Encyclopedia Astronautica
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Cosmonaut
Persons who have been trained for spaceflight in Russia.

Subtopics

Anokhin Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1966-1968.

Beregovoi Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1964-1982.

Benderov Russian test pilot. Graduated from the Zhukovsky, 1950. Worked as an engineer and senior test pilot for Tupolev. Flew MiG-21 Tu-144 wing testbed. Proposed on 1964-06-29 as cosmonaut for Voskhod flights, but not confirmed. Died in the crash of a Tu-144 supersonic transport during an aviation demonstration at the 1973 Paris Airshow in Le Bourget.

Belyayev Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1970.

Sidorenko Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1962-1963. Pilot, Soviet Air Force. Selected as a cosmonaut on 3 December 1962, but on 8 January 1963 and again on 13 December 1963 the government commission refused to approve the appointment.

Demin Russian engineer cosmonaut 1963-1982.

Feoktistov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1964-1987. First spacecraft designer in space.

Katys Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1964-1972.

Letunov Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1965-1966.

Komarov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1967. First person to die during spaceflight when the parachute lines of Soyuz 1 tangled and it crashed to earth. Cosmonaut training March 1960 - 3 April 1961. Call sign: Rubin (Ruby).

Matinchenko Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1972.

Shatalov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1963-1971. Made first Soviet space docking.

Yershov Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1974.

Lazarev Russian physician cosmonaut 1964-1985. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch.

Filipchenko Russian pilot cosmonaut 1963-1982.

Dobrovolsky Russian pilot cosmonaut 1963-1971. Member of first crew to stay aboard a space station, however perished during landing.

Nikolayev Chuvash-Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1982. First person to fly more than one day in space. Married Valentina Tereshkova, and fathered first child born to parents that had both flown in space.

Filatyev Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963.

Artyukhin Russian engineer cosmonaut 1963-1982. Member of first military space station mission.

Yazdovsky Russian engineer cosmonaut 1965-1982.

Voronov Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1963-1979.

Belousov Belarusian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1968.

Kolodin Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1983.

Popovich Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1982. Commander of first military space station mission.

Vorobyov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1963-1974.

Gubarev Russian pilot cosmonaut 1963-1981.

Sorokin Russian physician cosmonaut, 1964. Soviet Air Force Physician. On the staff of the cosmonaut training center, working in the field of aerospace medicine. Later head of department at several scientific institutes.

Grechko Russian engineer cosmonaut 1966-1992.

Rebrov Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1965-1974.

Pitskhelauri Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1965. Was married to cosmonaut Tatyana Kuznetsova. Engineer, Soviet Air Force. Selected as a cosmonaut in August 1965, but on 23 October 1965 the selection was nullified by a government commission.

Kuklin Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1963-1975. Left cosmonaut corps for medical reasons (heart problems) in July 1975 . Worked on the General Staff of the Soviet Air Force until retirement in 1987.

Ponomaryov Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1983. Was married to astronaut Valentina Ponomaryova.

Degtyarev Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966.

Porvatkin Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Technical Air Force School, 1952. Graduated from Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy, Monino, 1960. Cosmonaut training May 1967 - 18 August 1967. Worked at NPO Energia.

Zaikin Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1969.

Golovanov Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1965-1967.

Kartashov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961.

Burdayev Russian engineer cosmonaut 1967-1983. Graduated from Air Force Engineering Academy, doctorate degree, 1987. Cosmonaut training from May 1967 - 18 August 1969. Worked as trainer at the Gagarin Center. Professor in space ballistics from 1994.

Rukavishnikov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1967-1987.

Smirenny Russian physician cosmonaut, 1972-1986. Medical Doctor. Graduated from Moscow Physical-Engineering Institute, 1956. Civilian Physician, Institute of Biological Medical Problems. Chief of a laboratory at IMBP.

Makarov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1966-1986. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch.

Bugrov Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1966-1968.

Kolomiytsev Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1968.

Anikeyev Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Left with Filatyev and Nelyubov after alcohol incident. After discharge, again served as Air Force pilot and then navigation officer for ground control services of the Soviet Air Force.

Patsayev Russian engineer cosmonaut 1968-1971. Member of first crew to stay aboard a space station, however perished during landing. A street in Kaluga and Asteroid 1791 were named for him.

Alekseyev Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983.

Khrunov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1980. Member of first crew to transfer between spacecraft.

Ponomaryova Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969. Was married to astronaut Yuri Ponomaryov.

Rafikov Tatar-Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1962.

Kiselyov Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966.

Gagarin Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1968. First person in space. Due to his fame, the Soviet leadership did not want to risk him on another flight, but later relented. Died in a 1968 MiG trainer crash while requalifying for flight status.

Nelyubov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Discharged with Anikeyev and Filatyev after alcohol incident. Returned to Air Force duties in Siberia, underwent increasing depression, killed in 1966 when hit by a train.

Leonov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1982. Cancelled missions included command of first Soviet circumlunar flight in 1969 and first military space station mission in 1973.

Yeliseyev Russian engineer cosmonaut 1966-1985. Member of first crew to transfer between spacecraft.

Bykovsky Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1982.

Varlamov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. Left team after fracturing a vertebra in a diving accident in July 1960. Worked in the Soviet space program as a flight instructor for new cosmonauts within the TsPK.

Gulyayev, Rudolf Russian scientist cosmonaut 1967-1968. Scientist, Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism and Radio waves of the Academy of Sciences. Cosmonaut training May 1967 - August 1968. Left cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Worked as a research scientist at IZMIRAN.

Gorbatko Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1982.

Volynov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1990.

Kubasov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1966-1993. Flew in first docking mission between American and Soviet spacecraft. Missed two chances to be first engineer on a Soviet space station (Cosmos 557 and Soyuz 11).

Aksyonov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1973-1988.

Kugno Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1964.

Sevastyanov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1967-1993.

Shonin Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1979.

Lisun Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1989.

Titov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1970. Second person in orbit. Youngest person in space. Left cosmonaut team for brilliant career in the space forces after deciding his future spaceflight prospects were nil.

Dolgopolov Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1966-1967. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI), 1959 Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Retired due to medical reasons. Worked thereafter at NPO Energia.

Volkov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1966-1971. Member of first space station crew, however perished during landing. From 1958 a civilian engineer, Korolev OKB, involved in the development of the Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft.

Buinovski Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1964.

Stepanov, Yuri Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1985-1995.

Kolesnikov Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1967.

Gaidukov Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1978. Retired due to medical reasons (injured during parachute training). Worked as an engineer until 1988, when he retired from all work for medical reasons.

Sologub Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1968.

Jaehn German pilot cosmonaut 1976-1978. First German astronaut.

Bondarenko Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. Killed in a fire in a spacecraft simulator run using a pure oxygen atmosphere. His death had a profound effect on future design of Soviet spacecraft.

Senkevich Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966.

Tereshkova Russian cosmonaut 1962-1997. First woman in space, aboard Vostok 6. But the flight was propaganda and future spaceflight opportunities did not develop. Was married to cosmonaut Andrian Nikolayev. Later a leading Communist politician.

Volk Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut 1977-1996.

Stepanov, Eduard Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1992.

Gulyayev Russian engineer cosmonaut 1963-1968. Graduated from Soviet Navy Engineering School Cosmonaut training January 1963 - 21 January 1965. Resigned for medical reasons after an accident. Worked at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Died of a heart attack.

Zholobov Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut 1963-1981.

Ilyin Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966.

Solovyova Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969.

Machinski Russian physician cosmonaut, 1972-1974. Worked at the IMBP in Moscow. Left cosmonaut group for medical reasons after being injured in an automobile accident. He resumed work at the IMBP, reaching the position of senior-scientist.

Jankowski Polish pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1978. Graduated from General Staff Academy "Karol Swierczewski", 1969 Fighter pilot, Polish Air Force. Commander, Deblin Air Force School. Later retired from all duties.

Yegorov Russian physician cosmonaut 1964. First physician in space.

Fartushny Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut, 1968-1971.

Polyakov, Boris Russian physician cosmonaut, 1964.

Kononenko, Oleg G Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1977-1980. Graduated from Zhukovsky Air Force Institute, 1975. Cosmonaut training December 1978 - July 1980.

Preobrazhensky Russian engineer cosmonaut 1965-1980. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute Soviet Air Force, liaising with aircraft industrial enterprises. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Worked at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Killed in an auto crash.

Rozhdestvensky Russian engineer cosmonaut 1965-1986.

Nikitsky Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1967.

Grechanik Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Trained for a flight to the Almaz space station. Engineer at the Kosmos Pavilion in Moscow.

Yerkina Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969.

Fatkullin Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1970.

Illarionov Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1970-1992. Graduated from Higher Air Force School, 1967 Soviet Air Force, specialized in communications systems. Served as Capcom during several Soyuz missions. Also involved in the Buran program.

Sharafutdinov Tatar-Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1968. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Withdrawn from cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Retired from active military duty in 1985. Later taught at a Higher School.

Ryumin Russian engineer cosmonaut 1973-1998. Was married to astronaut Yelena Kondakova. 371 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB

Koellner German pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1978.

Glazkov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1965-1982.

Beloborodov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1967-1969.

Makrushin Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1987. Studied from 1957 to 1963 at Leningrad Institute of Aircraft Design (LIAP). Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Returned to NPO Mashinostroyeniye.

Savinykh Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1989.

Isakov Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1983.

Shcheglov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1972. Graduated from Yeisk Higher Military Pilot School, 1963 Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Withdrawn from cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Died of lung cancer.

Ivanov, Georgi Bulgarian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1979. First Bulgarian astronaut. Changed his name when he was selected for cosmonaut training because Kakalov had a scatological meaning in Russian. Later member of the Bulgarian Parliament.

Tito American engineer cosmonaut 2000-2001. First space tourist. First American to return to earth in a Russian spacecraft.

Khludeyev Russian engineer cosmonaut 1965-1988. Graduated from Kiev AF Academy of Engineering, 1962. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Worked as research scientist at the Gagarin Center. Involved in the Buran program from 1986-1988. Died of a heart attack.

Ivanchenkov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1973-1993. Graduated MAI, 1964 Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Trained for a Buran flight. From 1993 served as deputy director of 29th Department, RKK Energia.

Andreyev Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1983. Off flight roster for medical reasons. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB

Strekalov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1973-1995. Survived first manned launch pad abort. Flew in space six times.

Yakovlev Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1973.

Yuyukov Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1973-1987. Graduated from MAI, 1965 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Trained for a TKS flight to the Almaz military space station. Sector Head, NPO Mashinostroyeniye. From worked at GKNPTs Khrunishchev.

Fyodorov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1974. Graduated from E.N. Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School, 1963. Cosmonaut training November 1965-December 1967. Flight controller in Kaliningrad until he retired in 1992.

Levchenko Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut 1977-1988. Flew on Mir LII-1. Graduated from Chernigov Higher Air Force School, 1964. Buran test pilot; cosmonaut training December 1978 - July 1980. Later a civil test pilot for the Soviet Air Force Ministry. Died of a brain tumor in Moscow.

Kuznetsova Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969.

Lyakhov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1967-1994.

Kizim Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1965-1987. Member of first crew to fly between two space stations during a single mission. 374 cumulative days in space.

Pisarev Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1967-1968.

Malyshev Russian pilot cosmonaut 1967-1988.

Hermaszewski Polish pilot cosmonaut 1976-1978. First Polish astronaut.

Sattarov Tatar-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1980.

Demyanenko Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1969-1971. Engineer at the Scientific Research Institute of Automatics and Instrument Engineering. On 11 September 1969 selected as a cosmonaut, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission.

Petrushenko Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1973. Later worked at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, then moved to the satellite control center in Monino until his retirement 1991.

Sarafanov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1965-1986.

Zudov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1965-1987.

Kozelsky Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Kachinsk, 1963; Monino, 1981. Later Deputy Mir Flight Director. Retired in 1992.

Bachurin Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1992.

Tamayo Mendez Cuban pilot cosmonaut 1978-1980. First Cuban astronaut. First person of African descent to fly in space. Graduated from Air Force Academy Pilot, Cuban Air Force. Director of the Organization for Civil Defense in Cuba.

Kovalyonok Belarusian pilot cosmonaut 1967-1984.

Berezovoi Russian pilot cosmonaut 1970-1992.

Lebedev Russian engineer cosmonaut 1972-1993.

Voloshin Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1969.

Grishchenko Ukrainian navigator cosmonaut, 1965-1968.

Polyakov Russian physician cosmonaut 1972-1995. Longest single space flight (437 days). 678 cumulative days in space. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems.

Dediu Romanian pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1981. Rumanian Air Force. Served in the Rumanian Army as Lieutenant Colonel, stationed in Bucharest.

Dzhanibekov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1970-1986.

Skvortsov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1968. Father of cosmonaut Aleksandr Skvortsov, Jr.

Klimuk Belarusian pilot cosmonaut 1965-1982.

Akiyama Japanese journalist cosmonaut 1989-1990. First Japanese to fly in space.

Kramarenko Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1969.

Aleksandrov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1993.

Isaulov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1970-1982.

Pelczak Czech pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1978. Graduated from Air Force Academy of the Soviet Union Engineer, Czechoslovak Air Force.

Malhotra Indian pilot cosmonaut, 1982-1984. Indian Air Force test pilot, stationed at the Bangalore space test center. Later worked for Dynamatic Technologies. Brigadier General (Air Commodore), Retired.

Sokovykh Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1986.

Serebrov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1995. Ten spacewalks. 372 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO.

Mosolov Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1987.

Chirkin Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1982.

Dedkov Belarusian pilot cosmonaut, 1970-1983.

Stankevicius Lithuanian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1990. Buran Test Pilot, died in crash of a Su-27 fighter at an air show at Treviso, Italy.

Romanenko Russian pilot cosmonaut 1970-1988. Father of cosmonaut Roman Romanenko. 430 cumulative days in space.

Lysenko Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1977. Flying Research Institute named for Gromov of GKOOP. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program by the Gromov Flight Test Center, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. Died in the crash of a MiG-23 with Mamontov.

Olsen American scientist cosmonaut 2005. Space tourist

Fefelov Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1970-1995.

Popov Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1970-1987.

Kozlov, Vladimir Russian pilot cosmonaut 1970-1973. Graduated from Higher Air Force School of Pilots, 1968 Soviet Air Force parachutist. Left cosmonaut group due to medical problems. Served on Russian Air Force Staff. Retired as a Colonel on 6 March 1996.

Shchukin Belarusian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1988.

Baudry French pilot cosmonaut 1980-1985. Transferred to NASA Payload Specialist. Flight on STS-18, 1985. French Air Force Transferred to NASA as a Payload Specialist.

Arzamazov Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1995. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems.

Zabolotski Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1984-1997. Cosmonaut training September 1985-1987. Buran Test Pilot. Civilian test pilot at the Zhukovsky Flight Test Center of LII.

Aubakirov Kazakh pilot cosmonaut 1991. First Kazakh astronaut.

Romanov Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Graduated from Bauman-Higher School, Moscow, 1970 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Worked with NPO Salyut.

Solovyov, Vladimir Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1994. Member of first crew to fly between two space stations during a single mission. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO

Titov, Vladimir Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1976-1998. Survived first pad abort during a manned launch. 387 cumulative days in space. SU Air Force. Call sign: Okean (Ocean).

Protchenko Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1979.

Tuan Vietnamese pilot cosmonaut 1979-1980. First Vietnamese astronaut. Engineer, Air force pilot. Participated in the Vietnam War. Major General of Vietnam Air Force.

Khatulev Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1980. Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB

Pozharskaya Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1993.

Viktorenko Russian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1997. 489 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Vityaz (Knight).

Sheffer Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1985-1996. Was married to cosmonaut Tamara Zakharova.

Borodai Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1993.

Andryushkov Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992.

Dobrokvashina Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1993. Civilian Physician, Institute of Biological Medical Problems. Cosmonaut training October 1979 - July 1980. Returned to work at the IMBP.

Gurragcha Mongolian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1981. First Mongolian astronaut. Graduated from Zhukovsky Military Engineering Academy, 1977. Aeronautic engineer, Mongolian Air Force. From 2000 Mongolian Secretary of Defense.

Santonico Italian engineer cosmonaut, 1990-1993.

Solovyov Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1976-1999. 651 cumulative days in space.

Volkov, Aleksandr Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1976-1998. Father of cosmonaut Sergei Volkov. 391 cumulative days in space.

Haignere French test pilot cosmonaut 1985-2003. Was married to astronaut Claudie Andre-Deshays.

Savitskaya Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1980-1993. Test pilot, engineer, second woman in space. First woman to walk in space.

Simonyi Hungarian-American computer scientist, space tourist cosmonaut 2006-2007. Inventor of the Macintosh/Windows visual interface.

Remek Czech pilot cosmonaut 1976-1978. First Czech astronaut.

Baberdin Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992.

Sultanov Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1983-1996.

Afanasyev Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1985-2006. 555 cumulative days in space. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred to TsPK, 1987. Call sign: Derbent (Derbent - Russian city)

Puchkov Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1996.

Bukreyev Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977. Flew for Gromov Institute. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. Died in an aircraft crash.

Moskalenko Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1986.

Steklov Russian actor cosmonaut, 1997-2000.

Sharma Indian pilot cosmonaut 1982-1984. First Indian astronaut. Indian Air Force

Ganzorig Mongolian pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1981.

Turovets Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1980. Test pilot, Gromov Flight Research Institute. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program in 1977 by the Gromov Flight Test Center, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. Died in the crash of an Mi-8 helicopter.

Favier French materials scientist cosmonaut 1985-1996.

Atkov Russian physician cosmonaut 1983-1984.

Baturin Russian engineer cosmonaut 1997-2009.

Liem Vietnamese pilot cosmonaut 1979-1980. Graduated from Gagarin Military Academy, Monino, 1978 Captain and fighter pilot, Vietnam Air Force. Flew many combat missions during the Vietnam War. Continued service in Vietnamese Air Force. Died in the crash of a MiG-21UTI trainer.

Farkas Hungarian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1980. First Hungarian to fly in space.

Magyari Hungarian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1980. Graduated from Gyorgy Kilian military pilot school, 1969. Graduated from Budapest Technical University, 1986. Aeronautical engineer and pilot, Hungarian Air Force. Involved in space research work.

Ivanova Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1983-1994.

Saley Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1987.

Lopez Falcon Cuban pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1980. Graduated from Carlos Ullo military pilot school, 1967. Graduated from Gagarin Military Academy, Monino. Cuban Air Force Captain and pilot. Continued service as a pilot in the Cuban Air Force.

Grekov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1986.

Manakov Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1985-1996. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred to TsPK cosmonaut detachment 1987. Call sign: Vulkan (Volcano).

Ivanov, Leonid Russian pilot cosmonaut 1976-1980. Graduated from Higher Air Force School, Kachinsk, 1971 Major and pilot, Soviet Air Force. Cosmonaut training 23 August 1976 - 30 January 1979. Died in the crash of a MiG-27 aircraft during a test flight.

Maksimenko Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1991.

Morukov Russian physician cosmonaut 1989-2007. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems

Loktionov Russian scientist cosmonaut, 2000-on.

Musabayev Kazakh pilot cosmonaut 1990-2003. Transferred in 1991 Air Force Special Group. Russian Air Force

Tolboyev Avar (Dagestani)-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1983-1994.

Kadenyuk Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut 1976-1998. Longest wait for a spaceflight after becoming an astronaut - 21 years. Soyuz cosmonaut 1976-1983; Spiral pilot 1983-1987; Buran pilot, 1987-1989, NASA Payload Specialist, 1996.

Manarov Lakets-Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1992. 541 cumulative days in space. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute with an engineering diploma in 1974 Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Later a Director of Smolsat.

Laveykin Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1994.

Faris Arab-Syrian pilot cosmonaut 1985-1987. First Syrian to fly in space. Graduated from Military Pilot School, Aleppo, 1973. Colonel and pilot in the Syrian Air Force. Specialist in navigation. Returned to duty after his mission.

Viso French biologist payload specialist astronaut, cosmonaut, 1985-1998. Doctorate of veterinary medicine from " l'Ecole Veterinaire de Maison-Alfort ", 1975. Worked for CNES in Paris, in coordination of spaceflight activities.

Yemelyanov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1984-1992. Graduated from MAI, 1974 Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Cosmonaut training November 1985 - October 1986. Left cosmonaut cadre for medical reasons. Manager for AO TPK "Prodmarket". Died of a heart attack.

Omelchenko Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992.

Aleksandrov, Aleksandr Bulgarian pilot cosmonaut 1978-1988. Graduated from Air Force Academy, 1974. Candidate of technical sciences degree, 1983. Lieutenant Colonel, Bulgarian Air Force.

Dyson American cosmonaut, 2008-2009. Internet entrepreneur, daughter of physicist and space visionary Freeman Dyson. Internet entrepreneur who paid $ 3 million to train as back-up to Charles Simonyi as a space tourist aboard Soyuz TMA-14.

Vasyutin Russian pilot cosmonaut 1976-1986.

Gevorkyan Armenian-Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Graduated from Bauman Technical Higher School, Moscow, 1975 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. From 1991 General Director of Science Corporation "Terra".

Flade German engineer cosmonaut 1990-1992.

Prunariu Romanian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1981. First Rumanian astronaut.

Potapov Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1985. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training October 1979 - July 1980. Later Chief of Laboratory 174 at IMBP.

Tokarev Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1989-2008. Russian Air Force test pilot, flying 44 types of aircraft and helicopters. Selected as Buran test pilot in 1987. From 1994, commander cosmonaut group for aerospace systems.

Pushenko Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1996.

Zakharova Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1995. Was married to cosmonaut Yuri Sheffer.

Borodin Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1993. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training from October 1979 - July 1980. Worked again at IMBP.

Korzun Russian pilot cosmonaut 1987-2003. 381 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Fregat (Frigate).

Pronina Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1980-1992.

Budarin Russian engineer cosmonaut 1989-2004. 444 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO

Balandin Russian engineer cosmonaut 1978-1994. Left cosmonaut corps for medical reasons and returned to NPO Energia until departing in 1994. Then President of Lendint-Association until 2000.

Vinogradov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1992-on. 546 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO.

Habib Syrian pilot cosmonaut, 1985-1987. Graduated from Military Pilot School, Aleppo, 1973 Pilot and Lieutenant Colonel, Syrian Air Force. Resumed military service.

Klyushnikova Russian physician cosmonaut, 1979-1986. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training from October 1979 - July 1980. Did not complete training, when the government commission did not confirm his selection.

Poleshchuk Russian engineer cosmonaut 1989-2004. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO

Prikhodko Tajik-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1994.

Sharov Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992.

Latysheva Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1980-1993.

Moshchenko Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1996-2009.

Masum Afghani pilot cosmonaut, 1988.

Tsibliyev Russian pilot cosmonaut 1987-1998. 381 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Sirius (Sirius).

Tresvyatski Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1985-1996.

Amelkina Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1983.

Fulier Slovak pilot cosmonaut, 1998-1999.

Krichevsky Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1998.

Mace, Timothy British engineer cosmonaut, 1989-1998. Was married to the daughter of former Soviet Cosmonaut V Zholobov.

Yablontsev Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1996.

Avdeyev Russian engineer cosmonaut 1987-2003. 747 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO

Polonski Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1991. Test pilot and Colonel, Soviet Air Force Test Pilot School. Cosmonaut training March 1989 - April 1991. Later a test pilot at Khalovskaya.

Kaleri Latvian-Russian engineer cosmonaut 1984-on. 769 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO.

Artsebarsky Russian test pilot cosmonaut 1985-1994.

Severin, Vladimir Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1990-1995. Son of design bureau chief Gay Ilich Severin.

Ewald German engineer cosmonaut 1990-2002.

Kuleshova Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1980-1992. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute named after Grigoriy (Sergo) K. Ordzhonikidze, 1978. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. From 1992 she worked as an engineer at NPO Energia, Department 292.

Zhukov, Sergei Russian engineer cosmonaut 2003-2011.

Fuglesang Swedish engineer cosmonaut 1992-on.

Kondakova Russian engineer cosmonaut 1989-1999. Engineer, first Russian woman to fly in space for other than propaganda reasons. Was married to astronaut Valeriy Ryumin. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO

Eyharts French test pilot cosmonaut 1990-on.

Andre-Deshays French biologist cosmonaut 1985-2002. Biologist, first French female astronaut. Was married to astronaut Jean-Pierre Haignere.

Zaitsev Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1985-1996.

Usachyov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1989-2004. 552 cumulative days in space.

Lazutkin Russian engineer cosmonaut 1992-2007. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO.

Vozovikov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1993. Graduated from Higher Military Pilot School, Armavir, 1979. Cosmonaut training 1 October 1990 - 6 March 1992. Drowned during recovery training in the Black Sea.

Reiter German test pilot cosmonaut 1992-2007.

Padalka Russian pilot cosmonaut 1989-on. 710 cumulative days in space.

Treshchev Russian engineer cosmonaut 1992-2006. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO

Krikalyov Russian engineer cosmonaut 1985-2009. World record for total duration spent in space (803 days). Flew in space six times. First Russian to fly aboard an American spacecraft.

Lukyanyuk Russian physician cosmonaut, 1989-2003.

Kuipers Dutch engineer cosmonaut 1998-on.

Clervoy French engineer cosmonaut 1985-on.

Silve French engineer cosmonaut, 1990-1993. Pilot, French Navy Selected for French astronaut team.

Mohmand Afghani pilot cosmonaut 1988. First Afghani astronaut.

Yurchikhin Georgian-Russian engineer cosmonaut 1997-on. 537 cumulative days in space. Engineer, Energia NPO.

Babiak Slovak pilot cosmonaut, 1998-1999. As of January 2001 Babiak was a Colonel of the Slovak Air Force, studying at the Air War College in Alabama, USA.

Tyurin Russian engineer cosmonaut 1994-on. 532 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO.

Shargin Russian engineer cosmonaut 1996-2008. Russian Strategic Rocket Force

Korniyenko Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1998-on. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute, 1987 Worked as an engineer at KBOM, then transferred to RKKE. Cosmonaut training completed November 19, 1999.

Viehboeck Austrian engineer cosmonaut 1989-1991. First Austrian astronaut.

Merchez Belgian physician cosmonaut, 1992-1995. Was married to astronaut Maurizio Cheli.

Stoyanov Bulgarian pilot cosmonaut, 1987-1988. Graduated from Air Force School Pilot, Bulgarian Air Force.

Onufrienko Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1989-2004. After leaving cosmonaut corps in April 2004, assigned as Deputy Chief for the First Administration of RGNII TsPK. Call sign: Skif (Skif - Roman-age tribe).

Garriott, Richard American space tourist, 2007-2008. Son of astronaut Owen Garriott, raised in Nassau Bay, Texas. Sold first computer game at 16; made millions in computer games. Paid $30 million for a flight to the International Space Station.

Malenchenko Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1987-on. Call sign: Agat (Agate). 641 cumulative days in space.

Aliyev Kyrgyzstani pilot cosmonaut, 1996-2001. Kirgiz guest cosmonaut mission cancelled. Aliyev had been a Soviet military officer in charge of a transport squadron of the Transbaikal military district.

Borzenkova Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. In March 1962 selected as cosmonaut, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission.

Kvasova Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Selected as cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but in March 1962 the selection was rejected by the government commission.

Sokolova Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Pilot. Selected as a cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but on 3 March 1962 her selection was rejected by the government commission. In 1965 she set the world speed record for a female pilot while flying a MIG-21.

Solovova Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Selected as a cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but in March 1962 her selection was rejected by the government commission.

Yefremova Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Selected as a cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but in March 1962 her selection was rejected by the government commission.

Gidzenko Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1987-2001. Call sign: Uran (Uranus).

Zalyotin Russian pilot cosmonaut 1990-2014.

Dezhurov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1987-2004. Made nine spacewalks, total time 1.58 days.

Kuzhelnaya Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1994-2004. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO

Karashtin Russian physician cosmonaut, 1989-2002.

Lothaller Austrian engineer cosmonaut 1989-1991. Doctorate degree from University of Vienna, 1987. One of five Austrian candidates in 1992 ESA selection. Made short list twice, but not selected in 1992 and 1998. Later had his own medical practice.

Sharman British engineer cosmonaut 1989-1998. Chemist. First British astronaut. First non-American, non-Soviet female astronaut.

Krikun Ukrainian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. In 1997 unsuccessfully applied for the Ukrainian cosmonaut team.

Kostenko Russian businessman, cosmonaut training 2005, backup to Gregory Olsen for the space tourist seat on Soyuz TMA-7.

Moshkin Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-2002.

Bella Slovak pilot cosmonaut 1998-1999. First Slovak astronaut.

Moskalyov Russian scientist cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Scientist. Selected as cosmonaut in early May 1964, but on 28 May 1964 the selection was rejected by the government commission.

Kononenko Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1996-on. 391 cumulative days in space.

Sharipov Tatar-Russian pilot cosmonaut 1990-2008. First Uzbek astronaut. SU Air Force.

Kikuchi Japanese journalist cosmonaut, 1989-1990. Graduated from the University of Tokyo in Chinese language Journalist, Tokyo Broadcasting Corporation. Reporter for world news with TBS, reporting from Moscow and then again from Tokyo.

Borisenko, Andrei Russian engineer cosmonaut 2003-on.

Lonchakov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1997-2013. Air Defense Force

Ivanov, I Russian physician cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Medical doctor. Selected as a cosmonaut, but on 26 May 1964 the selection was rejected by the government commission.

Voskresensky Russian physician cosmonaut, 1964-1964. Medical doctor. Selected as a cosmonaut in early May 1964, but the selection was never confirmed by the government commission.

Yaroshenko Russian physician cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Medical doctor. Selected as a cosmonaut in early May 1964, but on 26 May 1964 the selection was rejected by the government commission.

Kotov Russian physician cosmonaut 1996-on. Russian Air Force; MD from Moscow Sergei M. Kirov Military Medicine Academy, 1980 . Worked in the TsPK, medical department.

Meytarchan Ukrainian scientist cosmonaut, 1996-1996.

Revin Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1996-on.

Mukhortov Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992.

Skvortsov, Aleksandr Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-on. Son of cosmonaut Aleksandr Skvortsov.

Frolov Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Civilian Engineer, Korolev bureau. On 18 May 1964 selection as cosmonaut not approved.

Ansari Iranian-American engineer cosmonaut 2006. First female space tourist. First Iranian in space.

Kozeyev Russian engineer cosmonaut 1996-2007.

Aymakhanov Kazakh pilot cosmonaut, 2002-on.

Kondratiyev Russian pilot cosmonaut 1997-2012.

Skripochka Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1997-on. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO

Ivanishin Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2003-on. Ivanishin was a Captain in the Russian Air Force at Petrozavodsk when selected. A senior fighter pilot with the VVS, he had flown MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters. Russian Air Force

Adamchuk Ukrainian scientist cosmonaut, 1996-1996. Botanist.

Artemyev Latvian engineer cosmonaut, 2003-on.

Samokutyayev Russian pilot cosmonaut 2003-on.

Romanenko, Roman Russian pilot cosmonaut 1997-on. Son of cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko. Graduated from Chernigov Higher Military Air School of Pilots, 1992 Russian Air Force. Cosmonaut training completed November 19. 1999.

Valkov Russian pilot cosmonaut 1997-2012. Graduated from Barnaul Higher Military Air School of Pilots, 1994 Russian Air Force. Cosmonaut training completed November 19, 1999.

Enomoto Japanese businessman cosmonaut, 2002-2006.

Halik Australian tourist cosmonaut 2007-2008. Millionaire businessman who was the back-up to Richard Garriott for the space tourist seat on Soyuz TMA-13.

Novitskiy Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Lieutenant Colonel, VVS and PVO 4th Army

Ovchinin Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, 70th Seregina Special Flight Test Regiment RGNIITsPK

Surayev Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-on. Russian Air Force

Muszaphar Malaysian physician cosmonaut 2006-2007. First Malaysian in space.

Aimbetov Kazakh pilot cosmonaut, 2002-on.

Shkaplerov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2003-on.

Volkov, Sergey Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut 1997-on. 365 cumulative days in space. Son of cosmonaut Aleksandr Volkov.

Shuttleworth South African tourist cosmonaut 2001-2002. First South African astronaut.

Ryzhikov Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, VVS and PVO 14th Army (Novosibirsk / SibVO) Cosmonaut 2006-10-11 to .

Ryazansky Russian physician cosmonaut, 2003-on. Worked at IMBP, in the post of senior scientific researcher at the "Sensomotornoy, Fiziology i Profilaktiky" department. Cosmonaut training 16 June 2003 - 27 June 2005.

Serov, Mark Russian engineer cosmonaut 2003-2011. An engineer at RKK Energia since 1998.

Tarelkin Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2003-on.

Gromushkina Russian actor cosmonaut, 1998-2001. Actress, selected to appear in a film to be filmed aboard the Mir space station. Accomplished some training, but the project was cancelled.

Ko San Korean scientist cosmonaut, 2006-2008.

Serova Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2006-on.Wife of Mark Serov (2003 selection group) Graduate of MAI. Worked in TsUP Flight Control Center.

Misurkin Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, VVS and PVO 4th Army (Rostov-on-Don; North-Caucasian VO)

Yi Soyeon Korean engineer cosmonaut 2006-2008. First Korean in space.

Khaleed Malaysian physician cosmonaut, 2006-2007. Backup to first Malaysian in space.

Ponomarev Russian pilot cosmonaut 2006-2012. Captain, Special-Purpose Command Staff (Moscow VO)

Tikhonov Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2006-on. Graduated MAI, 2005.

Family: Academy of Sciences Group 1 - 1967, Academy of Sciences Group 1 Supplemental - 1968, Academy of Sciences Group 2 - 1980, Air Force Group 1 - 1960, Air Force Group 10 - 1989, Air Force Group 11 - 1990, Air Force Group 11 Supplemental - 1991, Air Force Group 11 Supplemental - 1996, Air Force Group 12 - 1997, Air Force Group 12 Supplemental - 1997, Air Force Group 12 Supplemental - 1998, Air Force Group 14 - 2006, Air Force Group 2 - 1963, Air Force Group 2 Supplemental - 1964, Air Force Group 3 - 1965, Air Force Group 4 - 1967, Air Force Group 5 - 1970, Air Force Group 6 - 1976, Air Force Group 7 - 1978, Air Force Group 8 - 1987, Almaz Engineer Group 1 - 1972, Almaz Engineer Group 2 - 1973, Almaz Engineer Group 3 - 1978, Austrian Commercial Group - 1989, British Commercial Group - 1989, Buran Group - 1978, Buran Group 1 - 1978, Buran Group 2 - 1985, Buran Group 3 - 1989, Buran Group 3 Supplemental - 1990, Cardiologist Group - 1977, China Group - 1996, Chkalov Group 1 - 1987, Chkalov Group 2 - 1988, Chkalov Group 3 - 1992, Chkalov Group 4 - 1993, Chkalov Group 5 - 1995, CNES Group - 1985, Commercial Group - 1993, Energia Engineer Group 1 - 1966, Energia Engineer Group 1 Supplemental - 1967, Energia Engineer Group 10 - 1989, Energia Engineer Group 11 - 1992, Energia Engineer Group 12 - 1994, Energia Engineer Group 13 - 1996, Energia Engineer Group 14 - 1997, Energia Engineer Group 14 Supplemental - 1998, Energia Engineer Group 14 Supplemental - 1999, Energia Engineer Group 16 - 2006, Energia Engineer Group 2 - 1967, Energia Engineer Group 3 - 1972, Energia Engineer Group 4 - 1973, Energia Engineer Group 5 - 1978, Energia Engineer Group 6 - 1980, Energia Engineer Group 6 Supplemental - 1983, Energia Engineer Group 7 - 1984, Energia Engineer Group 8 - 1985, Energia Engineer Group 9 - 1987, Energia Group Special Selection - 1977, Female Group - 1962, Female Group - 1980, German Commercial Group - 1990, IMBP Group 1 - 1972, IMBP Group 2 - 1978, IMBP Group 3 - 1980, IMBP Group 4 - 1985, IMBP Group 5 - 1989, Intercosmos Group - 1976, Intercosmos Group - 1978, Intercosmos Group - 1979, International Group - 1980, International Group - 1982, International Group - 1985, International Group - 1986, International Group - 1987, International Group - 1988, International Group - 1997, Japanese Commercial Group - 1989, Journalist Group - 1965, Journalist Group - 1990, Kazakhstan Group - 1991, Khrunichev Engineer Group - 1997, MAP Group 1 - 1981, MAP Group 2 - 1983, MAP Group 3 - 1984, MAP Group 4 - 1985, MAP Group 5 - 1989, Space Tourist Group - 2000, Space Tourist Group - 2006, Ukraine Group - 1996, Voskhod Group - 1964, Voskhod Physician Group - 1965, Vulkan Engineering Group - 1968, Zvezda Engineer Group - 1990. More at: 7630.

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