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Medium earth orbit
Category of spacecraft.



Subtopics

Transit Spin-stabilized Transit satellites were developed by the US Navy beginning in 1958 for the first operational navigation satellite system. Transit provided continuous navigation satellite service from 1964, initially for Polaris submarines and later for civilian use. The use of the satellites for navigation was discontinued at the end of 1996 (replaced by GPS/Navstar), but the seemingly-indestructible satellites continued transmitting and became the Navy Ionospheric Monitoring System (NIMS). 46 launches, 1959.09.17 (Transit 1A) to 1988.08.25 (Transit O-31). Navigation satellite built by Naval Avionics Facility (#1-3, 5, 7); Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) (#4, 6, 8-17); RCA (#18 - 32) for USN, USA. Launched 1964 - 1988. Used Transit-Bus, Gravity Stabilized.

Midas American military early warning satellite. Part of a then-secret USAF program known as WS-117L, the MIDAS (Missile Defense Alarm System) program began in November 1958. Early Warning satellite built by Lockheed (prime), Aerojet-General (payload) for USAF, USA. Launched 1962 - 1963.

TIROS TIROS spacecraft were the beginning of a long series of American polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. The objective was to establish a global weather satellite system. Meteorology satellite operated by NASA, ESSA, USA. Launched 1960 - 1965.

GRAB First American military signals intelligence satellite, launched 1960-1962; not declassified until 1998. ELINT, Research satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) / US Navy, USA. Launched 1960 - 1962.

Echo American passive communications satellite. The Echo satellites were NASA's first experimental communications satellite project.

Courier American communications technology satellite. Experimental communications. Communication satellite built by Philco Western Development Labs (WDL) (formerly Army Fort Monmouth Laboratories) for USAF, USA. Launched 1960.

TRAAC American technology satellite. Transit Research and Attitude Control. Technology satellite built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for USN, USA. Launched 1961.

SECOR American earth geodetic satellite. Geodesy satellite operated by US Army, USA. Launched 1962 - 1965.

SURCAL American military target satellite. Calibration satellite for NRL, USA. Launched 1962-1965.

OSO American solar satellite. The Orbiting Solar Observatories, developed for NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, were designed primarily as stabilized platforms for solar-oriented scientific instruments. Solar observatory satellite built by Ball Aerospace for NASA, USA. Launched 1962 - 1969.

Anna American earth geodetic satellite. Geodesy satellite built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for USAF, US Navy, US Army, NASA, USA. Launched 1962.

Telstar American communications satellite. Communication satellite built by Bell Telephone Laboratories for AT&T, USA. Launched 1962 - 1963.

Relay American communications technology satellite. Communication satellite built by RCA Astro for NASA, USA. Launched 1962 - 1964.

SSF American military signals intelligence satellite. ELINT satellite built by Lockheed for USAF, USA. Launched 1963 - 1964. Used P-11 bus.

Dash American military technology satellite. Operated by USAF, USA. Launched 1963.

APL satellite American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1963.09.28 (APL SN 39) to 1964.12.13 (APL SN 43). Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory built several satellites for the Air Force in the 1960's.

GGSE American gravity gradient technology satellite. 5 launches, 1964.01.11 (GGSE 1) to 1967.05.31 (GGSE 5). Developed designs and deployment techniques later applied to the NOSS / Whitecloud naval reconnaissance satellites.

Echo 2 American passive communications satellite. Passive communications satellite; balloon; 1st joint US/USSR space mission.

Strela-1 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Military Communication satellite, Russia. Launched 1964 - 1965.

IE American earth ionosphere satellite. Explorer 20. Ionospheric research. Research satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1964.

Calsphere American military target satellite. Radar calibration objects (but also cover for other classified subsatellites). Radar calibration satellite for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), USA. Launched 1962-1967.

Beacon American earth ionosphere satellite. Early technology satellite. None reached orbit. Atmosphere density satellite built by NASA Langley Research Center for US Army, USA. Launched 1958 - 1959.

LES American communications technology satellite. Experimental communication satellite built by Lincoln Laboratory for Lincoln Laboratory, USAF, USA. Launched 1965.

DODECAPOLE American military target satellite.

Snapshot American ion engine technology satellite. Carried SNAP-9A nuclear power source. The on-board reactor provided electrical power for a 2.2-lb ion engine. Experimental satellite operated by US Air Force, USA. Launched 1965.

LCS American military target satellite. Aluminum sphere used for radar calibration. Radar Calibration satellite built by Rohr Corp. for Lincoln Laboratory, USA. Launched 1965 - 1971.

Tempsat American military target satellite. Surveillance Calibration; black 14 inch diameter. sphere.

OV2 American earth magnetosphere satellite. OV2 satellites were built for the USAF Office of Aerospace Research, and flew as secondary payloads on Titan IIIC test flights. Experimental satellite built by Northrop Systems Laboratories for USAF, USA. Launched 1965 - 1968.

GEOS American solar satellite. The GEOS spacecraft were gravity-gradient-stabilized, solar-cell powered satellites designed exclusively for geodetic studies. Research satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1965 - 1968.

IQSY American solar satellite. Explorer 30. Solar radiation data.

FRANCE satellite French earth ionosphere satellite. Investigated the properties of the ionized layers of the atmosphere by observation of the propagation of very low frequency waves in the ionosphere.

Strela-2 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Military Communication, store dump satellite, Russia. Launched 1965 - 1968.

US-A Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. The US-A (later known as RLS) was a nuclear powered RORSAT (Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite). Ocean surveillance, active radar satellite, Russia. Launched 1970 - 1988. Used US-Bus.

OAO American visible astronomy satellite. Astronomy, UV satellite built by Grumman Aerospace Corp. for NASA, USA. Launched 1966.

Pageos American earth geodetic satellite. 100 foot diameter. balloon. Geodesy satellite built by G. T. Schjeldahl Co. (Balloon) for NASA, USA. Launched 1966.

Tsiklon satellite Russian navigation satellite.

Owl American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1967.05.18 (Transit 16) to 1967.09.25 (Transit 17).

Timation American navigation technology satellite. Navigation satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for USN, USA. Launched 1967 - 1969.

Tselina-O Ukrainian ELINT satellite. From 1965 to 1967 two dedicated ELINT systems were tested by the Soviet Union: Tselina and US. Both were routinely operated. ELINT satellite built by Yuzhnoye (prime), TsNII-108 GKRE (payload), Russia. Launched 1967 - 1982.

Aurora American earth magnetosphere satellite. Investigated aurora borealis. Research satellite built by Rice University for Rice University for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1967.

Sfera Russian earth geodetic satellite. The Sfera geodetic system covered a broad development for solving problems in geodetics, continental drift, and precise location of cartographic points. Geodesy satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1968 - 1978. Used KAUR-1 bus.

IS-P Russian military anti-satellite system target satellite. ASAT Target, launched by R-36. Evidently a derivative of the first IS-A ASAT itself.

RAE American radio astronomy satellite. Radio Astronomy satellite operated by NASA, USA. Launched 1968.

RADCAT American military technology satellite. Calibration target satellite, USA. Launched 1968 - 1972.

Meteor M 11F614 Russian earth weather satellite. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. Meteorology satellite built by VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 1964 - 1977.

PAC American technology satellite. Package Attitude Control; semi-active gravity gradient stabilization tests. Technology satellite for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA. Launched 1969.

SOICAL American military target satellite.

Ionosfernaya Russian earth ionosphere satellite. Ionospheric studies. Used the basic KAUR-1 bus, consisting of a 2. Science, ionosphere satellite built by OKB-10 (NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1969 - 1970. Used KAUR-1 bus.

Strela-1M Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 3 Military Communication satellite, Russia. Launched 1970 - 1992.

Rhyolite American military signals intelligence satellite. ELINT satellite built by TRW, E-Systems for USAF, USA. Launched 1970 - 1978.

Strela-2M Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Military Communication, store dump satellite, Russia. Launched 1970 - 1994.

Peole French communications satellite. Gathered data from meteorological balloon system. Data relay satellite, France. Launched 1970.

SAS Series of American solar orbiting satellites for x-ray and gamma astronomy.

Tselina-D Ukrainian military signals intelligence satellite. The Tselina D was the detailed observation portion of the two-satellite Tselina ELINT satellite system. ELINT satellite built by Yuzhnoye (prime), TsNII-108 GKRE (payload), Russia. Launched 1970 - 1994.

DS-P1-M Ukrainian military anti-satellite system target satellite. Target for IS ASAT systems tests. ASAT target satellite built by OKB-586, Russia. Launched 1970 - 1982.

Tselina-OM Ukrainian military signals intelligence satellite. Study 1970. Improved version of Tselina-O. Either not put into production or later launches listed as Tselina-O were actually of Tselina-OM model. Navigation / Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1967 - 1978. Used KAUR-1 bus.

Gridsphere American technology satellite. Experimental satellite operated by USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1968 - 1971.

Mylar American technology satellite.

Rigidsphere American military target satellite.

Eole satellite French earth weather satellite. Experimental weather satellite; received meteorological data from balloon network. Data relay satellite, France. Launched 1971.

ASTEX American technology satellite. Space Test Program; technology experiments. Technology satellite for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1971.

NOSS US Navy Ocean Surveillance Satellite to track and surveil ships at sea worldwide. Built by Naval Research Laboratory (#1, 2); Martin Marietta (#3 - 9). Launched 1976 - 1987.

TIP American navigation satellite.

Skynet British military communications satellite network. Military communication satellite built by Marconi Space and Defence Systems for MoD, UK. Launched 1974. Used Skynet-2 Bus.

Meteor-Priroda Russian earth land resources satellite. Meteorology, earth observation satellite built by VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 1974 - 1981. Used SP-1 bus.

NTS American navigation technology satellite. Demonstrated navigation technologies. Navigation satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1974.

Parus Russian navigation satellite. Military satellite which provided navigation information and store-dump radio communications to Soviet naval forces and ballistic missile submarines. Navigation, data relay satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1974 - 2010. Used KAUR-1 bus.

Starlette French earth geodetic satellite. Geodesic satellite. Geodesy satellite for CNES, France. Launched 1975-1993.

Meteor-2 Russian earth weather satellite. Successor to the Meteor-1 weather satellite. Meteorology satellite built by VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 1975 - 1993. Used SP-1 bus.

ETS Japanese technology satellite. Technology satellite operated by NASDA, Japan. Launched 1975.

JISS Japanese earth ionosphere satellite. JISS - national name "Ume". Spin-stabilized; Ionospheric Sounder, Radio Noise Receiver, Plasma Measuring Equipment, Ion Mass Spectrometer, and other instruments.

NOSS-Subsat American military naval signals reconnaissance satellite. Detected the location of naval vessels using radio interferometry. Ocean Surveillance Launch Dispenser satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) (#1, 2); (#3 - 9) for, USA. Launched 1976 - 1987.

LAGEOS American earth geodetic satellite. The LAGEOS satellites were passive vehicles covered with retroreflectors designed to reflect laser beams transmitted from ground stations. Geodesy satellite built by Bendix Corp. (body), Perkin ELmer (reflectors)(#1), ASI (#2) for NASA, ASI, USA. Launched 1976 - 1992.

Tsikada Russian navigation satellite. Tsikada was a complementary civilian version of the Parus military naval navigation satellite system for the Soviet Merchant Marine and Academy of Sciences. Navigation satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1976 - 1995. Used KAUR-1 bus.

HEAO American x-ray astronomy satellite. The 3 satellites of the High Energy Astronomical Observatory program surveyed the celestial sphere for X-ray sources and gamma and cosmic ray phenomena. Astronomy, X-Ray, Gamma satellite built by TRW for NASA, USA. Launched 1977. Used HEAO Bus.

GPS Block 1 American navigation satellite. GPS Block 1 prototype satellites formed the GPS Demonstration system and were followed by the Block 2 operational system.

Radio Russian amateur radio communications satellite. Amateur radio communication satellite for NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, Mozhaisky military academy, Russia. Launched 1994. Used Strela-1 Bus.

Astrofizika Russian earth geodetic satellite. Cosmos 1066. Based on the Meteor-1 bus but carried special optical instruments for the observation of lasers on Earth. Technology satellite built by VNIIEM, International. Launched 1978. Used Meteor Bus.

Okean-E Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. First prototype of Okean series. Development of methods for obtaining operational information on the Pacific Ocean. Ocean Observation satellite built by KB Yuzhnoye, Russia. Launched 1979 - 1980.

Geo-IK Russian earth geodetic satellite. Development of a second generation geodetic satellite system began in 1977. Geodesy satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1981 - 1994. Used KAUR-1 bus.

IK-B-1300 Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. Intercosmos 22. Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300. Comprehensive investigation of physical processes in the earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere.

SSTL-70 British microsatellite bus. 1 Basic Surrey Microsat bus.

Nadezhda Ukrainian navigation satellite. Navigation / SAR Transponder satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1982 - 2000. Used KAUR-1 bus.

Glonass Russian navigation satellite. Glonass was a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system.

HILAT American communications satellite. One launch, 1983.06.27. Communications technology tests. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication. Experimental satellite built by JHU/APL for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1983. Used Transit-Bus.

Okean-OE Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. Ocean Observation satellite built by KB Yuzhnoye, Russia. Launched 1983 - 1984.

Tselina-2 Ukrainian military signals intelligence satellite. ELINT satellite built by KB Yuzhnoye (bus), TsNIRTI Minradioprom (ELINT payload), Russia. Launched 1984 - 2007.

ERBS American earth magnetosphere satellite. ERBS was part of the NASA's three-satellite Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), designed to investigate how energy from the Sun is absorbed and re-emitted by the Earth. Earth Observing satellite built by Ball Aerospace for NASA, USA. Launched 1984.

Meteor-3 Russian earth weather satellite. Meteor-3 began in 1972 as an improved replacement for the Meteor-2 weather satellite. Meteorology satellite built by VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 1984 - 1994. Used SP-2 bus.

Strela-3 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Said to have initially been developed for the GRU. Military Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) for VKS, Russia. Launched 1985 - 2012.

Geosat American earth resources radar satellite. Geosat was a US Navy satellite designed to measure sea surface heights to within 5 cm. Altimetry satellite built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for US Navy, USA. Launched 1985.

Okean-O1 Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. Third generation Soviet oceanographic research satellite, equipped with a side-looking radar, radiometer, and multi-spectral scanner. Ocean Observation satellite built by KB Yuzhnoye, Russia. Launched 1986 - 1995.

EGS Japanese earth geodetic satellite. Experimental Geophysical Payload; new launch vehicle test flight. EGS (Ajisai). Improvement of the accuracy of domestic geodetic triangulation network. Geodesy satellite operated by NASDA, Japan. Launched 1986.

MABES Japanese technology satellite. MABES (Jindai). Experiment on the levitation of the magnetic bearing flywheel under zero-g condition. Technology satellite operated by NASDA, Japan. Launched 1986.

Polar Bear American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1986.11.14. also known as STP P87-1, a military mission designed to study communications interference caused by solar flares and increased auroral activity.

Pirs-1 Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. 2 launches, 1987.02.02 and 1987.07.10 .

Lacrosse (satellite) Null

Etalon Russian earth geodetic satellite. Passive geodetic satellites, 1415 kg, 1.294 m in diameter, covered with 306 antenna arrays, each with 14 corner cubes for laser reflection. Geodesy satellite, Russia. Launched 1989.

GPS Block 2 and 2A American navigation satellite. The Navstar GPS constellation worked in concert with ground receivers to give precise location information to military and civilian users anywhere in the world.

HST American visible astronomy satellite. The Hubble Space Telescope was designed to provide a space telescope with an order of magnitude better resolution than ground-based instruments. Astronomy satellite built by Lockheed for NASA, ESA, Europe. Launched 1990.

MACSAT American military communications satellite. Experimental communication (store and forward) satellite built by DSI for DARPA, USA. Launched 1990. Used MAESTRO Bus.

ROSAT German x-ray astronomy satellite. West German extreme UV, X-ray telescope; all-sky survey. Astronomy, X-Ray satellite built by Dornier for DARA, NASA, Germany. Launched 1990.

NOSS-2 American military naval signals reconnaissance satellite. 5 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 59) to 1996.05.12 (USA 122). New generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites. Ocean Surveillance satellite built by Lockheed, Martin Marietta for NRO, US Navy, USA. Launched 1990 - 1996.

NOSS-2 subsatellite American military naval signals reconnaissance satellite. 6 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 60) to 1991.11.08 (USA 77).

Tselina-3 Ukrainian military signals intelligence satellite. Cancelled in the early 1990s. The Tselina-3 third generation two-tier ELINT satellite system was developed in parallel with Tselina-2.

Informator Russian communications satellite. Oscar 21. Informator was the spacecraft component of the planned Koskon medium earth-orbit communications satellite system. Communication, Amateur communication satellite built by Polyot Production Association, Elas Scientific Production Association for Koskon, Russia. Launched 1991. Used KAUR-1 Bus.

REX American earth ionosphere satellite. The REX satellites were designed to study scintillation effects of the Earth's atmosphere on RF transmissions. Experimental satellite built by DSI (#1), CTA (#2) for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1991 - 1996. Used the GemStar Bus bus.

Orbcomm Orbital Communications Corp, Dulles, USA. Orbcomm was a commercial venture to provide global messaging services using a constellation of 26 low-Earth orbiting satellites. Communication (Data) satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for Orbcomm, USA. Launched 1995 - 1999. Used the MicroStar bus.

Solar (Japanese satellite) Null

UARS American earth ionosphere satellite. The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite was designed to study the physical and chemical processes occurring in the Earth's upper atmosphere (between 15 and 100 km). Earth Observing satellite built by GE Astro Space, Fairchild (Bus) for NASA, USA. Launched 1991. Used the MMS bus.

Radiobook Russian communications satellite. Study 1991. The Radiobook network would utilize from 24 to 36 micro-satellites (10 kg or less) in a packet radio network, which could be launched with small boosters, including air-launched missiles.

EUVE American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. The EUVE Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer mission mapped space in the 70- to 760-angstrom portion of the spectrum and conducted detailed ultraviolet examinations of selected celestial targets. Astronomy, extreme UV satellite built by Fairchild (Bus), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Payload) for NASA, USA. Launched 1992. Used the MMS with exchangeable payload module bus.

SAMPEX American earth magnetosphere satellite. Research, magnetosphere satellite built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for NASA, USA. Launched 1992.

Gonets-D1 Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. Commercial version of GRU Strela-3 military store-dump satellite. Communication, Store-Dump satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) for RKA, Russia. Launched 2005 - 2015.

Topex/Poseidon American earth sea satellite. TOPEX/Poseidon was a co-operative mission between the United States and France designed to provide high-accuracy global sea level measurements. Earth Observing satellite built by Fairchild for NASA, CNES, France. Launched 1992. Used the MMS bus.

CDS American communications technology satellite. Orbcomm OXP-1. Experimental spacecraft.

SCD Brazilian communications technology satellite. Environmental data relay. Data collection and relay satellite for INPE, Brazil. Launched 1997-1998.

Start satellite Russian communications technology satellite. Experimental satellite carried on test flight of the Start-1 carrier rocket, a new booster based on SS-25 ICBM.

ALEXIS American x-ray astronomy satellite. ALEXIS was a small spacecraft built for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Its mission was to provide high resolution maps of low-energy astronomical x-ray sources. Experimental satellite built by AeroAstro for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1993.

Radcal American military target satellite. Radar calibration. Radar calibration satellite built by DSI for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1993.

Temisat Italian communications technology satellite. Temisat's primary mission was demonstration of a data relay system. Environmental data collection and relay satellite built by Kayser-Threde GmbH for Telespazio SpA, Italy. Launched 1993. Used the Blackbird-350 bus.

Elekon Russian communications satellite. Study 1993.

Globsat Russian communications satellite. Study 1993. The Salyut Design Bureau proposed the least ambitious of all Russian low earth orbit communications systems.

Pallada Russian communications satellite. Study 1993. The Pallada network was devised by the Moscow Radio Communications Research Institute for Commonwealth of Independent States communications services, including voice, telegraph, fax, and data transmissions.

DARPASAT American technology satellite. USA 102. GPS receiver and data processor technology tests. Experimental satellite built by Ball Aerospace for DARPA, USA. Launched 1994.

TAOS American military strategic defense satellite. USA 101. TAOS was a technology demonstration satellite whose purpose was to demonstrate autonomous space navigation systems to reduce satellite ground support needs.

Eagle American military strategic defense satellite. Technology satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) => Orbital ATK for AFRL, USA. Used Eagle-Bus ESPA (ESPAStar).

Astrid Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. Sweden's third scientific satellite and first microsatellite.

FAISAT American military communications satellite. Store/forward communications.

GFZ-1 German earth geodetic satellite. GFZ-1 was a geodetic satellite designed to improve the current knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. Geodesy satellite built by Kayser-Threde, Institute of Space Device Engineering - Moscow for GFZ, Germany. Launched 1995.

XTE American x-ray astronomy satellite. X-ray Timing Explorer; X-ray astronomy. Astronomy, X-ray satellite for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA. Launched 1995.

Konvert Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. The Elas Scientific Production Association was a principal participant in the proposed Kuryer communications system of Konvert spacecraft.

SPS-Sputnik Russian communications satellite. Study 1995.

SAX Italian x-ray astronomy satellite. Beppo SAX. Satellite per Astronomia a raggi X; X-ray celestial observatory Astronomy, X-Ray satellite built by Alenia Spazio for ASI, Italy. Launched 1996.

TiPS American tether technology satellite. The 53 kg satellite consisted of 2 end masses connected by a 4 km tether. NRO (the National Reconnaissance Office) provided funding for the TiPS project. Tether technology satellite for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), USA. Launched 1996.

HETE American gamma ray astronomy satellite. The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) was an international mission led by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Gamma ray astronomy satellite built by MIT, AeroAstro (Bus) for NASA, USA. Launched 1996 - 2000. Used HETE-Bus.

SAC-B Argentinian solar satellite. SAC-B, an Argentine / US mission, was designed to study solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma-ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. Scientific satellite built by INVAP for CONAE, Argentina. Launched 1996.

GPS Block 2R American navigation satellite.

CPAC American burial satellite. Celestis.

Minisat Spanish technology satellite. The Minisat spacecraft were built for the Spanish space Agency by CASA. Experimental satellite built by CASA for INTA, Spain. Launched 1997. Used Minisat-0 Bus.

LM 700 American communications satellite. The LM 700 had its first use in the Iridium system, a commercial communications network comprised of a minimum of 66 LEO spacecraft.

Arkon-1 Russian military surveillance satellite.

FORTE American earth magnetosphere satellite. FORTE - 'Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events' - was a US Los Alamos National Laboratory satellite designed to study natural and artificial radio emissions from the ionosphere. Experimental satellite built by Composite Optics Inc. (structure) for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1997.

ETS-7 Japanese rendezvous technology satellite. Hikoboshi. Technology satellite, to accomplish remote automatic rendezvous and docking. Technology satellite operated by NASDA, Japan. Launched 1997.

Odyssey Odyssey Worldwide Services, American commercial communications satellite network. Operations were planned in 1997 to begin by the end of 1998. However in the event the entire enterprise was cancelled when the dot-com / MEO satellite bubble burst. Communicationsatellite built by TRW for Odyssey Telecommunications International. Used TRW AB940 bus.

Celestis American burial-in-space service. Celestis offers the the opportunity for the space-smitten to have (a portion) of their cremated remains to be put into orbit. Space burial satellite for Celestis, USA. Launched 1998-2001. Used the Orion-38 motor bus.

GFO American earth resources radar satellite. GFO was a follow-on to the successful GEOSAT program which flew between 1985 and 1990. GFO was to provide real-time ocean topography data to 65 Navy users at sea and on shore. Altimetry satellite built by Ball Aerospace for US Navy, USA. Launched 1998. Used the BCP-600 (formerly called Techstar) bus.

Globalstar The Globalstar constellation was a Medium Earth Orbit system for mobile voice and data communications developed and operated by Globalstar Communications Corporation, San Jose, California, USA. Communication satellite built by Alenia Spazio, Space Systems/Loral (Bus) for Globalstar, USA. Launched 1998 - 2007.

STEX American tether technology satellite. STEX's (Space Technology EXperiments) main equipment was provided by the Naval Research Laboratory. Built by Lockheed Martin Astronautics (Denver) for NRO, USA. Launched 1998.

SWAS American infrared astronomy satellite. SWAS, the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, had a 0.6m telescope with a 490 to 550 GHz submillimeter receiver and an acousto-optical spectrometer.

Astrid-2 Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. Swedish Space Corporation's second microsatellite (based on Astrid-1) was slated to perform high resolution E-field and B-filed measurements in the Earth's auroral regions. Science satellite for SSC, Sweden. Launched 1995-1998. Used Freja-C bus.

ROCSAT Taiwanese earth sea satellite. Taiwan's ROCSAT (Republic of China Satellites) were built for Taiwan's National Space Program Office. Earth Observing satellite built by TRW for NSPO, Taiwan. Launched 1999. Used the T200A bus.

Orsted Danish earth magnetosphere satellite.

Sunsat South African technology satellite. Sunsat was built by students at Stellenbosch University, South Africa and carried a small imager and a message relay payload. Experimental satellite for Stellenbosch University, South Africa. Launched 1999.

MiniSat-400 British technology satellite. Basic Surrey Minisat bus.

ABRIXAS German x-ray astronomy satellite. X-ray astronomy satellite with the mission to carry out an all-sky survey in the 1-10 keV band with 30 arc second resolution. Astronomy, X-Ray satellite built by OHB-System for DLR (DARA), Germany. Launched 1999.

Megsat MegSat, Gruppo Meggiorin, Brescia, Italy. Builder of the first private Italian satellites, Megsats were microsatellites designed to transmit scientific and commercial data. Italian communications technology satellite. Communication (store & forward) satellite for MegSat, Italy. Launched 1999-2000. Used MegSat Bus.

FUSE American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. FUSE carried four 0.35m far ultraviolet telescopes each with an ultraviolet high resolution spectrograph. Astronomy, Far-UV spectroscopy satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) (Bus), Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) (Instrument) for NASA, USA. Launched 1999. Used the MidStar. Launched 1999.

Gonets Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. Study 1999. The first generation store-dump communications Gonets-D system was to have been followed by an advanced Gonets-R design equipped with satellite-to-satellite links. Communication, Store-Dump satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) for RKA, Russia. Launched 1992 - 2001.

Meteor-3M Russian earth weather satellite. The Meteor-3 weather satellite was to be followed in 1996 by the first of the Meteor-3M class, which was finally put into orbit in 2001. No furthussian earth weather satellite. The Meteor-3 weather satellite was to be followed in 1996 by the first of the Meteor-3M class, which was finally put into orbit in 2001. No further launches, and succeeded by the Meteor-M in 2010. Meteorology satellite built by NPP VNIIEM for Roskosmos, Russia. Launched 2001. Used SP-2 bus.

Meteor-M New-generation Russian weather satellite, successor to the Meteor-3M, with new electronics and designed for launch by the Soyuz ST launch vehicle rather than the discontinued Tsiklon-3 and non-Russian Zenit-2. Meteorology satellite built by NPP VNIIEM, Russia. Launched 2009 - 2014.

GPS Block 2F American navigation satellite. Block IIF satellites were the fourth generation of the Navstar satellite, launched from 2010.05.28.

GPS Block 3 American navigation satellite. Study 2010. GPS III, as planned in 2003, would be the fifth generation of Navstar satellites. They would continue to deliver the new civil signals and improved military codes initiated on the GPS IIR-M and IIF programs.



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