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Grechko, Georgi Mikhailovich
Grechko
Grechko
Credit: www.spacefacts.de
Russian engineer cosmonaut 1966-1992.

Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1992. Born: 1931-05-25. Died: 2017-04-08. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 134.86 days. Birth Place: Leningrad.

Doctorate degree in physical-mathematical sciences, 1984. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Involved in the Soviet Lunar Landing Program. Resigned from NPO Energia in 1986 to become laboratory chief at the Institute of Atmospheric Research in the Academy of Sciences. From 1992 he worked at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics in Moscow.


More at: Grechko.

Family: Cosmonaut, Energia Engineer Group 1 - 1966. Country: Russia. Spacecraft: Salyut 6, Salyut 7. Flights: Soyuz n 17, Soyuz 9, Soyuz sn 18, Soyuz 12 / DOS 2, Soyuz 13 / DOS 2, Soyuz 12 / DOS 3, Soyuz 13 / DOS 3, Soyuz 12, Soyuz 17, Soyuz 26, Soyuz T-11, Soyuz T-13 EO-4-a, Soyuz T-13 EO-4-b, Soyuz T-14 Salyut 7 EP-5. Projects: Salyut. Agency: Korolev bureau. Bibliography: 4452, 5460.

1931 May 25 - .
  • Birth of Georgi Mikhailovich Grechko - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko. Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 17, Salyut 6 EO-1, Salyut 7 EP-5..

1964 May 18 - .
1965 October 22 - .
1965 November 20 - .
  • Military-Technical Soviet of the Ministry of Defence - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gagarin, Grechko, Ustinov. Program: Voskhod, Vostok.

    Marshal Grechko convenes the Soviet to consider the issues raised by Gagarin's letter. Representatives from the PVO, VVS, RVSN, and the NTK attend. Problems in the space program and the loss of the lead in the space race to the Americans are blamed on the Academy of Sciences and the design bureaux and factories - none dare risk blaming poor management and support by the Ministry of Defence. The issues seen are:

    • No program plan for manned flight
    • Manned flights have low priority. Keldysh and Korolev have launched 30 four-stage rockets on robot missions to the moon, Mars, and Venus, with virtually no publicity or scientific effect. The eight rockets used for manned launches have had enormous impact, but this successful program has only had one quarter the allocation of the spectacularly unsuccessful unmanned planetary program
    • Not one new manned spacecraft has been developed in the last five years. Key subsystems - film and photographic equipment, spacesuits, parachutes, communications systems, and oxygen regeneration systems - have only begun preliminary tests in the last year.

    There is no high-level support for moving space activities away from what Kamanin calls 'the artillery people' - it is known that Ustinov has made his career in building up the RVSN, and he is not about to criticise them.


1966 May 23 - .
1966 July 2 - .
  • Soyuz crew manoeuvres - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Anokhin, Bykovsky, Dolgopolov, Gagarin, Gorbatko, Grechko, Khrunov, Kolodin, Komarov, Makarov, Malinovskiy, Mishin, Nikolayev, Rudenko, Smirnov, Tsybin, Tyulin, Ustinov, Volkov, Voronov, Yeliseyev. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1, Soyuz 2A, Soyuz s/n 3/4. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    Kamanin is back from leave and orients himself. VVS General Rudenko has been visited by Mishin, Tsybin, and Tyulin. They want to replace Kamanin's crews for the first Soyuz mission in September-October with a crew made up of OKB-1 engineers: Dolgopolov, Yeliseyev, and Volkov as the prime crew, Anokhin, Makarov, and Grechko as back-ups. Kamanin believes this absurd proposal, made only three months before the planned flight date, shows a complete lack of understanding on the part of OKB-1 management of the training and fitness required for spaceflight. Kamanin has had eight cosmonauts (Komarov, Gorbatko, Khrunov, Bykovsky, Voronov, Kolodin, Gagarin, and Nikolayev) training for this flight since September 1965. Yet Mishin and Tyulin have been shopping this absurd proposal to Smirnov, Ustinov, and Malinovskiy, who do not know enough to reject it.


1966 July 6 - .
  • State Commission on Manned Spaceflight - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Anokhin, Belyayev, Bugrov, Bykovsky, Dolgopolov, Grechko, Komarov, Kubasov, Makarov, Mishin, Nikolayev, Tyulin, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1, Soyuz 2A, Soyuz s/n 3/4.

    Tyulin heads a meeting that brings the Soyuz crewing dispute into the open. The opposing crews are represented as follows:

    • Soyuz s/n 3: VVS: commander: Komarov; backup Belyayev. MOM: commander: Dolgopolov; backup Grechko. Flight engineer: VVS: open; MOM: Makarov, Backup: Bugrov.
    • Soyuz s/n 4: VVS: commander: Bykovsky; backup Nikolayev. MOM: commander: Yeliseyev; backup Anokhin. Flight engineer: VVS: open; MOM: Kubasov, Backup: Volkov.

    Kamanin is furious. Mishin and Tyulin think an engineer can be trained to be a spacecraft commander in three months, without passing a flight physical, without being a qualifed pilot, without screening and training on the centrifuge or zero-G aircraft, and without parachute training. They put no value in six years of VVS experience in cosmonaut training. They give no weight to the years of general training, spaceflight experience, and ten months of Soyuz-specific training his candidates have already had. He notes that the United States trains crews for a minimum of one to two years before a flight. Kamanin says this decision will not stand.


1966 August 23 - .
  • Soyuz recovery training at sea - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev, Sergei, Burnazyan, Bykovsky, Gorbatko, Grechko, Keldysh, Khrunov, Kolodin, Komarov, Kubasov, Nikolayev, Smirnov, Volkov, Voronov. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK, Yastreb.

    Nikolayev, Bykovsky, Komarov, Khrunov, Gorbatko, Kolodin, and Voronov complete two parachute jumps each, with landing at sea. Training in sea-recovery by helicopter, with the cosmonauts in spacesuits, will be completed over the next two days. Smirnov is ready to sign a letter from Afanasyev, Burnazyan and Keldysh creating a new civilian cosmonaut training centre under the Ministry of Medium Machine Building, separate from the VVS centre. The letter is not coordinated with the Defence Ministry, and contradicts the letter sent by the four marshals to the Central Committee. Kamanin prepares a vigorous refutation of the letter's position. The physicians' board on OKB-1 candidates has only cleared Yeliseyev for flight - they could not agree on Volkov, Kubasov, and Grechko. OKB-1 only submitted four candidates for review, not the eight promised.


1966 September 2 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K.
1966 September 5 - .
  • OKB-1 cosmonauts accepted for training. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dolgopolov, Grechko, Kubasov, Makarov, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Program: Soyuz. Kubasov, Volkov, and Grechko have been accepted by the VVS for cosmonaut training, with some relaxation in health requirements. Yeliseyev, Dolgopolov and Makarov need more medical tests to be cleared. .

1966 September 7 - .
  • Cosmonaut group leaders - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Anokhin, Belyayev, Gorbatko, Grechko, Khrunov, Kubasov, Popovich, Pravetskiy, Severin, Volkov, Yeliseyev. Program: Soyuz, Almaz. Flight: Soyuz 1, Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS, Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz VI, Yastreb.

    Volkov, Grechko and Kubasov believe they can complete cosmonaut training in two months. Of course they know space technology, but Kamanin informs them that, with intensive training, they might be ready in one or two years. Popovich is assigned as leader of the Soyuz VI military spacecraft training group, and Belyayev as head of the Almaz military orbital station training group. Kaminin tells Severin to complete spaceuits for Khrunov and Gorbatko, but to ignore Mishin's orders to prepare suits for Anokhin and Yeliseyev. Anokhin has already been rejected due to his age and health, and Yeliseyev is still being tested. Kamanin reviews draft test programs for the UR-500K/L1 and N1-L3. He lines out statements inserted by Pravetskiy on joint training of cosmonauts by the MOM, Ministry of Public Health and VVS.


1966 November 19 - .
1966 December 7 - .
  • Soyuz and L1 crew assignments. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Beregovoi, Bykovsky, Gagarin, Gorbatko, Grechko, Kerimov, Khrunov, Komarov, Kubasov, Leonov, Makarov, Mishin, Nikolayev, Rudenko, Shatalov, Volkov, Volynov, Yeliseyev, Yershov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1, Soyuz 2A, Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1, Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2, Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 3, Soyuz s/n 3/4, Soyuz s/n 5/6, Soyuz s/n 7. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 7K-OK.

    Rudenko, Mishin, Kerimov and Kamanin agree on crews for upcoming flights. Komarov, Bykovsky, Khrunov, and Yeliseyev are assigned to Soyuz s/n 3 and 4; Gagarin, Nikolayev, Gorbatko, and Kubasov to Soyuz s/n 5 and 6, with Beregovoi, Shatalov, Volkov, and Makarov trained as back-ups. For Soyuz s/n 7, which will conduct space welding experiments with the Vulkan furnace, the commander will be either Komarov, Bykovsky, Gagarin, Nikolayev, Beregovoi, or Shatalov. The other two crewmembers will be either Lankin and Fartushniy from the Paton Institute, VVS cosmonaut Kolodin, or an engineer from OKB-1.

    Crews for the L1 must be named in order to complete the five-month training program in time. Eight L1's are being completed to the manned configuration, but Mishin believes it is necessary to plan for only six manned missions. It is decided to train nine crews. Spacecraft commanders will be Komarov, Bykovsky, Nikolayev, Gagarin, Leonov, Khrunov, Volynov, Beregovoi, and Shatalov. Flight engineers will be Yeliseyev, Kubasov, Makarov, Volkov, and Grechko. Komarov, Bykovsky or Nikolayev will command the first circumlunar flight. Mishin promises to name the OKB-1 candidates for that flight by 8 December. Mishin and Kerimov agree that training of cosmonaut- researchers from the Academy of Sciences may begin, although both Mishin and Rudenko expressed doubts about cosmonaut candidate Yershov.

    The failures of Cosmos 133 have been narrowed to entangled thrust vector vanes in the main engines and a single defective approach and orientation thruster. It is agreed to set the unmanned launch of Soyuz s/n 1 for 18 December as a final functional check of all systems. If this is successful, the date will then be set for the manned launch of Soyuz s/n 3 and 4. Flight control will be conducted from Yevpatoria.


1966 December 10 - .
  • Soviets view scope of American Apollo program with dismay - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Ivashutin, Rudenko, Vershinin, Zakharov. Program: Soyuz, Apollo, Lunar L1.

    Grechko, Zakharov, Shtemenko, Ivashutin, Vershinin, Rudenko and with dozens of other generals view a film prepared by the GRU on the American Apollo program. It gives the viewers a clear idea of the immense scale of the American program, which dwarfs the resources the Soviets have devoted to their counterpart. Kamanin believes it clearly demonstrates why the Soviet Union is lagging in the space race and how illusory is the hope of ever regaining the lead.


1967 January 17 - .
1969 April 26 - .
  • Soyuz program review - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Grechko, Kolodin, Kubasov, Kuklin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Shonin, Volkov, Volynov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 5, Soyuz 6, Soyuz 7, Soyuz 8, Soyuz n 17, Soyuz n 18, Soyuz n 19, Soyuz n 20. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK, Soyuz Kontakt.

    The commission considers plans for the rest of the Soyuz production. Spacecraft s/n 14, 15, and 16 are to fly in August 1969, 17 and 18 in November 1969, and 19 and 20 in February-March 1970. Crews selected for the August flights are: for spacecraft 14, Shonin and Kubasov; for 15, Filipchenko, Volkov, and Gorbatko; for 16, Nikolayev and Sevastyanov. Back-ups will be Kuklin, Grechko, and Kolodin. All of the spacecraft will fly 4 to 5 day missions. Spacecraft 15 and 16 will dock and remain together 2 or 3 days to form an 'orbital station'. Experiments planned for the flight are:

    • Visual observation of rocket launch plumes using the Svinets device
    • Film and photography of the spacecraft 15-16 docking from spacecraft 14
    • Demonstration of welding in weightless vacuum conditions using the Vulkan device
    • Demonstration of autonomous navigation by the cosmonauts using a sextant
    • Medium wave radio communications
    • Test of new television sensors for the Soyuz orientation system

    Spacecraft 17 through 20 will fly 15 to 16 day missions to demonstrate the new SZhO life support system for the L3, and conduct rendezvous and docking operations using the L3's Kontakt system. Additional Details: here....


1969 October 8 - .
  • Soyuz 6/7/8 State Commission - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Mishin, Shatalov, Volkov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 6, Soyuz 7, Soyuz 8.

    Kamanin takes General Efimov to see the roll-out of the Soyuz 6 booster. Mishin calls during the tour to ask that Volkov be switched with TsKBEM engineer Grechko on the Soyuz 7 crew. Kamanin refuses at this late date, noting in disgust Mishin is always pushing his staff for flight regardless of how it might affect the mission. Efimov is then taken to see the N1 MIK assembly building, the largest building in Europe. They view the construction of the 104-m-long booster's three stages. Next they go out to the pad, surveying the facility from 120 m up in one of the gantries. Kamanin muses that unless the N1 can be made reliable, the Russians will be 7 to 8 years behind the Americans in planetary and lunar exploration. Later the State Commission meets and fixes the launch schedule for the upcoming flights. Mishin does not raise the issue of Grechko flying to the commission. Shatalov is named commander of the entire three-spacecraft group flight.


1969 November - .
1969 December 30 - .
  • Soyuz 9 planned - Belyayev seriously ill. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Belyayev, Grechko, Kolodin, Mishin, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Shatalov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK.

    The leadership suddenly announces that a solo Soyuz mission of 17 to 20 days is to be flown for Lenin's 100th birthday (April 22). This will seize the space endurance record from the Americans and provide biomedical information for the DOS station, to be flown by the end of the year. Nikolayev and Sevastyanov are being pushed for the job. Kamanin objects, he would prefer Kolodin or Grechko, but Mishin won't hear of it. During December Kamanin, the Shatalov Soyuz 7 crew, Sevastyanov, and their wives vacation at Sochi on the Black Sea. Meanwhile Belyayev becomes serious ill. Surgeons operate to remove 2/3 of his stomach, part of his long intestine, and his appendix.


1970 June 1 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 9 - . Call Sign: Sokol (Falcon ). Crew: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko, Grechko. Support Crew: Lazarev, Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 17. Mass: 6,590 kg (14,520 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Filipchenko, Grechko, Lazarev, Nikolayev, Sevastyanov, Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 17.71 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 4407 . COSPAR: 1970-041A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Manned flight endurance test. Medico-biological, scientific and technical studies and experiments in prolonged orbital flight. Inconclusive results due to slow sun-oriented rotation of spacecraft to conserve fuel producing motion sickness in cosmonauts.. Additional Details: here....

1971 June 15 - .
1972 Early - .
  • Soyuz sn 18 (cancelled) - . Crew: Filipchenko, Grechko. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Filipchenko, Grechko. Program: Lunar L3. Flight: Soyuz sn 18. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz Kontakt. Soyuz s/n 18 would have been the active spacecraft of the first dual launch to test the Kontakt lunar orbit rendezvous system. A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place..

1972 August - .
1972 October - .
1973 June - .
1973 September - .
1973 September 27 - . 12:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 12 - . Call Sign: Ural (Urals ). Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Backup Crew: Grechko, Gubarev. Support Crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 36. Mass: 6,720 kg (14,810 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Gubarev, Klimuk, Lazarev, Makarov, Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 12. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6836 . COSPAR: 1973-067A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 51.0000 deg. Period: 91.00 min.

    Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Two solo test flights of the new design were planned. Crews for the first flight were those already planned for the deferred follow-on missions to the failed DOS 2 and DOS 3 space stations.


1975 January 10 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 17 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Grechko, Gubarev. Backup Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Support Crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 38. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Gubarev, Klimuk, Lazarev, Makarov, Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 17. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 29.56 days. Decay Date: 1975-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7604 . COSPAR: 1975-001A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station..

1975 February 10 - .
1977 December 10 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz 26 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Grechko, Romanenko. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 43. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Grechko, Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok, Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 26. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 37.42 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10506 . COSPAR: 1977-113A. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried Yuri Romanenko, Georgi Grechko to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 27 to Earth. Conduct of joint experiments with the Salyut-6 scientific station..

1977 December 19 - . 21:36 GMT - .
1978 March 16 - .
1984 April 3 - . 13:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U.
  • Soyuz T-11 - . Call Sign: Yupiter (Jupiter ). Crew: Malyshev, Sharma, Strekalov. Backup Crew: Berezovoi, Grechko, Malhotra. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 17L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Berezovoi, Grechko, Malhotra, Malyshev, Sharma, Strekalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz T-10, Soyuz T-11. Spacecraft Bus: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 181.91 days. Decay Date: 1984-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 14872 . COSPAR: 1984-032A. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

    Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 7.Transported a Soviet-Indian international crew comprising ship's commander Y V Malyshev, flight engineer G M Strekalov (USSR) and cosmonaut-researcher R Sharma (India) to the SALYUT-7 orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments.


1985 September 17 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U2.
1985 September 26 - .

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