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Tsiklon satellite
Part of KAUR-1 Family
Parus
Parus
Tsiklon, its successor, Parus, and Sfera all used the KAUR-1 bus and were similar in appearance.
Russian navigation satellite.

AKA: 11F617;Tsiklon. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-05-15. Last Launch: 1978-07-27. Number: 31 . Gross mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Height: 3.00 m (9.80 ft). Span: 2.04 m (6.68 ft).

The requirement for Tsiklon, the first prototype Soviet navigation satellite system, was identified in the late 1950's in order to provide Soviet ballistic missile submarines with accurate position fixes so that acceptable submarine-launched ballistic missile accuracy could be achieved. The draft project was approved in 1962, but development was prolonged due to very poor accuracy due to software problems and lack of accurate geodetic data. The system was finally accepted for service as an interim measure in 1972 pending deployment of the improved Tsiklon-B/Parus system.

Tsiklon was designed by Reshetnev; the navigation and control system was by NII Radiopribor (Ivanov, Chief Designer, L I Gusev, Director); with communications systems by MNIIRS MPSS (Nesvist). The Kosmos-3M launch vehicle was used.

The TTZ specification was completed by the TsYKOS MO (Space Forces) and the VMF (Soviet Navy). In 1962 research institute NII-695 completed the draft project for a Tsiklon experimental satellite. It was to use the Doppler navigation method and be placed in 800 to 1000 km altitude orbits. Development of the satellite was given to Reshetnev and experimental flights began in 1967 in order to develop a system meeting the required tactical and operational characteristics.

The shipboard installation consisted of the Tsunami system, composed of the Sirius radio station, the Signal antenna stabilization platform, the Konus-4 omnidirectional antenna, and the Kvant-L antenna. First trial were conducted with a Project 680 vessel of the Black Sea fleet and showed a position error of 3 km, which was intolerable. A large part of the problem was with inaccuracies in the software models available for predicting the spacecraft ephemerides. Work by the KIK Center resulted in a 10 to 30 times improvement in this accuracy, incorporating new information on the gravitational anomalies and geoid of the earth. Use of the revised software in 1969 showed an average error of 100 m over a five day period. Further improvement required a better mapping of the earth's gravitational anomalies. Testing of Tsiklon would continue through 1972 before an adequate operational system could be designed and the system was accepted for military service. The Parus/Tsiklon-B production system began flight tests in 1974.

Tsiklon used the basic KAUR-1 bus, consisting of a 2.035 m diameter cylindrical spacecraft body, with solar cells and radiators of the thermostatic temperature regulating system mounted on the exterior. Orientation was by a single-axis magneto-gravitational (gravity gradient boom) passive system. The hermetically sealed compartment had the equipment mounted in cruciform bays, with the chemical batteries protecting the radio and guidance equipment mounted at the center).

Electric System: 0.20 average kW.


More at: ZALIV.

Family: Medium earth orbit, Navigation. Country: Russia. Launch Vehicles: R-14, Kosmos 3, Kosmos 11K65M. Launch Sites: Kapustin Yar, Plesetsk, Plesetsk LC132/2, Plesetsk LC132/1, Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Agency: MO, Reshetnev bureau. Bibliography: 102, 107, 2, 445, 449, 6, 13315.
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Credit: Manufacturer Image



1962 During the Year - .
  • Draft project for Tsiklon experimental navigation satellite completed - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite.

    Research institute NII-695 completed the draft project for a Tsiklon experimental navigation satellite. It was to use the Doppler navigation method and be placed in 800 to 1000 km altitude orbits. Experimental flights began in 1967 in order to develop a system meeting the required tactical and operational characteristics.


1967 May 15 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 158 - . Payload: Tsiklon Mass Model. Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 2801 . COSPAR: 1967-045A. Apogee: 812 km (504 mi). Perigee: 731 km (454 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.30 min. Military navigation satellite..

1967 September 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle exploded on pad.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Tsiklon GVM - . Payload: Tsiklon Mass Model. Mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. Mass model of military navigation satellite used for booster test..

1967 November 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 192 - . Mass: 775 kg (1,708 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 3047 . COSPAR: 1967-116A. Apogee: 725 km (450 mi). Perigee: 716 km (444 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Military navigation satellite..

1968 May 7 - . 13:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 220 - . Mass: 775 kg (1,708 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 3229 . COSPAR: 1968-040A. Apogee: 700 km (430 mi). Perigee: 637 km (395 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Military navigation satellite..

1969 August 13 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 292 - . Mass: 775 kg (1,708 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 4070 . COSPAR: 1969-070A. Apogee: 733 km (455 mi). Perigee: 719 km (446 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Military navigation satellite..

1969 October 21 - . 12:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 304 - . Mass: 795 kg (1,752 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 4138 . COSPAR: 1969-091A. Apogee: 748 km (464 mi). Perigee: 731 km (454 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 99.60 min. Military navigation satellite..

1970 April 11 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 332 - . Mass: 775 kg (1,708 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 4369 . COSPAR: 1970-028A. Apogee: 736 km (457 mi). Perigee: 727 km (451 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 99.40 min. Military navigation satellite..

1970 August 20 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 358 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. Decay Date: 1990-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 4497 . COSPAR: 1970-064A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 334 km (207 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Identification uncertain. Possibly a Tsiklon military navigation satellite placed in incorrect orbit..

1970 October 12 - . 13:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 371 - . Mass: 775 kg (1,708 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 4578 . COSPAR: 1970-083A. Apogee: 728 km (452 mi). Perigee: 722 km (448 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Military navigation satellite..

1970 December 12 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 385 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 4799 . COSPAR: 1970-108A. Apogee: 980 km (600 mi). Perigee: 973 km (604 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 104.60 min. Military navigation satellite..

1971 May 22 - . 00:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 422 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 5238 . COSPAR: 1971-046A. Apogee: 1,005 km (624 mi). Perigee: 982 km (610 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Military navigation satellite..

1971 December 15 - . 04:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 465 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 5683 . COSPAR: 1971-111A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 965 km (599 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Military navigation satellite..

1972 February 25 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 475 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 5846 . COSPAR: 1972-009A. Apogee: 996 km (618 mi). Perigee: 962 km (597 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1972 May 6 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. Launch Pad: LC132/pad?. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 489 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 6019 . COSPAR: 1972-035A. Apogee: 998 km (620 mi). Perigee: 961 km (597 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1972 August 16 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 514 - . Payload: Tsiklon Mass Model. Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 6148 . COSPAR: 1972-062A. Apogee: 967 km (600 mi). Perigee: 952 km (591 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.30 min. Military navigation satellite..

1973 January 26 - . 11:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 546 - . Payload: Tsiklon Mass Model. Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 6350 . COSPAR: 1973-005A. Apogee: 564 km (350 mi). Perigee: 537 km (333 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1973 May 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
1973 June 20 - . 06:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 574 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 6707 . COSPAR: 1973-042A. Apogee: 1,010 km (620 mi). Perigee: 976 km (606 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Military navigation satellite..

1973 September 14 - . 00:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 586 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 6828 . COSPAR: 1973-065A. Apogee: 1,003 km (623 mi). Perigee: 961 km (597 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1973 December 29 - . 04:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 627 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 7008 . COSPAR: 1973-109A. Apogee: 1,014 km (630 mi). Perigee: 967 km (600 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Military navigation satellite..

1974 January 17 - . 10:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 628 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 7094 . COSPAR: 1974-001A. Apogee: 1,008 km (626 mi). Perigee: 952 km (591 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1974 June 27 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 663 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 7349 . COSPAR: 1974-048A. Apogee: 999 km (620 mi). Perigee: 963 km (598 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1974 October 18 - . 22:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 689 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 7476 . COSPAR: 1974-079A. Apogee: 1,015 km (630 mi). Perigee: 972 km (603 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Military navigation satellite..

1975 April 22 - . 21:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 729 - . Mass: 725 kg (1,598 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 7768 . COSPAR: 1975-034A. Apogee: 1,007 km (625 mi). Perigee: 971 km (603 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Military navigation satellite..

1976 February 3 - . 08:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 800 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 8645 . COSPAR: 1976-011A. Apogee: 1,009 km (626 mi). Perigee: 978 km (607 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Military navigation satellite..

1976 June 2 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 823 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 8873 . COSPAR: 1976-051A. Apogee: 1,007 km (625 mi). Perigee: 971 km (603 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Military navigation satellite..

1976 July 29 - . 20:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 846 - . Mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 9061 . COSPAR: 1976-078A. Apogee: 1,009 km (626 mi). Perigee: 947 km (588 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..

1977 January 20 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 890 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 9737 . COSPAR: 1977-004A. Apogee: 1,016 km (631 mi). Perigee: 975 km (605 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Military navigation satellite..

1977 October 28 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 962 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 10459 . COSPAR: 1977-107A. Apogee: 1,006 km (625 mi). Perigee: 962 km (597 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Military navigation satellite..

1978 March 15 - . 15:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 994 - . Mass: 920 kg (2,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 10731 . COSPAR: 1978-028A. Apogee: 1,007 km (625 mi). Perigee: 971 km (603 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Military navigation satellite..

1978 July 27 - . 04:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 1027 - . Mass: 920 kg (2,020 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-1. Spacecraft: Tsiklon satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 10991 . COSPAR: 1978-074A. Apogee: 998 km (620 mi). Perigee: 957 km (594 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.70 min. Military navigation satellite..


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