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DF-31
KT-1 on Pad
KT-1 on Pad
Mobile, solid propellant, land-based, medium range, three-stage ballistic missile. The missile was tested on the ground in 1995. Ejection tests from the transport-launch tube began in 1998. The first flight test took place on 1 August 1999. JL-2 was the submarine-launched version. The KT family of all solid-propellant Chinese launch vehicles, used the DF-31 with new upper or lower stages to achieve a range of payload performances. Following two unsuccessful launches in 2002-2003, the KT project seems to have been abandoned.

AKA: CSS-9;Dong-Feng 31. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-08-02. Last Launch: 2013-07-24. Number: 10 . Payload: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Height: 11.00 m (36.00 ft). Diameter: 2.00 m (6.50 ft). Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

The missile was tested on the ground in 1995. Ejection tests from the transport-launch tube began in 1998. The first flight test took place on 1 August 1999. Deployment was not expected until 2005-2010.

Maximum range: 7,900 km (4,900 mi). Number Standard Warheads: 1. Warhead yield: 250 KT. Boost Propulsion: Solid rocket. Initial Operational Capability: 1998.



Subtopics

KT-1 Chinese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. China's first solid propellant orbital launch vehicle was derived from the first and second stages of the DF-31 ICBM with a new solid third stage. The vehicle was named Kaituozhe-1 (Explorer-1) and was capable of putting 100 kg into polar orbits.

KT-2 Intermediate all-solid propellant Chinese launch vehicle. Model first displayed at Wuzhai in the fall of 2002. Evidently consists of new large diameter first stage motor, topped by the first two stages of the basic KT-1 vehicle. All figures are rough estimates.

KT-2A Heavy all-solid propellant Chinese launch vehicle. Model first displayed at Wuzhai in the fall of 2002. Consists of two parallel first-stage booster motors derived new the first stage motor of the KT-1, a larger-diameter core second stage motor like that of the KT-2, a new larger-diameter third stage motor, and an enormous new fairing. All figures are rough estimates.

JL-2 Chinese submarine-launched intercontinental ballistic missile. DF-23, DF-31 were land based versions.

DF-41 Chinese solid propellant, mobile ICBM. The DF-41 was a longer-range version of the DF-31.

Chang Zheng 11 Chinese four-stage all-solid propellant launch vehicle. Quick-reaction time, said to have been based on the DF-31 ballistic missile.

Family: ICBM. Country: China. Spacecraft: HTSTL. Launch Sites: Taiyuan. Agency: ARMT. Bibliography: 2, 8260.
Photo Gallery

Chinese RV ShapesChinese RV Shapes
Chinese re-entry vehicle shapes, 1998.
Credit: Richard D. Fisher, Jr



1999 August 2 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 May 28 - . LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: KT-1.
  • China to Develop Solid Fuel Launch Vehicle - . Nation: China. China established the Space Solid Fuel Rocket Carrier Co., Ltd., to develop the new SLV-1 launch vehicle. This would be a mobile, partially reusable small space launcher..

2000 August 15 - . LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: KT-1.
  • KT-1 solid rocket launcher - . Nation: China. China completed the overall design of the rocket engine that is to be used on its first all-solid space launch vehicle..

2000 November 4 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 November 7 - . LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: KT-1.
  • Solid Launcher Officially Named - . Nation: China. China's new solid small space launcher was officially named "Kaituozhe-1" (Explorer-1). The launcher would be capable of putting 100 kg into polar orbit and was scheduled to make its first flight in 2002..

2000 November 16 - . LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: KT-1.
  • Kaituozhe-1 (KT-1) small launcher passes design review - . Nation: China. A 14-member review committee concluded that the overall design of the KT-1 launch vehicle was feasible and could meet the requirement for launching micro-sats. The project officially entered the engineering phase..

2000 December 16 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 February 25 - . LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: KT-1.
  • Kaituozhe 1 Third Stage Engine Successfully Tested - . Nation: China. The solid engine used on the third stage of the Kaituozhe 1 launch vehicle performed its first ground test firing. The test was successful and all parameters meet design specifications..

2001 April 23 - . LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: KT-1.
  • Kaitozhe 1 First Commercial Launch in 2002 - . Nation: China. Kaituozhe 1's first commercial launch was scheduled for 2002..

2002 September 15 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: KT-1. FAILURE: Second stage failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • HTSTL-1 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: China. Manufacturer: Tsinghua. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: HTSTL. First attempted launch of the all-solid-propellant KT-1 launch vehicle. The 50 kg test satellite, built by university students, was to have been placed in a 300 km polar orbit..

2002 November 23 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2003 September 16 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: KT-1. FAILURE: Fourth stage failed to ignite.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Kaituozhe 1 - . Payload: PS-2. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: China. Spacecraft: HTSTL. Second attempted launch of KT-1. The launch was intended to place a 40 kg microsatellite called PS-2 into a 300 x 300 km polar orbit..

2004 July 1 - . Launch Site: Yellow Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 35.0 N x 125.0 E. Launch Platform: XIA. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: JL-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Julang-2 - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

2005 June 9 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: KT-1. FAILURE: Reported orbital launch failure.
  • MS-1? - . Nation: China. Agency: PLA2AC. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2005 June 12 - . Launch Site: Yellow Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 35.0 N x 125.0 E. Launch Platform: XIA. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: JL-2.
  • Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2006 September 4 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • DF-31 test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2008 May 29 - . Launch Site: Yellow Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: XIA. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: JL-2.
  • Nation: China. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2012 July 24 - . Launch Site: China. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • RV - . Nation: China. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Some sources claimed that it was a test of a new longer-range DF-41 ICBM.

2012 August 16 - . Launch Pad: Xia sub, Bohai. Launch Platform: T094. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: JL-2.
  • RV - . Nation: China. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission..

2012 August 30 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • RV - . Nation: China. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission..

2012 November 30 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • Nation: China. Agency: PLA2AC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2013 May 13 - . 12:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • Kunpeng-7 - . Nation: China. Apogee: 30,000 km (18,000 mi).

    Magnetosphere mission. Said to be a very high altitude barium release experiment, but US Department of Defence stated it was a direct-ascent anti-geosynchronous satellite weapon test to an altitude of 30,000 km. Chinese officials stated it was a scientific mission with a payload launched to 10,000 km altitude consisting of a Langmuir probe, particle detectors, a magnetometer, and a barium cloud release.


2013 July 24 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. Launch Vehicle: DF-31.
  • Nation: China. Agency: PLA2AC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2014 December 13 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: DF-41.
  • RVs ? - . Nation: China. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test flight..

2015 September 25 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS-2. Launch Pad: Jiuquan SLS-E. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 11.
  • Pujiang-1 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: China. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Pujiang. USAF Sat Cat: 40925 . COSPAR: 2015-051A. Apogee: 487 km (302 mi). Perigee: 465 km (288 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 94.13 min.

    First launch of the CZ-11 solid-fuel, four-stage, light launch vehicle, though to be related to the DF-31 and DF-41 ICBMs. Pujiang, the Chinese Technology Experiment Satellite, was designed to promote the construction of smart cities in China, by monitoring urban weather, traffic and population density. It was the first Chinese satellite to use 3D printing for the titanium structure of its antenna. It included a Wi-Fi router providing a communication network between the three Tianwang cubesats released on the same launch.

  • Shangkeda-2 - . Payload: TIANWANG 1C (TW-1C). Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: China. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40926 . COSPAR: 2015-051B. Apogee: 485 km (301 mi). Perigee: 460 km (280 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 94.04 min.

    Part of the Tianwang constallation of three CubeSats for space networking experiments. Codeveloped by the Shanghai Engineering Center for Microsatellites (SECM), the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NJUST), GomSpace Denmark, Tekever Space Portugal and NanoSpace Sweden.

  • NJUST-2 - . Payload: TIANWANG 1B (TW-1B). Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: China. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40927 . COSPAR: 2015-051C. Apogee: 485 km (301 mi). Perigee: 462 km (287 mi). Inclination: 97.3100 deg. Period: 94.07 min.
  • NJFA-1 - . Payload: TIANWANG 1A (TW-1A). Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: China. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 40928 . COSPAR: 2015-051D. Apogee: 485 km (301 mi). Perigee: 463 km (287 mi). Inclination: 97.2900 deg. Period: 94.08 min.

2016 April 12 - . Launch Site: Taiyuan. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: DF-41.
  • DF-41 RVs? - . Nation: China. Type: Test. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission..

2016 November 9 - . 23:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS-E. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: Chang Zheng 11.
  • Maichong Xing SW - . Payload: XPNAV-1. Nation: China. Class: Astronomy. Type: Astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 41841 . COSPAR: 2016-066A. Apogee: 512 km (318 mi). Perigee: 493 km (306 mi). Inclination: 97.4000 deg.

    Second launch of the small solid-fuel CZ-11 launch vehicle from Jiuquan. It carried the 240 kg Maichong Xing Shiyan Weixing (Pulse Star Experimental Satellite) which will test the concept of navigation using the signals from X-ray millisecond pulsars. These compact stars spin hundreds of times a second and the X-ray flashes from their magnetic poles swishing past us at that high rate can be used as a very accurate clock, the key component of a GPS-like navigation system. The concept was developed some years ago by the NRL team and it was hoped to use it in future US space systems. The launch also carried four cubesat-class payloads.

  • Xiaioxiang-1 - . Nation: China. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 41842 . COSPAR: 2016-066B. Apogee: 511 km (317 mi). Perigee: 492 km (305 mi). Inclination: 97.4000 deg. From Tianyi Research Institute in Changsha, a 6U cubesat with a precision attitude control system experiment intended for future astronomy missions..
  • Lishui 1-01 - . Nation: China. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 41843 . COSPAR: 2016-066C. Apogee: 511 km (317 mi). Perigee: 491 km (305 mi). Inclination: 97.4000 deg. Imaging satellite launched to begin a commercial constellation for Zhejiang LiYi Electronic Technology Co..
  • KS-1Q - . Nation: China. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 41844 . COSPAR: 2016-066D. Apogee: 511 km (317 mi). Perigee: 491 km (305 mi). Inclination: 97.4000 deg. Instrument package, attached to the CZ-11 final stage, measured the launch vehicle environment..
  • CAS-2T - . Nation: China. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 41844 . COSPAR: 2016-066D. Apogee: 511 km (317 mi). Perigee: 491 km (305 mi). Inclination: 97.4000 deg. Amateur radio payload in a 1U cubesat; remained attached to the launch vehicle..

2017 March 2 - . 23:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: DF-31. Launch Vehicle: KT-2.
  • Tiankun-1 - . Payload: TK-1. Nation: China. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 42061 . COSPAR: 2017-012A. Apogee: 404 km (251 mi). Perigee: 373 km (231 mi). Inclination: 96.9000 deg.

    China's CASIC missile agency launched the KT-2, a new orbital launch vehicle developed by CASIC's 4th Academy. It placed a small satellite, Tiankun-1, in orbit. Tiankun 1, built by the CASIC 2nd Academy (CCMETA), was a test of a new satellite bus and probably has a mass of a few hundred kg.



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