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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: Y

Y1A - Alternate name of YahSat 1A (Y1A).
Y1B - Alternate name of YahSat 1B (Y1B).
Yablontsev, Aleksandr Nikolayevich - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1996. Status: Deceased; Active 1989-1996. Born: 1955-04-03. Died: 2012-05-09.
YaERD - Nuclear-electric rocket engine (Russian abbreviation)
YaERD-2200 - Korolev nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Developed 1962-69. Status: Developed 1962-69. Date: 1962-69. Thrust: 81.00 kN (18,209 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Yahsat - Communications satellite series for Al Yah Satellite Communications Company, Abu Dhabi.
YahSat 1A (Y1A) - Communication satellite built by EADS Astrium for Al Yah Satellite Communications Company, UAE. Launched 2011. Used the Eurostar-3000 bus. First Launch: 2011-04-22. Last Launch: 2011-04-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,965 kg (13,150 lb).
YahSat 1B (Y1B) - Communication satellite built by EADS Astrium for Al Yah Satellite Communications Company, UAE. Launched 2012. Used the Eurostar-3000 bus. First Launch: 2012-04-23. Last Launch: 2012-04-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 6,100 kg (13,400 lb).
Yahtzee - Alternate name of DICE 1, 2 (Yahtzee, Farkle).
Yakhont - Alternate name of P-800.
YaKhR-2 - Russian nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. First large space launcher considered in the Soviet Union. It would have had the same layout as the R-7, but with six strap-ons increased in size by 50%. The core, igniting at altitude, used a nuclear thermal engine using ammonia as propellant. Dropped in favor of development of conventional chemical propulsion. Status: Cancelled 1949. Gross mass: 888,000 kg (1,957,000 lb). Payload: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Thrust: 12,422.80 kN (2,792,757 lbf).
YaKhR-2 Core - Nuclear/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Engines in development by Bondaryuk and Glushko. Alternate propellants ammonia only or ammonia/alcohol mixture. Four expansion nozzles fed by single reactor. Masses calculated based on given vehicle gross weight and performance. Status: Development ended 1949. Gross mass: 180,000 kg (390,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 22,000 kg (48,000 lb). Thrust: 1,660.00 kN (373,180 lbf). More at: Nuclear/Ammonia
YaKhR-2 Strap-on - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. R-7 strap-ons increased in size dimensionally 50%, equipped with 6 engines from R-9. Boost nuclear thermal core stage to altitude before ignition of nuclear engine. Masses calculated based on vehicle total weight and performance. Status: Development ended 1949. Gross mass: 110,000 kg (240,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,250 kg (18,180 lb). Thrust: 2,393.72 kN (538,131 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Yakhta - Russian communications satellite. RKK Energia-developed communications satellite, believed to be a larger development of the Yamal. Satellite bus built by Khrunichev Space Center, Russia. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-06-17. Last Launch: 2012-08-06. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,725 kg (3,802 lb).
Yakovlev bureau - Russian manufacturer of aircraft.
Yakovlev MVKS - Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. Status: Design 1986.
Yakovlev, Nikolai Dmitryevich - Russian officer. Chief of Chief Artillery Directorate 1941-1948. Born: 1898. Died: 1972-05-10.
Yakovlev, Oleg Anatoliyevich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1973. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1973. Born: 1940-12-31. Died: 1990-05-02.
Yakovlev, V N - Russian military officer.
Yale - Yale University
Yamal - Russian communications satellite. The Yamal communications satellite bus was developed by RKK Energia for Gazprom. Communication satellite built by RKK Energiya for Gazkom > Gazprom Space Systems, Russia. Launched 1999. Used the USP Bus bus. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-09-06. Last Launch: 2014-04-16. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb).
Yamal 201, 203 - Communication satellite built by RKK Energiya for Gazkom > Gazprom Space Systems, Russia. Launched 2003. Used the USP Bus bus. First Launch: 2003-11-24. Last Launch: 2003-11-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb).
Yamal 202, 204 - Communication satellite built by RKK Energiya for Gazkom > Gazprom Space Systems, Russia. Launched 2003. Used the USP Bus bus. First Launch: 2003-11-24. Last Launch: 2003-11-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,320 kg (2,910 lb).
Yamal 300K - Communication satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (ex NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM) for Gazprom Space Systems, Russia. Launched 2012. Used the Ekspress-1000NTA bus. First Launch: 2012-11-02. Last Launch: 2012-11-02. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,870 kg (4,120 lb).
Yamal 301 - Communication satellite built by RKK Energiya for Gazkom > Gazprom Space Systems. Used the USP Bus bus. Gross mass: 1,330 kg (2,930 lb).
Yamal 302 - Communication satellite built by RKK Energiya for Gazkom > Gazprom Space Systems. Used the USP Bus bus. Gross mass: 1,320 kg (2,910 lb).
Yamal 401 - Communication satellite built by Thales Alenia Space for Gazprom Space Systems. Used the Spacebus-4000C3 bus. Gross mass: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb).
Yamal 401-2 - Communication satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (prime); Thales Alenia Space (payload) for Gazprom Space Systems, Russia. Launched 2014. Used the Ekspress-2000A bus. First Launch: 2014-12-15. Last Launch: 2014-12-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,976 kg (6,560 lb).
Yamal 402 - Communication satellite built by Thales Alenia Space for Gazprom Space Systems, Russia. Launched 2012. Used the Spacebus-4000C3 bus. First Launch: 2012-12-08. Last Launch: 2012-12-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb).
Yamal 601 - Communication satellite built by Thales Alenia Space for Gazprom Space Systems. Used the Spacebus-4000C4 bus. Gross mass: 5,700 kg (12,500 lb).
Yamal 601-2 - Communication satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (prime); Thales Alenia Space (payload) for Gazprom Space Systems. Used the Ekspress-2000 bus.
Yamal launch vehicle - Version of the Soyuz proposed with an Ariane 4 or Russian LOx/LH2 upper stage. Status: Study 1997. Payload: 3,900 kg (8,500 lb).
Yamazaki, Naoko - Japanese engineer mission specialist astronaut 1999-2011. Underwent cosmonaut training in Russia, then Astronaut training in USA. NASDA Status: Inactive; Active 1999-2011. Born: 1970-12-27. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.12 days.
Yamsat - Taiwanese technology satellite. Study 2002. Taiwan's NSPO developed this 1 kg picosatellite at a cost of $289,000 pico-class satellite in collaboration with Stanford University, USA. It was planned for launch on a Russian Dnepr booster in May 2002. Status: Study 2002. Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
YamSat 1A, 1B, 1C - Technology satellite for NSPO, Taiwan (Republic of China). Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Yang Liwei - Chinese pilot taikonaut 1998-2006. First Chinese man in space. Retired thereafter, becoming Vice-Director of the China Astronaut Research and Training Center; by 2010 was Deputy Director of the Project 921 Office. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2006. Born: 1965-06-21. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.89 days.
Yangel, Mikhail Kuzmich - Soviet Chief Designer 1954-1971 of OKB-586. Preeminent designer of ballistic missiles and light satellites. His Ukraine bureau designed the R-12 and R-14 IRBM's; the heavy R-16, R-36, and R-36M ICBM's; and the Zenit space launcher, Born: 1911-10-25. Died: 1971-10-25.
Yankee Clipper/Intrepid - Alternate name for Apollo 12.
Yantar - Series of Russian surveillance satellites, based on the Yantar bus developed by Kozlov in Samara in the 1970's. Status: Operational 1974.
Yantar (Amber ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 11.
Yantar (Amber) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 11.
Yantar FR6 - Alternate designation for Orlets-1 satellite.
Yantar-1 - Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1968. Survey reconnaissance satellite project of KB Yuzhnoye worked on 1964-1967. Status: Study 1968.
Yantar-1KF - Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1970. Survey reconnaissance satellite project worked on by Kozlov from 1967, succeeding Yantar-1. To be launched on Soyuz 11A511M launch vehicle. Status: Cancelled 1970.
Yantar-1KFT - Russian military surveillance satellite. Version of the Yantar photo satellite for topographic mapping on behalf of the Red Army. Area Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1981 - 2005. Used Yantar Bus, Zenit reentry module. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-02-18. Last Launch: 2005-09-02. Number: 21 . Gross mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb).
Yantar-2 - Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1968. High resolution reconnaissance satellite project worked on by KB Yuzhnoye 1964-1967. Was to have been derived from Soyuz-R manned spacecraft. Status: Study 1968.
Yantar-2K - Russian military surveillance satellite. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1974 - 1983. Used Yantar Bus, main reentry module, 2 small reentry capsules. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-05-23. Last Launch: 1983-06-28. Number: 30 . Gross mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb).
Yantar-2K-M - Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1980. Planned upgrade of Yantar-2K. Not put into production. Status: Study 1980.
Yantar-3KF - Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1969. Survey reconnaissance satellite system studied in 1969. Not put into production. Status: Study 1969.
Yantar-4K1 - Russian film-return military surveillance satellite. Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The high resolution Yantar-4K provided that capability, while still capable of being launched by the existing Soyuz-U launch vehicle. Lifetime was 45 days. Two small capsules could return film an interim basis before the main spacecraft with film returned to earth. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-04-27. Last Launch: 2015-06-05. Number: 104 . Gross mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb).
Yantar-4K2 - Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1991. Improved military photo-reconnaissance satellite, using the basic Yantar-4K1 bus. Boost by the Zenit-2 launch vehicle would have allowed 22 film return capsules to be used over a 180 day mission. Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB > TsSKB-Progress for GRU, Russia. Launched 1981 - 2002. Used Yantar Bus, main reentry module, 2 small reentry capsules. Status: Cancelled 1991. First Launch: 1981-08-21. Last Launch: 2002-02-25. Number: 82 . Gross mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb).
Yantar-4K2M (Kobalt-M, 11F695M) - Reconnaissance, photo (film return type) satellite built by TsSKB-Progress for GRU, Russia. Launched 2004 - 2015. Used Yantar Bus, main reentry module, 2 small reentry capsules. First Launch: 2004-09-24. Last Launch: 2015-06-05. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb).
Yantar-4KS1 - Russian military electro-optical surveillance satellite. Reconnaissance, photo (data transmitting) satellite built by TsSKB for GRU, Russia. Launched 1982 - 1990. Used Yantar Bus. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-12-28. Last Launch: 2006-06-15. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 6,620 kg (14,590 lb).
Yantar-4KS1M (Neman, 17F117) - Reconnaissance, photo (data transmitting) satellite built by TsSKB > TsSKB-Progress for GRU, Russia. Launched 1991 - 2000. Used Yantar Bus. First Launch: 1991-07-10. Last Launch: 2000-05-03. Number: 9 .
Yantar-4KS2 - Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1983. The Yantar-4KS2 was a heavy military optical reconnaissance satellite, required to have the same capabilities as the KH-11/Crystal reconnaissance satellite of the United States. Status: Cancelled 1983. Gross mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb).
Yantar-6K - Manufacturer's designation for Orlets-1 satellite.
Yantar-6K - Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1977. Extremely high resolution version of Yantar studied in 1969. A draft project was completed in May 1977, but the decision was made to keep the basic Yantar-2K satellite bus instead. Status: Study 1977.
Yantar-6KS - Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1977. Electro-optical imaging operational high resolution version of Yantar studied in 1969. Status: Study 1977.
Yaogan - Designation given to series of classified Chinese military satellites.
Yaogan 1, 3, 10 (JB-5 1, 2, 3) - Earth observation (radar) satellite built by SAST, China. Launched 2006 - 2010. First Launch: 2006-04-26. Last Launch: 2010-08-09. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb).
Yaogan 14 - Alternate name for JB-11.
Yaogan 14, 28 (JB-11 1, 2) - Earth observation satellite built by CAST, China. Launched 2012 - 2015. Used Phoenix-Eye-2 bus. First Launch: 2012-05-10. Last Launch: 2015-11-08. Number: 2 .
Yaogan 2 - Alternate name for JB-6.
Yaogan 2, 4, 7, 11, 24, 30 (JB-6 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) - Earth observation satellite built by CAST, China. Launched 2007 - 2016. Used CAST2000 bus. First Launch: 2007-05-25. Last Launch: 2016-05-15. Number: 6 .
Yaogan 26 - Alternate name for JB-12.
Yaogan 26 (JB-12 1) - Earth observation satellite, China. Launched 2014. First Launch: 2014-12-27. Last Launch: 2014-12-27. Number: 1 .
Yaogan 29 - Chinese remote sensing satellite, perhaps the successor to the Yaogan-1 (JB-5) space-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) series. First Launch: 2015-11-26. Last Launch: 2015-11-26. Number: 1 .
Yaogan 3 - Alternate name for JB-5.
Yaogan 5 - Alternate name for JB-10.
Yaogan 5, 12, 21 (JB-10 1, 2, 3) - Earth observation satellite built by CAST, China. Launched 2008 - 2014. Used Phoenix-Eye-2 bus. First Launch: 2008-12-15. Last Launch: 2014-09-08. Number: 3 .
Yaogan 6 - Alternate name for JB-7.
Yaogan 6, 13, 18, 23 (JB-7 1, 2, 3, 4) - Earth observation, radar satellite built by SAST, China. Launched 2009 - 2014. First Launch: 2009-04-22. Last Launch: 2014-11-14. Number: 4 .
Yaogan 8 - Alternate name for JB-9.
Yaogan 8, 15, 19, 22, 27 (JB-9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) - Earth observation satellite built by SAST, China. Launched 2009 - 2015. First Launch: 2009-12-15. Last Launch: 2015-08-27. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,040 kg (2,290 lb).
Yaogan 9 - Alternate name for JB-8.
Yaogan 9, 16, 17, 20, 25 (JB-8 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) - Earth observation satellite built by CAST, China. Launched 2010 - 2014. First Launch: 2010-03-05. Last Launch: 2014-12-10. Number: 13 .
YaRD ICBM - Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Single-stage nuclear-powered ICBM designed by Korolev's OKB-1 in 1958-1959. Two ICBM variants were considered, using nuclear thermal engines designed by Glushko's OKB-456 and Bondaryuk's OKB-670. A third design under the same resolution was the Yakhr-2 space launcher, and the later Superraket N1 progenitor used the same engines. All used nuclear reactor engine modules in cylindrical housings, operating at 3000 - 3500 deg K. Status: Cancelled 1960. Gross mass: 84,400 kg (186,000 lb). Thrust: 128,000.00 kN (28,775,000 lbf).
YaRD Type A - Korolev nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1963. Design considered in N1 nuclear upper stage studies. Outgrowth of work done by Bondaryuk and Glushko on YaRD engines for nuclear ICBM's, but using liquid hydrogen as propellant. Status: Study 1963. Unfuelled mass: 4,800 kg (10,500 lb). Thrust: 177.00 kN (39,791 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
YaRD Type AF - Korolev nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1963. Design considered in N1 nuclear upper stage studies. Outgrowth of work done by Bondaryuk and Glushko on YaRD engines for nuclear ICBM's, but using liquid hydrogen as propellant. Status: Study 1963. Unfuelled mass: 3,250 kg (7,160 lb). Thrust: 196.00 kN (44,062 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
YaRD Type V - Korolev nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1963. Design considered in N1 nuclear upper stage studies. Outgrowth of work done by Bondaryuk and Glushko on YaRD engines for nuclear ICBM's, but using liquid hydrogen as propellant. Status: Study 1963. Unfuelled mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
YaRD Type V-B - Korolev nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1963. Design considered in N1 nuclear upper stage studies. This version had 7,000 kg bioshield for manned missions. Used liquid hydrogen as propellant. Status: Study 1963. Unfuelled mass: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Yardbird - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Nike Yardbird second stage. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 29 kg (63 lb). Thrust: 75.00 kN (16,860 lbf). More at: Solid
Yardley, John Finley - American engineer. Headed the Mercury, Gemini, and Skylab programs at McDonnell; led development of the space shuttle through its first flight at NASA. Born: 1925-02-01. Died: 2001-06-26.
Yaroshenko, Georgi L - Russian physician cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Medical doctor. Selected as a cosmonaut in early May 1964, but on 26 May 1964 the selection was rejected by the government commission. Status: Inactive.
Yars - Russian three stage ICBM. Status: Active. First Launch: 2007-05-29. Last Launch: 2015-10-28. Number: 6 .
Yars 15Zh65M - Russian three stage ICBM. Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-12-24. Last Launch: 2013-12-24. Number: 1 .
Yashin, Yuri Alekseyevich - Russian officer. Chief of Plesetsk Cosmodrome from 1975. Born: 1930.
Yasinskiy, Aleksandr Filippovich - Russian officer. Deputy Chief GNITs KS Space Tracking Centre for military operations 1982-1989. Born: 1930.
Yasnaya/Oloynyaya - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1992, equipped with 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100). Also a base for units deployed with 12 R-14 missiles.
Yasniy - Alternate name of Dombarovskiy ICBM / orbital launch vehicle launch site.
Yasniy Sh370/13 - Alternate designation for Dombarovskiy Sh370/13.
Yastreb - Russian space suit, operational 1969. The Yastreb suit was the first suit designed in the Soviet Union for extra-vehicular activity. Design began in 1965. Initially to be worn on the aborted Soyuz 1/2 1967 crew transfer mission. Status: operational 1969.
Yastreb (Hawk ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 22.
Yastreb (Hawk ) - Alternate name for Soyuz 31.
Yastreb (Hawk ) - Alternate name for Vostok 5.
Yastreb (Hawk) - Alternate designation for Vostok 5.
Yastreb (Hawk) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 22.
Yastreb (Hawk) - Alternate designation for Soyuz 31.
Yastrebov, Vladimir Dmitrevich - Russian officer. Colonel, Chief of Ballistic Control for the TsKIK Space Tracking Centre 1965-1972. Born: 1922.
yaw - The rotational or oscillatory movement of a spacecraft or the like about a vertical axis.
Yazdovskiy, Vladimir Ivanovich - Russian space medicine pioneer, studied the biological effects of spaceflight in suborbital dog flights in the 1950's, the supported the Soviet manned space program. Deputy Director of Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. Space medicine pioneer. Born: 1913-06-24. Died: 1999-12-17.
Yazdovsky, Valeri Aleksandrovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1965-1982. Status: Deceased; Active 1965-1982. Born: 1930-06-08. Died: 2012-11-10.
yd - Abbreviation for yard
Ye Guangfu - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 2010-on. Status: Active 2010-on.
Ye-6S - Alternate name for Luna E-6S.
Ye-8 - Manufacturer's designation for Luna Ye-8 lunar rover.
Ye-8-5 - Manufacturer's designation for Luna Ye-8-5 lunar lander.
Ye-8-5M - Manufacturer's designation for Luna Ye-8-5.
Ye-8-5M - Manufacturer's designation for Luna Ye-8-5M lunar lander.
Ye-8-LS - Manufacturer's designation for Luna Ye-8-LS lunar orbiter.
Yeager, Charles E - Premier American test pilot. First person to break the sound barrier. Flew all of the pioneering jet and rocketplanes of the 1950's, by the 1990's had flown 201 types of military aircraft and more than 14,000 flying hours. Status: Inactive. Born: 1923-02-13.
Yeakel, Glenn Scott - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1988. Master of science in astronautical engineering from USAF Academy, 1978. Stationed at the US State Department. Later with National Reconnaissance Office. Status: Inactive; Active 1982-1988. Born: 1956-05-28.
Yebenov, Profiri - Russian phantom cosmonaut. Moscow urban legend: Apollo 11 astronauts were stranded on the moon. Naked Soviet cosmonaut, stranded sometime before, assisted them in repairing their lunar module. Joke: Yebenov means 'f---d' in Russian. Died: 1969-07-21.
Yedrovo - Alternate name for Bologoye/Vypolzovo.
Yefremov, Gerbert Aleksandrovich - Russian engineer. Chief Designer, Chelomei design bureau, 1971-2000 Born: 1933-03-15.
Yefremova - Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Selected as a cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but in March 1962 her selection was rejected by the government commission. Status: Inactive.
Yegorov, Boris Borisovich - Russian physician cosmonaut 1964. First physician in space. Status: Deceased; Active 1964-1964. Born: 1937-11-26. Died: 1994-09-12. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 1.01 days.
Yeliseyev, Aleksei Stanislavovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1966-1985. Member of first crew to transfer between spacecraft. Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1985. Born: 1934-07-13. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 8.93 days.
Yellow Sea Launch Area - Submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. First Launch: 1982-04-30. Last Launch: 2008-05-29. Number: 7 .
Yeltsin, Boris N - Russian politician, headed Russia 1991-1999. Under his tenure the Soviet programs collapsed, but Russian manned space technology base was kept alive through American funding of the International Space Station. Born: 1930. Died: 2007-04-23.
Yemelyanov, Sergei Aleksandrovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut 1984-1992. Graduated from MAI, 1974 Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Cosmonaut training November 1985 - October 1986. Left cosmonaut cadre for medical reasons. Manager for AO TPK "Prodmarket". Died of a heart attack. Status: Deceased; Active 1984-1992. Born: 1951-08-03. Died: 1992-12-05.
Yemen - Yemen received Scud Hwasong missiles from North Korea, which were used in the country's civil war. First Launch: 1994-05-12. Last Launch: 1994-07-01. Number: 3 .
Yenisei - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-1 ISS EP-4.
Yenisey - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-30.
Yenisey A1 (Luch 4) - Communications / Relay satellite built by ISS Reshetnev, Russia. Used the Ekspress-2000 bus. Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Yerkina, Zhanna Dmitriyevna - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969. Status: Deceased; Active 1962-1969. Born: 1939-05-06. Died: 2015-05-25.
Yershov, Valentin Gavriyilovich - Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1974. Status: Deceased; Active 1967-1974. Born: 1928-01-21. Died: 1998-02-15.
YES - European tether technology satellite. Young Engineers Satellite sponsored by the European Space Tech. ESA / ESTEC satellite built by Delta-Utec for ESA / ESTEC, Europe. Launched 1997. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-10-30. Last Launch: 2007-09-14. Number: 2 .
YES2 - Technology, reentry, tether satellite for ESA / ESTEC, Europe. Launched 2007. First Launch: 2007-09-14. Last Launch: 2007-09-14. Number: 1 .
Yesenkov, Sergei Vasilyevich - Russian military officer.
YF-1 - CALT Nitric acid/kerosene rocket engine. Thrust: 300.00 kN (67,440 lbf). More at: Nitric acid/Kerosene
YF-100 - CAALPT LOx/Kerosene rocket engine, for CZ-7 Next Generation Launch Vehicle series. Engine can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Firing tests began in 2005. First flight 2016. Status: Operational 2016. Thrust: 1,339.48 kN (301,127 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
YF-115 - CAALPT LOx/Kerosene rocket engine, for CZ-7 Next Generation Launch Vehicle's second stage. Staged combustion cycle. First flight 2016. Status: Operational 2016. Thrust: 176.50 kN (39,679 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
YF-120 - Alternate designation for YF-100.
YF-120t - Alternate designation for YF-100.
YF-20 - Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Boosted CZ-2A, CZ-2C, CZ-2E(A), CZ-3, FB-1. First flight 1972.
YF-20A - Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Boosted CZ-2A, CZ-2C, CZ-2E(A), CZ-3, FB-1. First flight 1972. Status: Out of production. Number: 212 . Thrust: 750.20 kN (168,652 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
YF-20B - Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In production. Boosted CZ-2C, CZ-2D, CZ-2E, CZ-2E(A), CZ-3A, CZ-3B, CZ-3C, CZ-4A. First flight 1988. Status: In production. Number: 236 . Thrust: 816.30 kN (183,512 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
YF-22 - Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 717.80 kN (161,368 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
YF-22/23 - Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Cluster of YF-22 and 4 x YF-23 verniers. Boosted CZ-2A, FB-1. First flight 1972. Status: Out of production. Number: 12 . Thrust: 762.00 kN (171,304 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
YF-22A/23A - Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Cluster of YF-22A and 4 x YF-23 verniers. Boosted CZ-2C, CZ-3. First flight 1975. Status: Out of production. Number: 48 . Thrust: 762.00 kN (171,304 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
YF-22B - SAST N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Thrust: 742.00 kN (166,808 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
YF-23 - Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In Production. Used as vernier motor with YF-22 and YF-25. Status: In Production. Thrust: 11.00 kN (2,472 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
YF-25 - Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In Production. Status: In Production. Thrust: 787.40 kN (177,015 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
YF-25/23 - Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. In production. Cluster of YF-25 and 4 x YF-23 verniers. First stage engine for CZ-2D, CZ-2E, CZ-2E(A), CZ-3A, CZ-3B, CZ-3C, CZ-4A. First flight 1988. Status: In production. Number: 32 . Thrust: 831.00 kN (186,816 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
YF-2A - Beijing Wan Yuan Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Used on CZ-1, CZ-1C, CZ-1D, CZ-1M. First flight 1969. Status: Out of production. Number: 32 . Thrust: 306.10 kN (68,814 lbf). More at: Nitric acid/UDMH
YF-3 - Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Used on CZ-1D launch vehicle. First flight 1995. Status: Out of production. Number: 3 . Thrust: 294.00 kN (66,093 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
YF-40 - Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Out of production. Used on CZ-4A launch vehicle. First flight 1988. Status: Out of production. Number: 4 . Thrust: 49.00 kN (11,015 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
YF-50 - Alternate designation for YF-77.
YF-73 - Beijing Wan Yuan LOx/LH2 rocket engine. In development. Gas-generator turbopump. Gimbaled engine. Used on CZ-3 launch vehicle. First flight 1984. Status: In development. Number: 52 . Unfuelled mass: 236 kg (520 lb). Thrust: 11.00 kN (2,472 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
YF-75 - Beijing Wan Yuan LOx/LH2 rocket engine. In development. Gas-generator turbopump. Gimbaled engine. First flight 1994. Status: In development. Number: 34 . Thrust: 78.50 kN (17,648 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
YF-77 - CAALPT LOx/LH2 rocket engine for next generation Chinese launch vehicle series. It was an indigenous development based on Chinese experience with the YF-73 and YF-75 upper stage engines. Status: Operational 2016. Date: 2016. Unfuelled mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Thrust: 700.00 kN (157,360 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
YH 1 - Alternate name of Yinghuo 1 (YH 1).
Yi Soyeon - Korean engineer cosmonaut 2006-2008. First Korean in space. Status: Inactive; Active 2006-2008. Born: 1978-06-02. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 10.88 days.
Yijian - Earth observation satellite for China Academy of Sciences' Shanghai Small Satellite Center, China. Launched 2016. Used WN5000 bus. First Launch: 2016-12-21. Last Launch: 2016-12-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Yinghuo 1 (YH 1) - Mars lander, China. Launched 2011. First Launch: 2011-11-08. Last Launch: 2011-11-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 115 kg (253 lb).
YJ-1 - Chinese anti-ship missile. Anti-ship. YJ, Ying Ji = Strike Eagle, air to ship missiles Gross mass: 653 kg (1,439 lb). Payload: 65 kg (143 lb).
YJ-2 - Chinese anti-ship missile. Anti-ship cruise missile. YJ, Ying Ji = Strike Eagle, air to ship missiles. Also ship-launched version, upgraded C802 with turbojet sustainer. Active monopulse radar seeker. Status: Operational 1984. Gross mass: 749 kg (1,651 lb). Payload: 165 kg (363 lb).
YJ-22 - Alternate name of YJ-2.
YJ-8 - Alternate name of HY-5 C-801.
YLR113-AJ-1 - DoD Designation of AJ10-51 rocket engine.
YLR44-RM-1 - DoD Designation of LR44 rocket engine.
YLR45-AJ-1 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. B-47C ATO. Out of Production. Development begun August 1948. Turbojet engine bleed air drive for turbopump. Fixed internal acid tanks, regenerative cooling. Status: Out of Production. Date: August 1948. More at: Nitric acid/Kerosene
YLR45-AJ-3 - DoD Designation of YLR45AJ-3 Nitric acid-Kerosene rocket engine.
YLR45AJ-3 - Aerojet Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. F-84 ATO. Out of Production. Development begun 1948. Bleed air drive, droppable acid tanks, ceramic chamber with oval throat, 60 second duration, reusable 50 times Status: Out of Production. Date: 1948. More at: Nitric acid/Kerosene
YLR47-K-1 - DoD Designation of LR47 rocket engine.
YLR63-AJ-3 - DoD Designation of YLR63AJ-3 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
YLR63AJ-3 - Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. F-86. Out of Production. Development begun 1953. Superperformance, modification of YLR45AJ-3 with gas generator turbine drive, 6 restarts. Status: Out of Production. Date: 1953. More at: Nitric acid/UDMH
YLR81-BA - DoD Designation of Bell 8096 Nitric acid-UDMH rocket engine.
Yohkoh - Alternate name for Solar.
Yohkoh - Alternate name of Solar A (Yohkoh).
Yohkoh - Japanese solar satellite. One launch, 1991.08.30. X-ray imaging of Sun. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-08-30. Last Launch: 1991-08-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 420 kg (920 lb).
York, Herbert F - American physicist, held key scientific advisory roles in US government 1958-1961, when key decisions on space exploration, missile development, and nuclear weapons were made. Born: 1921-11-24. Died: 2009-05-19.
Yoshinobu Launch Complex LP1 - Alternate name of Tanegashima Y.
Yoshinobu Launch Complex LP2 - Alternate name of Tanegashima Y2.
Yoshkar-Ola - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Originally operated R-16 ICBM launchers. Later the only base for 60 silos equipped with the RT-2 solid propellant ICBM. These were progressively replaced by RT-2PM missiles.
Young Engineers Satellite - Full designation for YES.
Young, John Donald 'Jack' - American manager, at NASA 1960-1966. Born: 1919-02-05. Died: 1988-12-22.
Young, John Watts - American test pilot astronaut 1962-2004. Only astronaut to fly Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle. Ninth person to walk on the moon. Space speed record (11,107 m/s). Flew in space six times. Status: Inactive; Active 1962-2004. Born: 1930-09-24. Spaceflights: 6 . Total time in space: 34.82 days.
Young, Laurence Retman - American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1991-1993. Status: Inactive; Active 1991-1993. Born: 1935-12-19.
Young, Robert B - American engineer. Key manager at Aerojet, working there from the 1940's, responsible for the rocket engines for the Titan, the Apollo SPS, and Shuttle OMS. Born: 1917-09-23. Died: 1979-02-07.
Your Flight Has Been Cancelled.... - Is what might have been better than what was? Would America have beaten the Russians into space or even into orbit? Could the Russians have beaten the United States in the Moon Race? Would China have put a man in space 30 years earlier? Would the Skylab space station have been saved, and America be operating a shuttle-serviced space station 20 years before the ISS? Decisions that changed the course of history…
Youthsat - Joint Indian-Russian student satellite. Carried experiments to study solar-terrestrial relationships. Science, Solar and Ionosphere satellite for ISRO, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow state university, India, Russia. Launched 2011. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-04-20. Last Launch: 2011-04-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 92 kg (202 lb).
Yozh - Alternate name of Buk-M1-2 Smerch.
yr - Abbreviation for year
YSO - Abbreviation for Young Stellar Object
Yu Guilin - Chinese PLAAF pilot. Astronaut candidate in 1970, but failed centrifuge test. Status: Inactive.
Yubeleiniy - Technology testbed built by Reshetnev with the Siberian State Aerospace University, Krasnoyarsk. Amateur communication, technology satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (ex NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM), SibSAU, Russia. Launched 2008. Used Yubileyniy-bus, gradient boom. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-07-28. Last Launch: 2012-07-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 65 kg (143 lb).
Yubileyniy - Test satellite with an amateur radio payload to commemorate (belatedly) the 50th anniversary of Sputnik. Used the Strela-3 bus.
Yubileyniy 2 / MiR (RS 40) - Amateur communication, technology satellite built by ISS Reshetnev, SibSAU, Russia. Launched 2012. Used Yubileyniy-bus, gradient boom. First Launch: 2012-07-28. Last Launch: 2012-07-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 65 kg (143 lb).
Yug - Alternate designation for Taifun-2.
Yug - Code name for Taifun-1Yu and [Taifun-1Yu] military target satellites.
Yuhangyuan - Originally preferred Chinese term for a person trained for spaceflight in China. Later succeeded by 'taikonaut', coined by observor Chen Lan.
Yui - Cubesat from Kagoshima University. Status: xactive. Number: 1 . Duration: 141.67 days.
Yui - Alternate name of ITF 1 (Yui).
Yui, Kimiya - Japanese pilot mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1970. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 141.67 days.
Yuma - Yuma Proving Ground. Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1958-08-19. Last Launch: 1967-06-13. Number: 53 .
Yuma gun 16 inch - Yuma 16 inch gun First Launch: 1966-06-14. Last Launch: 1967-06-13. Number: 31 .
Yuma gun 5 inch - Yuma 5 inch gun First Launch: 1966-10-14. Last Launch: 1966-11-20. Number: 21 .
Yuma Proving Ground - Alternate name for Yuma.
Yunhai-1 01 - Meteorology, earth observation satellite built by SAST, China. Launched 2016. Used CAST2000 bus. First Launch: 2016-11-11. Last Launch: 2016-11-11. Number: 1 .
Yupiter (Jupiter ) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-11.
Yupiter (Jupiter ) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-2.
Yupiter (Jupiter) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-11.
Yupiter (Jupiter) - Alternate designation for Soyuz T-2.
Yurchikhin, Fyodor Nikolayevich - Georgian-Russian engineer cosmonaut 1997-on. 537 cumulative days in space. Engineer, Energia NPO. Status: Active 1997-on. Born: 1959-01-03. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 537.11 days.
Yuri - Japanese communications technology satellite. Medium-scale broadcasting satellite for experimental purposes. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-04-07. Last Launch: 1978-04-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 678 kg (1,494 lb).
Yuri 1, 2a, 2b - Alternate name of BSE, BS 2a, 2b (Yuri 1, 2a, 2b).
Yuri 2x, 3h - Alternate name of BS 2x, 3h (Yuri 2x, 3h).
Yuri 3a, 3b, 3n - Alternate name of BS 3a, 3b, 3n (Yuri 3a, 3b, 3n).
Yurya - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM, much later 45 RT-2PM mobile missiles. First Launch: 1965-03-01. Last Launch: 1975-07-23. Number: 4 .
YUsend-QB50 (QB50 CA01) - Technology, atmosphere satellite for York University, Toronto, Canada. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Yutu - Lunar rover delivered to lunar surface by Chang'e-3. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-12-01. Last Launch: 2013-12-01. Number: 1 .
Yuyukov, Dmitri Andreyevich - Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1973-1987. Graduated from MAI, 1965 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Trained for a TKS flight to the Almaz military space station. Sector Head, NPO Mashinostroyeniye. From worked at GKNPTs Khrunishchev. Status: Inactive; Active 1973-1987. Born: 1941-02-26.
Yuzhnoye - Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine.

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