows the servicing structure enclosing the launch vehicle, already mounted above the flame pit. The pad is flanked by lightning and lighting towers. Bunkers for propellant storage lay along the rail line leading to the pad.
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton K  LVProton K LV
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton 8K82KProton 8K82K
Proton 8K82K launch vehicle with Kristall space station payload
Credit: Lockheed Martin


UR-200 and UR-500UR-200 and UR-500
Dynamic test models of UR-200 ICBM and early Proton concept 'collection of UR-200's'
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton UR-500KProton UR-500K
Cutaway drawing of the Proton UR-500K with Block D upper stage as developed for the Soviet manned circumlunar program. The same basic launch vehicle would eventually be Russia's most commercially successful launch vehicle.
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton 8K82K/DMProton 8K82K/DM
Proton 8K82K / Block DM launch vehicle
Credit: Lockheed Martin


Block DBlock D
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton liftoffProton liftoff
Credit: Lockheed Martin


UR-500 / L1 RolloutUR-500 / L1 Rollout
Credit: RKK Energia


Proton w/ LKProton w/ LK
Proton 8K82K Block D launch vehicle with Soyuz 7K-L1 manned circumlunar spacecraft.


Proton 8K82K / 11S82Proton 8K82K / 11S82
Proton 8K82K / 11S824M with Vega payload - COSPAR 1984-128


Proton 8K82K / 11S82Proton 8K82K / 11S82
Proton 8K82K / 11S824F with Phobos payload - COSPAR 1988-058


Proton sunriseProton sunrise
Credit: Lockheed Martin


R-7 vs ProtonR-7 vs Proton
R-7 / Proton LVs Cutaway
Credit: © Mark Wade


ProtpyldProtpyld
Credit: © Mark Wade


Proton launchProton launch
Credit: Lockheed-Martin


Proton IridiumProton Iridium
Proton Iridium payload preparation in former Buran payload facility.
Credit: © Mark Wade



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