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N-4
Proton 1 / N-4
Proton 1 / N-4
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. Designated Proton 1 after launch; investigated ultra-high-energy cosmic particles.

Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-07-16. Last Launch: 1966-07-06. Number: 4 . Payload: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Gross mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Span: 4.10 m (13.40 ft).

Actual mass was 8,300 kg - but that announced at time of launch was 12,200 kg (designed payload capacity of three-stage version of original Proton launch vehicle that never flew).



Subtopics

Proton 1, 2, 3 (Proton-1 1, 2, 3, 4 / N-4 #1, 2, 3, 4) Science satellite, Russia. Launched 1965 - 1966.

Family: Astronomy, Cosmic ray astronomy satellite. Country: Russia. Launch Vehicles: Proton, UR-500. Launch Sites: Baikonur, Baikonur LC81/23. Agency: Chelomei bureau, MOM. Bibliography: 2, 273, 274, 4031, 6, 67.
Photo Gallery

N-4 SpacecraftN-4 Spacecraft
Cutaway view of N-4 spacecraft. This heavy high-energy physics station was launched on the first four test launches of the Proton launch vehicle.
Credit: Chelomei School, Leninsk


Proton 1Proton 1
Credit: Manufacturer Image



1965 July 16 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: UR-500.
  • Proton 1 - . Payload: N-4 s/n 1. Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-4 . Decay Date: 1965-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 1466 . COSPAR: 1965-054A. Apogee: 578 km (359 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

    The first launch of the Proton launch vehicle was not without problems. A leak in the oxidiser pipeline resulted in nitrogen tetroxide spilling on electrical wires. The question was: proceed with the launch or abort? Chelomei decided to go ahead, and on 16 July 1965 the first UR-500 successfully launched the Proton 1 satellite. In the first hours after launch specialists from OKB-52 could only receive signals in the first hours that indicated the satellite was ‘alive’. However it later functioned normally and provided physics data on ultra-high-energy cosmic particles for 45 days.

    At the first launch the rocket was called ‘Gerkules’ (other sources say ‘Atlantis’), as indicated by the large symbol on the second stage skin. This name was however was not taken up.


1965 November 2 - . 12:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: UR-500.
  • Proton 2 - . Payload: N-4 s/n 2. Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-4 . Decay Date: 1966-02-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 1701 . COSPAR: 1965-087A. Apogee: 608 km (377 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. High energy physics laboratory. Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic particles. .

1966 March 24 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: UR-500. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • N-4 s/n 3 - . Payload: N-4. Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-4. Decay Date: 1966-03-24 .

1966 July 6 - . 12:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: UR-500.
  • Proton 3 - . Payload: N-4 s/n 4. Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-4 . Decay Date: 1966-09-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2290 . COSPAR: 1966-060A. Apogee: 594 km (369 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Space station 'Proton 3'. Investigation of ultra high energy cosmic particles .


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