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Proton-K/D-2
Part of Proton Family
Proton 8K82K/11S824
Proton 8K82K/11S824
Proton 8K82K / 11S824 Block D launch vehicle - cutaway drawing showing arrangement of N2O4 oxidiser tanks (green) and UDMH fuel tanks (orange) in Proton, and Liquid oxygen (blue) and kerosene (pink) tanks in the Block D stage. The Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft was mounted directly above the Block D liquid oxygen tank. For the Soyuz circumlunar flights a launch escape tower was fitted that pulled the capsule away in an emergency.
Credit: © Mark Wade
This four stage version of the Proton was a modification of the original Block D / 11S824M for launch of late 1980's Lavochkin OKB probes on missions to Mars. Guidance to the Block D-2 stage must be supplied by spacecraft.

AKA: 8K82K / 11S824F;D-1e;Proton / Block D-2;SL-12;UR-500K. Status: Retired 1996. First Launch: 1988-07-07. Last Launch: 1996-11-16. Number: 3 . Payload: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf). Gross mass: 710,710 kg (1,566,840 lb). Height: 57.00 m (187.00 ft). Diameter: 4.15 m (13.61 ft). Span: 7.40 m (24.20 ft). Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi).

Payload: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb) to a trans-Mars trajectory. Launch Price $: 70.000 million in 1994 dollars.


More at: Proton-K/D-2.

Family: orbital launch vehicle. Country: Russia. Engines: RD-0210, RD-0212, RD-58M, RD-253-11D48. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F, Mars M1. Projects: Mars. Launch Sites: Baikonur, Baikonur LC200/40, Baikonur LC200/39. Stages: Proton K-1, Proton K-2, Proton K-3, Proton 11S824F. Agency: Chelomei bureau.

1988 July 7 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2.
  • Phobos 1 - . Payload: 1F s/n 101. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. USAF Sat Cat: 19281 . COSPAR: 1988-058A. Apogee: 130,504 km (81,091 mi). Perigee: 2,628 km (1,632 mi). Inclination: 50.8000 deg. Period: 3,267.73 min.

    Second of two missions to Mars' moon Phobos; carried 2 landers; planned to enter Mars orbit. Phobos 1 operated nominally until an expected communications session on 2 September 1988 failed to occur. The failure of controllers to regain contact with the spacecraft was traced to an error in the software uploaded on 29/30 August which had deactivated the attitude thrusters. This resulted in a loss of lock on the Sun, resulting in the spacecraft orienting the solar arrays away from the Sun, thus depleting the batteries. Left in solar Orbit (Heliocentric).

  • 1F DPS - . Payload: Dolgozhivushchaya PS. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. COSPAR: 1988-058xx.

1988 July 12 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2.
  • Phobos 2 - . Payload: 1F s/n 102. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. USAF Sat Cat: 19287 . COSPAR: 1988-059A. Apogee: 79,750 km (49,550 mi). Perigee: 850 km (520 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 4,590.00 min.

    First of two Mars missions to Mars' moon Phobos; carried two landers; entered Mars orbit 1/29/89; failed 3/27/89; extremely limited science data. Phobos 2 operated nominally throughout its cruise and Mars orbital insertion phases, gathering data on the Sun, interplanetary medium, Mars, and Phobos. Shortly before the final phase of the mission, during which the spacecraft was to approach within 50 m of Phobos' surface and release two landers, one a mobile 'hopper', the other a stationary platform, contact with Phobos 2 was lost. The mission ended when the spacecraft signal failed to be successfully reacquired on 27 March 1989. The cause of the failure was determined to be a malfunction of the on-board computer.

  • 1F DPS - . Payload: Dolgozhivushchaya PS. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. COSPAR: 1988-059xx.
  • 1F PPS - . Payload: Prigayushchaya PS. Mass: 6,220 kg (13,710 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Fobos 1F. COSPAR: 1988-059xx.

1996 November 16 - . 20:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2. FAILURE: No second Block D-2 ignition.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Mars-96 (Mars 8) - . Payload: M1 s/n 520. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. Decay Date: 1996-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 24656 . COSPAR: 1996-064A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 110 km (60 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg.

    The Mars 96 spacecraft was launched into Earth orbit, but failed to achieve insertion into Mars cruise trajectory and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere at about 00:45 to 01:30 GMT on 17 November 1996 and crashed within a presumed 320 km by 80 km area which includes parts of the Pacific Ocean, Chile, and Bolivia. The Russian Mars 96 mission was designed to send an orbiter, two small autonomous stations, and two surface penetrators to Mars.

  • Penetrator 2 - . Payload: PN s/n 520/5. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • Penetrator 1 - . Payload: PN s/n 520/4. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • MAS 2 - . Payload: MAS s/n 520/2. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • MAS 1 - . Payload: MAS s/n 520/1. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.


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