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Chandrayaan
Mars Orbiter Spacecr
Mars Orbiter Spacecr
Credit: Manufacturer Image
First Indian mission to Mars. Carried 15 kg of instruments, including a color camera, but primary purpose was to test technologies for future planetary missions. Carried 850 kg of propellant for trans-Mars ejection and insertion into Martian orbit on arrival there.

Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-11-05. Last Launch: 2013-11-05. Number: 1 .

The MOS was inserted in elliptical Earth orbit; it used its own propulsion to achieve trans-Mars injection. The fourth stage and MOM payload entered a 251 x 23,892 km x 19.4 deg orbit with first perigee over the South Pacific. On November 7 the orbit was raised to 259 x 28,726 km, and on November 8 to over 70,000 km apogee. A further burn on November 10 delivered only 35 m/s, raising the apogee less than planned. A makeup burn on November 11 fixed the problem, and a burn on November 15 put the spacecraft in a 853 x 194,683 km x 19.4 deg orbit. A final perigee burn at 19:19 GMT on November 30 accelerated MOM to a hyperbolic Earth escape trajectory, and it entered an 0.98 x 1.45 AU solar orbit on December 3 on the way to Mars.

NASA NSSDC Master Catalog Description

The Indian Space Research Organization announced on 31 August that the Chandrayaan 1 mission has been officially terminated after contact was lost abruptly at 20:00 UT on 28 August.

Chandrayaan-1 is an Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission designed to orbit the Moon over a two year period with the objectives of upgrading and testing India's technological capabilities in space and returning scientific information on the lunar surface. The spacecraft bus is roughly a 1.5 meter cube with a dry weight of 523 kg (Launch mass of the system, including its Lunar Apogee Motor, LAM, is 1380 kg). It is based on the Kalpansat meteorological satellite. Power is provided by a solar array which generates 750 W and charges lithium ion batteries. A bipropellant propulsion system is used to transfer Chandrayaan-1 into lunar orbit and maintain attitude. The spacecraft is 3-axis stabilized using attitude control thrusters and reaction wheels. Knowledge is provided by star sensors, accelerometers, and an inertial reference unit. Telecommand communications will be in S-band and science data transmission in X-band.

The scientific payload has a mass of 55 kg and contains three Indian instruments. The Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) has 5 meter resolution and a 40 km swath in the panchromatic band and will be used to produce a high-resolution map of the Moon. The Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI) will perform mineralogical mapping in the 400-900 nm band with a spectral resolution of 15 nm and a spatial resolution of 80 m. The Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) will determine the surface topography. A fourth instrument, an X-ray flourescence spectrometer, will have three components: an Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (CIXS) covering 1 - 10 keV with a ground resolution of 10 km, a High Energy X-ray/gamma ray spectromenter (HEX) for 10 - 200 keV measurements with ground resolution of about 20 km, and a Solar X-ray Monitor (SXM) to detect solar flux in the 2 - 10 keV range. CIXS will be used to map the abundance of Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Fe, and Ti at the surface, the HEX will measure U, Th, 210Pb, 222Rn degassing, and other radioactive elements, and the SXM will monitor the solar flux to normalize the results of CIXS and HEX. The Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) will map composition using low energy neutral atoms sputtered from the surface. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is an imaging spectrometer designed to map the surface mineral composition. A near-infrared spectrometer (SIR-2) will also map the mineral composition using an infrared grating spectrometer. The Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (Mini-SAR) will perform radar scattering and imaging investigations at the poles in a search for water ice. A Bulgarian instrument, the Radiation Dose Monitor (RADOM-7), will also fly on the mission to characterize the local radiation environment.

Chandrayaan-1 will also carry a 35 kg Moon Impact Probe (MIP) designed to be released from the spacecraft and hit the lunar surface. The MIP carried a video camera, a radar altimeter, and a mass spectrometer. The side panels of the box-like probe were painted with the Indian flag.

The spacecraft launched on a PSLV C11 (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota on the southeast coast of India on 22 October 2008 at 00:52 UT (6:22 a.m. local time). The PSLV injected Chandrayaan-1 into a 255 x 22860 km transfer orbit with an inclination of 17.9 degrees. Reaching lunar transfer trajectory involved five firings of the LAM increasing the eccentricity of the orbit around the Earth to a final apogee of 380,000 km on 4 November. On 8 November Chandrayaan was put into a 7502 x 504 km lunar polar orbit, and then lowered into a 100 km circular polar orbit. On 14 November at 14:36:54 UT the Moon Impact Probe was released and hit the lunar surface at 15:01 UT near the Moon's south pole. All three instruments returned data before the crash. The orbiter will return data for at least two years. Chandrayaan means "Moon Craft" in ancient Sanskrit. Total cost of the mission is estimated at INR 3.8 billion ($83 million U.S.).

NASA NSSDC Master Catalog Description

The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) or Mangalyaan (Hindi for "Mars Craft") is designed to study Mars from orbit. The scientific objectives are to explore Mars' surface features, morphology, mineralogy, and atmosphere. To achieve these objectives, the spacecraft is equipped with five scientific instruments and will nominally spend 6-10 months orbiting and making measurements at Mars.

Spacecraft and Subsystems

The Mangalyaan spacecraft is based on a modified IRS/INSAT/Chandrayaan-1 bus. The main body is a roughly 1.5 m cube constructed of aluminum and composite fiber reinforced plastic sandwich material. Total mass is 1,340 kg, of which 852 kg is fuel. A 1.4 x 1.8 m solar array wing consisting of three panels is mounted on one side of the spacecraft. It can generate 800 W power at Mars and charges a 36 amp-hr lithium-ion battery. The bus is built around a 440 N bi-propellant (monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide) thruster and propellant tanks with 390 liter capacity. Attitude control is achieved by four reaction wheels and eight small thrusters, with knowledge provided by two star sensors, a solar panel Sun sensor, and a coarse analog Sun sensor. Communications are via a 2.2 m S-band high gain antenna, a medium gain antenna, and a low gain antenna.

The science payload has a total mass of 15 kg and comprises five instruments. The Mars Color Camera, the Lyman Alpha Photometer, the Thermal Imaging Spectrometer, the Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer, and the Methane Sensor for Mars.

Mission Profile

Mangalyaan launched at 09:08 UTC (14:38 IST, 4:08 a.m. EST) on a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C25) from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, India. Six burns raised the apogee of the orbit and the spacecraft left Earth orbit and headed for Mars on 01 December 2013. After a 300-day cruise a 24-minute orbital insertion burn on 24 September 2014 starting at 1:47:32 UT (7:17:32 a.m. ISU) put the spacecraft in an elliptical 76.7-hour Mars orbit, 366 x 80,000 km with an inclination of 150 degrees. The nominal mission is planned for 6-10 months at Mars. The total cost of the mission is about 4.5 billion rupees ($70 million contemporaneous US).



Country: India. Launch Vehicles: PSLV, PSLV-XL. Projects: Mars. Bibliography: 6411, 12179.
Photo Gallery

ChandrayaanChandrayaan
Credit: Manufacturer Image



2013 November 5 - . 09:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Pad: xxx. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV-XL.
  • Mars Orbiter Spacecraft - . Mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Nation: India. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Chandrayaan. USAF Sat Cat: 39370 . COSPAR: 2013-060A.

    First Indian mission to Mars. Carried 15 kg of instruments, including a color camera, but primary purpose was to test technologies for future planetary missions. Carried 850 kg of propellant for trans-Mars ejection and insertion into Martian orbit on arrival there. The MOS was inserted in elliptical Earth orbit; it used its own propulsion to achieve trans-Mars injection. The fourth stage and MOM payload entered a 251 x 23,892 km x 19.4 deg orbit with first perigee over the South Pacific. On November 7 the orbit was raised to 259 x 28,726 km, and on November 8 to over 70,000 km apogee. A further burn on November 10 delivered only 35 m/s, raising the apogee less than planned. A makeup burn on November 11 fixed the problem, and a burn on November 15 put the spacecraft in a 853 x 194,683 km x 19.4 deg orbit. A final perigee burn at 19:19 GMT on November 30 accelerated MOM to a hyperbolic Earth escape trajectory, and it entered an 0.98 x 1.45 AU solar orbit on December 3 on the way to Mars.



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