Home - Search - Browse - Alphabetic Index: 0- 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9
A- B- C- D- E- F- G- H- I- J- K- L- M- N- O- P- Q- R- S- T- U- V- W- X- Y- Z
Glonass
Glonass
Glonass
Russian navigation satellite. Glonass was a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system.

AKA: 11F654;Uragan. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-10-12. Last Launch: 2014-06-14. Number: 141 . Gross mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb).

At the end of the 1960's the military identified a need for a Satellite Radio Navigation System (SRNS) for use in precision guidance of the planned new generation of ballistic missiles. The existing Tsiklon satellite navigation system could not be used for this purpose; it required several minutes of observation by the receiving station to fix a position. What was needed were navigation satellites of a new generation with autonomous orbit correction.

In 1968 to 1969 research institutes of the Ministry of Defense, Academy of Sciences, and Soviet Navy worked together to establish a single solution for air, land, sea, and space forces. This resulted in a 1970 TTT requirements document that established the requirements for such a system. After further basic research in December 1976 a decree was issued by the Soviet state for establishment of the YeKNS/GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System. The schedule was revised in August 1979 and July 1981. Technical specification were set by a review commission in August 1976. The draft project was completed in 1977-1978. A September 1978 state commission reviewed the draft TTZ specification, which was completed in November 1978. This consolidated the requirements of the Ministry of Defense and eight other ministries (civil aviation, commercial shipping, etc.).

The decree of 29 August 1979 scheduled flight trials of 4 to 6 prototypes in 1981, preliminary acceptance of a 10-12 satellite constellation by 1984, and operation of the complete 24 satellite system by the end of 1987. Reshetnev at NPO PM was responsible for the complete satellite, with PO Radiopribor MOM under N Ye Ivanov providing the control, communications, and housekeeping systems. LNRII MRP under Yu G Guzhra built the navigation-timing system. Actual flight trials began in October 1982 with the launch of two mass dummies aboard a Proton booster. This was followed by a total of 22 spacecraft by the end of 1987, and 31 by the end of 1989.

Two Etalon geodetic satellites were also flown in the 19,100 km GLONASS orbit to fully characterize the gravitational field at the planned altitude and inclination.

The GLONASS signals were also used by many Western GPS receivers as a complement/backup to the GPS system itself. The operational system contained 21 satellites in 3 orbital planes, with 3 on-orbit spares. Glonass provided 100 meters accuracy with its C/A (deliberately degraded) signals and 10-20 meter accuracy with its P (military) signals. The spacecraft was 3-axis stabilized, nadir pointing and had dual solar arrays. The payload included L-Band navigation signals in 25 channels separated by 0.5625 MHz intervals in 2 frequency bands: 1602.5625 - 1615.5 MHz and 1240 - 1260 MHz. EIRP 25 to 27 dBW, right hand circular polarized. On-board cesium clocks provided time accuracy to 1000 nanoseconds.



Subtopics

Uragan (GLONASS, 11F654) Navigation satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) / NPO Polyot, Russia. Launched 1982 - 2005.

Uragan-GVM Dummy satellite satellite, Russia. Launched 1982 - 1985.

Uragan-M (GLONASS-M, 14F113) Navigation satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 2001 - 2016. Used 3-Axis stabilized Uragan-M bus.

Meridian Russian new-generation military 12-hour elliptical orbit communications satellite designed to replace the Molniya series. Communication satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (ex NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM), Russia. Launched 2006 - 2014. Used 3-Axis stabilized Uragan-M bus.

Geo-IK-2 (Musson-2, 14F31) Geodesy satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (ex NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM) (prime), Thales Alenia (altimeter), Russia. Launched 2011 - 2016. Used 3-Axis stabilized Uragan-M bus.

Uragan-K2 (GLONASS-K2) Navigation satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (ex NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM), Russia.

Family: Earth, Medium earth orbit, Navigation. Country: Russia. Launch Vehicles: R-7, Proton, UR-100N, Proton-K/DM-2, Rokot, Proton-K/DM-2M, Proton/Briz K/M, Proton-M/Briz-M, Soyuz-2-1B, Proton-M/DM-2, Proton-M/DM-3. Launch Sites: Baikonur, Baikonur LC81/23, Plesetsk LC43/4, Baikonur LC81/24, Baikonur LC200/40, Baikonur LC200/39, Plesetsk LC133/3, Plesetsk LC43. Agency: RVSN, Reshetnev bureau. Bibliography: 102, 2, 274, 276, 279, 296, 424, 445, 474, 552, 554, 6, 67, 6532, 12498, 12499, 12500, 12501, 12502.
Photo Gallery

GlonassGlonass
Credit: NPO PM


Cosmos 2362Cosmos 2362
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Glonass-MGlonass-M
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Cosmos 2471Cosmos 2471
Credit: Manufacturer Image



1976 December 1 - .
  • GLONASS system development authorised. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft: Glonass. Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On Expansion of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) Single Space Navigation System--development of GLONASS' was issued..

1982 October 12 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1413 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 11L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 13603 . COSPAR: 1982-100A. Apogee: 19,076 km (11,853 mi). Perigee: 19,062 km (11,844 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 673.30 min. Glonass test flight. Testing of the components and equipment of the space navigation system established in order to locate the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and its merchant and fishing vessels. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1415 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 13607 . COSPAR: 1982-100E. Apogee: 19,100 km (11,800 mi). Perigee: 19,100 km (11,800 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 673.00 min. Glonass test flight. Testing of the components and equipment of the space navigation system established in order to locate the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and its merchant and fishing vessels. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1414 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 13606 . COSPAR: 1982-100D. Apogee: 19,230 km (11,940 mi). Perigee: 19,028 km (11,823 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass test flight. Testing of the components and equipment of the space navigation system established in order to locate the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and its merchant and fishing vessels. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..

1983 August 10 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1490 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 12L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 14258 . COSPAR: 1983-084A. Apogee: 19,160 km (11,900 mi). Perigee: 19,100 km (11,800 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

    Glonass test flight. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket.

  • Cosmos 1491 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 13L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14259 . COSPAR: 1983-084B. Apogee: 19,028 km (11,823 mi). Perigee: 18,863 km (11,720 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 668.40 min.

    Glonass test flight. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket.

  • Cosmos 1492 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14260 . COSPAR: 1983-084C. Apogee: 19,159 km (11,904 mi). Perigee: 19,156 km (11,902 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 676.80 min.

    Glonass test flight. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket.


1983 December 29 - . 00:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1519 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 14L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 14590 . COSPAR: 1983-127A. Apogee: 19,150 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,108 km (11,873 mi). Inclination: 66.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1521 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14592 . COSPAR: 1983-127C. Apogee: 19,149 km (11,898 mi). Perigee: 18,992 km (11,801 mi). Inclination: 66.5000 deg. Period: 673.40 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1520 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 15L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14591 . COSPAR: 1983-127B. Apogee: 19,185 km (11,920 mi). Perigee: 19,075 km (11,852 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..

1984 May 19 - . 15:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1554 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 16L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 14977 . COSPAR: 1984-047A. Apogee: 19,159 km (11,904 mi). Perigee: 19,101 km (11,868 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1555 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 17L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14978 . COSPAR: 1984-047B. Apogee: 19,158 km (11,904 mi). Perigee: 19,100 km (11,800 mi). Inclination: 66.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1556 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14979 . COSPAR: 1984-047C. Apogee: 19,161 km (11,906 mi). Perigee: 19,129 km (11,886 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 676.30 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1984 September 4 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1593 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 18L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 15259 . COSPAR: 1984-095A. Apogee: 19,170 km (11,910 mi). Perigee: 19,090 km (11,860 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1595 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 15261 . COSPAR: 1984-095C. Apogee: 19,178 km (11,916 mi). Perigee: 19,079 km (11,855 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1594 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 19L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 15260 . COSPAR: 1984-095B. Apogee: 19,188 km (11,922 mi). Perigee: 19,145 km (11,896 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 677.20 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1985 May 17 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1650 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 20L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 15697 . COSPAR: 1985-037A. Apogee: 19,177 km (11,916 mi). Perigee: 19,081 km (11,856 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1652 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 15699 . COSPAR: 1985-037C. Apogee: 19,155 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.90 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1651 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 21L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 15698 . COSPAR: 1985-037B. Apogee: 19,143 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,111 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.60 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1985 December 24 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1710 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 22L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 16396 . COSPAR: 1985-118A. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,112 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 66.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1712 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 16398 . COSPAR: 1985-118C. Apogee: 19,154 km (11,901 mi). Perigee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 676.30 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1711 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 23L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 16397 . COSPAR: 1985-118B. Apogee: 19,150 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,108 km (11,873 mi). Inclination: 66.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1986 September 16 - . 11:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1778 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 24L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 16961 . COSPAR: 1986-071A. Apogee: 19,138 km (11,891 mi). Perigee: 19,121 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1779 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 25L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 16962 . COSPAR: 1986-071B. Apogee: 19,133 km (11,888 mi). Perigee: 19,125 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1780 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 26L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 16963 . COSPAR: 1986-071C. Apogee: 19,147 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,112 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1987 April 24 - . 12:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Block DM-2 failure, remained in LEO.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 1838 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 30L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . Decay Date: 1991-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 17902 . COSPAR: 1987-036A. Apogee: 10,401 km (6,462 mi). Perigee: 140 km (80 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 208.50 min. Glonass; upper stage failure; unusable orbit. Fourth stage failure .
  • Cosmos 1840 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 32L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. Decay Date: 1991-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 17904 . COSPAR: 1987-036C. Apogee: 4,362 km (2,710 mi). Perigee: 125 km (77 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 132.80 min. Glonass; upper stage failure; unusable orbit. Fourth stage failure.
  • Cosmos 1839 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 31L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. Decay Date: 1991-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 17903 . COSPAR: 1987-036B. Apogee: 9,694 km (6,023 mi). Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 199.10 min. Glonass; upper stage failure; unusable orbit. Fourth stage failure.

1987 September 16 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1883 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 33L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 18355 . COSPAR: 1987-079A. Apogee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Perigee: 19,119 km (11,879 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1884 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 34L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 18356 . COSPAR: 1987-079B. Apogee: 19,157 km (11,903 mi). Perigee: 19,101 km (11,868 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1885 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 35L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 18357 . COSPAR: 1987-079C. Apogee: 19,156 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,101 km (11,868 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1988 February 17 - . 00:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Block DM-2 failure, remained in LEO.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 1917 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 38L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . Decay Date: 1988-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 18857 . COSPAR: 1988-009A. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 87.30 min.

    Triple Glonass launch; three satellites (Cosmos 1917, 1918, 1919) failed to separate. A Proton carrier rocket was put into staging orbit to test components, also apparatus for a space navigation system. The satellites were not put into their designed orbit owing to a malfunction in the separation assembly controls.

  • Cosmos 1919 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 36L. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. COSPAR: 1988-009xx.
  • Cosmos 1918 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 37L. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. COSPAR: 1988-009xx.
  • Cosmos 1918 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 37L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. Decay Date: 1988-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 18857 . COSPAR: 1988-009B. Apogee: 194 km (120 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 87.90 min.

    Triple Glonass launch; three satellites (Cosmos 1917, 1918, 1919) failed to separate. A Proton carrier rocket was put into staging orbit to test components, also apparatus for a space navigation system. The satellites were not put into their designed orbit owing to a malfunction in the separation assembly controls.

  • Cosmos 1919 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 36L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. Decay Date: 1988-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 18857 . COSPAR: 1988-009C. Apogee: 194 km (120 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 87.90 min.

    Triple Glonass launch; three satellites (Cosmos 1917, 1918, 1919) failed to separate. A Proton carrier rocket was put into staging orbit to test components, also apparatus for a space navigation system. The satellites were not put into their designed orbit owing to a malfunction in the separation assembly controls.


1988 May 21 - . 17:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1946 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 39L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 19163 . COSPAR: 1988-043A. Apogee: 19,149 km (11,898 mi). Perigee: 19,109 km (11,873 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and systems for a space-based navigation system being constructed to track Soviet civil aircraft and naval and fishing vessels. .
  • Cosmos 1947 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 40L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19164 . COSPAR: 1988-043B. Apogee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Perigee: 19,117 km (11,878 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and systems for a space-based navigation system being constructed to track Soviet civil aircraft and naval and fishing vessels..
  • Cosmos 1948 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 41L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19165 . COSPAR: 1988-043C. Apogee: 19,133 km (11,888 mi). Perigee: 19,127 km (11,884 mi). Inclination: 66.1000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and systems for a space-based navigation system being constructed to track Soviet civil aircraft and naval and fishing vessels..

1988 September 16 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1970 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 42L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 19501 . COSPAR: 1988-085A. Apogee: 19,150 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1971 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 44L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19502 . COSPAR: 1988-085B. Apogee: 19,157 km (11,903 mi). Perigee: 19,101 km (11,868 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1972 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 43L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19503 . COSPAR: 1988-085C. Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,123 km (11,882 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1989 January 10 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 1987 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 27L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 19749 . COSPAR: 1989-001A. Apogee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Perigee: 19,119 km (11,879 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1988 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 45L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19750 . COSPAR: 1989-001B. Apogee: 19,147 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,111 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1989 May 31 - . 08:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2022 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 28L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 20024 . COSPAR: 1989-039A. Apogee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Perigee: 19,119 km (11,879 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 2023 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 29L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 20025 . COSPAR: 1989-039B. Apogee: 19,169 km (11,911 mi). Perigee: 19,091 km (11,862 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1990 May 19 - . 08:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2079 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 46L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 20619 . COSPAR: 1990-045A. Apogee: 19,195 km (11,927 mi). Perigee: 19,062 km (11,844 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet. .
  • Cosmos 2081 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 52L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 20621 . COSPAR: 1990-045C. Apogee: 19,164 km (11,907 mi). Perigee: 19,094 km (11,864 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet..
  • Cosmos 2080 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 51L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 20620 . COSPAR: 1990-045B. Apogee: 19,145 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,113 km (11,876 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet..

1990 December 8 - . 02:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2109 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 47L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 21006 . COSPAR: 1990-110A. Apogee: 19,271 km (11,974 mi). Perigee: 18,988 km (11,798 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 2110 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 48L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21007 . COSPAR: 1990-110B. Apogee: 19,215 km (11,939 mi). Perigee: 19,045 km (11,833 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 2111 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 49L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21008 . COSPAR: 1990-110C. Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1991 April 4 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2139 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 50L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 21216 . COSPAR: 1991-025A. Apogee: 19,160 km (11,900 mi). Perigee: 19,098 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet. .
  • Cosmos 2141 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 54L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21218 . COSPAR: 1991-025C. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,113 km (11,876 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet..
  • Cosmos 2140 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 53L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21217 . COSPAR: 1991-025B. Apogee: 19,161 km (11,906 mi). Perigee: 19,097 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet..

1992 January 29 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2177 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 68L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 21853 . COSPAR: 1992-005A. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,112 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigational satellite. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. .
  • Cosmos 2178 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 69L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21854 . COSPAR: 1992-005B. Apogee: 19,171 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,087 km (11,860 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigational satellite. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet..
  • Cosmos 2179 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 71L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21855 . COSPAR: 1992-005C. Apogee: 19,140 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,120 km (11,880 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigational satellite. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet..

1992 July 30 - . 01:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2204 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 56L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 22056 . COSPAR: 1992-047A. Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

    Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. Constellation 3. Put into service on 30 July 1992 and taken out of service on 4 August 1997.

  • Cosmos 2205 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 72L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 22057 . COSPAR: 1992-047B. Apogee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,118 km (11,879 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet..
  • Cosmos 2206 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 74L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 22058 . COSPAR: 1992-047C. Apogee: 19,154 km (11,901 mi). Perigee: 19,106 km (11,871 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet..

1993 February 17 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2234 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 73L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 22512 . COSPAR: 1993-010A. Apogee: 19,152 km (11,900 mi). Perigee: 19,106 km (11,871 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation spacecraft. Work on the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. .
  • Cosmos 2235 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 59L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 22513 . COSPAR: 1993-010B. Apogee: 19,144 km (11,895 mi). Perigee: 19,115 km (11,877 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

    Glonass navigation spacecraft. Work on the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. Constellation 1. Put into service on 25 August 1993 and taken out of service on 4 August 1997.

  • Cosmos 2236 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 57L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 22514 . COSPAR: 1993-010C. Apogee: 19,156 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,104 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

    Glonass navigation spacecraft. Work on the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. Constellation 1. Put into service on 14 March 1993 and taken out of service on 23 August 1997.


1994 April 11 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2275 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 58L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23043 . COSPAR: 1994-021A. Apogee: 19,143 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,117 km (11,878 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigational satellite. .
  • Cosmos 2277 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 61L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23045 . COSPAR: 1994-021C. Apogee: 19,157 km (11,903 mi). Perigee: 19,103 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigational satellite..
  • Cosmos 2276 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 60L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23044 . COSPAR: 1994-021B. Apogee: 19,216 km (11,940 mi). Perigee: 19,044 km (11,833 mi). Inclination: 64.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigational satellite..

1994 August 11 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2287 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 67L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23203 . COSPAR: 1994-050A. Apogee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,118 km (11,879 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite. .
  • Cosmos 2288 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 70L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23204 . COSPAR: 1994-050B. Apogee: 19,168 km (11,910 mi). Perigee: 19,091 km (11,862 mi). Inclination: 64.8100 deg. Period: 675.73 min. Glonass navigation satellite..
  • Cosmos 2289 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 75L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23205 . COSPAR: 1994-050C. Apogee: 19,133 km (11,888 mi). Perigee: 19,126 km (11,884 mi). Inclination: 64.8100 deg. Period: 675.73 min. Glonass navigation satellite..

1994 November 20 - . 00:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2294 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 62L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23396 . COSPAR: 1994-076A. Apogee: 19,203 km (11,932 mi). Perigee: 19,057 km (11,841 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite. .
  • Cosmos 2296 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 64L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23398 . COSPAR: 1994-076C. Apogee: 19,138 km (11,891 mi). Perigee: 19,122 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite..
  • Cosmos 2295 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 63L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23397 . COSPAR: 1994-076B. Apogee: 19,155 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,105 km (11,871 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite..

1995 March 7 - . 09:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2307 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 65L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23511 . COSPAR: 1995-009A. Apogee: 19,149 km (11,898 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite. .
  • Cosmos 2309 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 77L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23513 . COSPAR: 1995-009C. Apogee: 19,165 km (11,908 mi). Perigee: 19,094 km (11,864 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.90 min. Glonass navigation satellite. Plane 2. Put into service 6 April 1995..
  • Cosmos 2308 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 66L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23512 . COSPAR: 1995-009B. Apogee: 19,145 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,115 km (11,877 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite..

1995 July 24 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2316 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 80L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23620 . COSPAR: 1995-037A. Apogee: 19,167 km (11,909 mi). Perigee: 19,093 km (11,863 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation spacecraft. Constellation 2. Put into service 26 August 1995. .
  • Cosmos 2318 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 85L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23622 . COSPAR: 1995-037C. Apogee: 19,206 km (11,934 mi). Perigee: 19,054 km (11,839 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation spacecraft. Constellation 2. Put into service 22 August 1995..
  • Cosmos 2317 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 81L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23621 . COSPAR: 1995-037B. Apogee: 19,171 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,089 km (11,861 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation spacecraft. Constellation 2. Put into service 25 August 1995..

1995 December 14 - . 06:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2323 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 76L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23734 . COSPAR: 1995-068A. Apogee: 19,165 km (11,908 mi). Perigee: 19,095 km (11,865 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite. Constellation 2. Put into service 18 January 1996. .
  • Cosmos 2324 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 78L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23735 . COSPAR: 1995-068B. Apogee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,133 km (11,888 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite. Constellation 2. Still in reserve as of August 1997..
  • Cosmos 2325 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 82L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23736 . COSPAR: 1995-068C. Apogee: 19,147 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,112 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation satellite. Constellation 2. Put into service 18 January 1996..

1998 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2362 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: AKO Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25593 . COSPAR: 1998-077A. Apogee: 19,177 km (11,916 mi). Perigee: 19,082 km (11,856 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2363 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: AKO Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25594 . COSPAR: 1998-077B. Apogee: 19,163 km (11,907 mi). Perigee: 19,097 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2364 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: AKO Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25595 . COSPAR: 1998-077C. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 19,125 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2000 July 26 - .
  • Russia seeks help to keep GLONASS network operating - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: Glonass.

    Russia invited China to participate in financing a new group of Glonass satellites. An operational system would require 24 satellites to be in operation. However by mid-2000 there were only 14 satellites available, and only nine fully operating. The system would require 1.5 billion rubles a year to operate and replenish the satellite constellaton.


2000 October 13 - . 14:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2374 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 83. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: AKO Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26564 . COSPAR: 2000-063A. Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,124 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

    Three navigation satellites for the GLONASS system were launched by a single Proton-K/Blok DM-2 upper stage into an initial 160 km x 64.8 deg parking orbit. The Blok DM-2 made two burns to maneuver into a 19120 x 19120 km x 64.8 deg orbit and deployed the three satellites about four hours after launch.

  • Cosmos 2376 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 88. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: AKO Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26566 . COSPAR: 2000-063C. Apogee: 19,278 km (11,978 mi). Perigee: 18,982 km (11,794 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2375 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 87. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: AKO Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26565 . COSPAR: 2000-063B. Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,124 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2001 December 1 - . 18:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2380 - . Payload: Glonass 790. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26987 . COSPAR: 2001-053A. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,114 km (11,876 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Three navigation satellites of the GLONASS system were launched to replenish the constellation. This was the second end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000..
  • Cosmos 2381 - . Payload: Glonass 789. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26988 . COSPAR: 2001-053B. Apogee: 19,185 km (11,920 mi). Perigee: 19,074 km (11,852 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2382 - . Payload: Glonass-M 711. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26989 . COSPAR: 2001-053C. Apogee: 19,156 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,104 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. First launch of the Uragan-M improved model GLONASS satellite..

2002 December 25 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M.
  • Cosmos 2394 - . Payload: Glonass. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 27617 . COSPAR: 2002-060A. Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,124 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Three navigation satellites of the GLONASS system were launched to replenish the constellation. This was the third end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000..
  • Cosmos 2396 - . Payload: Glonass-M. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 27619 . COSPAR: 2002-060C. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 18,915 km (11,753 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 671.60 min.
  • Cosmos 2395 - . Payload: Glonass. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 27618 . COSPAR: 2002-060B. Apogee: 19,335 km (12,014 mi). Perigee: 19,130 km (11,880 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 679.80 min.

2003 December 10 - . 17:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz K/M.
  • Cosmos 2402 - . Payload: Glonass 794. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28112 . COSPAR: 2003-056A. Apogee: 19,314 km (12,001 mi). Perigee: 19,018 km (11,817 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 677.20 min. Three navigation satellites of the GLONASS system were launched to replenish the constellation. This was the fourth end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000..
  • Cosmos 2403 - . Payload: Glonass 795. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28113 . COSPAR: 2003-056B. Apogee: 19,102 km (11,869 mi). Perigee: 18,963 km (11,783 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 671.90 min.
  • Cosmos 2404 - . Payload: Glonass-M 701. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28114 . COSPAR: 2003-056C. Apogee: 19,104 km (11,870 mi). Perigee: 18,961 km (11,781 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 671.90 min. Improved version of the Glonass satellite..

2004 December 26 - . 13:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2411 - . Payload: Glonass 796. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28508 . COSPAR: 2004-053A. Apogee: 19,149 km (11,898 mi). Perigee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Inclination: 64.8500 deg. Period: 676.05 min. Three Russian navigation satellites orbited in a single launch. Two of the satellites (s/n 796 and 797) were standard Uragan satellites, while s/n 712 had an uprated Glonass-M payload. This was the fifth end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000..
  • Cosmos 2412 - . Payload: Glonass 797. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28509 . COSPAR: 2004-053B. Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,143 km (11,894 mi). Inclination: 64.8500 deg. Period: 676.05 min.
  • Cosmos 2413 - . Payload: Glonass-M 712. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28510 . COSPAR: 2004-053C. Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Inclination: 64.8500 deg. Period: 676.05 min.

2005 December 25 - . 05:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2417 - . Payload: Glonass 798. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28915 . COSPAR: 2005-050A. Apogee: 19,171 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,089 km (11,861 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

    The Block D upper stage delivered three GLONASS navigation satellites into their planned orbits at 08:39 GMT. These satellites were placed in GLONASS orbit plane 3. The satellites had an extended seven-year service life compared to earlier models. This was the sixth end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000. When operational they brought the total of operational GLONASS SVs in orbit to 16. The launch was part of a Russian government-funded program to replenish and expand the Glonass constellation to at least 18 operating satellites satellites by 2007 (compared to 14 satellites at the end of 2005). In 2006 launch of a new Glonass satellite design with a ten-year service was planned.

  • Cosmos 2418 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 713. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28916 . COSPAR: 2005-050B. Apogee: 19,172 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,087 km (11,860 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2419 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 714. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28917 . COSPAR: 2005-050C. Apogee: 19,165 km (11,908 mi). Perigee: 19,094 km (11,864 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2006 December 24 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1A.
  • Meridian 1 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Meridian. USAF Sat Cat: 29668 . COSPAR: 2006-061A. Apogee: 39,093 km (24,291 mi). Perigee: 1,264 km (785 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 717.80 min.

    Launch rescheduled twice due to Soyuz 2 software problems. The Meridian satellite was designed to provide communication between vessels and airplanes involved in ice surveillance in the North Sea area, and coastal stations on the ground, as well as to expand a network of satellite communications in the northern regions of Siberia and the Russian Far East.


2006 December 24 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2424 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 715. Mass: 2,480 kg (5,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 29672 . COSPAR: 2006-062C. Apogee: 19,176 km (11,915 mi). Perigee: 19,083 km (11,857 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

    Three Glonass satellites are lofted in a single launch in support of restoring the Glonass navigation satellite constellation to full military and commercial functionality. They were placed in Glonass orbit plane 2, beginning its population. At the time of launch the constellation consisted of 11 operational spacecraft, and five more on-orbit spares. A fully operational constellation would consist of 24 satellites - eight in each of three orbital planes. Only two planes were populated by 2006 - the full complement of 24 satellites was not to be reached until 2009. This was the first launch to repopulate plane 2; planes 1 and 3 had satellites operational.

  • Cosmos 2425 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 716. Mass: 2,480 kg (5,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 29670 . COSPAR: 2006-062A. Apogee: 19,187 km (11,922 mi). Perigee: 19,073 km (11,851 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2426 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 717. Mass: 2,480 kg (5,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 29671 . COSPAR: 2006-062B. Apogee: 19,183 km (11,919 mi). Perigee: 19,077 km (11,853 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2007 October 26 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2431 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 718. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32275 . COSPAR: 2007-052A. Apogee: 19,130 km (11,880 mi). Perigee: 19,128 km (11,885 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Three Uragan-M satellites were launched to replenish the Glonass navigation system, placed in GLONASS orbit plane 3. Cosmos 2431 set to operational on 4 December; plane/slot 3/17, frequency channel -1.
  • Cosmos 2432 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 719. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32276 . COSPAR: 2007-052B. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 19,121 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Set to operational; plane/slot 3/20, frequency channel 2 on 27 November..
  • Cosmos 2433 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 720. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32277 . COSPAR: 2007-052C. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 19,121 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Set to operational; plane/slot 3/19, frequency channel 3 on 25 November..

2007 December 25 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2435 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 21. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32394 . COSPAR: 2007-065B. Apogee: 19,179 km (11,917 mi). Perigee: 19,081 km (11,856 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2436 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 22. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32395 . COSPAR: 2007-065C. Apogee: 19,150 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,100 km (11,800 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2437 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 23. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32393 . COSPAR: 2007-065A. Apogee: 19,137 km (11,891 mi). Perigee: 19,123 km (11,882 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Three GLONASS-M satellites lofted in a single launch - inserted in GLONASS orbit plane 2. This was the second launch to populate this plane..

2008 September 25 - . 08:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2442 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33378 . COSPAR: 2008-046A. Apogee: 19,144 km (11,895 mi). Perigee: 19,089 km (11,861 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.20 min. Continued replenishment of Glonass navigation satellite constellation..
  • Cosmos 2443 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33379 . COSPAR: 2008-046B. Apogee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 676.10 min.
  • Cosmos 2444 - . Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33380 . COSPAR: 2008-046C. Apogee: 19,145 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,132 km (11,888 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 676.10 min.

2008 December 25 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2447 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 727. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33466 . COSPAR: 2008-067A. Apogee: 19,139 km (11,892 mi). Perigee: 19,121 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Three Glonass satellites launched as part of a continuing effort to reconstitute the full Russian navigation satellite constellation..
  • Cosmos 2449 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 729. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33467 . COSPAR: 2008-067B. Apogee: 19,138 km (11,891 mi). Perigee: 19,117 km (11,878 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.60 min.
  • Cosmos 2448 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 728. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 33468 . COSPAR: 2008-067C. Apogee: 19,143 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,117 km (11,878 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2009 May 21 - . 21:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1A.
  • Meridian 2 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Meridian. USAF Sat Cat: 35008 . COSPAR: 2009-029A. Apogee: 36,423 km (22,632 mi). Perigee: 328 km (203 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 646.00 min. Secon Meridian communications satellite. Third stage cut off early. Fregat upper stage ran out of fuel during second burn, leaving satellite in useless orbit..

2009 December 14 - . 10:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2456 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 730. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 36111 . COSPAR: 2009-070A. Apogee: 19,132 km (11,888 mi). Perigee: 19,129 km (11,886 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.80 min. Annual replenishment of GLONASS satellite constellation..
  • Cosmos 2457 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 733. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 36112 . COSPAR: 2009-070B. Apogee: 19,133 km (11,888 mi). Perigee: 19,128 km (11,885 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.80 min.
  • Cosmos 2458 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 734. Mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 36113 . COSPAR: 2009-070C. Apogee: 19,128 km (11,885 mi). Perigee: 18,991 km (11,800 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 672.90 min.

2010 March 1 - . 21:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2459 - . Payload: Uragan-M 24. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 36400 . COSPAR: 2010-007A. Apogee: 19,217 km (11,940 mi). Perigee: 19,043 km (11,832 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2461 - . Payload: Uragan-M 26. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 36401 . COSPAR: 2010-007B. Apogee: 19,137 km (11,891 mi). Perigee: 19,123 km (11,882 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2460 - . Payload: Uragan-M 25. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 36402 . COSPAR: 2010-007C. Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,124 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2010 September 2 - . 00:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-2.
  • Cosmos 2466 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 738. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 37137 . COSPAR: 2010-041A. Apogee: 19,184 km (11,920 mi). Perigee: 19,076 km (11,853 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2465 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 737. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 37138 . COSPAR: 2010-041B. Apogee: 19,221 km (11,943 mi). Perigee: 19,038 km (11,829 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2464 - . Payload: Uragan-M s/n 736. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 37139 . COSPAR: 2010-041C. Apogee: 19,181 km (11,918 mi). Perigee: 19,078 km (11,854 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Replenishment of Glonass navigation satellite constellation..

2010 November 2 - . 00:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1A.
  • Meridian 3 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Meridian. USAF Sat Cat: 37212 . COSPAR: 2010-058A. Apogee: 39,395 km (24,478 mi). Perigee: 957 km (594 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Third military communications satellite in this series..

2010 December 6 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-3. FAILURE: Block DM-3 upper stage was loaded with 1500 kg excess liquid oxygen in error. This caused a 100 m/s shortfall in the third stage burn into parking orbit. The upper stages and payload reentered over the Pacific.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Glonass-M - . Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. The launch was to have allowed the Glonass communications network to receive full operational status after a multi-year replenishment effort. The failure led to several high-level sackings..
  • Glonass-M - . Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass.
  • Glonass-M - . Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass.

2011 February 1 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot.
  • Cosmos 2470 - . Payload: Geo-IK-2 No. 11. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. Decay Date: 2013-07-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 37362 . COSPAR: 2011-005A. Apogee: 1,030 km (640 mi). Perigee: 302 km (187 mi). Inclination: 99.5000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Stranded in transfer orbit when the Rokot launch vehicle's Briz-KM upper stage failed to restart for its second burn..

2011 May 4 - . 17:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1A.
  • Meridian 4 - . Payload: Meridian No. 14L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Meridian. USAF Sat Cat: 37398 . COSPAR: 2011-018A. Apogee: 39,739 km (24,692 mi). Perigee: 968 km (601 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 724.90 min. Communications for the Russian Defense Ministry, and replacing the older Molniya satellites..

2011 October 2 - . 20:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1B.
  • Cosmos 2474 - . Payload: Glonass-M No. 42 / Uragan-M sn 742. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 37829 . COSPAR: 2011-055A. Apogee: 19,156 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,104 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass-M navigation satellite. The Fregat upper stage maneuvered from a 60 km x 220 km orbit on release from the Soyuz third stage; then to 220 km x 220 km, 250 km x 19,100 km and then to the deployment orbit of 19,235 km x 19,667 km x 64.8 deg..

2011 November 4 - . 12:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • Cosmos 2476 - . Payload: Uragan s/n 743. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 37867 . COSPAR: 2011-064A. Apogee: 19,173 km (11,913 mi). Perigee: 19,087 km (11,860 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Replenishment of Glonass navigation satellite constellation..
  • Cosmos 2477 - . Payload: Uragan s/n 744. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 37868 . COSPAR: 2011-064B. Apogee: 19,168 km (11,910 mi). Perigee: 19,092 km (11,863 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2475 - . Payload: Uragan s/n 745. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 37869 . COSPAR: 2011-064C. Apogee: 19,175 km (11,914 mi). Perigee: 19,021 km (11,819 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 674.50 min.

2011 November 28 - . 08:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1B.
  • Cosmos 2478 - . Payload: Glonass-M No. 46. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 37938 . COSPAR: 2011-071A. Apogee: 19,157 km (11,903 mi). Perigee: 19,102 km (11,869 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2011 December 23 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1B. FAILURE: Third stage shut down at 7:01 after launch. Stage and payload crashed in Siberia..
  • Meridian - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Meridian. Was to have been fifth launch of Meridian military communications satellite..

2012 November 14 - . 11:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1A.
  • Meridian No. 16 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Meridian. USAF Sat Cat: 38995 . COSPAR: 2012-063A. Apogee: 39,732 km (24,688 mi). Perigee: 986 km (612 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 725.20 min. Sixth Meridian military communications satellite for the Russian Defense Ministry..

2013 April 26 - . 05:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1B.
  • Cosmos 2485 - . Payload: Glonass-M No. 47. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 39155 . COSPAR: 2013-019A. Apogee: 19,176 km (11,915 mi). Perigee: 19,084 km (11,858 mi). Inclination: 64.7600 deg. Period: 675.73 min. Part of launch series to bring Glonass navigation satellite constellation up to full operation..

2013 July 2 - . 02:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/DM-3. FAILURE: Proton unstable in pitch; by T+17 s arced over towards ground; nose disintegrated at T+24s; booster crashed into ground at T+32s, less 2 km downrange.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Glonass-M No. 48 - . Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. Uragan-M (Glonass-M) navigation satellite constellation replenishment launch; previous attempt with Proton in 2010 also failed..
  • Glonass-M No. 49 - . Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass.
  • Glonass-M No. 50 - . Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass.

2014 March 23 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1B.
  • Cosmos 2494 - . Payload: Glonass-M No. 54. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 39620 . COSPAR: 2014-012A. Apogee: 19,174 km (11,914 mi). Perigee: 19,085 km (11,858 mi). Inclination: 64.8400 deg. Period: 675.73 min. Glonass-M No. 54 (Uragan-M No. 754) navigation satellite. Incorrectly announced as Cosmos 2491 at time of launch due to confusion in designations applied to three previous classified military launches..

2014 June 14 - . 17:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1B.
  • Cosmos 2500 - . Payload: Glonass-M No. 55. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 40001 . COSPAR: 2014-032A. Apogee: 19,262 km (11,968 mi). Perigee: 19,145 km (11,896 mi). Inclination: 64.7800 deg. Period: 678.67 min. Glonass-M satellite No. 55 to supplement the Russian navigation satellite constellation..

2014 October 30 - . 01:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1A.
  • Meridian No. 17L - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: Glonass. Spacecraft: Meridian. USAF Sat Cat: 40296 . COSPAR: 2014-069A. Apogee: 39,296 km (24,417 mi). Perigee: 1,056 km (656 mi). Inclination: 62.8300 deg. Period: 717.73 min. Seventh in the series of communications satellites for the Russian Ministry of Defense in 12-hour Molniya orbits..

2016 February 7 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1B.
  • Cosmos 2514 - . Payload: Glonass-M No. 51. Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 41330 . COSPAR: 2016-008A. Apogee: 19,158 km (11,904 mi). Perigee: 19,132 km (11,888 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Glonass-M No. 51 (Uragan-M 751, Kosmos-2514) was launched to supplement the Russian navigation constellation..

2016 May 29 - . 08:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1B.
  • Cosmos 2516 - . Nation: Russia. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 41554 . COSPAR: 2016-032A. Apogee: 19,152 km (11,900 mi). Perigee: 19,124 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Glonass-M No. 53 to replenish the Russian navigation satellite system.


Home - Search - Browse - Alphabetic Index: 0- 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9
A- B- C- D- E- F- G- H- I- J- K- L- M- N- O- P- Q- R- S- T- U- V- W- X- Y- Z
© 1997-2017 Mark Wade - Contact
© / Conditions for Use