Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: X

X- - Experimental aircraft (designation numbering series - US DoD)
X-1 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust from 165,000 to 198,000 lbs. Date: 1957. Thrust: 880.44 kN (197,931 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
X-10 - Alternate designation for Navaho X-10.
X-11 - Alternate designation for Atlas A.
X-12 - Alternate designation for Atlas B.
X-15 - X-15 rocket-powered manned aircraft project set records for altitude and speed, and reached the edge of space. Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1959-03-10. Last Launch: 1968-12-12. Number: 339 .
X-15 Flight 138 - Maximum Speed - 5522 kph. Maximum Altitude - 85527 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1965-06-29. Returned: 1965-06-29. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0073 days.
X-15 Flight 143 - Maximum Speed - 5712 kph. Maximum Altitude - 82601 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1965-08-10. Returned: 1965-08-10. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0068 days.
X-15 Flight 150 - Maximum Speed - 6005 kph. Maximum Altitude - 90099 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1965-09-28. Returned: 1965-09-28. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0083 days.
X-15 Flight 153 - Maximum Speed - 5718 kph. Maximum Altitude - 81230 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1965-10-14. Returned: 1965-10-14. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0065 days.
X-15 Flight 174 - Maximum Speed - 6034 kph. Maximum Altitude - 93540 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1966-11-01. Returned: 1966-11-01. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0074 days.
X-15 Flight 190 - Maximum Speed - 6204 kph. Maximum Altitude - 85500 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1967-10-17. Returned: 1967-10-17. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0070 days.
X-15 Flight 191 - Fatal accident, aircraft destroyed. After reaching peak altitude, entered spin at Mach 5. Entered dive at 30,000 m, began high frequency pitch oscillations, disintegrated when these reached 15 Gs. Maximum Speed - 5744 kph. Maximum Altitude - 81080 m. Launched: 1967-11-15. Returned: 1967-11-15. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0034 days.
X-15 Flight 197 - Maximum Speed - 5540 kph. Maximum Altitude - 81530 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1968-08-21. Returned: 1968-08-21. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0065 days.
X-15 Flight 62 - First rocketplane to reach space (USAF definition). FAI world altitude record. Maximum Speed - 6166 kph. Maximum Altitude - 95940 m. First astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1962-07-17. Returned: 1962-07-17. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0072 days.
X-15 Flight 77 - First civilian flight above 80 km. Maximum Speed - 5917 kph. Maximum Altitude - 82810 m. Second astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1963-01-17. Returned: 1963-01-17. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0065 days.
X-15 Flight 87 - Maximum Speed - 5511 kph. Maximum Altitude - 86870 m. Third astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1963-06-27. Returned: 1963-06-27. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0073 days.
X-15 Flight 90 - First rocketplane to reach space (FAI definition). Maximum Speed - 5969 kph. Maximum Altitude - 106010 m. Astronaut wings flight. 80 cm diameter balloon dragged on 30 m line to measure air density. Fourth astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1963-07-19. Returned: 1963-07-19. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0079 days.
X-15 Flight 91 - Unofficial world altitude record. Maximum Speed - 6105 kph. Maximum Altitude - 107960 m. Second X-15 astronaut flight (FAI definition); fifth astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). Launched: 1963-08-22. Returned: 1963-08-22. Number crew: 1 . Duration: 0.0078 days.
X-15 Pressure Suit - Alternate designation for MC-2 space suit.
X-15/Blue Scout - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. In March 1962, NASA proposed an orbital launch vehicle using the B-52/X-15 combination. A Blue Scout booster would be fitted to an extendable launch rail on the belly of the X-15. The X-15 would be air-launched from the B-52, and then itself air-launch the Blue Scout well above the earth's atmosphere. Status: Design 1962.
X-15A - Alternate designation for X-15A stage.
X-15A - American air-launched manned spaceplane, used for hypersonic research. 174 launches, 1959.06.08 (X-15 Flight 1) to 1968.10.24 (X-15 Flight 199). The X-15 was the first USAF and NASA project for manned spaceflight, initiated years before Mercury. Status: Operational 1959. Gross mass: 14,184 kg (31,270 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,159 kg (11,373 lb). Thrust: 262.45 kN (59,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Ammonia.
X-15A stage - LOx/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1968. Gross mass: 14,184 kg (31,270 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,158 kg (11,371 lb). Thrust: 262.45 kN (59,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Ammonia.
X-15A-2 - Alternate designation for X-15A-2 stage.
X-15A-2 - American manned spaceplane. The crash-damaged X-15 number 2 was rebuilt to attain even higher speeds. The body frame was stretched, and two drop tanks were added, increasing propellant load by 75%. Reached Mach 6.7 and 108 km altitude. Gross mass: 25,455 kg (56,118 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,317 kg (18,335 lb). Thrust: 262.45 kN (59,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Ammonia.
X-15A-2 stage - LOx/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 16,069 kg (35,426 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,766 kg (17,121 lb). Thrust: 262.45 kN (59,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Ammonia.
X-15A-2 Tanks - LOx/Ammonia rocket stage. Mass 7,026 kg (15,490 lb). Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 7,026 kg (15,489 lb). Unfuelled mass: 902 kg (1,988 lb). Propellants: Lox/Ammonia.
X-15A-3 - American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1962. It had been proposed that X-15 number 3 would be reworked to install a delta wing and designed to reach Mach 8. Status: Cancelled 1962. Gross mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 262.45 kN (59,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Ammonia.
X-15B - American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. North American's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was to extend the X-15 program. The X-15B was a 'stripped' X-15A with an empty mass of 4500 kg. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 13,500 kg (29,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 262.45 kN (59,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Ammonia.
X-17 - American test vehicle. USAF X-17 flight test program at Cape Canaveral studied reentry problems by simulating reentry velocities and conditions with a three-stage solid-fuel Lockheed X-17. A total of 26 X-17 flights were conducted until March 1957. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1955-08-26. Last Launch: 1958-09-06. Number: 39 . Gross mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Thrust: 220.00 kN (49,450 lbf).
X-17 - Alternate designation for RAM.
X-17 HTV - American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x 3-DS-47000 + 3 x NOTS 124-C + 1 x NOTS 124-C Status: Retired 1955. First Launch: 1955-06-13. Last Launch: 1955-07-14. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 209.00 kN (46,985 lbf).
X-17 HTV 1 - American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x 3-DS-47000 + 1 x Dummy stage + 1 x Dummy stage Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 209.00 kN (46,985 lbf).
X-17 HTV 1-2 - Rocket stage used on X-17 test vehicle. Status: Retired 1955.
X-17 HTV-1 - Alternate name for 3-DS-47000.
X-17 HTV-3 - Alternate name for NOTS 124-C.
X-17 QTV - American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x T-40 + 1 x Dummy stage + 1 x Dummy stage Status: Retired 1955. First Launch: 1955-05-23. Last Launch: 1955-05-23. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 13.00 kN (2,922 lbf).
X-1A - American manned rocketplane. Study 1951. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2. Status: Study 1951. Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
X-1B - American manned rocketplane. Flown 1952. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2. Status: Operational 1952. Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
X-1D - American manned rocketplane. Study 1953. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2. Status: Study 1953. Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
X-1E - American manned rocketplane. Study 1954. The X-1E was designed to test an ultra-thin 4% thickness to cord wing for supersonic flight. Status: Study 1954.
X-2 - American manned rocketplane. Design began 1945. X-2 was an AAF/ Bell project that flew three supersonic flight research aircraft, powered by liquid rockets. Originally designated XS-2. Status: Operational 1948. Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
X-20 Glider - Alternate designation for Dynasoar Glider manned spacecraft module.
X-200 stage series -
X-20A - Alternate designation for Dynasoar manned spaceplane.
X-220 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Double HPAG Deacon second stage. Status: Retired 1963. Gross mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Unfuelled mass: 24 kg (52 lb). Thrust: 27.00 kN (6,069 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
X-23A - Article Number of Prime manned spaceplane.
X-24 - The X-24 was the public face of a series of lifting-body designs tested by the USAF for use with manned spacecraft in the 1960's and 1970's. The configuation also appeared in numerous space shuttle and spaceplane designs into the 21st Century. The extent to which the configuration was used in deep black programs (SAINT II, Isinglass, etc) remains unkown.
X-241 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Project Pilot 1 third stage. Status: Retired 1958. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 25 kg (55 lb). Thrust: 12.10 kN (2,720 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
X-248 - Alternate designation for Altair 1 solid rocket engine.
X-248A - Alternate designation for Altair 1A solid rocket engine.
X-24A - American manned spaceplane. 28 launches, 1969.04.17 to 1971.06.04 . The X-24A was the Martin Corporation's subsonic test version of the US Air Force's preferred manned lifting body configuration. Status: Operational 1969. Gross mass: 5,192 kg (11,446 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,712 kg (5,978 lb). Thrust: 37.71 kN (8,477 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
X-24B - American manned spaceplane. 36 launches, 1973.08.01 to 1975.11.26 . Status: Operational 1973. Gross mass: 6,258 kg (13,796 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,778 kg (8,329 lb). Thrust: 43.58 kN (9,797 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
X-24C - American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1977. Two X-24C NHFRF (National Hypersonic Flight Research Facility) aircraft were to be built under a $ 200 million budget. Status: Cancelled 1977.
X-250 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Polaris A2E, Polaris A2 second stage. Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 4,200 kg (9,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 860 kg (1,890 lb). Propellants: Solid.
X-254 - Alternate designation for Antares 1A solid rocket engine.
X-256 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Black Brant X first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Unfuelled mass: 322 kg (709 lb). Thrust: 257.50 kN (57,888 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
X-258 - Alternate designation for Altair 2 solid rocket engine.
X-259 - Alternate designation for Antares 2 solid rocket engine.
X-259A - Alternate designation for Antares 3A solid rocket engine.
X-260 - Hercules solid rocket engine. STARS second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 815 kg (1,796 lb). Propellants: Solid.
X-265 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Sprint ABM first stage. Status: Retired 1992. Gross mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Propellants: Solid.
X-271 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Sprint ABM second stage. Status: Retired 1992. Propellants: Solid.
X-30 - American SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. Air-breathing scramjet single stage to orbit. Second attempt after study of similar proposal in early 1960's. Cancelled due to cost, technical challenges. Superseded by X-33 rocket-powered SSTO. Status: Cancelled 1990. Gross mass: 140,000 kg (300,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb). Thrust: 1,370.00 kN (307,980 lbf).
X-33 - American winged rocketplane. NASA-sponsored suborbital unmanned prototype for a single-stage-to-orbit rocketplane. The Lockheed Martin vehicle would have used a linear aerospike engine, metallic insulation, and other features similar to their Starclipper shuttle proposal of 1971. In 1999 catastrophic failure of the composite fuel tank during static test brought into question the technical feasibility of the design. The program was cancelled in 2001 before any flight articles were completed and after over $1.2 billion had been expended. Status: Cancelled 2001. Gross mass: 123,800 kg (272,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 28,600 kg (63,000 lb). Thrust: 1,823.00 kN (409,826 lbf).
X-34 - Alternate designation for X-34A.
X-34 - NASA failed to attract industry co-investment to develop the original X-34A air-launched, reusable, low-technology, low-cost orbital launch vehicle concept. So the project was scaled back and NASA contracted with Orbital Sciences on 28 August 1996 to build and fly the X-34 unmanned technology demonstrator. This program in turn developed overruns and was cancelled in 2001 before a test flight was made. Status: Cancelled in 2001. Gross mass: 21,800 kg (48,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,200 kg (18,000 lb). Thrust: 268.93 kN (60,457 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
X-34A - The original X-34A was a three-stage vehicle consisting of the Orbital Sciences L-1011; which air-launched the X-34A reusable rocketplane; which space-launched the rocket-powered third stage; which would take a small payload to orbit. Only the third stage would be expendable. Status: Cancelled 2001. Gross mass: 34,000 kg (74,000 lb). Payload: 400 kg (880 lb). Thrust: 386.00 kN (86,776 lbf).
X-34A-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Original design for the winged first stage of the X-34A. Status: Development ended 1996. Gross mass: 29,500 kg (65,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Thrust: 386.30 kN (86,844 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
X-34A-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Original design for the second stage of the X-34A. Status: Development ended 1996. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 44.10 kN (9,914 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
X35AL-6000 - Aerojet rocket engine. Development begun November 1942. Date: November 1942. Thrust: 26.77 kN (6,018 lbf).
X-37 - American unmanned spaceplane. The Boeing X-37 Space Maneuver Vehicle began as a subscale version of a proposed USAF manned 21st Century spaceplane. The smaller-scale X-40 tested some technologies prior to completion of the X-37A. The X-37B was the reusable space vehicle. Status: Operational 2010. First Launch: 2010-04-22. Last Launch: 2015-05-20. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb).
X-38 - American manned spaceplane. Lifting body reentry vehicle designed as emergency return spacecraft for International Space Station crew. Status: Cancelled 2000. Gross mass: 8,163 kg (17,996 lb).
X4 - German wire-guided air-to-air missile. 8 kg of pressure-fed Salbei + Tonka 250 propellants provided a thrust that varied from 140 kgf down to 30 kgf over the 17 second burn time. Final velocity was 230 m/s. Status: Cancelled 1945. Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Payload: 20 kg (44 lb). Thrust: 1.37 kN (308 lbf).
X-4 - Alternate designation for Miranda.
X-40 - American unmanned spaceplane. Boeing X-40A Experimental Space Maneuver Vehicle was built to test landing technologies for the later X-37.
X-405 - GE LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Vanguard 1st stage. First flight 1957. Number: 12 . Unfuelled mass: 191 kg (421 lb). Thrust: 134.80 kN (30,304 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
X-43 - American spaceplane. Study 1997. NASA's X-43 Hyper-X program demonstrated an integrated hypersonic scramjet engine briefly at Mach 10 on its third and final flight. Status: Study 1997. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
X-430 - GE exoticLF2/LH2 rocket engine. Developed 1960's. Very high energy engine developed in early 1960's for future large upper stages. Not flown due to toxicity of propellants. Status: Developed 1960's. Thrust: 334.00 kN (75,086 lbf). Propellants: LF2/LH2.
X45ALD-4000 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Development begun June 1948. Regenerative cooling, nitrogen pressure-fed, droppable but no recoverable. Early version using XLR-13-AJ-1 thrust chamber assembly. Date: June 1948. Unfuelled mass: 403 kg (888 lb). Thrust: 17.60 kN (3,957 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
X45ALD-4000 - Manufacturer's designation of XLR13-AJ-5 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
X4-AL-1000 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Braking rocket for glider. Single uncooled chamber, pressure fed, 13 kg of propellant. Thrust: 4.41 kN (991 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
X-51A - X-51A Status: Active. First Launch: 2010-05-26. Last Launch: 2013-05-01. Number: 4 .
X60AL-1300 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Development begun January 1945. Superperformance Date: January 1945. Thrust: 5.78 kN (1,299 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
X60ALD-4000 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. ATO for XB-45, B-45A. Development begun May 1946. Pressurizing tank surrounded propellant tanks. Regeneratively cooled. Parachute for dropping and recovery after takeoff. Date: May 1946. Unfuelled mass: 363 kg (800 lb). Thrust: 17.60 kN (3,957 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
X60ALD-4000 - Manufacturer's designation of XLR13-AJ-7 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
X-7 - Launch vehicle family.
X-7A-1 - Status: Retired 1955. First Launch: 1951-04-26. Last Launch: 1955-04-29. Number: 20 .
X-7A-3 - Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1955-05-24. Last Launch: 1960-07-20. Number: 36 .
X-7B - Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1956-08-18. Last Launch: 1956-08-18. Number: 4 .
X-8 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. Date: 1961. Thrust: 400.10 kN (89,946 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
X90ALT-60000 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Development begun April 1947. Unspecified Application, 20,000 lbf subscale tested, new vertical test facility First Launch: April 1947. Thrust: 264.00 kN (59,349 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
XASR-1 - Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. Thrust: 11.60 kN (2,608 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
XaTcobeo - Student Cubesat from the University of Vigo.
XB-64 - Alternate designation for Navaho G-26 AV.
XB-64 - Alternate name for G-26 Booster.
XB-64 - Alternate name for Navaho G-26.
XB-64A - Alternate designation for Navaho G-38 Booster.
XB-64A - Alternate designation for Navaho G-38 AV.
XB-64A - Alternate name for G-38 Navaho Booster.
XB-64A - Alternate name for Navaho G-38 stage.
XB-70 - Mach 3 rocket launch aircraft. N. American Bomber-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Piggy-back, 27,273 kg (19.1 m length x 6.7 m span) at 3,193 kph at 21,341 m altitude Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 226,758 kg (499,915 lb). Unfuelled mass: 68,027 kg (149,973 lb). Payload: 27,273 kg (60,126 lb). Thrust: 520.32 kN (116,973 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
XBQM-8F - American surface-to-air drone.
XCAL-200 - Government designation of 300LR-200 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
XCALR-2000A-1 - Aerojet's unique Aerotojet consisted of a pair of canted 130 kgf thrust chambers mounted longitudinally on a drive shaft, which drove the turbopumps. Developed 1943-1945 for the XP-79 Northrop Flying Wing; blew up on first test. Date: January 1943. Thrust: 9.12 kN (2,050 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
XCALT-6000 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Conservative alternate to Aerotojet for XP-79 flying wing rocket fighter. Successfully tested in August 1945, but project cancelled. Regeneratively cooled, 4 thrust chambers, pump-fed. Date: November 1942. Unfuelled mass: 193 kg (425 lb). Thrust: 26.67 kN (5,996 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
XCNLT-1500 - Aerojet isopropylnitrate monopropellant rocket engine for Lark missile. Development begun March 1945. Turborocket; turbine-pump fed monopropellant, single uncooled thrust chamber. Development unsuccessful, all work terminated. First Launch: March 1945. Unfuelled mass: 33 kg (72 lb). Thrust: 6.66 kN (1,497 lbf). Propellants: Isopropylnitrate.
XCNLT-600/1000/1500 - Manufacturer's designation of XCNLT-1500 Isopropylnitrate rocket engine.
XCOR - XCOR Aerospace
Xenon - Proposed as propellant for some ion motors.
Xerus - American manned spaceplane. Study 2016. Suborbital vehicle that XCOR planned to design and build on a commercial basis. Rocket powered, it would take off from a runway, and be capable of high altitude, high speed flight. Status: Study 2016.
XF-91 - American manned rocketplane. The Republic XF-91 Thunderceptor was a mixed-power interceptor, being powered by both a jet engine and by a battery of rocket motors. Although it showed promise, it was not put into production. Status: Operational 1951. Gross mass: 12,830 kg (28,280 lb). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
XF-99 - Alternate designation for CIM-10A.
Xi Wang - Amateur radio satellite in Oscar series.
Xichang - Xichang Space Center . China's launch site for geosynchronous orbit launches. Xichang Satellite Launch Centre is situated in Xichang, Sichuan Province, south-western China. The launch pad is at 102.0 degrees East and 28.2 degrees North. The head office of the launch center is located in Xichang City, about 65 kilometers away. Xichang Airport is 50 km away. A dedicated railway and highway lead directly to the launch site. First Launch: 1984-01-29. Last Launch: 2013-12-20. Number: 86 .
Xichang LC1 - CZ launch complex. Launch Complex 1 First Launch: 2003-12-29. Last Launch: 2004-11-18. Number: 3 .
Xichang LC2 - CZ launch complex. Launch Complex 2 First Launch: 1990-07-16. Last Launch: 2013-12-20. Number: 55 .
Xichang LC3 -
Xie Guangxuan - Chinese Engineer. Chief designer of Chinese tactical and medium range ballistic missiles, and CZ-3 launch vehicle.
XIM-70 - American surface-to-air missile. Land-based version. Full scale development begun in 1954. Project cancelled in 1957.
Xin Yan - Alternate name for XY-1.
Xingchen - Xingchen ('Starlight') was a 100 gram picosat, deployed from the NUDT-Phone-Sat.
Xinnuo - Heavy Chinese communication satellite using the DFH-4 bus with communications equipment provided by Alcatel Alenia.
XIPS engine series -
XIPS-13 0.44 kW - Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. In Production. HS 702 operational communications satellites each employed four of these 0.44 kW xenon ion thrusters. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 68 kg (149 lb). Thrust: 0.0178 N (0.0040 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
XIPS-25 1.3 kW - Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. XIPS-25 program, conducted by Hughes, developed thrusters, BBPPUs, and a feed system pressure regulator for stationkeeping of 2500 kg class communication satellites. Date: 1985-1988. Thrust: 0.0630 N (0.0140 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
XIPS-25 4.2 kW - Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. 25 cm diameter xenon engine system for orbital circularization, station-keeping, attitude control, and momentum dumping for its HS 702 spacecraft. Date: 1999-on. Thrust: 0.17 N (0.04 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
Xiwang - The XiWang ('Hope') cluster of Oscar amateur radio satellites, all under 10 kg, were from CAMSAT, the Chinese AMSAT chapter, and Aerospace DFH Satellite.
XJ40-WE-1 - Wright turbojet engine. Out of production. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. Used on Navaho X-10 launch vehicle. First flight 1955. Status: Out of production. Number: 30 . Unfuelled mass: 850 kg (1,870 lb). Thrust: 48.50 kN (10,903 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
XLIM-49A - Alternate designation for Nike Zeus.
XLR105-5 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Atlas D. Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. First flight 1958. Date: 1958. Number: 172 . Thrust: 363.20 kN (81,651 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
XLR11 - Reaction Motors, Thiokol LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Rocket engine developed for X-1 in 1940s to break the sound barrier and used twenty years later to power experimental lifting bodies. Four combustion chambers. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 26.67 kN (5,996 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
XLR11-RM-1 - DoD Designation of XLR11 LOx-Alcohol rocket engine.
XLR132 - Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Out of Production. Pump-fed high performance upper stage engine for perigee/apogee stages. as well as transfer vehicles and lunar and Martian missions. Tested extensively but no production. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1983. Thrust: 16.70 kN (3,754 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
XLR13-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of X60ALD-4000 rocket engine.
XLR13-AJ-3 - DoD Designation of X45ALD-4000 rocket engine.
XLR13-AJ-5 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Development begun June 1948. Ceramic chamber and nozzle, nitrogen pressure-fed, droppable but no recoverable. Date: June 1948. Thrust: 17.60 kN (3,957 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
XLR13-AJ-7 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Modification of -AJ-1. Regeneratively cooled by fuel, droppable. Date: 1948. Thrust: 17.60 kN (3,957 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
XLR15-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of XCNLT-1500 Isopropylnitrate rocket engine.
XLR16-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of LR16 rocket engine.
XLR17-CW-1 - DoD Designation of LR17 LOx-Gasoline rocket engine.
XLR19-CW-1 - DoD Designation of LR19 LOx-Gasoline rocket engine.
XLR1-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of 25AL-1000 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
XLR20-AJ-2 - DoD Designation of XLR20AJ-2 Nitric acid-Gasoline rocket engine.
XLR20AJ-2 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Gasoline rocket engine. Development begun January 1946. Blast turbine, three levels of thrust (600/1000/7500 lbf). Replaced NM Lark. Date: January 1946. Thrust: 6.66 kN (1,497 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Gasoline.
XLR21-CW-1 - DoD Designation of LR21 LOx-Gasoline rocket engine.
XLR22-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR22 rocket engine.
XLR23-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of X90ALT-60000 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
XLR24-AJ-2 - DoD Designation of XLR24AJ-2 Nitric acid-Gasoline rocket engine.
XLR24AJ-2 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Gasoline rocket engine. Development begun January 1946. Blast turbine, 2500 lbf fixed thrust (both were part of overall R&D contract) Date: January 1946. Thrust: 10.70 kN (2,405 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Gasoline.
XLR25-CW-1 - Curtiss-Wright LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Out of Production. First flight 1954. Two chamber engine built for X-2 rocketplane. Engine could be throttled continuously from 1140 kgf to 6820 kgf. Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 66.88 kN (15,035 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
XLR26-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR26 rocket engine.
XLR27-CW-1 - DoD Designation of LR27 rocket engine.
XLR29-CW-1 - DoD Designation of LR29 rocket engine.
XLR2-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR2 rocket engine.
XLR30-RM-2 - DoD Designation of LR30 LOx-Ammonia rocket engine.
XLR31-K-1 - DoD Designation of LR31 rocket engine.
XLR32-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR32 rocket engine.
XLR33-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR33 rocket engine.
XLR35-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR35 rocket engine.
XLR37-CW-1 - DoD Designation of LR37 LOx-Gasoline rocket engine.
XLR39-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR39 LOx-Alcohol rocket engine.
XLR3-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of 25XALD-1000 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
XLR40-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR40 H2O2-Kerosene rocket engine.
XLR41-NA-1 - DoD Designation of LR41 rocket engine.
XLR42-NA-1 - DoD Designation of LR42 rocket engine.
XLR43-NA-1 - Rocketdyne LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Development completed 1951. Mark III American version of single-chamber V-2 engine tested in WW2, but with half mass and 34% more thrust. Starting point for all later Rocketdyne engines. Status: Development completed 1951. Date: 1949. Thrust: 333.00 kN (74,861 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
XLR48-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR48 rocket engine.
XLR49-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of LR49 rocket engine.
XLR51-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of LR51 rocket engine.
XLR53-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of XLR53AJ-1 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
XLR53AJ-1 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Development begun 1949. Superperformance, wing tip mounted, regenerative cooling, pressure fed, 240 sec duration, 1000 lbf thrust each. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1949. Thrust: 4.41 kN (991 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
XLR54-NA-1 - DoD Designation of LR54 H2O2-Kerosene rocket engine.
XLR55-?-1 - DoD Designation of LR55 rocket engine.
XLR5-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of 40ALD-3000 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
XLR65-B-1 - DoD Designation of LR65 rocket engine.
XLR6-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR6 rocket engine.
XLR71-NA-1 - Rocketdyne LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. Planned engine for the booster of the Navaho II test vehicle. Gas generator, pump-fed. Status: Development cancelled 1955.. Date: 1950. Thrust: 533.70 kN (119,981 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
XLR7-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of XCALT-6000 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
XLR81-BA - DoD Designation of Bell 8081 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
XLR81-BA-13 - DoD Designation of Bell 8247 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
XLR83-NA-1 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Experimental version of the engine for the booster of the Navaho G-38 intercontinental cruise missile. Flown in the Navaho G-26 booster prototypes. First flight 1956. Status: Out of production. Date: 1954. Number: 22 . Thrust: 602.00 kN (135,334 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
XLR89-1 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Atlas A, B, C. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. First flight 1957. Status: Out of production. Date: 1956. Number: 16 . Thrust: 758.70 kN (170,563 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
XLR89-5 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Atlas D. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. First flight 1958. Date: 1958. Number: 320 . Thrust: 758.70 kN (170,563 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
XLR99 - Reaction Motors Lox/Ammonia rocket engine. Out of production. The first large, man-rated, throttleable, restartable liquid propellant rocket engine, boosted the X-15A. First flight 1959. Status: Out of production. Number: 339 . Thrust: 262.40 kN (58,990 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Ammonia.
XLR9-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of X4-AL-1000 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.
XM - Series of satellites in the American XM Radio network's satellite direct-broadcast digital radio service.
XM Radio - American agency. XM Radio, USA.
XM-19 - Alternate designation for 1.5KS35000.
XM-19 - Alternate designation for Journeyman-0 rocket stage.
XM-270 - Alternate designation for MLRS.
XM-28 - Alternate designation for Davy Crockett XM-29.
XM-388 - Alternate designation for Davy Crockett M-28.
XM-42 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Nike Hercules first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Thrust: 772.00 kN (173,552 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
XM-45 - Rocket solid engine. Trailblazer 2 M second stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Unfuelled mass: 377 kg (831 lb). Thrust: 200.00 kN (44,960 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
XM-51 - American turbojet engine. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
XMGM-52B - American short range ballistic missile.
X-Mir - Alternate name for Inspector.
XMM - European x-ray astronomy satellite. ESA's X-ray Multi-Mirror space observatory was the biggest science satellite ever built in Europe. The spacecraft's X-ray optics covered a spectral range of 1-120 nanometers (12keV-0.1keV). Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-12-10. Last Launch: 1999-12-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb).
XMM-Newton - Alternate designation for XMM x-ray astronomy satellite.
X-OP - Alternate designation for SSX.
XOV - Manufacturer's designation for Blackstar manned spaceplane.
XP-79 - Northrop manned rocket-propelled flying wing fighter. Abandoned when pilot was killed in first test flight with turbojet engines in 1945. Status: Operational 1945. Gross mass: 3,930 kg (8,660 lb). Thrust: 9.12 kN (2,050 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
XP-92 - American manned delta-wing rocketplane. Never flown with rockets, but flew as a turbojet-powered research aircraft, 1948-1953. Status: Operational 1948. Gross mass: 6,620 kg (14,590 lb). Thrust: 52.90 kN (11,892 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
XPRC - Unknown PRC launch agency
X-Prize - The X-Prize competition was an attempt to promote commercial civilian spaceflight in a manner similar to the prizes handed out in the early days of aviation. Ten million dollars was to go to the first team to fly a vehicle capable of launching three people into space (defined as an altitude of 100 km in a suborbital trajectory), twice in a two-week period. The vehicle had to be 90% reusable by dry mass. For purposes of the two flights, the competition accepted flight by one person and ballast equivalent to two others at 90 kg per passenger.
XR2P1 - XCOR Nitrous oxide/Alcohol rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. Engine was run on oxygen and nitrous oxide oxidizers, with propane, ethane, kerosene, turpentine, and a variety of alcohols. Status: Hardware. Date: 2000-2004. Thrust: 67 N (15 lbf). Propellants: Nitrous oxide/Alcohol.
XR3A2 - XCOR LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. The XR3A2 700-newton engine was the first XCOR LOX/alcohol engine, accumulating 61 brief runs in the course of injector concept development, which led to later engines. Status: Hardware. Date: 2000-2004. Thrust: 700 N (150 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
XR3B4 - XCOR Nitrous oxide/Alcohol rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. Regeneratively cooled engine using nitrous oxide and isopropyl alcohol as propellants. Status: Hardware. Date: 2000-2004. Thrust: 220 N (40 lbf). Propellants: Nitrous oxide/Alcohol.
XR3M9 - XCOR LOx/CH4 rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. Methane-fueled engine allowing long-term on-orbit storage, higher density than hydrogen engines. Intended for use in reaction control systems and satellite maneuvering systems Status: Hardware. Date: 2000-2004. Thrust: 223 N (50 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
XR4A3 - XCOR LOx/Alcohol rocket engine. First stages. Fully operational pressure-fed, regeneratively cooled engine. Flown on the EZ-Rocket, a modified Long-EZ aircraft fitted with two engines. First flight 2001. Status: Hardware. Date: 2000-2004. Thrust: 1.78 kN (400 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
XR4K14 - XCOR LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. Built for the Rocket Racing League's first X-Racer. The rocket engine was sized for the best compromise between acceleration and endurance. Status: Hardware. Date: 2006-2008. Thrust: 6.67 kN (1,499 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
XR4K5 - XCOR LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. Pump-fed, regeneratively cooled with fuel. Engine could be used to power the prototype Xerus suborbital manned vehicle for initial flight testing. Status: Hardware. Date: 2000-2004. Thrust: 8.00 kN (1,798 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
XR5M12 - XCOR LOx/CH4 rocket engine. First stages. Conceptual LOx/methane rocket engine developed for a DARPA program through layout design phase, but never built. Status: Hardware. Date: 2004-2006. Thrust: 22.30 kN (5,013 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
XR5M15 - XCOR LOx/CH4 rocket engine. First stages. Hardware. Prototype LOX/methane rocket engine developed as a stepping stone to NASA's original Orion manned spacecraft and return to the moon and manned mission to Mars plans. Status: Hardware. Date: 2006-2008. Thrust: 33.36 kN (7,500 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
X-ray astronomy satellite - Category of spacecraft.
X-ray Multi Mirror - Code name for XMM x-ray astronomy satellite.
XRJ47-W-5 - Wright ramjet engine. Out of production. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. Used on Navaho G-26 launch vehicle. First flight 1956. Status: Out of production. Number: 22 . Thrust: 33.40 kN (7,509 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
XRM-89 - Alternate designation for Blue Scout I.
XRM-89 - Alternate designation for Blue Scout 1.
XRM-90 - Alternate designation for Blue Scout II.
XRM-90 - Alternate designation for Blue Scout 2.
XRM-91 - Alternate designation for Blue Scout Junior.
X-Rocket - Alternate designation for SSX.
XRS-2200 - Rocketdyne LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Development ended 1999. Linear aerospike engine for X-33 SSTO technology demonstrator. Based on J-2S engine developed for improved Saturn launch vehicles in the 1960's. Status: Development ended 1999. Date: 1998. Thrust: 1,192.00 kN (267,972 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
XS-1 - American manned rocketplane. Design begun 1943. Also known as the X-1. This rocket plane was the first aircraft to break the sound barrier, and the first in a line of X- aircraft leading to the space shuttle. Status: Operational 1946. Propellants: Lox/Alcohol.
XS-2 - Alternate designation for X-2 manned rocketplane.
X-Sat - Nanyang Technological University Singapore satellite; carried a 10-meter-resolution multispectral imager. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-04-20. Last Launch: 2011-04-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 105 kg (231 lb).
XSC - Alternate name for Xichang.
XSM-64 - Alternate designation for Navaho G-26 AV.
XSM-64 - Alternate designation for G-26 Booster.
XSM-64 - Alternate designation for Navaho G-26.
XSM-64A - Alternate designation for Navaho G-38 Booster.
XSM-64A - Alternate designation for Navaho G-38 AV.
XSM-64A - Alternate name for G-38 Navaho Booster.
XSM-64A - Alternate name for Navaho G-38 stage.
XSS - American rendezvous technology satellite. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-01-29. Last Launch: 2005-04-11. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 28 kg (61 lb).
XSSM-A-2 - Alternate designation for Navaho SSM-A-2.
XSSM-A-4 - Alternate designation for Navaho G-26.
XTAR-EUR - XTAR-EUR was a Spanish X-band military communications satellite operated by Hisdesa. Used the FS-1300 bus.
XTE - American x-ray astronomy satellite. X-ray Timing Explorer; X-ray astronomy. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-12-30. Last Launch: 1995-12-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Xue Lun - Chinese pilot. Head of the first Chinese astronaut group, Unit 714, in 1971. Purged after being accused of involvement in Lin Biao's coup d'état against Mao Zedong. The group was dissolved soon thereafter.
XUV - Abbreviation for eXtreme UltraViolet
X-Viking - Alternate designation for NRL Viking.
XW - Alternate name for Xiwang.
XY-1 - Technology mission. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-11-18. Last Launch: 2012-11-18. Number: 1 .

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