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Mars M1
Part of 5MV Family
Mars-96 (Mars 8)
Mars-96 (Mars 8)
Credit: Manufacturer Image
Russian Mars orbiter. Mars orbiter, 2 landers, 2 surface penetrators satellite, Russia. Launched 1996.

AKA: M1;Mars-96;Penetrator. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-11-16. Last Launch: 1996-11-16. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb).

The Russian Mars 96 mission was designed to send an orbiter, two small autonomous stations, and two surface penetrators to Mars to investigate the evolution and contemporary physics of the planet by studying the physical and chemical processes which took place in the past and which currently take place.

The Mars 96 Orbiter was a 3-axis sun/star stabilized craft based on the Phobos design with two platforms for pointing and stabilizing instruments. The propulsion units were mounted on the bottom and two large solar panels extended out from opposite sides of the craft. The two penetrators were mounted on the bottom by the propulsion system, the two small stations were connected on top of the spacecraft, and a dish antenna extended off one of the sides perpendicular to the solar panels. The Mars 96 spacecraft had a launch mass (including propellant) of 6180 kg. Mars 96 was scheduled to arrive at Mars on 12 September 1997, about 10 months after launch, on a direct trajectory. About 4 to 5 days before arrival the small surface stations would have been released. The orbiter was to go into an elliptical 3-day transfer orbit about Mars, and the two penetrators to descend to the surface during the first month of orbit. The final orbit would have been a 14.77 hour elliptical orbit with a periapsis of 300 km.

The Mars 96 Orbiter carried 12 instruments to study the surface and atmosphere of Mars, 7 instruments to study plasma, fields, and particles, and 3 instruments for astrophysical studies. There were also radio science, a navigation TV camera, and a radiation and dosimetry control complex. The instruments were located directly on the sides of the craft, on one of the two platforms attached to the sides of the craft, or on the edges of the solar panels.

NASA NSSDC Master Catalog Description

The Mars 96 spacecraft was launched into Earth orbit, but failed to achieve insertion into Mars cruise trajectory and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere at about 00:45 to 01:30 UT on 17 November 1996 and crashed within a presumed 320 km by 80 km area which includes parts of the Pacific Ocean, Chile, and Bolivia. The cause of the crash is not known.

The Russian Mars 96 mission was designed to send an orbiter, two small autonomous stations, and two surface penetrators to Mars to investigate the evolution and contemporary physics of the planet by studying the physical and chemical processes which took place in the past and which currently take place. The Mars 96 Orbiter was a 3-axis sun/star stabilized craft based on the Phobos design with two platforms for pointing and stabilizing instruments. The propulsion units were mounted on the bottom and two large solar panels extended out from opposite sides of the craft. The two penetrators were mounted on the bottom by the propulsion system, the two small stations were connected on top of the spacecraft, and a dish antenna extended off one of the sides perpendicular to the solar panels. The Mars 96 spacecraft had a launch mass (including propellant) of 6180 kg.

Mars 96 was scheduled to arrive at Mars on 12 September 1997, about 10 months after launch, on a direct trajectory. About 4 to 5 days before arrival the small surface stations would have been released. The orbiter was to go into an elliptical 3-day transfer orbit about Mars, and the two penetrators to descend to the surface during the first month of orbit. The final orbit would have been a 14.77 hour elliptical orbit with a periapsis of 300 km.

The Mars 96 Orbiter carried 12 instruments to study the surface and atmosphere of Mars, 7 instruments to study plasma, fields, and particles, and 3 instruments for astrophysical studies. There were also radio science, a navigation TV camera, and a radiation and dosimetry control complex. The instruments were located directly on the sides of the craft, on one of the two platforms attached to the sides of the craft, or on the edges of the solar panels.


More at: Mars M1.

Family: Mars orbiter. Country: Russia. Launch Vehicles: Mars tactical rocket, Proton, Proton-K/D-2. Projects: Mars. Launch Sites: Baikonur, Baikonur LC200/39. Agency: RAKA, Lavochkin bureau. Bibliography: 118, 2, 274, 279, 296, 3907, 4, 67, 12802.

1996 November 16 - . 20:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2. FAILURE: No second Block D-2 ignition.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Mars-96 (Mars 8) - . Payload: M1 s/n 520. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. Decay Date: 1996-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 24656 . COSPAR: 1996-064A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 110 km (60 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg.

    The Mars 96 spacecraft was launched into Earth orbit, but failed to achieve insertion into Mars cruise trajectory and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere at about 00:45 to 01:30 GMT on 17 November 1996 and crashed within a presumed 320 km by 80 km area which includes parts of the Pacific Ocean, Chile, and Bolivia. The Russian Mars 96 mission was designed to send an orbiter, two small autonomous stations, and two surface penetrators to Mars.

  • Penetrator 1 - . Payload: PN s/n 520/4. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • MAS 1 - . Payload: MAS s/n 520/1. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • Penetrator 2 - . Payload: PN s/n 520/5. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • MAS 2 - . Payload: MAS s/n 520/2. Mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft Bus: 5MV. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.


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