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Space-related persons, organizations, launch sites, hardware - by country.



Subtopics

Afghanistan Afghanistan

Algeria France conducted numerous space and missile launches from Algerian territory from 1947-1967. These facilities were abandoned as a condition of the agreement ending the Algerian Civil War. Algeria did not take concrete steps to return to space until the 1990's, when the decision was taken to participate in an international constellation of disaster-monitoring satellites.

Antarctica Antarctica

Arab States Arab States

Argentina The Argentine Interplanetary Society was organized in the 1940's. In 1952 Argentina was one of the founding members of the International Astronautical Federation. From 1960 the Comision Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales (CNIE) worked with the Argentine Air Force's Instituto de Investigaciones Aeronauticas y Espaciales (IIAE) to develop indigenous sounding rockets and missiles. Argentina was the first country in Latin America to send an object into space using an indigenously-developed rocket. In the 1980's Argentina took part in a multinational effort to develop the Condor intermediate range missile. Under American pressure, the Condor Program was canceled in 1991, the IIAE and CNIE were dismantled, and further work on launch vehicles was banned. A new civilian space agency, CONAE was created, which concentrated on development of surveillance satellites for earth resource and environmental monitoring.

Armenia Armenia

Australia Australia

Austria Austria

Azerbaijan In Soviet times, Lakian cosmonaut Musa Khiramanovich Manarov, born in Baku, spent over 541 days in space. Space activities are currently operated within Azerbaijan by the Azerbaijan National Aerospace Agency (ANASA). Their activities have mainly involved work with UN agencies to utilize space imagery for land resources mapping and disaster monitoring.

Bahamas Bahamas

Barbados Barbados became involved as a bridgehead to space as the site for Gerald Bull's development of gun-boosted sounding rocket and satellite launchers in the 1960's. The facilities and modified artillery pieces he built still stand today, rusting, their original purpose a mystery to local residents.

Belarus Belarus

Belgium Belgium

Belize Belize

Bermuda Bermuda

Bolivia Bolivia used Chinese assistance to launch a national communications satellite, together with the ground segment, in 2013.

Brazil Brazil

Bulgaria Bulgaria

Cameroon Cameroon

Canada Canada

Chile Chile

China The history of rocket and space development in China.

Colombia Colombia

Congo Congo

Cook Islands Cook Islands

Costa Rica Costa Rica

Cuba Cuba

Czech Republic Czech Republic

Denmark Denmark

Ecuador The Ecuadoran Civilian Space Agency was created in 2007 on the initiative of Ronnie Nader. It has sponsored airborne microgravity research, public education and awareness, and began launch of a series of Cubesats in 2013.

Egypt Egypt

Estonia Estonia

Europe Europe

France France

Georgia Georgia

Germany German enthusiasts laid the technical groundwork for the exploration of space in the 1920's and early 1930's. These enthusiasts, funded by Hitler's Nazi government, developed rocket technology far beyond that of other countries during World War II. After the war, that technology was transferred by German engineers taken, willingly or not, to the United States, France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. Attempts to revive civilian rocketry in Germany after World War II were stopped on political grounds. But Germany was able to be involved in space exploration through European institutions, building satellites or rocket stages for European projects. Maverick attempts at developing German innovative launch technologies by Eugen Saenger and Lutz Kayser were suppressed by other countries.

Greece Greece

Greenland Greenland

Hungary Hungary

Iceland Iceland

India India

Indonesia Indonesia

International International

Iran Iran, following a thirty year effort to acquire foreign technology however possible, launched its first satellite in 2009.

Iraq Iraq

Ireland Ireland

Israel Israel

Italy Italy

Japan Japan

Kazakhstan Kazakhstan

Kenya Kenya

Korea Korea

Korea North Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Chongon)

Korea South South Korea became familiar with large-scale rocketry through maintenance and modification activities on American-supplied Honest John and Nike Hercules tactical missiles. By the 1990's Korea had developed an independent capability to manufacture solid propellant rocket motors of up to one metric ton mass. In 1990 KARI was funded to build the first indigenous sounding rockets, flown as the KSR-I and KSR-II. In December 1997 KARI was allowed to proceed with development of liquid oxygen/kerosene rocket motor for an orbital launcher, but this was abandoned when the South Korean government decided it wanted to be among the top ten spacefaring nations by 2015. The existing program was too limited in growth potential to allow that. Therefore it was decided to leapfrog the technology by contracting with Russian companies. First launch of the KSLV-I launch vehicle from the new space center took place in 2010.

Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan

Latvia Latvia

Libya Libya

Lithuania Lithuania

Luxembourg Luxembourg

Malaysia Malaysia

Maldives Maldives

Mauritania Mauritania

Mauritius Mauritius

Mexico Mexico

Mongolia Mongolia

Morocco Morocco

Netherlands Netherlands

New Zealand New Zealand

Nigeria Nigeria

Norway Norway

Oman Oman

Pakistan Pakistan

Panama Panama

Peru Peru

Philippines Philippines

Poland Poland

Portugal Portugal

Romania Romania

Russia The true history of Soviet spaceflight is predominantly the story of Soviet military space. Manned or scientific space missions could often only be justified as part of larger military projects. Less than 20% of Soviet launches were for 'national prestige' purposes (civilian manned flights, scientific and planetary).

Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

Singapore Singapore

Slovakia Slovakia

Slovenia Slovenia

South Africa South Africa

Spain Spain

Surinam Surinam

Sweden Sweden

Switzerland Switzerland

Syria Syria

Taiwan Taiwan

Tajikistan Tajikistan

Thailand Thailand

Turkey Turkey

Turkmenistan Null

UAE UAE

UK UK

Ukraine Ukraine

Uruguay Null

USA United States of America.

Uzbekistan Uzbekistan

Venezuela Venezuela

Vietnam Vietnam



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