Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: C

C - degrees Celsius (centigrade)
C&T - Abbreviation for Communications & Tracking
C/NOFS - American earth seismology satellite. The C/NOFS (Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) satellite flew the US Defense Department's Space Test Program P00-3 space weather forecasting mission. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-04-16. Last Launch: 2008-04-16. Number: 1 .
C-1 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 65MP.
C-1 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K65.
C-1 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K65M.
C-1 - Alternate designation for Kosmos 65S3.
C-130 - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Active. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
C-17 - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Active. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
C-1A - American pressure suit, tested 1958. A partial pressure capstan suit with incorporated anti-G bladders for USN fighter aircraft, 12 standard sizes. Status: tested 1958.
C-21 - Alternate designation for Cosmopolis 21 manned spaceplane.
C3-1 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Poseidon C3 first stage. Status: Retired 1990. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Propellants: Solid.
C3-2 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Poseidon C3 second stage. Status: Retired 1990. Gross mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Propellants: Solid.
C4 - American manufacturer of spacecraft. C4, USA.
C-4 - American pressure suit, operational 1958. A partial pressure capstan suit, with vertical shoulder laces, adjustable break lines, anti-G suit, MG-1 Berger Bros. gloves, MA-2 helmet by ILC Dover. Status: operational 1958.
C4-1 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Trident C-4 first stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 23,000 kg (50,000 lb). Propellants: Solid.
C4-2 - Hercules solid rocket engine. Trident C-4 second stage. Status: Active. Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Propellants: Solid.
CAALPT - Chinese manufacturer of rocket engines. China Academy of Aerospace Liquid Propulsion Technology, Xian, China.
Cabana - American test pilot astronaut 1985-2004. US Marine Corps Status: Inactive; Active 1985-2004. Born: 1949-01-23. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 37.95 days.
Cabell - American officer. USAF intelligence, Deputy Director, CIA 1953-1962. Promoted U-2 and Corona spy satellite. Forced to resign after Bay of Pigs debacle. Born: 1903-10-11. Died: 1971-05-25.
Cablevision - American agency. Cablevision, USA.
Caerus - Experiment for Northrop Grumman NovaWorks and the University of Southern California. 3U Cubesat with deployable solar panels composed of a Northrop Grumman's 2-unit Mayflower Next Generation Technology Nanosat and University of Southern California's 1-uni
Cagle - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1996-2008. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2008. Born: 1959-04-24.
Cagle, Myrtle - American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astronauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. Status: Inactive. Born: 1925-06-03.
Cai Jintao - Chinese Engineer. Chinese communications and telemetry systems engineer. Born: 1908-07-01. Died: 1996-11-28.
Cai Qiao - Chinese Biologist. Cai Qiao was Vice President of the Military Medical Sciences Academy of the People's Liberation Army. In April 1966 he was one of three senior scientists that laid out the plans for China's first manned spacecraft. Born: 1897-10-11. Died: 1990-07-29.
Cai Xuzhe - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 2010-on. Status: Active 2010-on.
Cajun - The Cajun research rocket was developed as a dimensionally-similar but higher performance successor to the Deacon. Cajun Dart first stage. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1958-07-28. Last Launch: 1968-11-01. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 75 kg (166 lb). Unfuelled mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Thrust: 36.00 kN (8,093 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Cajun Dart - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1964-08-19. Last Launch: 1970-04-20. Number: 91 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 36.00 kN (8,093 lbf).
Cajun Dart-1 - Alternate designation for Cajun.
Cajun Dart-1 - Alternate name for Cajun engine.
Cakrawarta - Designation of series of communications satellites launched by Indostar.
Cal Poly - American manufacturer. Cal Poly, USA.
CALCM - Alternate designation for AGM-86C.
Caldeiro - American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 1996-2009. Status: Deceased; Active 1996-2009. Born: 1958-06-12. Died: 2009-10-03.
Caldwell - American chemist mission specialist astronaut 1998-on. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1969-08-14. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 188.80 days.
Caleb - American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Heavily classified project related to air-launched ASAT development. Launch tests in 1958. NOTS project staff believed they successfully orbited a satellite but unconfirmed. Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1960-07-28. Last Launch: 1962-07-25. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Payload: 7.00 kg (15.40 lb). Thrust: 53.30 kN (11,982 lbf).
Caleb-2 - Alternate name for Altair 1.
Caleb-3 - Alternate name for NOTS-3.
Caleb-4 - Alternate name for NOTS-4.
California Microwave - American manufacturer. California Microwave, USA.
Calipso - American earth weather satellite. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-04-28. Last Launch: 2006-04-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 587 kg (1,294 lb).
Calsphere - American military target satellite. Radar calibration objects (but also cover for other classified subsatellites). Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-12-13. Last Launch: 1971-02-17. Number: 12 .
CALT - Chinese manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, Beijing, China.
CALT - First name of SISE.
CALT - First name of Beijing Wan Yuan.
Caltech - Manufacturer's designation for Mars Society Mission manned mars expedition.
CALVT - Abbreviation or acronym for Chinese Academy of Launch Vehicles Technology
Camarda - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1996-2006. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2006. Born: 1952-05-08. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 13.90 days.
Cambridge - American agency. Cambridge, USA.
CAMEO - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Released barium cloud. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-10-24. Last Launch: 1978-10-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 350 kg (770 lb).
Cameron - American test pilot astronaut 1984-1996. US Marine Corps Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1996. Born: 1949-11-29. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 23.42 days.
Cameroon - Cameroon
Camp de Suippes - Test rocket launch location. First Launch: 1950-08-02. Last Launch: 1951-10-06. Number: 5 .
Camp Irwin - Alternate name for Leach Spring.
Camp Tortuguero - Alternate name for Arecibo.
Can X - Canadian technology satellite. 2 launched, 2008.04.28 (Can X-6 ) and (Can X-2 ). Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-04-28. Last Launch: 2008-04-28. Number: 1 .
Canada - Canada
Canada Group 1 - 1983 - Requirement: engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flight billets provided in exchange for Canadian development of the shuttle's remote manipulator arm. Date: 1983.
Canada Group 2 - 1992 - Requirement: engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flight billets provided in exchange for Canadian development of the shuttle's remote manipulator arm. Date: 1992.
Canadian Armament Researcha and Development Establishment - Alternate name for CARDE.
Canadian Arrow - Canadian manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Geoff Sheerin, Toronto. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. Status: Study 2004. Thrust: 253.98 kN (57,097 lbf).
Canadian Forces - Canadian Forces.
Canadian PPS - Canadian pressure suit, operational 1957. The Canadian Waistcoat-Mask/Vest/G-Suit was a partial pressure assembly. The Canadians studied variants of this assembly as far back as the early 1940's. Status: operational 1957.
Cannes - French manufacturer of spacecraft. Cannes, France.
Cannon - American test pilot. Flew the X-1 # 3. Status: Inactive.
Cannonball - American military target satellite. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-08-07. Last Launch: 1971-08-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 364 kg (802 lb).
Canopus - IIAE Argentinian solid rocket engine and single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1979. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Canopus 2 - Argentinian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1969-04-16. Last Launch: 1969-12-23. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 280 kg (610 lb). Payload: 50 kg (110 lb).
Canopus 2-1 - Alternate designation for Canopus.
Canopus 2-1 - Alternate name for Canopus engine.
Canterbury - University of Canterbury
Canterbury, William - American officer. Senior management positions in USAF missile development, senior staff scientist, Lockheed, from 1961.
CanX - 1U Cubesat from the University of Toronto, carried a camera for attitude determination. Failed. No signal from spacecraft.
Canyon - American military signals intelligence satellite. The first large US signals intelligence satellite. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-08-06. Last Launch: 1977-05-23. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
Capcom - Capsule communicator
CAPE - Cajun Advanced Picosatellite Experiment Cubesat by the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
Cape Canaveral - America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. First Launch: 1950-07-24. Last Launch: 2014-08-05. Number: 5044 .
Cape Canaveral AMR DZ - Launch point used for drop of air-launched missiles down the Atlantic Missile Range. First Launch: 1958-09-05. Last Launch: 1965-08-30. Number: 89 .
Cape Canaveral ETR - Launch area for submarine-launched ballistic missiles down the Eastern Test Range.
Cape Canaveral LA - Snark, Matador, Lark launch area. First Launch: 1950-10-25. Last Launch: 1961-06-01. Number: 340 .
Cape Canaveral LC1 - Snark launch complex. This complex was constructed for the Snark winged missile program, and may have supported some Matador combat training launches in the 1950s. The Air Force accepted the sites in 1953, and the complexes continued to support Snark launches through 5 December 1960. The pad served as a helicopter pad for the Mercury manned program in the early 1960s, and supported tethered aerostat (balloon) programs from 1983 through 1989. First Launch: 1957-06-20. Last Launch: 1960-02-12. Number: 4 .
Cape Canaveral LC10 - Navaho, Jason, Draco launch complex. The complex was built to support the Navaho winged intercontinental missile program. The Air Force accepted both sites 9 and 10 on 29 June 1956. Both complexes were demolished in 1959 to make room for Minuteman complexes 31 and 32. First Launch: 1958-08-15. Last Launch: 1959-04-27. Number: 9 .
Cape Canaveral LC11 - Atlas launch complex. The complex was built for the Atlas ballistic missile program. Launch sites 11 to 14 were accepted between August 1957 and mid-April 1958. Complex 11 supported 28 Atlas launches and five Atlas Advanced Ballistic Reentry System flights between 19 July 1958 and 2 April 1964. Complexes 11, 12 and 14 were deactivated in 1967. First Launch: 1958-07-19. Last Launch: 1964-04-01. Number: 33 .
Cape Canaveral LC12 - Atlas launch complex. The complex was built for the Atlas ballistic missile program. Launch sites 11 to 14 were accepted between August 1957 and mid-April 1958. Complex 12 supported its first Atlas launch on 10 January 1958, and it supported nine Ranger missions and four Mariner missions between 12 August 1961 and 15 June 1967. Complexes 11, 12 and 14 were deactivated in 1967, and Complex 13 was deactivated in April 1978. First Launch: 1958-01-10. Last Launch: 1967-11-05. Number: 38 .
Cape Canaveral LC13 - Atlas launch complex. Originally built in 1958 for the Atlas ballistic missile program. First Launch: 1958-08-02. Last Launch: 1978-04-07. Number: 51 .
Cape Canaveral LC14 - Atlas launch complex. The complex was built for the Atlas ballistic missile program. Launch sites 11 to 14 were accepted between August 1957 and mid-April 1958. After its final Atlas missile launch, Complex 14 was converted into an Atlas /Agena launch complex, and later turned over to NASA. Complex 14 supported 32 Atlas and Atlas/Agena missions, including four manned Mercury missions and seven unmanned Gemini target vehicle launches. Complexes 11, 12 and 14 were deactivated in 1967. Complex 14 and the gantry on Complex 13 were declared national historic landmarks in April 1984. First Launch: 1957-06-11. Last Launch: 1966-11-11. Number: 32 .
Cape Canaveral LC15 - Titan launch complex. Complexes 15, 16, 19, and 20 were built for the Titan ballistic missile program. The sites were accepted by the U.S. Government between February and mid-September 1959. All four sites supported Titan I launches in 1959 and the early 1960s, and complexes 15 and 16 supported Titan II launches between 16 March 1962 and 10 April 1964. Complex 15 was deactivated in March 1967, and it was dismantled three months later. First Launch: 1959-02-06. Last Launch: 1964-04-09. Number: 26 .
Cape Canaveral LC16 - Titan, Pershing launch complex. Originally built for the Titan ballistic missile program in 1959. Supported Titan I and II launches from 1959 to 1964. Reassigned to NASA in 1965 for static firings of the Apollo service module propulsion engine. Deactivated in 1969, later reassigned to the U.S. Army, supported 128 Pershing ballistic missile launches 1974 -1988. Deactivated in accordance with the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. First Launch: 1959-12-12. Last Launch: 1988-03-21. Number: 150 .
Cape Canaveral LC17A - Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Pad 17A supported Thor, Delta, and Delta II launches into the 21st Century. First Launch: 1957-08-30. Last Launch: 2009-08-17. Number: 162 .
Cape Canaveral LC17B - Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Upgraded over the decades for use with Thor, Delta, Delta II, and Delta III launch vehicles, it remained in use for over half a century. First Launch: 1957-01-26. Last Launch: 2011-09-10. Number: 166 .
Cape Canaveral LC18A - Viking, Vanguard, Scout launch complex. The LC18 complex included two launch pads 18A and 18B. Pad 18A was used to launch 14 Vanguard space vehicles for NASA and the U.S. Navy between 8 December 1956 and 19 September 1959. Following termination of the Vanguard program, Pad 18A supported ten Blue Scout Junior launches for the Air Force between 21 September 1960 and 10 June 1965. Complex 18 was deactivated on 1 February 1967. First Launch: 1956-12-08. Last Launch: 1965-06-09. Number: 24 .
Cape Canaveral LC18B - Scout, Delta launch complex. The LC18 complex included two launch pads 18A and 18B. Pad 18B supported 17 Thor missile launches between 4 June 1958 and 1 March 1960. Pad 18B supported half a dozen Blue Scout I, Blue Scout II and Scout missions between 7 January 1961 and 13 April 1962. Complex 18 was deactivated on 1 February 1967. First Launch: 1958-06-04. Last Launch: 1962-04-12. Number: 23 .
Cape Canaveral LC19 - Titan launch complex. Complexes 15, 16, 19, and 20 were built for the Titan ballistic missile program. The sites were accepted by the U.S. Government between February and mid-September 1959. All four sites supported Titan I launches in 1959 and the early 1960s. In 1962 and 1963, Complex 19 was converted into the space program's only manned Titan II/Gemini launch complex. It supported two unmanned and ten manned Gemini missions between 8 April 1964 and 16 November 1966. Complex 19 was deactivated on 10 April 1967, and it was declared a national historic landmark in April 1984. First Launch: 1959-08-14. Last Launch: 1966-11-11. Number: 27 .
Cape Canaveral LC2 - Snark launch complex. This complex was constructed for the Snark winged missile program, and may have supported some Matador combat training launches in the 1950s. The Air Force accepted the sites in 1953, and the complexes continued to support Snark launches through 5 December 1960. The pad served as a helicopter pad for the Mercury manned program in the early 1960s, and supported tethered aerostat (balloon) programs from 1983 through 1989. First Launch: 1954-02-18. Last Launch: 1960-04-06. Number: 15 .
Cape Canaveral LC20 - Titan, Super Chief, Loki, Prospector, Aries launch complex. Complexes 15, 16, 19, and 20 were built for the Titan ballistic missile program. The sites were accepted by the U.S. Government between February and mid-September 1959. All four sites supported Titan I launches in 1959 and the early 1960s. Complex 20 was modified to support four Titan IIIA flights which took place between 1 September 1964 and 7 May 1965. The site was deactivated in April 1967, but it got a new lease on life toward the end of the 1980s. Complex 20 was selected for the Starbird program in 1987, and it supported a Starbird launch on 18 December 1990. Between 18 June 1991 and 29 May 1993, the complex supported the commercial Joust-1 launch and four Red Tigress and Red Tigress II missions sponsored by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. Much of Complex 20's electronic equipment and both of its rail launchers were removed in 1995, rendering the site inactive for a time. First Launch: 1960-07-01. Last Launch: 2000-12-13. Number: 29 .
Cape Canaveral LC21/1 - Mace launch complex. Launcher 1. In the mid-1950s, a launch area near the Cape Lighthouse was set aside for complexes 21 and 22 to support the Air Force's winged Bull Goose decoy missile project. Construction started in 1956, and the Air Force accepted both complexes on 26 February 1957. In 1959 and 1960, the sites were rebuilt to support Mace winged cruise missile launches. The last Mace was launched in 1963, and the complexes remained dormant pending reassignment to another program. Both complexes were finally deactivated in the early 1970s. First Launch: 1962-10-31. Last Launch: 1963-06-12. Number: 4 .
Cape Canaveral LC21/2 - Mace launch complex. Launcher 2. In the mid-1950s, a launch area near the Cape Lighthouse was set aside for complexes 21 and 22 to support the Air Force's winged Bull Goose decoy missile project. Construction started in 1956, and the Air Force accepted both complexes on 26 February 1957. In 1959 and 1960, the sites were rebuilt to support Mace winged cruise missile launches. The last Mace was launched in 1963, and the complexes remained dormant pending reassignment to another program. Both complexes were finally deactivated in the early 1970s. First Launch: 1962-12-04. Last Launch: 1963-06-28. Number: 3 .
Cape Canaveral LC22 - Mace launch complex. Cruise missile launch complex. Supported 20 Bull Goose and Goose missile launches 1957-1958. Rebuilt to support 44 Mace missile launches 1959-1963. First Launch: 1958-09-30. Last Launch: 1960-06-24. Number: 10 .
Cape Canaveral LC25A - X-17, Polaris launch complex. Complex 25 was built to support the U.S. Navy's Polaris submarine ballistic missile program. The Navy occupied pad 25A in December 1957. Complex 25 supported 68 Polaris missile launches between 18 April 1958 and 6 March 1965. Pads 25A and 25B were dismantled in September 1969. First Launch: 1958-04-18. Last Launch: 1965-03-05. Number: 60 .
Cape Canaveral LC25B - Polaris launch complex. Complex 25 was built to support the U.S. Navy's Polaris submarine ballistic missile program. The Navy occupied pad 25B in January 1958. Pads 25A and 25B were dismantled in September 1969. First Launch: 1959-08-14. Last Launch: 1960-08-03. Number: 8 .
Cape Canaveral LC25C - Trident, Poseidon launch complex. Complex 25 supported the U.S. Navy's submarine ballistic missile programs. Pads 25C and 25D were built in 1967 to support the Navy's Poseidon ballistic missile program. Seventeen Poseidons were launched from pads 25C and 25D between 16 August 1968 and 30 June 1970. Pad 25C supported the Cape's first Trident I ballistic missile launch on 18 January 1977. Seventeen more Trident I missiles were launched from Pad 25C between 15 February 1977 and 24 January 1979. Complex 25 was inactivated and dismantled in 1979. First Launch: 1968-08-16. Last Launch: 1979-01-23. Number: 34 .
Cape Canaveral LC25D - Poseidon launch complex. Complex 25 supported the U.S. Navy's submarine ballistic missile programs. Pads 25C and 25D were built in 1967 to support the Navy's Poseidon ballistic missile program. Complex 25 was inactivated and dismantled in 1979. First Launch: 1969-09-17. Last Launch: 1969-09-17. Number: 1 .
Cape Canaveral LC26A - Redstone, Jupiter launch complex. The LC-26 dual launch pad complex was constructed for the U.S. Army's Redstone and Jupiter missile programs in 1956-1957. At least 36 Redstone, Jupiter, Jupiter C and Juno II launches were conducted 1957-1964. First Launch: 1957-08-28. Last Launch: 1963-01-23. Number: 14 .
Cape Canaveral LC26B - Jupiter launch complex. The LC-26 dual launch pad complex was constructed for the U.S. Army's Redstone and Jupiter missile programs in 1956-1957. At least 36 Redstone, Jupiter, Jupiter C and Juno II launches were conducted 1957-1964. First Launch: 1957-10-23. Last Launch: 1961-05-24. Number: 22 .
Cape Canaveral LC26D - Alternate name for Cape Canaveral LC30.
Cape Canaveral LC29A - Polaris launch complex. Complex 29 was built to support the U.S. Navy's Polaris submarine ballistic missile program. Construction began in August 1958. The Navy occupied the site in July 1959, and Pad 29A supported 47 Polaris launches between 21 September 1959 and 2 November 1967. The complex was placed on standby status in 1968, and it was upgraded to support the British Chevaline submarine ballistic missile program in the mid 1970s. Complex 29 supported ten Chevaline launches between 12 September 1977 and 20 May 1980. The site was deactivated in 1980. First Launch: 1959-09-21. Last Launch: 1979-11-08. Number: 50 .
Cape Canaveral LC29B - Polaris launch complex. Complex 29 was built to support the U.S. Navy's Polaris submarine ballistic missile program. Construction began in August 1958. The Navy occupied the site in July 1959. The complex was placed on standby status in 1968, and it was upgraded to support the British Chevaline submarine ballistic missile program in the mid 1970s. The site was deactivated in 1980. First Launch: 1977-11-08. Last Launch: 1977-11-08. Number: 1 .
Cape Canaveral LC3 - X-17, V-2, Polaris, Bomarc launch complex. This complex was built to support the Bomarc interceptor missile program, but also supported Bumper, Jason, Redstone, X-17 and Polaris ballistic missile operations. The Air Force accepted Complex 3 in November 1951. The location had already supported the Cape's first major launch - Bumper 8 - on 24 July 1950. Following the last Bomarc launch in April 1960, some Bomarc support facilities were converted into a medical support area for Project Mercury. Later the complex supported tethered aerostat programs from 1983 through 1989. First Launch: 1950-07-24. Last Launch: 1958-01-17. Number: 61 .
Cape Canaveral LC30 - Pershing launch complex. This complex was built as a dual launch pad facility to support the U.S. Army's Pershing missile program in the early 1960s. The complex was occupied by the Army on 8 January 1960. Following completion of the Pershing test flight program, the mobile gantry on Complex 26 was dismantled in February 1968. Pershing 1A follow-on tests began at Complex 31 on 21 February 1973. First Launch: 1961-01-06. Last Launch: 1963-04-24. Number: 10 .
Cape Canaveral LC31A - Pershing, Minuteman, M55E1 launch complex. Built 1959-1960 to support the Air Force's Minuteman missile program. In 1973 used briefly for the Army's Pershing 1A follow-on testing program. First Launch: 1961-02-01. Last Launch: 1961-07-27. Number: 3 .
Cape Canaveral LC31B - Minuteman launch silo. Complexes 31 and 32 were built between July 1959 and July 1960 to support the Air Force's Minuteman missile program. Each complex had one blockhouse and two launch pads. The two "A" pads were constructed as conventional flat pads, and the two "B" pads were built as ballistic missile silos. The sites were modified subsequently to support later versions of the Minuteman missile. In all, 92 Minuteman I, II and III missiles were launched from the complexes between 1 February 1961 and 15 December 1970. First Launch: 1961-12-18. Last Launch: 1969-09-23. Number: 35 .
Cape Canaveral LC32A - Complexes 31 and 32 were built between July 1959 and July 1960 to support the Air Force's Minuteman missile program. Each complex had one blockhouse and two launch pads. The two "A" pads were constructed as conventional flat pads, and the two "B" pads were built as ballistic missile silos. The sites were modified subsequently to support later versions of the Minuteman missile. In all, 92 Minuteman I, II and III missiles were launched from the complexes between 1 February 1961 and 15 December 1970.
Cape Canaveral LC32B - Minuteman launch silo. Complexes 31 and 32 were built between July 1959 and July 1960 to support the Air Force's Minuteman missile program. Each complex had one blockhouse and two launch pads. The two "A" pads were constructed as conventional flat pads, and the two "B" pads were built as ballistic missile silos. The sites were modified subsequently to support later versions of the Minuteman missile. Pad 32B supported the first Minuteman II and III launches on 24 September 1964 and 16 August 1968 respectively. In all, 92 Minuteman I, II and III missiles were launched from the complexes between 1 February 1961 and 15 December 1970. First Launch: 1961-08-30. Last Launch: 1970-12-14. Number: 53 .
Cape Canaveral LC34 - Saturn I launch complex. Saturn I and IB program launch complex, built 1959-1961. Four Saturn I and three Saturn IB vehicles were launched from Complex 34 between 27 October 1961 and 12 October 1968. First Launch: 1961-10-27. Last Launch: 1968-10-11. Number: 7 .
Cape Canaveral LC36A - Atlas launch complex. Launch site built in 1960 for NASA's Atlas/Centaur development program, and used for launches of that launch vehicle until its retirement. First Launch: 1962-05-08. Last Launch: 2004-08-31. Number: 69 .
Cape Canaveral LC36B - Atlas V, Atlas launch complex. Atlas Centaur launch pad, in service from 1964 until the retirement of the launch vehicle. First Launch: 1965-08-11. Last Launch: 2005-02-03. Number: 76 .
Cape Canaveral LC37A - Complexes 34 and 37 were designed to support NASA's Saturn I and Saturn IB program. Complex 37 was built in 1962, and it was occupied by NASA in January 1963. Complex 37 supported eight Saturn I and Saturn IB missions, including the first flight of an unmanned Apollo lunar module, between 29 January 1964 and 23 January 1968. Complexes 34 and 37 were mothballed in November 1971, and their service structures were scrapped in April 1972. NASA retained control of both complexes, and both sites became NASA tour stops.
Cape Canaveral LC37B - Saturn I, Delta IV launch complex. Complexes 34 and 37 were designed to support NASA's Saturn I and Saturn IB program. Complex 37 was built in 1962, and it was occupied by NASA in January 1963. Complex 37 supported eight Saturn I and Saturn IB missions, including the first flight of an unmanned Apollo lunar module, between 29 January 1964 and 23 January 1968. Complexes 34 and 37 were mothballed in November 1971, and their service structures were scrapped in April 1972. NASA retained control of both complexes, and both sites became NASA tour stops. First Launch: 1964-01-29. Last Launch: 2014-07-28. Number: 30 .
Cape Canaveral LC39 - Cape Canaveral LC39
Cape Canaveral LC39A - Shuttle, Saturn V launch complex. LC39A and LC39B, part of the Kennedy Space Center, were built on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape) to support the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program. The sites were modified in the last half of the 1970s to support the manned Space Shuttle program. Construction began in December 1963. Complex 39A was completed on 4 October 1965. Complex 39A supported two unmanned and nine manned Saturn V/Apollo missions between 9 November 1967 and 8 December 1972. The site also supported the launch of the Skylab space station on 14 May 1973. Both complexes were modified to support Space Shuttle missions later on. Complex 39A supported the first Space Shuttle launch on 12 April 1981. First Launch: 1967-11-09. Last Launch: 2011-07-08. Number: 95 .
Cape Canaveral LC39B - Shuttle, Saturn V, Saturn I launch complex. LC39A and LC39B, part of the Kennedy Space Center, were built on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape) to support the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program in 1963-1966. The sites were modified in the last half of the 1970s to support the manned Space Shuttle program. First Launch: 1969-05-18. Last Launch: 2009-10-28. Number: 59 .
Cape Canaveral LC39C - This complex would have been part of the Kennedy Space Center, on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape), and supported the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program. However this third Saturn V pad was never built. LC-39C was the original designation for the pad closest to the Vertical Assembly Building, and LC-39A for the farthest of the three planned pads. When it was decided not to build the third launch pad, LC-39C was renamed LC-39A.
Cape Canaveral LC39D - If NASA had received funding for its schemes for manned Mars expeditions and enormous space stations in the 1970's, two additional pads would have been built at LC39 for advanced versions of the Saturn V. LC39D would have been west of the also-unbuilt LC39C.
Cape Canaveral LC39E - If NASA had received funding for its schemes for manned Mars expeditions and enormous space stations in the 1970's, two additional pads would have been built at LC39 for advanced versions of the Saturn V. LC39E would have been northwest of the also-unbuilt LC39C.
Cape Canaveral LC4 - Redstone, Matador, Bomarc launch complex. This complex was built to support the Bomarc interceptor missile program, but also supported Bumper, Jason, Redstone, X-17 and Polaris ballistic missile operations. The Air Force accepted Complex 4 in 1952. Following the last Bomarc launch in April 1960, some Bomarc support facilities were converted into a medical support area for Project Mercury. Later the complex supported tethered aerostat programs from 1983 through 1989. First Launch: 1952-09-10. Last Launch: 1960-04-15. Number: 25 .
Cape Canaveral LC40 - Titan launch complex. Constructed as part of the Titan Integrate-Transfer-Launch (ITL) facility at the north end of Cape Canaveral in the early 1960s. Supported a wide variety of military space missions involving Titan IIIC, Titan 34D and Titan IV vehicles. First Launch: 1965-06-18. Last Launch: 2014-08-05. Number: 66 .
Cape Canaveral LC41 - Titan, Atlas V launch complex. Complexes 40 and 41 were constructed as part of the Integrate-Transfer-Launch (ITL) Titan launch facility at the north end of Cape Canaveral in the early 1960s. Over the next three decades, the complexes supported a wide variety of military space missions involving Titan IIIC, Titan 34D and Titan IV. Complex 41 was deactivated at the end of 1977, then upgraded for the Titan IV program in the 1986-88 period. In October 1999, Complex 41 was demolished with high explosives in order for a new pad for launch of the Atlas 5 rocket to be erected. First Launch: 1965-12-21. Last Launch: 1999-04-09. Number: 27 .
Cape Canaveral LC42 - Complexes 40 and 41 were constructed as part of a $39 million project to build an Integrate-Transfer-Launch (ITL) facility at the north end of Cape Canaveral in the early 1960s. An additional LC-42 was planned at the ITL to support ambitious military space projects that never materialized. It was intended to be used by Titan 3 rockets, and would have branched to the north of the Titan causeway, symmetrical to LC-40. It is doubtful that LC-42 would actually have been built because it would pose a safety problem to operations from LC-39A.
Cape Canaveral LC43 - Viper, Loki, Hopi, Arcas, Rocketsonde launch complex. First Launch: 1959-01-01. Last Launch: 1984-02-27. Number: 2062 .
Cape Canaveral LC46 - Trident, Athena launch complex. This complex was built as part of the U.S. Navy's Trident II ballistic missile effort at the Cape. Construction was underway in February 1984, and the complex was ordnance-certified in November 1986. Complex 46 supported the Cape's first Trident II test missile launch on 15 January 1987. Eighteen more Trident IIs were launched from the site between 17 March 1987 and 27 January 1989. As Trident launch operations moved out to sea later in 1989, the complex was placed on standby status awaiting special Trident II test requirements. No new requirements surfaced in the 1990s, but the Spaceport Florida Authority (SFA) won $4,890,000 in Air Force grants to redesign Complex 46 to handle small commercial space launch operations (e.g., Lockheed Martin's new LMLV-2 space launch vehicle). First Launch: 1987-01-15. Last Launch: 1999-01-27. Number: 21 .
Cape Canaveral LC47 - Loki, Rocketsonde launch complex. Complex 47 was used to support weather rocket launches at the Cape. In March 1984, weather rocket operations were relocated from Complex 43 to Complex 47 to make room for the construction of Complex 46. In addition to weather rocket launches, Complex 47 was designated part of Spaceport Florida and supported the commercial launch of a single-stage solid rocket (LOFT-1) in November 1988. The site also supported a student suborbital launch of a Super Loki weather rocket in October 1992. First Launch: 1984-03-12. Last Launch: 2008-09-22. Number: 531 .
Cape Canaveral LC4A - Bomarc launch complex. This complex was built to support the Bomarc interceptor missile program, but also supported Bumper, Jason, Redstone, X-17 and Polaris ballistic missile operations. The Air Force accepted Complex 4 in 1952. Following the last Bomarc launch in April 1960, some Bomarc support facilities were converted into a medical support area for Project Mercury. Later the complex supported tethered aerostat programs from 1983 through 1989. First Launch: 1958-09-03. Last Launch: 1959-01-27. Number: 3 .
Cape Canaveral LC5 - Redstone, Jupiter launch complex. Pad 5 supported its first Jupiter A launch on 19 July 1956. In addition to Redstone and Jupiter launches, the complex supported Explorer and Pioneer missions and all six Redstone /Mercury suborbital flights. On 31 January 1964, Complexes 5 and 6 were reassigned to become part of the USAF Space Museum. First Launch: 1956-07-19. Last Launch: 1961-07-21. Number: 23 .
Cape Canaveral LC6 - Redstone, Jupiter launch complex. Pad 6 supported its first Redstone launch on 20 April 1955, three months before the complex was finally accepted by the U.S. Government. In addition to Redstone and Jupiter launches, the complex supported Explorer and Pioneer missions and all six Redstone /Mercury suborbital flights. On 31 January 1964, Complexes 5 and 6 were reassigned to become part of the USAF Space Museum. First Launch: 1955-04-20. Last Launch: 1961-06-27. Number: 43 .
Cape Canaveral LC9 - Navaho launch complex. The complex was built to support the Navaho winged intercontinental missile program. The Air Force accepted both sites 9 and 10 on 29 June 1956. Both complexes were demolished in 1959 to make room for Minuteman complexes 31 and 32. First Launch: 1956-11-06. Last Launch: 1958-11-18. Number: 11 .
Cape Canaveral RW15/33 - Shuttle Landing Facility, NASA Kennedy Space Center First Launch: 1993-02-09. Last Launch: 1993-02-09. Number: 1 .
Cape Canaveral RW30/12 - Navaho, Matador launch complex. Skid Strip, Cape Canaveral Air Station First Launch: 1955-08-19. Last Launch: 2003-04-28. Number: 19 .
Cape Canaveral SLC17 - Cape Canaveral SLC17
Cape Canaveral SLC41 - Cape Canaveral SLC41 First Launch: 2002-08-21. Last Launch: 2014-08-02. Number: 39 .
Cape Karikari - Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 7 launches in 1965, reaching up to 88 kilometers altitude.
Cape Karikari L1 - Arcas launch complex. Launcher 1 First Launch: 1965-05-25. Last Launch: 1965-05-30. Number: 4 .
Cape Karikari L2 - Arcas launch complex. Launcher 2 First Launch: 1965-05-30. Last Launch: 1965-05-30. Number: 3 .
Cape Kennedy - Alternate name for Cape Canaveral.
Cape Parry - Sounding rocket launch location on DEW (Distant Early Warning) line. First Launch: 1969-03-07. Last Launch: 1982-01-21. Number: 18 .
Cape York - Seriously studied and proposed as an Australian near-equatorial launch site for the Ukrainian Zenit-3 launch vehicle in the early 1990's. The Sea Launch alternative was pursued instead.
CAPRICORN - American military communications satellite. One launch, 1998.01.29, USA 137. There was no firm information on this classified satellite for the National Reconnaissance Office. Status: Operational 1998.
Capricorn - Alternate name for Quasar classified geostationary data relay satellite.
Capricorno - Spanish all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Small all-solid-propellant launch vehicle pursued by Spain in 1992-1999. Cancelled in 2000 before any flights could be made. Status: Cancelled 1999. Gross mass: 15,035 kg (33,146 lb). Payload: 50 kg (110 lb). Thrust: 330.00 kN (74,180 lbf).
Capsule - Alternate designation for Mercury Capsule manned spacecraft module.
CARA - Abbreviation for Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica
Carat - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-8.
CARDE - Canadian Armament and Research Development Establishment, Canada.
Cardiologist Group - 1977 - Requirement: physician for Salyut space station missions. Date: 1977.
Carey - American test pilot astronaut 1996-2004. Status: Deceased; Active 1996-2004. Born: 1957-04-30. Died: 2013-10-10. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 10.92 days.
Cargo Lander Reference Version 1 - American manned Mars lander. Study 1993. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 205,090 kg (452,140 lb).
Cargo Lander Reference Version 3 - American manned Mars lander. Study 1993. The second version of the NASA Cargo Lander for the design reference mission 3.0 was similar in concept to the first but mass was reduced nearly 30% by a thorough study and scrub of each element. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 134,743 kg (297,057 lb).
Cargo Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for Ares V.
Cargo LV Stage 1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Core vehicle proposed by NASA for Project Constellation exploration of moon and Mars. Originally it would use shuttle external tank tooling. This version was proposed by Thiokol prior to Constellation decision. Modification of shuttle external tank. Includes 28.6 metric ton SSME engine pod. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 1,093,330 kg (2,410,380 lb). Unfuelled mass: 88,449 kg (194,996 lb). Thrust: 10,441.06 kN (2,347,244 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Cargo LV Stage 2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Trans-lunar injection stage proposed by NASA for Project Constellation exploration of moon and Mars. It would use shuttle external tank tooling. All masses estimated. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 227,036 kg (500,528 lb). Unfuelled mass: 19,343 kg (42,644 lb). Thrust: 2,442.07 kN (548,999 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Cargo Module - Alternate name for Gemini Ferry CM.
Cargo Module - Alternate name for Big Gemini CM.
Carlo Gavazzi - Italian manufacturer of spacecraft. Carlo Gavazzi Space, Italy.
Carnarvon - Location of a major NASA tracking station, also used for sounding rocket launches. First Launch: 1964-07-16. Last Launch: 1964-10-22. Number: 4 .
Carnarvon CARN - HAD launch complex. T
Carnarvon CARN2 - HAD launch complex. Carnarvon north site First Launch: 1965-05-10. Last Launch: 1965-05-11. Number: 8 .
Carnegie Mellon - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Carnegie Mellon, USA.
Carpenter - American test pilot astronaut 1959-1967. Status: Deceased; Active 1959-1967. Born: 1925-05-01. Died: 2013-10-10. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 0.21 days.
Carr - American test pilot astronaut 1966-1977. Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1977. Born: 1932-08-22. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 84.05 days.
Carretto - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1988. Born: 1957-01-30.
Carter - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1984-1991. Grew up in Warner Robins, Georgia. Died in the crash of a commercial airliner while on NASA business travel. Status: Deceased; Active 1984-1991. Born: 1947-08-15. Died: 1991-04-05. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 5.00 days.
Carter, Jimmy - American Politician. Jimmy Carter was president of the United States between 1977 and 1981. Previously he had been a naval officer and businessman before entering politics. He entered politics in the Georgia State Legislature Born: 1924-10-01.
Cartosat - Cartography satellite with 0.8 meter resolution. Used the IRS bus.
CAS - Alternate designation for CAS (abbreviation).
CAS - Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. China Academy of Science, Beijing, China.
CAS (abbreviation) - Cooperative Applications Satellite (CAS-A was Eole)
CASA - Spanish manufacturer of spacecraft. Construcciones Aeronauticas SA, Madrid, Spain.
CASC - Alternate designation for Harbin.
CASC - China Aerospace Corporation, China. Manufacturer of spacecraft and launch vehicles, formed as part of a government consolidation in 1999. Divisions include CALT for launch vehicles and CAST for spacecraft and satellites.
CASC - Second name of CALT.
CASC - Second name of Harbin Institute of Technology.
CASC - Second name of CAST.
CASC - Second name of SISE.
CASC - First name of Shanxi.
CASDN - French agency. Comité d'Action Scientifique de Défense Nationale, France.
Case for Mars II - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1984. The Case for Mars II Mars expedition plan was presented at a conference on 10-14 July 1984. Status: Study 1984.
Case Western - Case Western.
Casey - American intelligence officer. CIA Chief under Reagan, 1981-1987. Oversaw massive increase in CIA budget, including that for space activities. Born: 1913-03-13. Died: 1987-05-06.
Caspar - Alternate name for Apollo 16.
Casper - American test pilot astronaut 1984-1997. Grew up in Gainesville, Georgia, son of an Air Force officer. Flew 229 combat missions in Vietnam. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1997. Born: 1943-07-09. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 34.41 days.
Cassada - American pilot astronaut 2013- . Status: Active 2013-on. Born: 1973-07-18.
Casserino - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1985. Born: 1955-07-21.
Cassidy - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 2004-on. Status: Active 2004-on. Born: 1970-01-04. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 181.96 days.
Cassini - American outer planets probe, launched 1997.10.15. The Cassini spacecraft was a scientific platform designed to perform an in-depth study of the Saturnian system. It released the Huygens lander which successfully landed on the surface of Saturn's moon, Titan. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-10-15. Last Launch: 1997-10-15. Number: 1 .
Cassino - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1966-11-05. Last Launch: 1966-11-15. Number: 27 .
Cassiope - Canadian Space Agency satellite using MAC-200 bus with two payloads: the CASCADE high bandwidth Ka-band communications relay package and the ePOP suite of instruments to study the polar ionosphere. Built by MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates.
Cassiopee - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-24 Cassiopee.
CAST - Chinese manufacturer of spacecraft. China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing, China.
CAST1000 - The CAST1000 bus was a microsatellite class (30-200 kg) platform designed to satisfy missions including earth observation, atmospheric exploration, electromagnetic exploration, technological demonstration, on-orbit service, and LEO communication, while supporting use in satellite constellations and formation flying. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-04-18. Last Launch: 2012-10-14. Number: 5 .
CAST2000 - The CAST2000 bus was in the minisatellite class (200-400 kg bus mass; 300-600 kg payload capacity). It was designed for diverse missions, including earth observation, technological demonstration, scientific exploration, earth environmental exploration, formation flight and networking, meteorological research and application, communications, and navigation. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-05-10. Last Launch: 2015-09-14. Number: 17 .
CAST3000 - The CAST3000 satellite bus was designed for high resolution optical imaging and radar imaging missions in sun synchronous orbit. It could be adapted to other missions. The bus had a mass of 400 kg and could support payloads of up to 400 kg requiring 1100 W of power. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-07-19. Last Launch: 2013-07-19. Number: 1 .
CAST968 - Chinese spacecraft bus of around 500 kg and 1000 W power capability designed for use by Earth observation, communications, and technology demonstration satellites in sun synchronous orbit. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-05-15. Last Launch: 2011-08-15. Number: 3 .
Castenholtz - American engineer. Manager of J-2 engine development at Rocketdyne.
Castor - American suborbital launch vehicle. Single stage version. Status: Retired 1982. First Launch: 1967-01-11. Last Launch: 1982-08-04. Number: 9 . Gross mass: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb). Thrust: 235.00 kN (52,830 lbf).
Castor - Alternate name for D.
Castor (A) - Argentinian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Canopus + 1 x Canopus Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1969-12-22. Last Launch: 1979-03-22. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 280 kg (610 lb). Payload: 75 kg (165 lb).
Castor 1 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Used as apogee kick motor on Delta D, LT Thor Agena D, Scout X-1, Scout X-2, Scout X-3, Scout X-4, TA Thor Agena B, TA Thor Agena D. First flight 1960. M33-20 fourth stage. Status: Active. Number: 141 . Gross mass: 3,852 kg (8,492 lb). Unfuelled mass: 535 kg (1,179 lb). Thrust: 286.00 kN (64,295 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Castor 120 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Motor similar in size to the Peacekeeper missile stage 1 motor; filled the gap between Castor 4A and the large segmented motors. First flight 1989. Solid propellant rocket stage. Modification of Peacekeeper ICBM first stage. Status: Out of production. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 53,118 kg (117,105 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,086 kg (9,008 lb). Thrust: 1,650.00 kN (370,930 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Castor 2 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Used in Scout A; Delta E; H-1-0; Castor 2. License built in Japan for H-1. First flight 1960. Solid propellant rocket stage. Version for Japanese H-1 booster. Status: In Production. Number: 1054 . Gross mass: 4,424 kg (9,753 lb). Unfuelled mass: 695 kg (1,532 lb). Thrust: 258.90 kN (58,203 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Castor 2R - American suborbital launch vehicle. 2 stage vehicle version of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor Gross mass: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb). Thrust: 586.00 kN (131,738 lbf).
Castor 30 - Solid propellant rocket stage developed for use on space launch vehicles.
Castor 4 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Series of motors used as Delta strap-on boosters and as first and upper stages for low-cost all-solid-propellant designs. First flight 1975. Number: 342 . Gross mass: 10,534 kg (23,223 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,269 kg (2,797 lb). Thrust: 407.20 kN (91,542 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Castor 4A - Alternate designation for Castor 4A engine.
Castor 4A - American sounding rocket. Vehicle consisting 1 x Castor + 1 x Orbus 1, sometimes augmented with a Recruit booster stage. Status: Retired 1997. First Launch: 1992-10-16. Last Launch: 1992-10-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 13,500 kg (29,700 lb). Thrust: 430.00 kN (96,660 lbf).
Castor 4A engine - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of production. Castor 4A improved Delta performance by 11% by replacing the old fuel with HTPB propellant. Used in Delta 6900; Atlas IIAS; Castor 4A. First flight 1982. Status: Out of production. Number: 304 . Gross mass: 11,578 kg (25,525 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,457 kg (3,212 lb). Thrust: 478.30 kN (107,526 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Castor 4AXL - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In production. Strap-on booster version, first tested May 1992. Its 30% performance increase would improve performance of Atlas and other vehicles. First flight 2001. Solid propellant rocket stage. Provides supplemental thrust for H-2 or H-2A. Solid propellant rocket stage. Provides supplemental thrust for H-2 or H-2A. Status: In production. Number: 40 . Gross mass: 14,851 kg (32,740 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,723 kg (3,798 lb). Thrust: 599.80 kN (134,840 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Castor 4AXL H-2A - Solid propellant rocket stage. Provides supplemental thrust for H-2 or H-2A. Status: Active. Gross mass: 15,200 kg (33,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Thrust: 626.60 kN (140,865 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Castor 4B - Alternate designation for Castor 4B engine.
Castor 4B - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. First launch 1996.07.15. Status: Active. First Launch: 1996-07-15. Last Launch: 2005-08-18. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Thrust: 500.00 kN (112,400 lbf).
Castor 4B - Alternate designation for Castor 4BXL Solid rocket engine.
Castor 4B engine - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of production. The Castor 4B, which incorporated thrust vector control in the series for the first time, was developed for ESA's Maxus (first flown in 1991). First flight 1982. Solid propellant rocket stage. Optimized for high altitude (Conestoga). Status: Out of production. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 11,400 kg (25,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Thrust: 430.60 kN (96,803 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Castor 4BXL - Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. ORBEX version, combined the 4XL motor with 4B's TVC system (6 degree). Status: In Production. Gross mass: 11,482 kg (25,313 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,513 kg (3,335 lb). Thrust: 429.00 kN (96,443 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Castor 4XL - Solid propellant rocket stage. Provides supplemental thrust for H-2 or H-2A. Status: Active. Gross mass: 15,400 kg (33,900 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 745.00 kN (167,482 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Castor engine - Multiple-source solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Used in Jupiter C, Juno 2. First flight 1956. Status: Out of Production. Number: 285 . Gross mass: 42 kg (92 lb). Unfuelled mass: 21 kg (46 lb). Thrust: 6.66 kN (1,497 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Castor Lance - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Lance Status: Retired 1985. First Launch: 1973-05-25. Last Launch: 1985-06-17. Number: 2 .
Castor Lance-2 - Alternate name for TX-77.
Castor-M57A1 - American target missile. Version with a Thiokol Castor IVB first stage, and a Minuteman II M57A1 second stage. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-09-15. Last Launch: 1999-09-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 14,500 kg (31,900 lb). Thrust: 500.00 kN (112,400 lbf).
Castor-Orbus - Alternate designation for Castor 4A.
Castor-Recruit - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Recruit Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1962-10-20. Last Launch: 1962-10-20. Number: 1 .
CAT - European technology satellite. Status: Operational 1979. First Launch: 1979-12-24. Last Launch: 1981-12-20. Number: 5 .
CATIC - Chinese manufacturer. CATIC, China.
CATS - Abbreviation for Cheap Access To Space
Cattaneo - Italian pilot. Rocketplane pioneer
CBERS - Manufacturer's designation for ZY earth land resources satellite.
CBNT - Surrey Satellite Technology experimental imaging satellite. SSTL did not disclose the meaning of the CBNT abbreviation. 22:10 local time longitude of descending node sun synchronous orbit. Status: Operational 2015. First Launch: 2015-07-10. Last Launch: 2015-07-10. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 91 kg (200 lb).
CBS - Abbreviation for Columbia Broadcasting System
cc - cubic centimeter(s)
CCAFS - Abbreviation or acronym for Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
CCD - Abbreviation for Charge-Coupled Device
CCDS - Abbreviation for Centers for the Commercial Development of Space
CCE - Alternate name for the AMPTE
CCP - Abbreviation for Contract change proposal
CCTV - Abbreviation for Closed circuit television
CD - Digital Audio Radio Satellite, used for transmission of S-band radio broadcasts direct to receivers in cars in the United States. Designation of series of communications satellites launched by Sirius.
CD Module - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1969. CD Modules - conceptual engines of various thrusts, according to design - were clustered in Martin Marietta Nova designs Status: Study 1969. Thrust: 7,361.00 kN (1,654,818 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
CDDP - Abbreviation for Canadian Department of Defence Production
CDR - Commander, spelled out C-D-R when spoken
CD-ROM! - The Encyclopedia Astronautica is not available on CD-ROM...
CDS - American communications technology satellite. Orbcomm OXP-1. Experimental spacecraft. Status: Operational 1993. First Launch: 1993-02-09. Last Launch: 1993-02-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 15 kg (33 lb).
CEA - Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) - Saclay
CECOM - US Army Communications/Electronics Command, Ft Monmouth, USA
Cedre 3 - Status: Retired 1962. First Launch: 1962-11-21. Last Launch: 1962-11-21. Number: 1 .
Cedre 4 - Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1964-01-01. Last Launch: 1966-08-04. Number: 5 .
CEL - Alternate name for Biscarosse.
Celebrating Gagarin's Anniversary - James Oberg remembers Yuri
Celestis - American burial-in-space service. Celestis offers the the opportunity for the space-smitten to have (a portion) of their cremated remains to be put into orbit. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-02-10. Last Launch: 2012-05-22. Number: 5 .
CELPA - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1962-11-10. Last Launch: 2013-12-18. Number: 103 .
CELPA Atlantica - Alternate name for Mar Chiquita.
Celsius AB - Celsius AB.
CEM - Alternate name for Ile du Levant.
Cenker - American engineer payload specialist astronaut 1985-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1948-11-05. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 6.09 days.
Centaur B-X - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Conceptual design, 1998. Not put into production. Status: Development 1998. Gross mass: 19,138 kg (42,192 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,358 kg (5,198 lb). Thrust: 186.80 kN (41,994 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur C - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. The first high-energy liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen propellant stage in history. Despite initial development problems, the Centaur is entering its seventh decade of development and production. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 15,600 kg (34,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,996 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 133.45 kN (30,000 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur C-X - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Conceptual design - in development 1998, not put into production. Status: Development 1998. Gross mass: 19,138 kg (42,192 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,358 kg (5,198 lb). Thrust: 110.80 kN (24,909 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur D/E - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 16,258 kg (35,842 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,631 kg (5,800 lb). Thrust: 131.22 kN (29,500 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur G - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Centaur for Titan 4. Status: Retired 2005. Gross mass: 23,880 kg (52,640 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,775 kg (6,117 lb). Thrust: 146.80 kN (33,002 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur G Prime - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Centaur for Shuttle payload bay. Cancelled after Challenger disaster on safety grounds. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 19,501 kg (42,992 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 146.80 kN (33,002 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur G STS - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 16,327 kg (35,994 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Thrust: 146.80 kN (33,002 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur I - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 15,600 kg (34,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Thrust: 146.80 kN (33,002 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur II - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 18,833 kg (41,519 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,053 kg (4,526 lb). Thrust: 146.80 kN (33,002 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur IIA - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 19,073 kg (42,048 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,293 kg (5,055 lb). Thrust: 185.01 kN (41,592 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur IIIA - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Single-engine Centaur for Atlas IIIA. Status: Retired 2004. Gross mass: 18,710 kg (41,240 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,905 kg (4,199 lb). Thrust: 99.16 kN (22,291 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur IIIB - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Dual-engine Centaur for Atlas IIIB. The Lockheed Martin manufactured Centaur IIIB upper stage is powered by two Pratt & Whitney RL10A-4-2 turbopump-fed engines burning liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The changes to Centaur for Atlas IIIB are a stretched tank (1.68 m) and the addition of the second engine. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 22,960 kg (50,610 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,130 kg (4,690 lb). Thrust: 198.32 kN (44,584 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur stage series -
Centaur V1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Single-engine Centaur for Atlas V. Centaur is powered by either one or two Pratt & Whitney RL10A-4-2 turbopump-fed engines burning liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. For typical, high-energy mission applications, Centaur will be configured with one RL10 engine. Guidance, tank pressurization, and propellant usage controls for both Atlas and Centaur phases are provided by the inertial navigation unit (INU) located on the Centaur forward equipment module. Status: Active. Gross mass: 22,825 kg (50,320 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,026 kg (4,466 lb). Thrust: 99.19 kN (22,300 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaur V2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Dual-engine Centaur for Atlas V. For heavy payload, low earth orbit missions, Centaur will use two RL10 engines to maximize boost phase mission performance. Status: Active. Gross mass: 23,050 kg (50,810 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,250 kg (4,960 lb). Thrust: 198.40 kN (44,602 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Centaure - Two stage sounding rocket. The Belier I II, or III single stage sounding rocket was augmented by a Venus booster with 94 kg of solid propellant. The rocket was spin stabilized by small solid rocket engines on the four fins. Status: Retired 1986. First Launch: 1961-05-27. Last Launch: 1986-03-07. Number: 42 . Gross mass: 457 kg (1,007 lb). Payload: 60 kg (132 lb). Thrust: 44.00 kN (9,891 lbf).
Centaure 1 - French sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1977. First Launch: 1963-06-12. Last Launch: 1977-12-16. Number: 115 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
Centaure 2A - French sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1973. First Launch: 1969-02-26. Last Launch: 1973-07-04. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
Centaure 2B - French sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1981. First Launch: 1967-04-19. Last Launch: 1981-02-12. Number: 65 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Centaure 2B-2 - Alternate name for Belier II engine.
Centaure 2C - French sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1971-07-31. Last Launch: 1975-03-07. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
Centaure 2C-1 - Alternate designation for Venus engine.
Centaure 2C-1 - Alternate name for Venus.
Centenario - Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-12-18. Last Launch: 2013-12-18. Number: 1 .
Centennial - 1U Cubesat by Booz Allen, used as a space surveillance target by the USAF.
Centre d'Essais de la MediterraneeCentre d'Essais de la Mediterranee - Alternate name for Ile du Levant.
Centre d'Essais de Landes - Alternate name for Biscarosse.
Centre d'Essais et de Recherches d'Engins Speciaux - Alternate name for Ile du Levant.
Centre Interarmees d'Essais d'Engins Speciaux - Alternate name for Hammaguira launch site.
Centre National d'etudes des telecommunications - Alternate name for CNET.
Centre Nationale d'Etudes Spatiales, Paris - Alternate name for CNES.
Centre Spatial Guyanais - Alternate name for Kourou launch site.
Centro de Ensayo y Lanzamiento de Proyectiles Autopropulsados Chamical - Alternate name for CELPA.
Centro de Lancamento da Barreira do Inferno - Alternate name for Natal.
Centro Richerchi Aerospaziale, Roma la Sapienza - Alternate name for CRA.
Centrojet - Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Work begun June 1943. Torque to rotate the main shaft of the propellant pumps was developed by the canted engine nozzles themselves at the aft end of the shaft. Abandoned 1945. Date: June 1943. Thrust: 2.25 kN (506 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
CEPE - American satellite. Cylindrical Electrostatic Probe Experiment (orbital experiment attached to Delta second stage) Status: Operational 1970. First Launch: 1970-12-11. Last Launch: 1970-12-11. Number: 1 .
Cepheus - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-16.
CERES - Alternate name for Ile du Levant.
CERISE - Caracterisation de l'Environnement Radioelectrique par un Instrument Spatiale Embarque; examined Earth RF environment. French government research payload incorporated into an advance microsatellite platform. Used the SSTL-70 bus.
Cernan - American test pilot astronaut 1963-1976. Eleventh person to walk on the moon and last person to step off of the moon. Space speed record (11,107 m/s). Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1976. Born: 1934-03-14. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 23.59 days.
Cetus - Alternate name for NOTS 100A.
CEV Andrews - American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. The Andrews Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) design adopted NASA's preferred Apollo CM re-entry vehicle shape, but combined it with a mission module crew cabin to minimize the CEV's mass. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 21,057 kg (46,422 lb).
CEV Andrews MM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV mission module provided a pressurized cabin for use by the crew while in transit from the moon to the earth. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 1,328 kg (2,927 lb).
CEV Andrews OTV - American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV used a standard Orbital Transfer Vehicle for propulsion in low earth orbit or lunar transfer operations. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 10,563 kg (23,287 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,856 kg (6,296 lb).
CEV Andrews RM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV Re-entry Module would be reusable and normally accommodate four crew. Six could be fitted in for the space-station ferry role. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 9,166 kg (20,207 lb).
CEV Boeing - American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Boeing's CEV consisted of a four-crew Apollo-type capsule, a service module, and a pressurized mission module. Status: Study 2012. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,500 kg (23,100 lb).
CEV CM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 2006. Status: Study 2006. Gross mass: 9,506 kg (20,957 lb). Propellants: GOX/Alcohol.
CEV Draper MIT - American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. The Draper-MIT CEV proposal was an 8-metric ton integral ballistic capsule. Status: Study 2012. Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb).
CEV Lockheed - American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. The Crew Exploration Vehicle first proposed by Lockheed was a lifting body with a total mass of 18 metric tons and a crew of four. Status: Study 2012. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
CEV Northrop - American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Northrop Grumman kept its CEV final proposal very secret, citing competitive concerns. Status: Study 2012. Gross mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb).
CEV Orbital - American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Orbital's nominal CEV was an Apollo-derived capsule. The CEV's service module would take the capsule from low earth orbit, to lunar orbit, and back to earth. Status: Study 2012.
CEV Raytheon - American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Raytheon's CEV was a low L/D capsule, designed for three crew, sized so that an existing EELV Heavy could send it towards L1. Status: Study 2012. Gross mass: 7,132 kg (15,723 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,282 kg (9,440 lb). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
CEV SAIC - American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. SAIC's notional CEV was a Soyuz-shaped aeroshell, enclosing a common pressurized module, and accommodating a crew of four. Status: Study 2012. Gross mass: 20,600 kg (45,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,900 kg (30,600 lb). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
CEV Schafer - American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Schafer proposed a lightweight 11 metric ton integral CEV, staged from L1. Status: Study 2012. Gross mass: 11,000 kg (24,000 lb). Thrust: 133.30 kN (29,967 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
CEV SM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 2006. The Service Module of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle provided basic consumables, control systems, and sufficient delta-V for return of the CEV from lunar orbit to the earth. Status: Study 2006. Gross mass: 13,647 kg (30,086 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,380 kg (9,650 lb). Thrust: 66.60 kN (14,972 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LCH4.
CEV Spacehab - American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. The final Spacehab CEV concept was a three-module spacecraft using a slightly enlarged Apollo command module for return of the crew to earth. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 44.10 kN (9,914 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
CEV Spacehab CM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. A 10% enlargement of the Apollo capsule, this re-entry vehicle provided the minimum volume for four crew to make re-entry from lunar distances. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Payload: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Propellants: N2O/C3H8.
CEV Spacehab SHM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Stowage/Habitation Module (SHM) provided generous living space for the crew during cislunar transit. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Propellants: N2O/C3H8.
CEV Spacehab SM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Support Module (SM) could provide 2.3 km/s delta-V, enough for lunar orbit insertion and trans-earth injection. It also was the primary source for electrical power during the mission. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 11,500 kg (25,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 44.10 kN (9,914 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
CEV t/Space - Alternate designation for CXV manned spacecraft.
CF2 - CF2 was a free radical considered as a rocket oxidizer in the 1950's. It proved too unstable for use.
CF2/Hydrazine - CF2/Hydrazine propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this propellant combination. CF2 was a free radical considered as a rocket oxidizer in the 1950's. It proved too unstable for use. Hydrazine (N2H4) found early use as a fuel, but it was quickly replaced by UDMH.
CF2/LH2 - CF2/LH2 propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this propellant combination. CF2 was a free radical considered as a rocket oxidizer in the 1950's. It proved too unstable for use. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks.
CFA - Abbreviation for Center For Astrophysics
CFC - Abbreviation for ChloroFluoroCarbon
CFESat - The Cibola Flight Experiment satellites carried eight new technologies for space flight validation, including a new power supply, inflatable antennas, deployable booms, a new type of separation system. Used the SSTL-150 bus.
CFF - Abbreviation for Columbus Free Flyer
CFHT - Abbreviation for Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope
CFTH-HB - French manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. CFTH-HB, France.
CG - Abbreviation for Center of Gravity
CGM-13A - American intermediate range cruise missile. Gross mass: 8,160 kg (17,980 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 17.75 kN (3,990 lbf).
CGM-13B - Alternate designation for CGM-13B stage.
CGM-13B - American intermediate range cruise missile. Gross mass: 8,160 kg (17,980 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 23.50 kN (5,283 lbf).
CGM-13B stage - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Retired 1971. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
CGM-16C - Alternate designation for Atlas C.
CGM-16E - Alternate designation for Atlas E CGM-16E.
CGM-16F - Alternate designation for Atlas F HGM-16F.
CGP - Alternate name for ODERACS.
CGRO - (Arthur Holley) Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (was GRO)
CGS - Carlo Gavazzi Space, Italy
CGWIC - China Great Wall Industry Corporation
Chaco - Alternate name for Las Palmas.
Chaffee - American pilot astronaut, 1963-1967. Killed in Apollo 1 fire on launch pad. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1967. Born: 1935-02-15. Died: 1967-01-27.
Chai Hongliang - Chinese Pilot. Joined PLA in 1958. He was a PLAAF pilot when selected. Status: Inactive.
Chalet - American military signals intelligence satellite. Geosynchronous orbit signals intelligence satellite series that replaced Canyon. Also called Program 366 and Vortex. Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-06-10. Last Launch: 1989-05-10. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 932 kg (2,054 lb).
Challenger - Alternate designation for STS-51-B.
Challenger - Alternate designation for STS-51-F.
Challenger - Alternate designation for STS-41-G.
Challenger - Alternate designation for STS-51-K.
Challenger - Alternate designation for STS-51-L.
Challenger - Alternate designation for STS-41-C.
Challenger - Alternate designation for STS-7.
Challenger - Alternate designation for STS-41-B.
Challenger - Alternate designation for STS-6.
Challenger - Alternate designation for STS-61-A.
Challenger - Alternate designation for STS-8.
Challenger - American manned spaceplane. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-04-04. Last Launch: 1986-01-28. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 116,670 kg (257,210 lb). Unfuelled mass: 104,258 kg (229,849 lb). Payload: 24,990 kg (55,090 lb). Thrust: 53.37 kN (11,997 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Chamber/single nozzle - Notional LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1963. Before moving to favored plug nozzle designs, Bono at Douglas considered having multiple combustion chambers exhaust into a single large nozzle to obtained Improved Specific Impulse. Status: Study 1963. Thrust: 13,231.00 kN (2,974,447 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Chamberlin - Canadian-American engineer. Lead at Avro for fighters, 1945-1959. Lead positions at NASA, 1959-1970. Conceived modular design for Gemini and pushed its use for lunar mission. At McDonnell-Douglas 1970-1981; headed their shuttle bid. Born: 1915-05-23. Died: 1981-03-08.
Chamitoff - Canadian engineer mission specialist astronaut 1998-2013. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2013. Born: 1962-08-06. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 198.75 days.
CHAMP - German earth magnetosphere satellite. CHAMP was a geophysics research satellite operated by GFZ, Potsdam, to study the earth's magnetic and gravitational field. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-07-15. Last Launch: 2000-07-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 522 kg (1,150 lb).
Champine - American test pilot. Flew the XS-1 # 2. Status: Inactive.
Chana - American engineer. Part of the Atlas management team; worked in customer support and marketing. Born: 1921-04-14. Died: 2012-08-03.
Chandipur - Alternate name for Balasore.
Chandra - American x-ray astronomy satellite. Status: Operational 1999. First Launch: 1999-07-23. Last Launch: 1999-07-23. Number: 1 .
Chandraayan - Indian lunar orbiter. First Indian lunar orbiter. It released the MIP impactor. Status: Operational 2008. First Launch: 2008-10-22. Last Launch: 2008-10-22. Number: 1 .
Chandrayaan - First Indian mission to Mars. Carried 15 kg of instruments, including a color camera, but primary purpose was to test technologies for future planetary missions. Carried 850 kg of propellant for trans-Mars ejection and insertion into Martian orbit on arrival there. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-11-05. Last Launch: 2013-11-05. Number: 1 .
Chang Cheng 1 - Alternate designation for Chang Cheng stage 1.
Chang Cheng 1 - Chinese winged orbital launch vehicle. The Chang Cheng 1 (Great Wall 1) vertical takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage space shuttle was a compromise design created jointly by Shanghai Astronautics Bureau 805 (now the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology) and Institute 604 of the Air Ministry in 1988. An expendable booster, consisting of three of Shanghai's planned liquid oxygen/kerosene modular boosters, would boost the winged second stage shuttle to a high altitude. The engines of the winged shuttle stage would take it to orbit. This approach would allow a first flight to be made in 2008. Status: Design 1988. Gross mass: 330,000 kg (720,000 lb). Payload: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 2,400.00 kN (539,500 lbf).
Chang Cheng stage 1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. All characteristics except dimensions estimated, on assumption that stage used same propulsion systems as Shanghai upper stage. Status: Design 1988. Gross mass: 57,000 kg (125,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb). Thrust: 490.00 kN (110,150 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Chang Zheng - Alternate name for CZ.
Chang Zheng 1 - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. China began development of the CZ-1 (Changzheng-1 = Long March-1) launch vehicle in the second half of 1965. The project was undertaken with the specific objective of launching China's first satellite, the DFH-1. The CZ-l's first and second stages were adapted from those of the DF-3 intermediate range ballistic missile. The third stage used a new-design solid rocket motor. Status: Retired 2002. First Launch: 1969-11-16. Last Launch: 1971-03-03. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 81,310 kg (179,250 lb). Payload: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust: 1,020.00 kN (229,300 lbf).
Chang Zheng 11 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2015-09-25. Last Launch: 2015-09-25. Number: 1 .
Chang Zheng 1C - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Proposed launch vehicle derived from the CZ-1, with a new upper stage. Never flown. Status: Development ended 1988. Gross mass: 85,950 kg (189,480 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Thrust: 1,101.20 kN (247,560 lbf).
Chang Zheng 1D - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Proposed launch vehicle derived from the CZ-1, but with a new N2O4/UDMH second stage. Used for a suborbital re-entry vehicle test but never flown on an orbital mission. Status: Retired 1997. First Launch: 1995-05-29. Last Launch: 1997-11-01. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 79,400 kg (175,000 lb). Payload: 740 kg (1,630 lb). Thrust: 1,101.20 kN (247,560 lbf).
Chang Zheng 1M - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Proposed launch vehicle derived from CZ-1, with an Italian Mage upper stage. Never flown. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 80,930 kg (178,420 lb). Thrust: 1,101.20 kN (247,560 lbf).
Chang Zheng 2 - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-2 was originally designed for launch of the FSW-1 recoverable military reconnaissance satellite. Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1974-11-05. Last Launch: 1974-11-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 190,000 kg (410,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 2,690.00 kN (604,730 lbf).
Chang Zheng 2 Spaceplane Launcher - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Tsien's manned spacecraft design proposed in the late 1970's was a winged spaceplane, launched by a CZ-2 core booster with two large strap-on boosters. It so strongly resembled the cancelled US Dynasoar of 15 years earlier that US intelligence analysts wondered if it wasn't based on declassified Dynasoar technical information. Status: Design 1978. Gross mass: 500,000 kg (1,100,000 lb). Payload: 7,800 kg (17,100 lb). Thrust: 6,000.00 kN (1,348,800 lbf).
Chang Zheng 2A - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2.
Chang Zheng 2C - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-2C was the definitive low earth orbit launch vehicle derived from DF-5 ICBM. It became the basis for an entire family of subsequent Long March vehicles. Many adaptive modifications were made to the configuration of the CZ-2A to handle a variety of new satellites and upper stages. The CZ-2C had improved technical performance and payload capacity compared to the CZ-2A, with later versions having a payload capability of 2,800 kg into a 200 km circular orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 1975-11-26. Last Launch: 2014-11-14. Number: 39 . Gross mass: 192,000 kg (423,000 lb). Payload: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 2,960.00 kN (665,430 lbf).
Chang Zheng 2C-III/SD - On April 28, 1993, the Chinese Great Wall Industrial Corporation and Motorola signed a launch services contract for multiple launch of Iridium communications satellites using CZ-2C/SD launch vehicles. The main differences between the CZ-2C and the CZ-2C/SD were: a modified fairing with a diameter of 3.35m; a newly developed Smart Dispenser; improved second stage fuel and oxidizer tanks; and second stage engines with higher expansion ratio nozzles. Status: Active. First Launch: 1997-09-01. Last Launch: 1999-06-11. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 213,000 kg (469,000 lb). Payload: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Thrust: 2,960.00 kN (665,430 lbf).
Chang Zheng 2D - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 2D was a two-stage launch vehicle with storable propellants, suitable for launching a variety of low earth orbit satellites. Developed and manufactured by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology, the CZ-2D had a typical payload capability of 3,500kg in a 200 km circular orbit. Its first stage was identical to that of the CZ-4. The second stage was essentially the same as that of the CZ-4, except for an improved vehicle equipment bay. Status: Active. First Launch: 1992-08-09. Last Launch: 2015-10-26. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 232,250 kg (512,020 lb). Payload: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 2,926.20 kN (657,836 lbf).
Chang Zheng 2E - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-2E added four liquid rocket booster strap-ons to the basic CZ-2 core to achieve a low earth orbit payload capability approaching the Russian Proton, US Titan, or European Ariane rockets. The Long March 2E had a maximum payload capability of 9,500 kg to low earth orbit. Status: Retired 1995. First Launch: 1990-07-16. Last Launch: 1995-12-28. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 460,000 kg (1,010,000 lb). Payload: 9,200 kg (20,200 lb). Thrust: 5,920.00 kN (1,330,860 lbf).
Chang Zheng 2E(A) - Planned upgrade of CZ-2E with enlarged liquid boosters. Probably intended for launch of Chinese space station modules in the 21st century. Fairing was 5.20 m in diameter and 12.39 m long. Status: Design 2000. Gross mass: 695,000 kg (1,532,000 lb). Payload: 14,100 kg (31,000 lb). Thrust: 8,910.00 kN (2,003,040 lbf).
Chang Zheng 2F - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Man-rated version of CZ-2E, designed for launch of the Shenzhou spacecraft. Little difference externally. Modifications were related to improved redundancy of systems, strengthened upper stage to handle large 921-1 spacecraft fairing and launch escape tower. President Jiang Zemin gave the name 'Shenjian' ('Divine Arrow') to the CZ-2F after the successful launch of the Shenzhou-3 mission. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-11-19. Last Launch: 2013-06-11. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 464,000 kg (1,022,000 lb). Payload: 8,400 kg (18,500 lb). Thrust: 5,920.00 kN (1,330,860 lbf).
Chang Zheng 2FT1 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2011-09-29. Last Launch: 2011-09-29. Number: 1 .
Chang Zheng 3 - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 3 was a three-stage launch vehicle designed for delivery of satellites of 1,500 kg mass into geosynchronous transfer orbit. The first and second stages were based on the CZ-2C, and designed and manufactured by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology. The majority of the technology and flight hardware used in the CZ-3 had been qualified and proven on the CZ-2C. The third stage, manufactured by CALT, was equipped with an LOX/LH2 cryogenic engine. Long March 3 was also capable of placing spacecraft into an elliptical or circular low earth orbit and sun synchronous orbit. Status: Retired 2000. First Launch: 1984-01-29. Last Launch: 2000-06-25. Number: 13 . Gross mass: 204,000 kg (449,000 lb). Payload: 4,800 kg (10,500 lb). Thrust: 2,960.00 kN (665,430 lbf).
Chang Zheng 3A - Chinese three-stage orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 3A, by incorporating the mature technologies of the CZ-3 and adding a more powerful cryogenic third stage and more capable control system, had a greater geosynchronous transfer orbit capability, greater flexibility for attitude control, and better adaptability to a variety of launch missions. Status: Active. First Launch: 1994-02-08. Last Launch: 2014-12-31. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 241,000 kg (531,000 lb). Payload: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Thrust: 2,960.00 kN (665,430 lbf).
Chang Zheng 3B - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3BE.
Chang Zheng 3B - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 3B was the most powerful Long March launch vehicle. It could inject a 5,000 kg payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit. The CZ-3B was developed on the basis of the CZ-3A, but had enlarged propellant tanks, larger fairing, and four boosters strapped onto the core stage. The CZ-3B boosters were identical to those of the CZ-3A. Status: Active. First Launch: 1996-02-14. Last Launch: 2015-11-03. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 425,800 kg (938,700 lb). Payload: 11,200 kg (24,600 lb). Thrust: 2,980.00 kN (669,930 lbf).
Chang Zheng 3B(A) - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. In February 1999 the China Great Wall Company announced it was developing more powerful Long March rockets using larger-size liquid propellant strap-on motors. The Long March 3B(A) would be available in 2002. Status: Design 1999. Gross mass: 580,000 kg (1,270,000 lb). Payload: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Thrust: 8,910.00 kN (2,003,040 lbf).
Chang Zheng 3B/G2 - Version of the Long March 3BE, said to be without the YZ-1 upper stage, used for launches of Beidou into inclined geosynchronous orbit. Status: Active. First Launch: 2015-09-29. Last Launch: 2015-09-29. Number: 1 .
Chang Zheng 3BE - Version of the Long March 3B with lengthened first stage and boosters, increasing geosynchronous payload to 5,500 kg. Status: Active. First Launch: 2007-05-13. Last Launch: 2013-12-20. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 425,800 kg (938,700 lb). Payload: 11,200 kg (24,600 lb). Thrust: 2,980.00 kN (669,930 lbf).
Chang Zheng 3C - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle combining CZ-3B core with two boosters from CZ-2E. The standard fairing was 9.56 m long, 4.0 m in diameter. On August 23, 2001, the CZ-3C launcher passed its critical design review. CZ-3C development had begun in 1995 but was suspended in 1996-2000 due to the 1996 CZ-3B failure. First launch was in 2008. Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-04-25. Last Launch: 2012-10-25. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 345,000 kg (760,000 lb). Payload: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Thrust: 4,440.00 kN (998,150 lbf).
Chang Zheng 3C/G2 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2014-10-23. Last Launch: 2014-10-23. Number: 1 .
Chang Zheng 3C/YZ1 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2015-03-30. Last Launch: 2015-03-30. Number: 1 .
Chang Zheng 4 - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-4 was developed and manufactured by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology. Its first stage was essentially the same as that of the CZ-3 and the second stage was identical to that of the CZ-3. The CZ-4's third stage, however, was a development, featuring a thin wall common intertank bulkhead tankage and two-engine cluster with both engines gimbaling about two perpendicular axes. The third stage engine cluster connected to the tank aft bulkhead through the engine bay. The CZ-4 had two payload fairing configurations: Type-A and Type-B. The CZ-4 was designed for launching satellites into polar and sun-synchronous orbits. Status: Retired 1990. First Launch: 1988-09-06. Last Launch: 1990-09-03. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 249,000 kg (548,000 lb). Payload: 4,680 kg (10,310 lb). Thrust: 2,960.00 kN (665,430 lbf).
Chang Zheng 4B - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-4B introduced in 1999 was an improved model of the CZ-4B with an enhanced third stage and fairing. It measured 44.1 meters in length with a first stage thrust of 300 metric tons. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-05-10. Last Launch: 2015-11-08. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 249,200 kg (549,300 lb). Payload: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Thrust: 2,960.00 kN (665,430 lbf).
Chang Zheng 4C - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-4C, first flown in 2007, had an upgraded second-stage engine that could be restarted in space. The vehicle also had structural rings at the base of the first and second stages, an interstage weather cover, ejected at liftoff, and the larger payload shroud introduced on the CZ-4B. All of these indicated that the vehicle was designed to take larger payloads to higher, more precise orbits than the CZ-4B. Status: Active. First Launch: 2006-04-26. Last Launch: 2015-08-27. Number: 17 . Gross mass: 250,000 kg (550,000 lb). Payload: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Thrust: 2,960.00 kN (665,430 lbf).
Chang Zheng 6 - Status: Active. First Launch: 2015-09-19. Last Launch: 2015-09-19. Number: 1 .
Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type A - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-522/HO.
Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type B - Alternate designation for CZ-5B.
Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type B - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-504/HO.
Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type C - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-540/HO.
Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type D - Alternate designation for CZ-5.
Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type D - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-504.
Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type E - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-522.
Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type F - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-540.
Chang Zheng-1 - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1.
Chang Zheng-1 - Alternate designation for CZ-1.
Chang Zheng-1C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1C.
Chang Zheng-1D - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1D.
Chang Zheng-1D - Alternate designation for CZ-1D.
Chang Zheng-1M - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1M.
Chang Zheng-2A - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2.
Chang Zheng-2C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2C.
Chang Zheng-2C - Alternate designation for CZ-2C.
Chang Zheng-2C/SD - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2C-III/SD.
Chang Zheng-2C/SD - Alternate designation for CZ-2C/SD.
Chang Zheng-2D - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2D.
Chang Zheng-2D - Alternate designation for CZ-2D.
Chang Zheng-2E - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2E.
Chang Zheng-2E - Alternate designation for CZ-2E.
Chang Zheng-2E(A) - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2E(A).
Chang Zheng-2F - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2F.
Chang Zheng-2F - Alternate designation for CZ-2F.
Chang Zheng-3 - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3.
Chang Zheng-3 - Alternate designation for CZ-3.
Chang Zheng-3A - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3A.
Chang Zheng-3A - Alternate designation for CZ-3A.
Chang Zheng-3B - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3BE.
Chang Zheng-3B - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3B.
Chang Zheng-3B - Alternate designation for CZ-3B.
Chang Zheng-3B(E) - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3B(A).
Chang Zheng-3C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3C.
Chang Zheng-4A - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 4.
Chang Zheng-4A - Alternate designation for CZ-4A.
Chang Zheng-4B - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 4B.
Chang Zheng-4B - Alternate designation for CZ-4B.
Chang Zheng-4C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 4C.
Chang Zheng-4C - Alternate designation for CZ-4C.
Chang Zheng-5-2.25 - Alternate designation for CZ-6.
Chang Zheng-5-2.25 - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-200.
Chang-Diaz - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1980-2005. Shared record of seven spaceflights. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-2005. Born: 1950-04-05. Spaceflights: 7 . Total time in space: 66.76 days.
Chang'e - Chinese unmanned lunar orbiter. Originally announced in March 2003 with the first spacecraft to reach the moon by the end of 2005. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-12-01. Last Launch: 2013-12-01. Number: 1 .
Chang'e-5 - Chang'e-5 Flight Test Vehicle, also called the Reentry Return Flight Test Mission. The spacecraft was launched into a 209 km x 413,000 km lunar transfer orbit. The vehicle was a precursor to the planned Chang'e-5 mission and consisted of a satellite bus similar to the Chang'e-2 lunar orbiter, topped with a reentry vehicle, a subscale version of the Shenzhou landing module. The craft made an 8-day flight to loop around the Moon and return to Earth. It passed 11,300 km from the Moon on October 27 and returned to Earth on October 31. The descent capsule separated from the main vehicle at 21:53 GMT and landed north of Hohhot at 22:42 GMT. The service module made a burn at 21:56 GMT to avoid reentry and swung past the Earth to head out towards the Earth-Moon L2 point. Stationed at L2 Lagrangian point. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-10-23. Last Launch: 2014-10-23. Number: 1 .
Chang'e-5 RRFV - Reentry vehicle portion of Chang'e-5. The craft made an 8-day flight to loop around the Moon and return to Earth. The reentry vehicle separated from the main bus at 21:53 GMT and landed north of Hohhot at 22:42 GMT. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-10-23. Last Launch: 2014-10-23. Number: 1 .
Chantilly - American manufacturer. Chantilly, Chantilly, Virginia, USA.
Chapman - Australian scientist astronaut, 1967-1972. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1972. Born: 1935-03-05.
Chappell - American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1992. Born: 1943-06-02.
CHARA - Abbreviation or acronym for Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy
Charge Composition Explorer - Component of AMPTE.
ChargerSat - Cubesat from University of Alabama-Huntsville.
Chariot - Bell exotic LF2/Hydrazine rocket engine. Titan 3 upper stage. Developed 1960's. Engine developed for high-energy replacement of Titan 3 transtage in late 1950's / early 1960's. Not flown due to toxicity of propellants. Status: Developed 1960's. Thrust: 155.90 kN (35,048 lbf). Propellants: LF2/Hydrazine.
Charles - American bureaucrat who developed several disastrous contracting models for the US government. As assistant to NASA Administrator 1963-1965, developed Apollo contracts; as Assistant Secretary USAF 1965-1969, developed C-5 contract models. Born: 1914.
Charlestown - Sounding rocket launch site, used from 1965. One launch in 1991 reached 90 kilometers altitude. First Launch: 1999-11-18. Last Launch: 1999-11-18. Number: 1 .
Charlestown NAS - Alternate name for Charlestown.
Charlie Brown/Snoopy - Alternate name for Apollo 10.
Charyk - Canadian-American engineer. Chief Scientist, USAF, and First Director, NRO, 1961-1963. Founder of geosynchronous communications satellite industry. Headed Comsat as President, CEO, Chairman, 1963-1985. Born: 1920-08-09.
Chavez - American engineer. Atlas missile test supervisor, 1958-1973. Born: 1913-07-27. Died: 2001-07-25.
Chawla - Indian-American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1994-2003. She perished with the rest of the crew of the shuttle Columbia on 1 February 2003. Status: Deceased; Active 1994-2003. Born: 1961-07-01. Died: 2003-02-01. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 31.62 days.
Chayka (Seagull ) - Alternate name for Vostok 6.
Chayka (Seagull) - Alternate designation for Vostok 6.
Chechulin - Russian officer. Director of Nll-4 1951-1955 during early research on satellites. Born: 1906-09-10. Died: 1971-09-16.
Cheget (Tcheget - mountain in the Caucasus) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-14 Salyut 7 EP-5.
Cheli - Italian test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1992-1996. Was married to astronaut Marianne Merchez. Status: Inactive; Active 1992-1996. Born: 1959-05-04. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.74 days.
Chelkar - SP-5 tactical missile site. First Launch: 1958-11-03. Last Launch: 1962-04-12. Number: 32 .
Chelomei - Alternate designation for Chelomei bureau.
Chelomei - Soviet Chief Designer 1955-1984 of OKB-52. Leading designer of cruise missiles and ICBMs. Fought for lead role in space launchers and manned spacecraft. Led work on UR-100, UR-200 ICBM's, Proton LV, Raketoplan, Almaz, TKS manned spacecraft. Born: 1914-06-30. Died: 1984-12-08.
Chelomei bureau - Russian manufacturer of cruise missiles, ballistic missiles, space launch vehicles, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Located in Reutov, Russia.
Chelomei Space Interceptor - Alternate designation for LKS manned spaceplane.
Chemical Release Observation - Alternate designation for CRO military strategic defense satellite.
Chen Dong - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 2010-on. Status: Active 2010-on.
Chen Long - Chinese phantom cosmonaut. Phantom astronaut identified as first Chinese man in space in 2003. Mistranslation of Li Qinglong.
Chen Quan - Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1998-on. Chen was a PLAAF regiment commander when selected. Commanded Shenzhou 7 mission. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1963.
Chengdu Industries - Chinese manufacturer.
Chertok - Pioneering Russian guidance and control engineer, key member of Korolev's design team 1946-1992. Deputy Chief Designer 1956-1992, created Soyuz and N1 LV control systems. His frank biography is a key source for Soviet space history. Born: 1912-03-01. Died: 2011-12-14.
Chertok's Memoirs - Summary of a principal source in Soviet space history
Chiao - American chemical engineer mission specialist astronaut 1990-2005. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2005. Born: 1960-08-28. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 229.36 days.
Chiba - Japanese manufacturer of spacecraft. Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba, Japan.
Chiba Daigaku (Chiba U.) - Alternate name for Chiba.
Chibis - Russian anti-zero-G device, in use from 1971 (Salyut 1) to the ISS era. Status: Operational 1971.
Chibis-M - Released in low earth orbit from Progress M-13M after separation from ISS. Carried plasma wave experiment. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-01-24. Last Launch: 2012-01-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 40 kg (88 lb).
Chick - RO solid rocket engine. Skua 3, INTA-255, Petrel zero stage. Status: Retired 1981. Unfuelled mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Thrust: 60.00 kN (13,488 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Chidlaw - American officer. Deputy, Material Command, 1945-1949; commanded several USAF research and development organizations 1949-1955. Born: 1900-12-18. Died: 1977-02-01.
Chiha-ri - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1991-07-01. Last Launch: 2014-07-12. Number: 3 .
Chilca - Chilca Launch Range. Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1974-03-29. Last Launch: 1983-03-23. Number: 60 .
Chilca PLOB - Chilca PLOB First Launch: 1983-02-27. Last Launch: 1983-03-23. Number: 32 .
Childs - American test pilot. Flew the X-1B. Status: Deceased. Born: 1923-06-17. Died: 2006-01-03.
Chile - Chile
Chilton - American test pilot astronaut 1987-1998. Status: Inactive; Active 1987-1998. Born: 1954-11-03. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 29.35 days.
China - The history of rocket and space development in China.
China Aerospace - China Aerospace Corp.
China ARMT - China ARMT.
China Brazil Earth Resource Satellite - Alternate designation for ZY earth land resources satellite.
China Group - 1996 - Requirement: two trainees to receive intense cosmonaut training in Russia and become instructors for China's astronaut training for the Shenzhou program. Date: 1996.
China Group 1 - 1998 - Requirement: pilot astronauts for the Shenzhou program. Date: 1998.
China Group 2 - 2010 - Requirement: pilot astronauts for the Shenzhou program. Included first female astronauts for the Chines space program. Date: 2010.
China Lake - US Navy aviation ordnance and rocketry development and test center, in operation since 1943 as the Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS) . First Launch: 1957-06-01. Last Launch: 1958-08-28. Number: 11 .
China Lake G-2 - Project Pilot launch complex. Test Stand G-2 First Launch: 1958-07-04. Last Launch: 1958-08-17. Number: 4 .
China Lake RW - Runway, Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake First Launch: 1958-07-25. Last Launch: 1958-08-28. Number: 6 .
China Type E - Alternate designation for Project 921.
ChinaOri - China Orient Telecomms. Satellite Co, Beijing , China
Chinarev - Russian officer. Major General, served 1956-1968 at 4-NII-MO, from 1968-1988 at 50 TsNII KS in ascending positions of responsibility. Conducted basic research that led to the designs and test requirements for a many spacecraft and boosters. Born: 1927.
China's Space Activities - The official short and long range plan for the Chinese Space Program as of November 2000.
Chinasat - Chinese communications satellite operator. English name for the Zhongxing series of Chinese commercial communications satellites using several Chinese and European satellite buses. Also known as Xinnuo, Sinosat.
ChinaSatCom - Chinese agency. ChinaSatCom, China.
Chinastar - Zhongxing and Zhongwei (Chinastar) communications satellites were orbited by China Orient Telecommunications Satellite Company, part of the Chinese telecommunications ministry. A combination of indigenous and foreign satellites are used. Zhongxing 1 to 4 were apparently some of the earlier DFH-2 and DFH-3 satellites (although more than four reached geosynchronous orbit). Zhongxing 5 was the former Spacenet 1.
Chinese ASAT - Chinese military anti-satellite system. Study 2007. On 11 January 2007 a Chinese homing vehicle launched by a ballistic missile from Xichang intercepted and destroyed a Chinese FY-1C satellite at 850 km altitude. Status: Study 2007.
Chinese Cargo Spaceship - Unmanned space station resupply spacecraft being developed to resupply the planned Chinese Space Station, which as of 2011 was not due to be completed until 2020. Status: Design 2011. Gross mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb).
Chinese Lunar Base - Chinese manned lunar base. Study 2025. Beginning in 2000, Chinese scientists began discussing preliminary work on a Chinese manned lunar base. Status: Study 2025. Gross mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb).
Chinese Manned Capsule 1978 - Chinese manned spacecraft. Study 1978. First public announcement of a Chinese manned program came in February, 1978. Status: Study 1978. Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
Chinese Manned Space Program: Behind Closed Doors - Ed Grondine's account of China's 'Long March' to an independent manned space capability.
Chinese Manned Spacecraft - Category of spacecraft.
Chinese RLV - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. By the late 2000 a leading candidate for China's first reusable launch vehicle was a CALT-designed two-stage fully reusable rocket similar to the Kistler K-1. Status: Design 2001. Gross mass: 400,000 kg (880,000 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 4,700.00 kN (1,056,600 lbf).
Chinese Space Laboratory - Chinese manned space station. Study 2012. The latest models displayed of the Chinese Space Laboratory show it to have a larger-diameter module, about 4 m in diameter, and a narrower module forward, about 3 m in diameter. Status: Study 2012. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
Chinese Space Station - In 2009-2011 Chinese authorities announced firm plans to assemble a 60 metric ton, three-module space station by 2010. Status: Design 2010.
Chinese Space Suit - The Shenzhou flight suits were reverse-engineered from the Russia Sokol suit. The suits are designed to protect the astronaut in the event of cabin depressurization, and not for use in extra-vehicular activity. Gross mass: 15 kg (32 lb).
Chinese Supergun - In January 1995 the Chinese army unveiled a 21 m long supergun capable of firing large artillery shells into South Korea and Taiwan. The gun could fire 85 mm shells over a 300 km range. Nothing further was heard of the weapon. Interestingly, China was one of the countries that retained Gerard Bull as a consultant in artillery design in the 1980's. It would seem that the supergun retained its military appeal as a psychological weapon or in anti-satellite applications. Status: Active. Payload: 40 kg (88 lb).
Ching Feng - Taiwanese short range ballistic missile. Status: Active. Gross mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
Chio He AFB - At 2230 hours, 14 December 2004, Taiwan's National Space Organization launched Sounding Rocket-4 from Pingtung's Chio He Base, carrying out secondary orbital scientific experiments. The NSPO was responsible for planning this particular scientific experiment; it commissioned the sounding rocket made by the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology to serve as the carrier. The plan was implemented in cooperation with scientific teams from National Central University and National Cheng Kong University.
CHIPSat - American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. NASA's Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) mission used the CHIPSat bus. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-01-13. Last Launch: 2003-01-13. Number: 1 .
Chirkin - Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1982. Status: Inactive; Active 1979-1982. Born: 1944-07-13.
Chirok - Russian surface-to-air missile. Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Payload: 1.80 kg (3.90 lb). Thrust: 10.39 kN (2,336 lbf).
Chkalov Group 1 - 1987 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1987.
Chkalov Group 2 - 1988 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1988.
Chkalov Group 3 - 1992 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1992.
Chkalov Group 4 - 1993 - Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane Date: 1993.
Chkalov Group 5 - 1995 - Requirement: replace losses in space test pilot group for Buran spaceplane Date: 1995.
Chmielewski - Polish Engineer. Polish engineer for underground defense construction.
Choma - Used the SSTL-150 bus.
Choros - Used the SSTL-150 bus.
Choson - North Korean manufacturer.
Chretien - French test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1980-2001. First French astronaut. Trained for missions under both US and Russian programs. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-2001. Born: 1938-08-20. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 43.47 days.
Christmas Island - Asia Pacific Space Centre Pty Ltd was an Australian company that in 1997 planned to build and operate a commercial satellite launch facility (APSC) on the Australian Territory of Christmas Island. This was one of several schemes in the 1990's to move Russian launch vehicle operations to near-equatorial launch sites. However prior to the launch market collapse, insufficient backing was found to allow the plan to go ahead.
Christmas Island (Pacific) - Alternate name for Kiritimati launch site.
chromosphere - Layer of the solar atmosphere about 14,000 km (8000 naut. ml.) thick, which surrounds the Sun's visible surface (photosphere). It is best observable during an eclipse or other occultation of the solar disc.
Chrysler - American manufacturer of rockets. Chrysler, USA.
Chuang Xin - See CX-1. Chuangxin was China's first experimental small satellite for store-and-forward short message data communications in low Earth orbit.
Chuangxin - Served as target for the Shiyan 7 satellite inspector / robotic arm test vehicle. Used the Ban Xing bus.
Chub - Russian pilot astronaut 2012- . Status: Active 2012-on. Born: 1984-06-10.
ChubuSat - A project of Nagoya and Daido universities. (The name Kinschachi refers to the golden sea-monster statues on Nagoya castle). It carries d 10m resolution, 14 km swath imager, a 130 m resolution, 7-13 micron infrared camera reported to be for atmosphere temperature profiles and space debris monitoring, and an amateur radio relay payload. Sun synchronous orbit; 1055 GMT local time of the descending node. Status: Operational 2014. First Launch: 2014-11-06. Last Launch: 2014-11-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Chukuni Range - Alternate name for Red Lake.
Chung Shan Institute - Taiwanese manufacturer. Chung Shan Institute, Taiwan.
Churchill Research Range - Alternate name for Fort Churchill.
Churkin - Russian engineer. General director and chief designer of the scientific research institute for sensor equipment 1981-1987. Born: 1925.
Chusovaya - Alternate designation for R-14U.
ChuT - Chunghwa Telecom, Taiwan
Chwalczyk - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Shop 55. Born: 1908-05-10.
CIA - American agency. Central Intelligence Agency, USA.
CIA National Intelligence Estimates -
CIA NIE March 1967 - What did the US know about Soviet lunar plans? This annotated version of the CIA's National Intelligence Estimate of March 1967 compares what the CIA expected to happen with what the Soviets expected at the same time...
CIA's National Intelligence Estimate 11-1-67 - Updated version of NIE 11-1-67, obtained by Peter Pesavento, with most earlier redactions removed.
CIA's National Intelligence Estimates - What did the US know about Soviet missile and space plans and when did they know it?
CIEES - Alternate name for Hammaguira launch site.
Ciel - Communications satellite series owned by Ciel Satellite Group, Ottawa and controlled from Saskatoon, Canada. Ciel was at the time using Echostar V (redesignated Ciel-1).
CIFETA - Argentinian manufacturer. CIFETA, Argentina.
Cigli - Base for 15 Jupiter IRBM's, 1962-1963.
CIM-10 - Alternate designation for Bomarc.
CIM-10A - American surface-to-air missile. Also XIM-10, YIM-10. Gross mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Thrust: 89.20 kN (20,053 lbf).
CIM-10B - Alternate designation for CIM-10B stage.
CIM-10B - American surface-to-air missile. CQM-10 drone version Gross mass: 7,260 kg (16,000 lb). Thrust: 222.60 kN (50,042 lbf).
CIM-10B stage - Air/Kerosene rocket stage. Status: Retired 1982. Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
CINEMA - University of California Berkeley magnetospheric experiment Cubesat.
circadian rhythm - A rhythm with a period of about 24 hours, applied especially to the rhythmic repetition of certain phenomena in living organisms at about the same time each day.
CIRRIS - Acronym for Cryogenic InfraRed Radiance Instrument for Shuttle
Cirrus - Cirrus was a two-stage sounding rocket developed by the German Rocket Society in the late 1950's. All launches were made from Cuxhaven, and discontinued when the German government prohibited civilian rocket launches in June 1964.
Cirrus B - Alternate designation for Cirrus II.
Cirrus I - Alternate designation for Cirrus I engine.
Cirrus I - German sounding rocket. Cirrus I could carry meteorological or biological payloads up to a speed of 1000 m/s and an altitude of 35 km. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1961-09-16. Last Launch: 1961-09-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 24 kg (52 lb). Payload: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Thrust: 4.98 kN (1,120 lbf).
Cirrus I engine - DRG solid rocket engine. Cirrus I second stage. Status: Retired 1961. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 5.00 kN (1,124 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Cirrus I-2 - Alternate name for Cirrus I engine.
Cirrus II - Alternate designation for Cirrus II engine.
Cirrus II - German sounding rocket. Cirrus II could carry meteorological or biological payloads to a speed of over 1000 m/s and an altitude of 50 km. The first stage produced 1800 kgf and the second 508 kgf. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1961-09-16. Last Launch: 1961-09-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Payload: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Thrust: 17.60 kN (3,957 lbf).
Cirrus II engine - DRG solid rocket engine. Cirrus II first stage. Status: Retired 1961. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 18.00 kN (4,046 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Cirrus II-1 - Alternate name for Cirrus II engine.
CIT - Abbreviation for Circumstellar Imaging Telescope
CITED - Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas para la Defensa
Civilian comsat store-dump - Category of spacecraft.
Civilian Space Exploration Team (CSXT) - Alternate name for CSXT.
Civilian surveillance radarsat - Category of spacecraft.
Civilian surveillance satellite - Category of spacecraft.
CLA - Alternate name for Alcantara.
Claggett - American phantom cosmonaut. Fictional Apollo 18 mission commander who died on the lunar surface in Michener's novel Space and the resulting television mini-series. Died: 1973-05-06.
Clark - Alternate designation for Clark satellite.
Clark - American physician mission specialist astronaut 1996-2003. Physician. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. Status: Deceased; Active 1996-2003. Born: 1961-03-10. Died: 2003-02-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 15.93 days.
Clark satellite - American earth atmosphere satellite. Cancelled in 1998 when overruns had reached 20% of original price and no end to development was in sight. Status: Cancelled 1998. Duration: 15.93 days.
Clark, John - Pioneering American propellant chemist, worked at the Naval Air Rocket Test Station from 1949-1970, witnessing the major period of development of liquid rocket propellants in the United States. Status: Deceased. Born: 1907-08-15. Died: 1988-07-06.
Clarke - British writer. Leading science fiction writer, also wrote key books popularizing space travel in 1950's and 1960's. Created concept of geosynchronous communications satellite in 1946. Wrote 2001: A Space Odyssey. Born: 1917. Died: 2008-03-19.
Clauser - American aerodynamicist, at Douglas 1937-1946; Johns Hopkins, 1946-1960; Caltech 1969-1980. Coauthored the first US study of an orbital launch vehicle in 1946. Born: 1913-05-25. Died: 2013-03-03.
CLBI - Alternate name for Natal.
Cleansweep - Alternate designation for CleanSweep III.
CleanSweep III - American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle using Shrike missile motor, used for air sampling in association with Lawrence Livermore Laboratory nuclear tests. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1963-01-01. Last Launch: 1964-01-01. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 16.00 kN (3,596 lbf).
Cleansweep IIIB - Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1965-10-20. Last Launch: 1967-05-16. Number: 11 .
CleanSweep IIIB-1 - Alternate name for Mk 39.
Cleave - American ecologist mission specialist astronaut 1980-1990. Engineer. Status: Inactive; Active 1980-1990. Born: 1947-02-05. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 10.92 days.
Clegg - American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut, 1990-1992. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1992. Born: 1946-08-23.
Clementine - American lunar orbiter. Clementine was jointly sponsored by BMDO and NASA as the Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE). Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-01-25. Last Launch: 1994-01-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 424 kg (934 lb).
Clemson - American manufacturer. Clemson University, USA.
Clervoy - French engineer cosmonaut 1985-on. Status: Active 1985-on. Born: 1958-11-19. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 28.13 days.
ClF3 - Chlorine trifluoride was another of the extremely reactive and toxic oxidizers tested in the United States in the late 1950's. As in the other cases, it was found that the handling problems and safety risks outweighed the performance benefits. However methods of storing and using it were developed, and it found application in small Rocketdyne engines for missiles and anti-ballistic missile interceptors in the 1990's.
ClF3/Hydrazine - ClF3/Hydrazine propellant. Chlorine trifluoride was another of the extremely reactive and toxic oxidizers tested in the United States in the late 1950's. This was the highest performance propellant using ClF3. Methods of storing and using it were developed, and it found application in Rocketdyne engines for missiles and anti-ballistic missile interceptors in the 1990's. Hydrazine (N2H4) produced better specific impulse when used with ClF3 than the UDMH fuel commonly used in other applications.
ClF3/Hydyne - ClF3/Hydyne propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this propellant combination; chlorine trifluoride had better performance using hydrazine fuel. Hydyne was a propellant blend pushed rather vigorously by the Redstone arsenal in the late 1950's, but it found little application.
ClF3/Kerosene - ClF3/Kerosene propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this propellant combination; chlorine trifluoride had better performance using hydrazine fuel. Rocket propellant kerosene RP-1 was a straight-run kerosene fraction.
ClF3/UDMH - ClF3/UDMH propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this propellant combination. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. However hydrazine provided better performance when used with chlorine trifluoride.
Cliff - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-18.
Clifford - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1990-1997. US Army Status: Inactive; Active 1990-1997. Born: 1952-10-13. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 27.77 days.
Clinton - American Politician. William J. Clinton became president of the United States in 1993. Previously he served as governor and attorney general of Arkansas. Born: 1946-08-19.
CLIO - Classified satellite in an unusual high-perigee geostationary transfer orbit, possibly around 11,800 x 36,000 km, after an initial 174 km x 28,860 km x 28 deg orbit. CLIO's owner was possibly the NRO. Believed to have used the AS 2100 bus.
Clipper - Alternate designation for Kliper manned spaceplane.
Clipper Graham - Alternate designation for DC-X.
ClO3F - Perchloryl fluoride was another of the extremely reactive and toxic oxidizers tested in the United States in the late 1950's. As in the other cases, it was found that the handling problems and safety risks outweighed the performance benefits.
ClO3F/Hydrazine - ClO3F/Hydrazine propellant. Perchloryl fluoride was another of the extremely reactive and toxic oxidizers tested in the United States in the late 1950's. this was the highest performance propellant using ClO3F. Hydrazine (N2H4) produced better specific impulse when used with ClF3 than the UDMH fuel commonly used in other applications.
ClO3F/Hydyne - ClO3F/Hydyne propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this propellant combination; perchloryl fluoride had better performance using hydrazine fuel. Hydyne was a propellant blend pushed rather vigorously by the Redstone arsenal in the late 1950's, but it found little application.
ClO3F/Kerosene - ClO3F/Kerosene propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this propellant combination; perchloryl fluoride had better performance using hydrazine fuel. Rocket propellant RP-1, or its foreign equivalents, is a straight-run kerosene fraction.
ClO3F/MMH - ClO3F/MMH propellant. No engines reached the operational stage using this propellant combination; perchloryl fluoride had better performance using hydrazine fuel. Monomethylhydrazine (CH3NHNH2) is a storable liquid fuel that found favor in the United States for use in orbital spacecraft engines. Its advantages in comparison to UDMH are higher density and slightly higher performance.
ClO3F/UDMH - ClO3F/UDMH propellant.No engines reached the operational stage using this propellant combination; perchloryl fluoride had better performance using hydrazine fuel. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital maneuvering engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. No engines reached the operational stage using this propellant combination.
Cloud cover satellite - Alternate name for Vanguard 2.
Cloudsat - American earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.04.28. Status: Operational 2006. Gross mass: 848 kg (1,869 lb).
Cluster - European earth magnetosphere satellite. The Cluster satellites were a series of sophisticated earth-observation platforms that were to be launched aboard the first Ariane 5. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-06-04. Last Launch: 1996-06-04. Number: 4 .
Cluster 2 - European earth magnetosphere satellite. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-03-20. Last Launch: 2000-08-09. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Unfuelled mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Payload: 71 kg (156 lb).
Cluster II - Alternate designation for Cluster 2 earth magnetosphere satellite.
CLV - Alternate designation for Ares I-X.
CLV Stage 2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Second stage originally proposed by Thiokol for launch of the CEV into low earth orbit. Also could be used as trans-Mars injection stage on the Cargo LV. Nominal single engine; alternatively 7 RL10-derived engines. All masses estimated. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 160,000 kg (350,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Thrust: 2,333.00 kN (524,479 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
CM - Command Module (Apollo spacecraft)
CM Lunar Shelter - Alternate designation for Apollo CMLS manned lunar habitat.
CMBR - Abbreviation for Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
CMC - Abbreviation for Command Module Computer
CMCC - Central Mission Control Centre (ESA)
CMG - Abbreviation for Control Moment Gyro
CMIK - North Korean manufacturer of rocket engines. Korea North, Korea North.
CNES - French agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Paris, France.
CNES Group - 1985 - Requirement: French astronauts for spaceflights to Mir space station. Date: 1985.
CNES Group 1 - 1985 - Requirement: French astronauts for spaceflights to Mir space station, Date: 1985.
CNES Group 2 - 1990 - Requirement: French astronauts for spaceflights aboard Hermes spaceplane and to Mir and US space stations. Date: 1990.
CNES Shuttle 1963 - French studies in the 1960's were supervised by the French Space Agency, CNES, and developed along two paths. Path 1 was a manned hypersonic booster stage, with upper stages coming in manned or unmanned variants according to the mission. Path 2 was more conservative, with either the Path 1 booster or an expendable booster launching a small re-entry vehicle - a 'Space Taxi'. Status: Study 1963.
CNET - French agency. Centre de R&D de France Télécom, France.
CNIE - Comision Nacional de Investigationes Espaciales (National Space Research Commission), Fuerza Aera, Argentina.
CNIE National Commission for Space Research (1961) - Third name of CONAE.
CNO - Abbreviation for Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen
CNR - Italian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. CNR, Italy.
CNSA - Chinese agency overseeing development of spacecraft. China National Space Agency, China.
CNSR - Abbreviation for Comet Nucleus Sample Return
CO+Air+N2+C2H5OH - Mix of propellants to be heated by a gas dynamic laser in one Russian prototype.
COAS - Abbreviation for Crewman Optical Alignment Sight
Coats - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1991. Flew 315 combat missions in Vietnam. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1991. Born: 1946-01-16. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 19.33 days.
Co-axial turboramjet - Notional LH2-fuelled ramjet engine. Study 1985. Used on Sanger II launch vehicle. Status: Study 1985. Thrust: 250.00 kN (56,200 lbf). Propellants: Air/LH2.
Cobb - American pilot, holder of four aviation records, one of the Mercury 13 female astronauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. Status: Inactive. Born: 1931-03-05.
COBE - American infrared astronomy satellite. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-11-18. Last Launch: 1989-11-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,265 kg (4,993 lb).
Cobra - Pratt and Whitney LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design 2003. Proposed as a long-life, moderate-to high-thrust, reusable booster engine that incorporated a safe, low-cost, low-risk, LH2/LOX single burner, using a fuel-rich, staged combustion cycle. Status: Design 2003. Date: 2003. Unfuelled mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Thrust: 4,500.00 kN (1,011,600 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Cobra-BTV - American test vehicle, part of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program that led to the operational Talos ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile in the 1950's. Status: Cancelled 1946.
Cockatoo - The Cockatoo solid-propellant sounding rocket replaced HAD at Woomera in 1970, and consisted of a British Gosling I first stage and an Australian Lupus 1 second stage. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1970-04-16. Last Launch: 1976-05-27. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb).
Cockatoo Mk 4 - Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1973-08-14. Last Launch: 1975-04-28. Number: 6 .
Cockatoo-1 - Alternate name for Gosling.
Cockrell - American test pilot astronaut 1990-2006. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2006. Born: 1950-04-09. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 64.52 days.
coffin-launched - Category of missiles.
Cohen - American engineer, at NASA 1962-1992. Played important role in Apollo program, and later directed development of space shuttle orbiter from design to initial flight test.
Cold Gas Thruster Module - Parke. In Production.Designed to provide triaxial attitude control for small launch vehicles. The module comprised three cold gas thrusters operated by integral independent solenoid valves. Status: In Production. Unfuelled mass: 0.0860 kg (0.1890 lb). Thrust: 111 N (25 lbf). Propellants: Nitrogen gas.
Cold Lake - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1990-01-16. Last Launch: 1990-03-16. Number: 18 .
Cold Lake Air Weapons Range - Alternate name for Cold Lake.
Cole - American manufacturer of rockets. Cole, USA.
Coleman - American manufacturer of rockets. Coleman, USA. Number: 3 . Duration: 20.86 days.
Coleman Research Corporation - Alternate name for Cole.
Coleman, Catherine - American materials scientist mission specialist astronaut 1992-on. US Air Force engineer. Status: Inactive; active 1992-2015. Born: 1960-12-14. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 180.17 days.
Collection - Families of spacecraft, launch vehicles, missiles, by type or category.
Collins - American test pilot astronaut 1963-1970. First space walk from one spacecraft to another. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1970. Born: 1930-10-31. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 11.09 days.
Collins, Duncan - American engineer, son of a Pasadena street railway conductor, became head of Structural Design for the Atlas missile, who translated Charlie Bossart's weight-saving ideas and aims into practical and producible hardware designs. Born: 1902-07-22. Died: 1987-10-22.
Collins, Eileen - American test pilot astronaut 1990-2006. US Air Force test pilot, first female shuttle pilot and first female spacecraft commander. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2006. Born: 1956-11-19. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 36.34 days.
Colombia - Colombia
Colorado - American manufacturer of spacecraft. University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Colorado State - Colorado State.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-83.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-80.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-87.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-107.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-1.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-9.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-90.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-93.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-94.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-78.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-40.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-50.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-35.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-51-H.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-52.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-2.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-109.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-75.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-4.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-58.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-62.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-32.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-65.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-3.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-28.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-61-C.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-55.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-5.
Columbia - Alternate designation for STS-73.
Columbia - American manned spaceplane. Columbia, the first orbiter in the Shuttle fleet, was named after the sloop that accomplished the first American circumnavigation of the globe. Status: Operational 1981. First Launch: 1981-04-12. Last Launch: 2003-01-16. Number: 28 . Gross mass: 115,900 kg (255,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 103,488 kg (228,151 lb). Payload: 21,190 kg (46,710 lb). Thrust: 53.37 kN (11,997 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Columbia/Eagle - Alternate name for Apollo 11.
Columbiad - Canadian manufacturer of rockets. Columbiad, Canada.
Columbus Attached Pressurized Module - European manned space station module. Study 1985. The European Space Agency formally joined the American Space Station project in May 1985, but the negotiations between ESA and NASA were often difficult. Status: Study 1985.
Columbus Man-Tended Free Flyer - MTFF - European manned space station. Study 1986. In April 1986, Italy's Aeritalia finally proposed that the European Space Agency build a second free-flying pressurized module to be used with the Space Station. Status: Study 1986.
Columbus Space Station - European manned space station. Study 1984. The European Space Agency Columbus module began as an independent European space station but would up as an unflown module of the International Space Station. Status: Study 1984.
Combat spacecraft - Category of spacecraft.
Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite. - Alternate designation for CRRES earth magnetosphere satellite.
Combo Lander Mission - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. During the spring of 1998, NASA conducted a special study to design a human Mars mission that could be accommodated for launch by three heavy-lift launch vehicles. Status: Study 1998.
Comet - Category of spacecraft.
Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby - Alternate designation for CRAF comet probe.
COMETS - Alternate name for Kakehashi, called Communications and Broadcasting Experimental Test Satellite (COMETS) before launch.
Comiso - US base in the 1980's for 37 BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.
Comite' d'Action Scientifique de Defense Nationale - Alternate name for CASDN.
Command Control Pressure Suit - American space suit. This 1990 concept placed the avionics required for landing open-cockpit lunar landers or operating rovers or other spacecraft within the suit itself. Status: Design 1990.
Command Module - Alternate designation for Apollo CM manned spacecraft module.
Command Service Module - Alternate designation for Apollo CSM Block I.
Command Service Module - Alternate designation for Apollo CSM manned lunar orbiter.
Commercial Group - 1993 - Requirement: ESA astronauts for flights to the Mir space station. Date: 1993.
Commercial Titan 3 - American orbital launch vehicle. Commercial version of Titan 34D military booster. It differed in having a lengthened second stage and a 4 m diameter payload shroud to handle shuttle-class or Ariane-type dual payloads. Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1990-01-01. Last Launch: 1992-09-25. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 680,000 kg (1,490,000 lb). Payload: 14,515 kg (32,000 lb). Thrust: 12,450.00 kN (2,798,870 lbf).
Commissione per le Richerche Spaziali (CRS) - Alternate name for CRS.
Common - Common.
Communications - Category of spacecraft.
Communications technology sat - Category of spacecraft.
Communications Technology Satellite - Alternate designation for CTS communications satellite.
Compass - German technology satellite. One launch, 2008.04.28. Fachhochschule Aachen nanosat. Status: Operational 2008.
Composite Engineering - American manufacturer. Composite Engineering, USA.
COMPTEL - COMPton TELescope (on CGRO)
Compton - Alternate name for GRO. Renamed Compton Gamma Ray Observatory after launch.
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory - Alternate designation for GRO gamma ray astronomy satellite.
Coms - Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite. Weather, oceanography, and communications payloads. Used the Eurostar 3000 bus.
Comsat - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Comsat, USA.
COMSATBw -
Comstar - Series of communications satellites built for Comsat.
CONAE - Argentinian agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
CONAE (1991) - Fourth name of CONAE.
CONAE Centro Espacial Teofilo Tabanera - Alternate name for CONAE.
Concept ICBM - American orbital launch vehicle. The January 1951 design for the Atlas used seven main engines plus two vernier engines to hurl the 3600 kg nuclear warhead over a 9300 km range. CEP was optimistically estimated as 460 m. Status: Concept 1951. Payload: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Thrust: 1,710.00 kN (384,420 lbf).
Concord High School - Concord High School.
Conditions of Use for Material from this Site - Obtaining permission for use of materials from astronautix.com
Condor - Argentinian intermediate range ballistic missile family, canceled under US pressure in 1991. Status: Cancelled 1991.
Condor 1 - Argentinian short range ballistic missile. Payload: 400 kg (880 lb).
Condor 2 - Argentinian intermediate range ballistic missile. Gross mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Conestoga - American low cost orbital launch vehicle, designed and developed with support of former astronaut Deke Slayton and other ex-NASA engineers in the 1990's. Funding was not forthcoming to complete development. Status: Retired 1995.
Conestoga 1620 - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Castor 4B + 2 x Castor 4B + 1 x Castor 4B + 1 x Star 48V Status: Retired 1995. First Launch: 1995-10-23. Last Launch: 1995-10-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 87,400 kg (192,600 lb). Payload: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 1,580.00 kN (355,190 lbf).
Conference Europeene de Construct. de Lanceurs et d'Engins Spatiaux - Alternate name for ELDO.
Congo - Congo
Congreve - British engineer. Artillery officer and inventor who greatly advanced the development of black powder rockets for military purposes. His rockets were commonly used in the British Army in the first half of the 19th Century. Born: 1772. Died: 1828-01-01.
Conlon - American engineer. Directed development of the D-558 transonic research aircraft for the Navy. Later Chair of the Aeronautical Engineering Department at Michigan, holding several USAF and NASA management positions on leaves of absence. Born: 1905-12-05. Died: 1996-10-21.
Conrad - American test pilot astronaut 1962-1974. Third person on the moon. Only astronaut to fly Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab. Commander of first successful space station mission. Status: Deceased; Active 1962-1974. Born: 1930-06-02. Died: 1999-07-09. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 49.15 days.
Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche - Alternate name for CNR.
Consolidated BQ-8.htm - Alternate designation for BQ-8.
Consolidated Vultee Aircraft (1943-1953) - First name of Convair.
Constan - German-American NASA Engineer; as of November 1960 working for Von Braun as Chief, Technical Program Coordination Office at NASA Huntsville.
Construcciones Aeronauticas S.A. (CASA) Espacio - Alternate name for CASA.
Contact - Contact the Encyclopedia Astronautica
Contacting Astronauts and Cosmonauts - Leads on getting in touch with astronauts.
Contel - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Contel, USA.
Continental RPVs - American manufacturer. Continental RPVs, USA.
Contour - American Comet Nucleus Tour (CONTOUR) probe. The solid rocket motor that was to boost the spacecraft into solar orbit failed. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-07-03. Last Launch: 2002-07-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 970 kg (2,130 lb). Unfuelled mass: 497 kg (1,095 lb). Thrust: 26.77 kN (6,018 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Contracted Atlas - American orbital launch vehicle. The 1954 design for the Atlas as contracted for by the Air Force used three main engines to power a 110 metric ton rocket able to send a 1400 kg nuclear warhead over a 10,200 km range. CEP was 3700 m. The missile actually delivered six years later would have the same dimensions and launch mass, but 63% more range and four times better accuracy. Status: Design 1954. Gross mass: 109,000 kg (240,000 lb). Payload: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Thrust: 725.00 kN (162,986 lbf).
control moment gyroscope - A large and heavy gyroscope suspended by a two axis gimbal system. The outer gimbal axis is connected with the spacecraft through a torque motor, the inner axis is free to precess. By energizing the torque motor the spacecraft attitude can be controlled.
Convair - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Convair, USA.
Convair Project 7969 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Convair's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project involved a large-scale manned space station. When pressed, they indicated that a minimum vehicle - a 450 kg, 1. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 450 kg (990 lb).
Convair Shuttlecraft - American manned spaceplane. Study 1962. Convair concept for a winged shuttle vehicle, early 1960's. Status: Study 1962.
convection - Mass motions with a fluid (liquid or gas) resulting in transport and mixing of the components of that fluid. Thermal convection results from temperature differences within the fluid.
Conventional Air-Launched Cruise Missile - Alternate designation for AGM-86C.
Conventional ASAT - American military anti-satellite system. Study 1978. In May 1978, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff issued a priority list of potential Soviet target satellites for the MHV hit-to-kill ASAT then under development. Status: Study 1978.
Cook - American bureaucrat. Held management positions in the 1970's and 1980's in the Offices of the Secretary of the Air Force and Defense; ARPA; CIA; and industry.
Cook Islands - Cook Islands
Cooper - Alternate designation for Cooper Development.
Cooper - American test pilot astronaut 1959-1970. First American to spend over a day in space. High spirited, and reportedly denied an Apollo assignment. Status: Deceased; Active 1959-1970. Born: 1927-03-06. Died: 2004-10-04. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 9.38 days.
Cooper Development - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Cooper Development Company, USA. Number: 2 . Duration: 9.38 days.
Cooper, George - American test pilot. Flew the X-4 # 2. Status: Inactive.
Copernicus - Polish scientist. Developed and popularized the theory that the earth revolved around the sun. Born: 1473. Died: 1543-01-01.
COPPER - Cubesat from Saint Louis University, Missouri.
Copper Canyon - American winged orbital launch vehicle. DARPA program of 1984 that proved the technologies and concept for the X-30 National Aerospace Plane concept. Status: Cancelled 1984.
Copper Canyon Phase 2 - Alternate designation for X-30.
COPUOS - Acronym for United Nations Space Cooperation body
Cora - European orbital launch vehicle. Cora was an experimental rocket to test the second and third stages of the Europa launch vehicle. Status: Retired 1967. First Launch: 1966-11-27. Last Launch: 1967-10-25. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 16,500 kg (36,300 lb). Thrust: 220.00 kN (49,450 lbf).
Coralie - Alternate designation for Europa-2 rocket stage.
Cordite N - Propellant used in the guns used to fire the Martlet gun-launched space vehicles.
Cordoba - Argentinian manufacturer of spacecraft. Instituto Universitario Aeronautico de Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina.
Corella - Australian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Gosling + 1 x Dorado Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1975-12-04. Last Launch: 1976-04-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb).
Coriolis - American earth sea satellite. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-01-06. Last Launch: 2003-01-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 828 kg (1,825 lb).
Corn Ranch - Alternate name for Blue Origin.
Cornell - American manufacturer. Cornell, USA.
corona - The tenuous envelope of the Sun, beginning about 14,000 km (8000 naut. mi. ) above the solar surface and extending many millions of kilometers into space. The corona is visible only when the solar disc is occulted.
Corona - Code name for KH-1 military surveillance satellite.
Coronie - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1965-09-18. Last Launch: 1965-09-27. Number: 4 .
Corot - French visible astronomy satellite. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-12-27. Last Launch: 2006-12-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 630 kg (1,380 lb). Payload: 300 kg (660 lb).
Corporal - Alternate designation for MGM-5A.
Corporal - American short range liquid-propellant ballistic missile. The first American operational guided missile, deployed 1954-1964. Replaced by the Sergeant solid-propellant missile. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1951-12-06. Last Launch: 1965-11-01. Number: 444 . Gross mass: 5,440 kg (11,990 lb). Payload: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Thrust: 89.20 kN (20,053 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Corporal - Alternate designation for MGM-5B.
Corporal E - American short range ballistic missile. Experimental version of Corporal Missile. Nitric acid/Aniline-Furfuyrl alcohol propellants. Status: Retired 1951. First Launch: 1947-05-22. Last Launch: 1951-10-10. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 89.00 kN (20,007 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/Amine.
Corporal Type 1 - American short range ballistic missile. First prototype of Corporal missile. Gross mass: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb). Thrust: 89.00 kN (20,007 lbf).
Corporal Type 2 - American short range ballistic missile. Second prototype of Corporal Missile
Corsa - Soft X-ray telescope. Launching organization: Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. Function: Observation of X-ray radiation of celestial bodies with good time resolution over a wide spectrum range. Used SS bus.
Corsa A - Japanese technology satellite. Japanese technology satellite. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-02-04. Last Launch: 1976-02-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 92 kg (202 lb).
Corson - American bureaucrat. Management at McKinsey 1951-1966. Conducted several studies on NASA-JPL relations. Born: December 1905. Died: 1990-09-02.
COS - European technology satellite. CERS/ESRO satellite, first European Space Agency satellite. Studied extraterrestrial gamma radiation in the 25 MeV to 1 GeV energy range. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-08-09. Last Launch: 1975-08-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 280 kg (610 lb).
Cosmic Background Explorer - Alternate designation for COBE infrared astronomy satellite.
Cosmic ray astronomy satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Cosmonaut - Persons who have been trained for spaceflight in Russia.
Cosmopolis 21 - Russian manned spaceplane. Mock-up unveiled in 2002. On 15 March 2002 Space Adventures unveiled the mock-up of their C-21 (Cosmopolis 21) spaceplane at Zhukovskiy Air Base, Moscow. Status: Mock-up 2002. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Cosmos - Cover name for a variety of Soviet and Russian military satellites.
Cosmos 1100 - Planned manned single-orbit flight aboard the TKS space capsule during a series of two-TKS-launched-by-one-Proton flight tests. Flown unmanned due to inability to demonstrate two consecutive failure-free launches. Launched: 1979-05-23. Number crew: 3 .
Cosmos 997 - Planned manned single-orbit flight aboard the TKS space capsule during a series of two-TKS-launched-by-one-Proton flight tests. Flown unmanned due to inability to demonstrate two consecutive failure-free launches. Launched: 1978-03-30. Number crew: 3 .
Cosmos Mariner - American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Lone Star Space Access, Houston, Texas. Status: Study 2004. Thrust: 1,200.30 kN (269,838 lbf).
Cosmo-SkyMed - Italian military surveillance radar satellite. Constellation of four satellites launched 2007.06.08 - 2010.11.06. Status: Operational 2007. First Launch: 2007-06-08. Last Launch: 2010-11-06. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
COSPAS-SARSAT - United Nations cooperative program for satellite detection of emergency beacons on earth.
Cost, Price, and the Whole Darn Thing - Why the cost of a space launch vehicle has little if any relation to the launch price.
Costa Rica - Costa Rica
COSTAR - Acronym for Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement
Country - Space-related persons, organizations, launch sites, hardware - by country.
Courier - American communications technology satellite. Experimental communications. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-08-18. Last Launch: 1960-10-04. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 227 kg (500 lb).
Covert Space Denial - Alternate designation for Apollo LM CSD manned combat spacecraft.
Covey - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1994. Grew up in Fort Walton Beach, Florida, son of an Air Force officer. Flew 339 combat missions during two tours in Southeast Asia Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1994. Born: 1946-08-01. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 26.88 days.
Coyote - American sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 2004-05-18. Last Launch: 2005-04-22. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
CP - California Polytechnic University Cubesat, the backup for CP2 lost in a Dnepr launch failure in 2006.
CPAC - American burial satellite. Celestis. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-04-21. Last Launch: 1997-04-21. Number: 1 .
CPAC/Orion 38 - Manufacturer's designation for Celestis burial satellite.
CPMIEC - Chinese manufacturer. CPMIEC, China.
CPRU - Alternate designation for Otrag CPRU rocket stage.
CPSU - Abbreviation for Communist Party of the Soviet Union
CR - Contractor report
CRA - Italian agency. Centro Ricerche Aerospaziali, Italy.
CRAF - American comet probe. Cancelled in the early 1990s. The CRAF spacecraft (Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby) was to have rendezvoused with the Comet Kopff and flown alongside the comet for at least three years. Status: Cancelled 1993. Gross mass: 6,360 kg (14,020 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,060 kg (4,540 lb). Payload: 290 kg (630 lb).
Craigie - American test pilot. First American to fly a jet aircraft, the XP-59. After WW2 he directed Air Force research and development programs. USAF deputy chief of staff for development, 1951-1954. Retired 1955 after a heart attack. Born: 1902-01-26. Died: 1994-02-27.
crawler - A large tracked vehicle also called Transporter. It is similar to machines used in strip mining operations. The vehicle moves on four double tracks and transports the Saturn V with the Skylab and mobile launcher, and also the Saturn lB, from the Vertical Assembly Building to the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center.
CRB - Abbreviation for Capsule Review Board
CRCSS - Australian manufacturer of spacecraft. Cooperative Research Centre for Satellite Systems, Australia.
Creamer - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1998-2011. Status: Inactive; Active 1998-2011. Born: 1959-11-15. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 163.23 days.
Creighton - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1992. Grew up in Seattle, Washington. Flew 175 combat missions in Vietnam. Bachelor navy fighter pilot with a midnight blue corvette and a ski boat dubbed Sin Ship. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1992. Born: 1943-04-28. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 16.85 days.
Crew Exploration Vehicle - Alternate designation for CEV Lockheed.
Crew Exploration Vehicle - Alternate designation for CEV Northrop.
Crew Exploration Vehicle - Alternate designation for CEV Draper MIT.
Crew Exploration Vehicle - Alternate designation for Orion CEV.
Crew Exploration Vehicle - Alternate designation for CEV manned spacecraft.
Crew Lander Reference Version 1 - American manned Mars lander. Study 1993. The first version of the NASA Crew Lander for the design reference mission would land the crew and a Mars surface habitat on the surface near the previously-landed cargo lander. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 208,180 kg (458,950 lb).
Crew Lander Reference Version 3 - American manned Mars lander. Study 1996. The second version of the NASA Crew Lander for the design reference mission would land the crew and a Mars surface habitat on the surface near the previously-landed cargo lander. Status: Study 1996. Gross mass: 137,406 kg (302,928 lb).
Crew Launch Vehicle - Alternate designation for Ares I-X.
Crew Module - Alternate designation for CEV CM manned spacecraft module.
Crew Transfer Vehicle - Alternate designation for CTV CM.
Crew Transfer Vehicle - Alternate designation for CXV.
Crew Transfer Vehicle - Alternate designation for CTV manned spacecraft.
Crews - American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1969. Born: 1929-03-23.
CRI - Danish manufacturer of spacecraft. Computer Resources International, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Crippen - American pilot astronaut 1966-1991. Member of first crew to fly a winged spacecraft to orbit and back. Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1991. Born: 1937-09-11. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 23.57 days.
CRISP - Abbreviation or acronym for Cosmic Ray Ionization Program
Cristoforetti - Italian pilot mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1977-04-26.
CRL - Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories
CRL - Alternate name for GRS.
CRNE - Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-07-29. Last Launch: 1985-07-29. Number: 1 .
CRO - American military strategic defense satellite. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-04-28. Last Launch: 1991-04-28. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 197 kg (434 lb).
Crocco Mars Flyby - Italian manned Mars concept. Study 1956. Gaetano Crocco proposed trajectories for a Mars flyby required half the energy, one third the time, and only a single rocket burn, compared to the traditional Hohmann approach. Status: Study 1956.
Crombie - American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1988. Born: 1954-02-27.
Crooks - American engineer. Inventor of the Atlas radio guidance system and the Azusa and Glotrac launch vehicle tracking systems. Born: 1921-02-11. Died: 1983-09-12.
Crosby - American Test Pilot. Northrop Test Pilot
Crossbow - American air-to-surface missile, development started in 1953. Program cancelled in 1957. Status: Cancelled 1958. Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb). Thrust: 4.41 kN (991 lbf).
Crossfield - American test pilot, 1950-1960. First man to reach Mach 2; first Hispanic test pilot. Status: Deceased; Active 1958-1960. Born: 1921-10-02. Died: 2006-04-19.
Crouch - American physicist payload specialist astronaut 1989-1997. Status: Inactive; Active 1989-1997. Born: 1940-09-12. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 19.67 days.
Crowley - American engineer. Worked at Langley from 1921. NASA director of research from 1945 to 1959. Born: 1899-05-24. Died: 1974-07-01.
CRRES - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite. Chemical release experiment. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-07-25. Last Launch: 1990-07-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,629 kg (3,591 lb).
CRS - Italian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Commissione Ricerche Spaziali, Italy.
CRT - Cathode ray tube (video monitor)
Crusader X - American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Micro-Space, Inc of Denver, Colorado. Status: Study 2004.
Cryogenic Upper Stage - Alternate designation for Energia EUS rocket stage.
CryoSat - European earth resources radar satellite. CryoSat carried a radar altimeter to acquire accurate measurements of the thickness of floating sea ice so that annual variations could be detected. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-10-08. Last Launch: 2010-04-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 669 kg (1,474 lb). Unfuelled mass: 633 kg (1,395 lb).
Crystal - Code name for KH-11 military surveillance satellite.
CS - Alternate designation for CS (abbreviation).
CS - Medium-capacity Communications Satellite for Experimental Purposes, a spin stabilized geostationary communications satellite.
CS (abbreviation) - Abbreviation for Crew Station
CS-1 - Japanese communications satellite. Sakura. This Medium-capacity Communications Satellite for Experimental Purposes was a spin stabilized geostationary communications satellite. Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-12-15. Last Launch: 1977-12-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 676 kg (1,490 lb).
CS-2 - Japanese communications satellite. Business communications. Launching organization NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan). Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-02-04. Last Launch: 1983-08-05. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 720 kg (1,580 lb).
CS-3 - Japanese communications satellite. To continue communications services provided by the communications satellite 2 (CS-2). To meet increasing and diversifying demands for communications. Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-02-19. Last Launch: 1988-09-16. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
CSA - Canadian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Canadian Space Agency, Canada.
CSAGI - Special Committee for the International Geophysical Year (Russian abbreviation)
CSAT - Abbreviation for Combined systems acceptance test
CSC - CSC.
CSD - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Chemical Systems Division, USA.
CSG - Alternate name for Kourou.
CSICE - Cabinet Satellite Intelligence Center.
CSIST - Taiwanese manufacturer. CSIST, Taiwan.
CSL-1 - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1.
CSL-1 - Alternate designation for CZ-1.
CSL-2 - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2.
CSL-3 - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3.
CSL-3 - Alternate designation for CZ-3.
CSM - Command and Service Module (Apollo spacecraft)
CSM Block I - CSM Block I Development Diary - In 1964 it was decided to build Apollo spacecraft in two 'blocks'. Block I spacecraft, designated by serial numbers below '100', would carry no rendezvous and docking equipment and would be used for earth-orbital missions only. Delays in the project and the death of astronauts in the on-pad fire of Block I CSM 012 resulted in no manned Block I mission ever being flown.
CSM Block II - CSM Block II Development Diary - Apollo Block II spacecraft were flight-ready vehicles with the final design configuration for the lunar missions. They were substantially different from the Block I Apollo and finally incorporated many changes resulting from the Apollo fire.
CSM Cockpit - CSM Cockpit Development Diary - Follow the course of decisions that resulted in the Apollo cabin you see in the movies…
CSM Communications - CSM Communications Development Diary - There were quality problems with the S-band antenna, but in general development of the Apollo communications systems were one of the least troublesome areas.
CSM Docking - CSM Docking Development Diary- Read of some of the wilder early ideas for how to dock two spacecraft in space…
CSM ECS - CSM ECS Development Diary - The early decision to save 30 pounds by using an all-oxygen cabin atmosphere would lead to terrible consequences in the Apollo fire…
CSM Electrical - CSM Electrical Development Diary - Not a point of too much controversy during development, the Apollo fire investigation revealed huge problems in the spacecraft wiring....
CSM Fuel Cell - CSM Fuel Cell Development Diary - The Apollo fuel cells were specified from the dawn of the program.....the explosion of a fuel cell tank on Apollo 13 would nearly result in the first in-flight loss of life in the American space program
CSM Guidance - CSM Guidance Development Diary - Guidance was considered the biggest problem for Apollo, and MIT was contracted to start work on it even before the spacecraft contractor was selected…
CSM Hatch - CSM Hatch Development Diary - Apollo originally might have had an airlock - and the size of the hatch varied considerably during development. At one point transfer of the astronauts by space-walking from the CSM to the LM was considered (as was done in the Russian program). Finally, the hatch was implicated in the Apollo fire, leading to a complete redesign and large weight increase in the CM.
CSM Heat Shield - CSM Heat Shield Development Diary - Developing a heat shield to withstand the vacuum of space and re-entry at twice the energy of orbital vehicles would seem to be a great challenge. But NASA's biggest problem turned out to be having a shield that didn't crack apart on landing....
CSM LES - CSM LES Development Diary - The Launch Escape System was one of the earliest items developed and tested. It gave rise to an interminable debate about the best way to guide it during its brief mission of pulling the capsule away from an exploding booster.
CSM Original Specification - CSM Original Specification Development Diary
CSM Parachute - CSM Parachute Development Diary - Getting the parachutes to work correctly turned out to be a major problem, resulting in several demolished boilerplate capsules. See why the 'simple' low-tech things are often the ones that give the most trouble.
CSM RCS - CSM RCS Development Diary - The reaction control system thrusters provided orientation of the spacecraft. But an early design requirement was that they be able to deorbit the CSM in the event of a main engine failure.
CSM Recovery - CSM Recovery Development Diary - For some time recovery of the Apollo on land was considered. If you thought only Soyuz used soft landing engines, read here of those planned for Apollo, and how the spacecraft was designed to allow the crew to survive a 'land landing'.
CSM Simulator - CSM Simulator Development Diary
CSM Source Selection - CSM Source Selection Diary
CSM SPS - CSM SPS Development Diary - If you always thought the Apollo CSM Service Propulsion System engine looked too big, it's because it was originally sized to lift a much larger CSM off the lunar surface and send it toward earth in the original direct-landing scenario. The design was frozen early, but development went relatively well compared to the lunar module's engines.
CSM Structural - CSM Structural Development Diary
CSM Television - CSM Television Development Diary
CSQ - Abbreviation for Coastal Sentry Quebec tracking ship
CSS - Australian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Centre for Satellite Systems, Australia.
CSS Skywalker - American manned space station. Study 2015. Commercial Space Station Skywalker was hotel entrepreneur Bigelow's concept for the first space hotel. Status: Study 2015. Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb).
CSS-1 - Alternate designation for DF-2.
CSS-10 - Alternate designation for DF-41.
CSS-2 - Alternate designation for DF-3.
CSS-3 - Alternate designation for DF-4.
CSS-4 - Alternate designation for Dong Feng 5.
CSS-4 - Alternate designation for DF-5.
CSS-5 - Alternate designation for DF-21.
CSS-6 - Alternate designation for DF-15.
CSS-7 - Alternate designation for DF-11.
CSS-8 - Alternate designation for M-7.
CSS-9 - Alternate designation for DF-31.
CSS-C-3 - Alternate designation for JL-1.
CSS-N-3 - Alternate designation for JL-1.
CSS-N-4 - Alternate designation for JL-2.
CSST-600 - Alternate designation for DF-15.
CSST-600 - Alternate designation for M-9.
CSSWE - University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado Student 3U Cubesat with a Space Weather Experiment. Studied radiation belt electrons and protons. Extended mission was completed.
CSTB - Cubesat Testbed for Boeing IDS/Advanced Systems, Huntington Beach, California.
CSTC - Consolidated Satellite Test Center (USAF)
CSU-2P - American pressure suit, tested 1958. Developmental dual capstan partial pressure suit for altitude protection by Berger Brothers. Used pressure socks and double capstan for looser fit. Status: tested 1958.
CSU-4/P - American pressure suit, operational 1965. A bladder type partial pressure suit, with quick don, 8 sizes. Status: operational 1965.
CSU-5/P - American pressure suit, operational 1965. A modified bladder type partial pressure CSU-4/P suit with integrated wet suit. Status: operational 1965.
CSXT - Civilian Space eXploration Team, USA. American manufacturer of sounding rockets and rocket engines.
CTA - Canadian technology satellite. Canadian Target Assembly; deployed from STS-52 10/22/92. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-10-22. Last Launch: 1992-10-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 82 kg (180 lb).
CTA Space Systems - American manufacturer of spacecraft. CTA Inc., Virginia, USA
CTA Space Systems Inc - Alternate designation for CTA Space Systems.
CTA Space Systems Inc - Alternate name for CTA.
CTBSC - Chinese agency. China Telecom and Broadcasting Satellite Corporation, China.
CTIO - Abbreviation for Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory
CTPB - Abbreviation for Carboxyl-terminated polybutadiene
CTS - Canadian communications satellite. Canadian Telecommunications Satellite project. Only one spacecraft launched. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-01-17. Last Launch: 1976-01-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
CTV - European manned spacecraft. Study 2008. Proposed European manned spacecraft to shuttle crews to the International Space Station from 2018. Status: Study 2008. Gross mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Payload: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb).
CTV CM - European manned spacecraft module. Study 2008. Re-entry vehicle portion of the proposed European CTV manned spacecraft. Status: Study 2008. Gross mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Payload: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb).
CTV-G-5 - Alternate designation for Hermes A-1.
CTV-N-8 - Alternate designation for Bumblebee STV.
cu m - cubic meter(s)
Cuba - Cuba
Cuban AF - Cuban Air Force.
CUBEBUG - 2U Cubesat from Argentina.
Cubesat - American low-cost nanosatellite bus. Used in dozens of launches. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-06-30. Last Launch: 2015-11-04. Number: 346 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Cubic - American manufacturer of spacecraft. Cubic, USA.
Cubic Corp. - Alternate name for Cubic.
Cuckoo - RO solid rocket engine family.
Cuckoo 4 - Alternate designation for Skylark 12-3 rocket stage.
Cuckoo 4 - RO solid rocket engine. Skylark 12 third stage. Status: Retired 1990. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Cuckoo IA - Alternate designation for Zenit C-0 rocket stage.
Cuckoo IA - RO solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1989. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Cuckoo IB - RO solid rocket engine. Black Knight 201/C second stage. Status: Retired 1962. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 57 kg (125 lb). Thrust: 80.90 kN (18,187 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Cuckoo II - RO solid rocket engine. Black Knight 201/C2 second stage. Status: Retired 1965. Gross mass: 200 kg (440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 37 kg (81 lb). Thrust: 36.50 kN (8,206 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Cuddeback Dry Lake DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 1965, reaching up to 21 kilometers altitude. RW01/19 on the lake was also used for emergency landings.
CUFOS - Center for UFO Studies
Culbertson - American test pilot astronaut 1984-2002. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-2002. Born: 1949-05-15. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 143.62 days.
Culbertson, Philip - American aerodynamicist. Managed development of the Atlas space launch version at Convair; then went to NASA, being General Manager at the time of the Challenger disaster. Born: 1925-08-19. Died: 2015-04-04.
Cunningham - American pilot astronaut 1963-1971. Status: Inactive; Active 1963-1971. Born: 1932-03-16. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 10.84 days.
Cunningham, Stephen - American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1986. Born: 1945-09-10.
CUNYSAT - 1U Cubesat from the City University of New York's Medgar Evers College, with a GPS ionospheric receiver.
Curbeam - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1994-2007. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2007. Born: 1962-03-05. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 37.61 days.
Currie - American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1990-2005. US Army engineer. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2005. Born: 1958-12-29. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 41.65 days.
Currie, Malcolm - American engineer. Joined Hughes in 1954, becoming a VP 1964-1969. After stints at Beckman and government, returned to Hughes in 1977, becoming CEO 1986-1992. Moved Hughes into DirecTV satellite-to-home business. Born: 1927.
Curtiss-Wright - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Curtiss-Wright, USA.
CUSat - Cornell University satellite; carried a differential GPS navigation system and pulsed plasma thrusters. The defunct-before-launch CUSAT 2/Top satellite remained attached to the Falcon 9 second stage. CUSAT (formerly CUSAT 1/Bottom) was launched attached to CUSAT 2 and separated from it after orbit insertion. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-09-29. Last Launch: 2013-09-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 23 kg (50 lb).
Cute - Japanese technology satellite. Student subsatellites. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-02-21. Last Launch: 2006-02-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb).
Cuxhaven - As the only site in Germany with an unrestricted over-water firing sector over the North Sea, Cuxhaven was once touted as 'the Cape Canaveral of Germany'. Primarily known to space historians for the three post-war V-2 launches under project Backfire, it played an important role in the nascent post-World War II German rocketry. A nearly completely unknown series of scientific sounding rocket launches were made from the area in 1957-1964 before the launch site was closed on (purportedly) safety and (actually) military grounds. First Launch: 1945-10-02. Last Launch: 1963-12-05. Number: 14 .
CV - Abbreviation for Cataclysmic Variable
CW - Abbreviation for Continuous wave
CX-1 - Chinese communications technology satellite. Status: Operational 2003. First Launch: 2003-10-21. Last Launch: 2014-09-04. Number: 4 .
CXBN - Morehead State University, Kentucky cosmic hard X-ray background radiation experiment Cubesat.
CXBR - Abbreviation for Cosmic X-ray Background Radiation
CxHy - Term used for an unspecified hydrocarbon fuel used in some Glushko engines of the 1970's - perhaps what was later known as 'Sintin' (synthetic kerosene).
CXV - American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Crew Transfer Vehicle proposed by `t/Space and Burt Rutan's Scaled Composites for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle requirement. Status: Study 2012. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,700 kg (8,100 lb).
Cyclone 3 - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-3.
Cyclone 4 - Alternate designation for Tsiklon-4.
Cygnus - ?Human Exploration satellite bus built by Orbital for ISS resupply for launch by ?Antares or Atlas V vehicles. Lifetime ?6 months to one year and delivery possible ?24-27 months after receipt of order. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-04-21. Last Launch: 2014-10-28. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Cygnus 15 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Trailblazer 2 M fourth stage. Status: Retired 1973. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Thrust: 22.00 kN (4,945 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Cygnus 20 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. HJ Nike Nike 20-inch SM fourth stage. Status: Retired 1959. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Thrust: 30.00 kN (6,744 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
Cygnus 5 - Thiokol solid rocket engine. Trailblazer 2 M fifth stage. Status: Retired 1963. Unfuelled mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Thrust: 2.30 kN (517 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
CZ - China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced.
CZ H-18 - Alternate designation for CZ H-18 stage.
CZ H-18 - Chinese space tug. 11 launches, (1994) to (2000). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by CZ-3A, CZ-3B, and CZ-3C. Status: Operational 1994. Gross mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Thrust: 156.00 kN (35,070 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
CZ H-18 stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Development ended 1997. Gross mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Thrust: 156.00 kN (35,070 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
CZ H-9 - Alternate designation for CZ-YF-73.
CZ-1 - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1.
CZ-1-1 - Alternate designation for CZ-YF-2.
CZ-1-2 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Masses, engine performance estimated based on successor improved stage and YF-2 engines in first stage. Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Thrust: 306.14 kN (68,824 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
CZ-1-3 - Alternate designation for CZ-1C-3.
CZ-1C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1C.
CZ-1C-3 - Alternate designation for CZ-1C-3 engine.
CZ-1C-3 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Development ended 1988. Gross mass: 6,400 kg (14,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 107.00 kN (24,054 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-1C-3 engine - Chinese N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Development ended 1988. Used on CZ-1C launch vehicle. Status: Development ended 1988. Thrust: 107.90 kN (24,257 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-1D - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1D.
CZ-1D-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 14,850 kg (32,730 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,650 kg (5,840 lb). Thrust: 294.00 kN (66,093 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-1D-3 - Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. Out of production. Motor for proposed CZ-1D launch vehicle. First flight 1995. Status: Out of production. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Propellants: Solid.
CZ-1M - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 1M.
CZ-1M-3 - Alternate designation for Iris engine.
CZ-1M-3 - Alternate name for Iris (engine).
CZ-2 Spaceplane Launcher - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2 Spaceplane Launcher.
CZ-2-0 stage series -
CZ-2-1 stage series -
CZ-2-2 stage series -
CZ-2-3 stage series -
CZ-2A - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2.
CZ-2C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2C.
CZ-2C/CTS - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2C-III/SD.
CZ-2C/CTS - Alternate designation for CZ-2C/SD.
CZ-2C/SD - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2C-III/SD.
CZ-2C/SD-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Stretched version of CZ-2C second stage. Empty mass estimated. Status: Development ended 1997. Gross mass: 55,000 kg (121,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 761.90 kN (171,282 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-2C-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 153,000 kg (337,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 3,295.00 kN (740,745 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-2C-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 761.90 kN (171,282 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-2D - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2D.
CZ-2E - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2E.
CZ-2E(A) - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2E(A).
CZ-2E(A)-0 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Design 2000. Gross mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Thrust: 1,632.80 kN (367,068 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-2E-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 196,500 kg (433,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,500 kg (20,900 lb). Thrust: 3,265.14 kN (734,033 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-2E-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 91,500 kg (201,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Thrust: 831.01 kN (186,817 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-2F - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 2F.
CZ-3 - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3.
CZ-3-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 151,000 kg (332,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust: 3,000.00 kN (674,400 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-3-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 761.90 kN (171,282 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-3A - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3A.
CZ-3A-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Development ended 1997. Gross mass: 179,000 kg (394,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust: 3,265.14 kN (734,033 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-3A-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 33,600 kg (74,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 831.01 kN (186,817 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-3A-3 - Alternate name for CZ H-18.
CZ-3B - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3B.
CZ-3B(A) - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3B(A).
CZ-3C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 3C.
CZ-4A - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 4.
CZ-4A-1 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 192,700 kg (424,800 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,500 kg (20,900 lb). Thrust: 3,265.14 kN (734,033 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-4A-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 39,550 kg (87,190 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 831.01 kN (186,817 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-4A-3 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1990. Gross mass: 15,150 kg (33,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 100.81 kN (22,663 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-4B - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 4B.
CZ-4B-2 - N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 742.00 kN (166,808 lbf) thrust. Mass 39,600 kg (87,303 lb). Status: Active. Gross mass: 39,600 kg (87,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 742.00 kN (166,808 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-4B-3 - N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 98.10 kN (22,054 lbf) thrust. Mass 15,200 kg (33,510 lb). Status: Active. Gross mass: 15,200 kg (33,500 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 98.10 kN (22,054 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
CZ-4C - Alternate designation for Chang Zheng 4C.
CZ-5 - The CZ-5 represented the 504 configuration of the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series. It used the 5.0 m diameter core stage with four 3.35 m diameter stages as strap-ons. Payload was given as 25 metric tons to low earth orbit. A standard large 5.2 m diameter fairing tops the vehicle. It would be used to launch the modules of the Chinese Space Station. Status: In development. Gross mass: 867,000 kg (1,911,000 lb). Payload: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Thrust: 10,565.00 kN (2,375,106 lbf).
CZ-5-2.25 - Alternate designation for CZ-6.
CZ-5-2.25 - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-200.
CZ-5-3.35 - Alternate designation for CZ-7.
CZ-5-3.35 - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-320.
CZ-5-5.0 - Alternate designation for CZ-5B.
CZ-5-5.0 - Alternate designation for CZ-5.
CZ-5-5.0 - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-540/HO.
CZ-5-5.0 - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-522/HO.
CZ-5-5.0 - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-540.
CZ-5-5.0 - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-522.
CZ-5-5.0 - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-504/HO.
CZ-5-5.0 - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-504.
CZ-5B - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 504/HO configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m core stage, topped by the 5.0 m upper stage, together with 4 x 3.35 m strap-on stages. First flight of this version was expected after 2016. Payload was given as 14 metric tons to geosynchronous transfer orbit. Status: In development. Gross mass: 810,000 kg (1,780,000 lb). Payload: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Thrust: 10,640.00 kN (2,391,960 lbf).
CZ-6 - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. This version of the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series small launcher was selected after the decision to drop development of the 2.25 m diameter booster module. Instead it used a shorter version of the 3.35 m diameter module as the first stage with a single YF-100 engine and a single upper stage of 2.25 m diameter with a single YF-115 engine. Payload was given as 1.0 metric tons into a sun synchronous orbit. First launch was in 2015. Status: In development. Gross mass: 103,000 kg (227,000 lb). Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 1,188.00 kN (267,073 lbf).
CZ-7 - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series medium launcher used the 3.35 m diameter module and a new 3.35 m diameter second stage as the core vehicle. Either two or four 2.25 m diameter modules would be used as strap-ons. Payload to low earth orbit was 13.5 metric tons with four strap-ons. Status: Active. Gross mass: 594,000 kg (1,309,000 lb). Payload: 13,500 kg (29,700 lb). Thrust: 7,200.00 kN (1,618,600 lbf).
Czech - Czech Republic, Czech Republic
Czech Republic - Czech Republic
Czechoslovak AF - Czechoslovak AF.
Czerney - German rocket expert during World War II, worked at Peenemuende. Stayed in Germany after the war.
CZ-NGLV - China's family of new generation expendable launch vehicles began development in 2000 with first flight from a new launch center in Hainanin 2016. Boosters of various capabilities were assembled from three modular stages of 2.25 m, 3.35 m and 5.0 m diameter. These would be powered by new variable-thrust 120 metric ton thrust LOx/Kerosene engines or 50 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 engines. Status: Operational 2016.
CZ-NGLV-200 - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-200 stage.
CZ-NGLV-200 - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series small launcher would use the 2.25 m diameter module as the first stage and a single upper stage of the same diameter. Payload was given as 1.5 metric tons into low earth orbit. First launch was expected after 2008. Although the configuration was not shown at the Wuzhai Air Show in 2002 it re-emerged at the FAI in 2003. It seemed to be in competition with the all-solid-propellant KT-1, KT-2, and KT-2A series. Version dropped together with the 2.25 m booster module and replaced with the CZ-6, which combined a shortened 3.35 m booster module and the 2.25 m diameter upper stage. Status: In development. Gross mass: 82,000 kg (180,000 lb). Payload: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust: 1,200.00 kN (269,700 lbf).
CZ-NGLV-200 stage - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. From top to bottom the 2.25-m Chinese new generation launch vehicle consists of a 42.3 cubic meter liquid oxygen tank, an intertank section, a 22.0 cubic meter kerosene tank, and an engine section with one gimbaled LOX /Kerosene engines of 1200 kN vacuum thrust. The oxygen tank is pressurized using oxygen bled from the engine and helium is used to pressurize the kerosene tank. The engines can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Burn time shown assumes full thrust during engine burn. Status: In development. Gross mass: 69,000 kg (152,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 1,340.17 kN (301,282 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
CZ-NGLV-300 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. From top to bottom the 3.35-m Chinese new generation launch vehicle consists of a 90.7 cubic meter liquid oxygen tank, an intertank section, a 47.7 cubic meter kerosene tank, and an engine section with two gimbaled LOX /Kerosene engines of 1200 kN vacuum thrust each. The oxygen tank is pressurized using oxygen bled from the engine and helium is used to pressurize the kerosene tank. The engines can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Burn time shown assumes full thrust during engine burn. Status: In development. Gross mass: 147,000 kg (324,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Thrust: 2,680.35 kN (602,567 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
CZ-NGLV-320 - Alternate designation for CZ-7.
CZ-NGLV-500 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. From top to bottom the 5-m Chinese new generation launch vehicle consists of a 117.3 cubic meter liquid oxygen tank, an intertank section, a 350.7 cubic meter liquid hydrogen tank, and an engine section with two gimbaled LOX /LH2 engines of 660 kN vacuum thrust each. The hydrogen tank is pressurized using hydrogen bled from the engine and helium is used to pressurize the oxygen tank. Status: In development. Gross mass: 175,000 kg (385,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb). Thrust: 1,399.99 kN (314,730 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
CZ-NGLV-504 - Alternate designation for CZ-5.
CZ-NGLV-522 - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 522 configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m diameter core stage with 2 x 2.25 m plus 2 x 3.35 m strap-on stages. Payload is estimated as 18-20 metric tons to low earth orbit. Version dropped together with the 2.25 m booster module. Status: In development. Gross mass: 630,000 kg (1,380,000 lb). Payload: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Thrust: 8,240.00 kN (1,852,420 lbf).
CZ-NGLV-522/HO - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 522/HO was the 'all up' baseline configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series. It would use the 5.0 m core stage, topped by the 5.0 m upper stage, together with 2 x 2.25 m plus 2 x 3.35 m strap-on stages. It was announced in 2003 that it would be first to fly, with a launch before the Beijing Olympics in 2008. It would be used for launch of large communications satellites. Payload is estimated as 10-12 metric tons to geosynchronous transfer orbit. Version dropped together with the 2.25 m booster module. Status: In development. Gross mass: 630,000 kg (1,380,000 lb). Payload: 11,000 kg (24,000 lb). Thrust: 8,240.00 kN (1,852,420 lbf).
CZ-NGLV-540 - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 540 configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m diameter core stage with four 2.25 m diameter stages as strap-ons. Payload was given as 10 metric tons to low earth orbit. A standard short 5.2 m diameter fairing tops the vehicle. Version dropped together with the 2.25 m booster module. Status: In development. Gross mass: 470,000 kg (1,030,000 lb). Payload: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 5,840.00 kN (1,312,880 lbf).
CZ-NGLV-540/HO - Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 540/HO configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m core stage, topped by the 5.0 m upper stage, together with 4 x 2.25 m strap-on stages. First flight of this version was expected after 2010. Payload was given as 6 metric tons to geosynchronous transfer orbit. This version was no longer mentioned when by 2016. Status: In development. Gross mass: 490,000 kg (1,080,000 lb). Payload: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 5,840.00 kN (1,312,880 lbf).
CZ-NGLV-A - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-522/HO.
CZ-NGLV-B - Alternate designation for CZ-5B.
CZ-NGLV-B - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-504/HO.
CZ-NGLV-C - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-540/HO.
CZ-NGLV-D - Alternate designation for CZ-5.
CZ-NGLV-D - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-504.
CZ-NGLV-E - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-522.
CZ-NGLV-F - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-540.
CZ-NGLV-HO - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. The upper stage for the Chinese Next Generation Launch Vehicle is a modification of the CZ-3B upper stage. The stage uses a version of the LOx/LH2 YF-75 engine, simplified for improved reliability. The stage is of hammerhead form, with the upper LH2 tank with a diameter of 5 m, and the lower liquid oxygen tank with a diameter of 3.35 m. The total propellant is 22,900 kg with a burn time of over 600 seconds. Empty mass has not yet been released and is estimated. Status: In development. Gross mass: 26,000 kg (57,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,100 kg (6,800 lb). Thrust: 156.00 kN (35,070 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
CZ-NGLV-KO - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Upper stage for the 3.35 m diameter core vehicle. Only information available are the types of propellants, total thrust, and number of engines. Therefore all values shown here except thrust are estimated. This launcher has a low priority since its payload capability overlaps existing Chinese launch vehicles, and it would not be developed until after 2010. Status: In development. Gross mass: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Thrust: 588.00 kN (132,187 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
CZ-NGLV-Light - Alternate designation for CZ-6.
CZ-NGLV-Light - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-200.
CZ-NGLV-Medium - Alternate designation for CZ-7.
CZ-NGLV-Medium - Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-320.
CZ-YF-2 - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 64,100 kg (141,300 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb). Thrust: 1,224.58 kN (275,295 lbf). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH.
CZ-YF-73 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Active. Gross mass: 10,500 kg (23,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 44.10 kN (9,914 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.

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