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Chelomei bureau
Part of Chelomei Family
Russian manufacturer of cruise missiles, ballistic missiles, space launch vehicles, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Located in Reutov, Russia.

AKA: Chelomei;GKNPTs Khrunichev;NPO Mashinostroyenia;NPO Mashinostroyeniya;OKB-52;V N Chelomei. Location: Reutov.

Controversially we have combined together several industrial enterprises and design bureaus as 'Chelomei' that in the post-Soviet Union period were exploiting products developed under his leadership. Due to Chelomei's rapid acquisition and absorption of other design bureaus during his boom years (1958-1965), followed by a spin-off of those same enterprises after he fell from grace with Khrushchev's overthrow, the picture is very complicated.

The core enterprise was founded as OKB-52 (Experimental Design Bureau) in 1954 and located in Reutov, a suburb of Moscow at the northeast corner of the ring road. This was redesignated TsKBM (Central Design Bureau for Machine Building) in 1965, and then NPO Mashinostroyenia (Scientific Production Organization for Machine Building) in 1976. It retained design responsibility throughout its life for the Chelomei ballistic and cruise missiles, the Proton launch vehicle, and the Almaz and TKS military space stations.

In the process of expansion and collapse, Chelomei's bureau acquired, then lost the following subsidiaries:

  • Filial 1 was created in October 1960 when Chelomei absorbed Myasishchev's OKB-23, located in Moscow. In 1976 it was acquired by Glushko's NPO Energia and became the KB Salyut design bureau, devoting itself primarily to development of modules for the Mir space station. In 1985 it became the independent NPOEM (NPO for Experimental Machine Building) to devote itself fully to Star Wars projects. Finally in 1994 it jointed again with Khrunichev GKNPTs (see next entry) to expedite international marketing of the Proton launch vehicle and International Space Station modules. It acquired design responsibility for Almaz and TKS derived space station modules for the Mir and International Space Stations from about 1980. It also designed the Polyus space battle station for launch by the Energia booster.

  • Filial 2 was originated in 1958 when Chelomei acquired NII-642 (scientific research institute). This filial, devoted primarily to development of containerized launch systems and silos for Chelomei's missiles, remained part of the core Chelomei enterprise until 1990. It was then spun off as the independent NPO Vympel.

  • At the time of taking in Myasishchev's design bureau, the Khrunichev factory, previously occupied with manufacture of Myasishchev bombers, became a production facility for OKB-52. It was separated again in 1965 and became an independent production facility reporting directly to the Ministry of General Machine Building (MOM). In 1994 it was reunited with Chelomei's Filial 1 into the Khrunichev GKNPTs (State Space Science and Production Center). Nevertheless throughout the period it was involved primarily with production of Chelomei products (UR-100 ICBM's and follow-ons; Proton launch vehicles; Almaz and TKS-derived space stations).

  • In December 1962, Lavochkin's OKB-301 became a part of Chelomei and was evidently incorporated into Filial 2. In 1965 it was spun off again and assigned future development and manufacture of lunar and planetary probes for Korolev.

  • The Tsybin bureau was closed down and transferred to the Myasishchev bureau in October 1959. When the Myasishchev bureau was in turn closed and the staff transferred to Filial 1 of Chelomei's OKB-52 bureau in 1960. Chelomei stopped work on Tsybin's RSR/R-020 trisonic aircraft in April 1961.



People: Chelomei, Yefremov, Grechanik, Makrushin, Yuyukov, Romanov, Khatulev, Gevorkyan, Moshchenko. Country: Russia. Engines: R6-117. Spacecraft: Raketoplan, LK-1, LK-700, Polyot, TGR, Almaz APOS, 11F75, KLE Complex Lunar Expedition, Kosmoplan, N-4, IS-A, IS-P, N-6, Lunar Orbit OPS, MK-700, Almaz OPS-2, LK-3, Almaz OPS, OPS + TKS, KSI, TKS, NPG, LKS, ISS, Mir Modules-FGB, Kvant, Polyus, Kvant-2, Kristall, IS-MU, Teknologia, Tellura, Bioteknologiya, Spektr - Original, Skif-DM, Space Biotechnological Complex, TMP, Spektr, Priroda, Alpha Lifeboat, Kondor, ISS Zarya, Simsat, PK spacecraft. Launch Vehicles: Kh-101, Kh-102, MKR, Proton, Initial UR-500, Monoblock UR-500, Polyblock UR-500, UR-700, UR-500, UR-200, UR-200A, UR-200B, Taran, Proton-K, UR-100M SLBM, UR-100, Proton-K/D, UR-700 / RD-350, UR-700 / RO-31, UR-700 / 11D54, UR-100K, UR-900, UR-700M, UR-100M, UR-100U, UR-100N, Proton-K/DM, Proton-K/D-1, UR-100NU 15A35, Proton-K/DM-2, UR-100NU 15A35S, Proton-K/DM-2 DM1, Proton-K/D-2, Meteorit, UR-100NU 15A35P, Rokot, Rokot K, Albatros ICBM, 17K-AM, Proton-K/DM-2M, Angara 1.1, Proton-K/17S40, Proton-K/17S40 DM2, Proton/Briz K/M, Proton-K/DM-2M DM3, Proton-K/DM-2M DM4, UR-500MK, Angara 4A, UR-530, Angara-1.2PP, Angara 3A, Angara 5A, Proton-M/Briz-M, Strela launch vehicle, Proton-M/DM-2, Angara Orel. Stages: Briz-KM, Strela-3 stage.

1914 June 30 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomei - . Nation: Russia, Ukraine. Related Persons: Chelomei bureau. Soviet Chief Designer 1955-1984 of OKB-52. Leading designer of cruise missiles and ICBMs. Fought for lead role in space launchers and manned spacecraft. Led work on UR-100, UR-200 ICBM's, Proton LV, Raketoplan, Almaz, TKS manned spacecraft..

1961 August 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Proton.
  • Chelomei begins UR-500 Proton design studies. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chelomei. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau. Program: GR-2.

    At first the launch vehicle was simply to consist of 4 two-stage UR-200 rockets lashed together, the first and second stages working in parallel in clusters. A third stage would be modified from the UR-200 second stage. However study of this configuration, which included manufacturing of a dynamic test article, indicated that the payload capacity could not meet the military’s requirements.


1961 November 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Proton.
  • Development of RD-253 engine begun. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Glushko, Korolev. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau. Program: GR-2.

    OKB-52 began to collaborate with V P Glushko’s OKB-456 in developing a high thrust storable propellant engine for the UR-500 Proton launch vehicle. Glushko had completed a storable liquid engine design of 150 tonnes for use in Korolev’s N1. However Korolev refused to accept this design, due to his categorical refusal to use toxic propellants in his rockets and his belief that such propellants could never deliver the required specific impulse. Korolev insisted on development of an oxygen-kerosene engine; Glushko categorically refused to do so. As a result, the two leading Soviet rocket designers irrevocably split. Korolev had to turn for development of his N1 engines to the aviation engine design OKB of N D Kuznetsov.


1962 January 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Proton.
  • Proton configuration selected. - . Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau. Program: GR-2. The 'polyblock' design was chosen as most advantageous, following studies that indicated improved wind loads and bending moment characteristics compared to the conventional 'monoblock' design..

1962 May 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Proton.
1962 July 15 - . Launch Vehicle: UR-200.
1963 June 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Proton.
  • First tests of RD-253 engine cluster for Proton. - . Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau. Program: GR-2. Ground tests of the clustered engine assembly ran from June 1963 to January 1965..

1998 November 20 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Zarya - . Payload: FGB 77KM s/n 175-01. Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: ISS Zarya. USAF Sat Cat: 25544 . COSPAR: 1998-067A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 374 km (232 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min.

    This was the first launch in the assembly of the International Space Station. The Zarya FGB was funded by NASA and built by Khrunichev in Moscow under subcontract from Boeing for NASA. Its design from the TKS military station resupply spacecraft of the 1970’s and the later 77KS Mir modules. Zarya included a multiple docking adapter, a pressurised cabin section, and a propulsion/instrument section with a rear docking port. Initial orbit was 176 lm x 343 km x 51.6 degrees. By November 25 it had manoeuvred to a 383 km x 396 km x 51.7 degree orbit, awaiting the launch of Shuttle mission STS-88 which docked the Unity node to it.


2000 May 16 - . 08:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. Launch Pad: LC133/pad?. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot.
  • Simsat-1 - . Mass: 657 kg (1,448 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Eurockot. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Simsat. USAF Sat Cat: 26365 . COSPAR: 2000-026A. Apogee: 562 km (350 mi). Perigee: 543 km (337 mi). Inclination: 86.3707 deg. Period: 95.62 min.

    First Rokot flight from Plesetsk, using a launch pad originally used for Kosmos rockets. The two-stage modified UR-100NUTTKh ICBM, delivered a Briz-KM upper stage to a suborbital trajectory. The first Briz burn was to an approximately 200 x 550 km transfer orbit; the second burn circularized at apogee. It placed two 660 kg dummy satellites in orbits similar to the parking orbit was used for the defunct Iridium program. The Briz-KM stage then made a third burn to lower its perigee to a 178 x 556 km x 86.4 deg disposal orbit.

  • Simsat-2 - . Mass: 657 kg (1,448 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Eurockot. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Simsat. USAF Sat Cat: 26366 . COSPAR: 2000-026B. Apogee: 557 km (346 mi). Perigee: 545 km (339 mi). Inclination: 86.3670 deg. Period: 95.59 min.

2000 July 12 - . 04:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
  • Zvezda - . Mass: 20,295 kg (44,742 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau, Korolev bureau. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft Bus: ISS. Spacecraft: ISS Zvezda. USAF Sat Cat: 26400 . COSPAR: 2000-037A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg.

    Years behind schedule, the Zvezda living module of the International Space Station, built and financed by Russia, finally reached orbit. Zvezda's initial orbit was 179 x 332 km x 51.6 deg. On July 14 the orbit was raised to 288 x 357 km. ISS was then in a 365 x 372 km orbit. After matching orbits with the ISS, Zvezda then became the passive docking target for the Russian-built, US-financed Zarya module already attached to the station. The Zarya/Unity stack docked with the Zvezda module at 00:45 GMT on July 26, forming the basic core of the International Space Station. A flood of NASA missions would follow to bring the station into operation.


2005 August 26 - . 18:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot.
  • Monitor-E - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Yakhta. Spacecraft: Monitor. USAF Sat Cat: 28822 . COSPAR: 2005-032A. Apogee: 545 km (338 mi). Perigee: 522 km (324 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Delayed from June 30, July 30, August 18 2005. Prototype lightweight earth monitoring satellite with 8-meter and 20-meter resolution cameras..

2006 June 17 - . 22:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Kazsat 1 - . Mass: 1,380 kg (3,040 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KazSat. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Yakhta. USAF Sat Cat: 29230 . COSPAR: 2006-022A. Apogee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Perigee: 35,381 km (21,984 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,425.60 min. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 103.02E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day..

2009 February 11 - . 00:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • Express MD1 - . Mass: 1,140 kg (2,510 lb). Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: Chelomei bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Yakhta. USAF Sat Cat: 33596 . COSPAR: 2009-007B. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. C and L-band transponders..


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