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KAUR-3
Satellite bus developed from the late 1960's for the first Russian geosynchronous communications satellites. They provided the platforms for repeater communications and direct television broadcast for two generations of Raduga, Ekran, and Gorizont satellite series.

New operations and communications methods were required. In July 1974 a Proton DM put a Molniya-1 into geosynchronous orbit as a test. This proved methods for the KAUR-3 Raduga series that would follow.



Subtopics

Raduga First Soviet geosynchronous communications satellite. A single orbital group of two Radugas could handle all communications of the Russian eastern regions. Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1975 - 1999. Used KAUR-3 bus.

Raduga-GVM Vehicle evaluation payload, Russia. Launched 1974.

Ekran Russian communications satellite. Ekran was the Soviet Union's first geosynchronous satellite. Communication, direct broadcasting satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1976 - 1988. Used KAUR-3 bus.

Gorizont Russian communications satellite. Gorizont-1 was designed specifically to support broadcast of the 1980 Olympic Games from Russia. Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) for RSCC (Kosmicheskiya Svyaz), Russia. Launched 1978 - 2000. Used KAUR-3 bus.

Ekran-M Russian communications satellite. Ekran-M provided unique direct television broadcasting service to community users in the central Russian Federation region (Zone 3). Communication, direct broadcasting satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM) for RSCC (Kosmicheskiya Svyaz), Russia. Launched 1987 - 2001. Used KAUR-3 bus.

Raduga-1 Russian communications satellite. The Raduga-1 geosynchronous communications satellite was to have been the basis for the YeSSS-2 second generation Unified Satellite Communication System. Military Communication satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1989 - 2009. Used KAUR-3 bus.

Raduga-1M (Globus-M) Military Communication satellite built by ISS Reshetnev (ex NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki, NPO PM), Russia. Launched 2007 - 2013.



1974 March 26 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Cosmos 637 - . Payload: Gran dummy s/n 21D. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga. Completed Operations Date: 1974-03-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7229 . COSPAR: 1974-017A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,493 km (22,054 mi). Inclination: 14.3000 deg. Period: 1,428.80 min.

    Test of Block D stage in geosynchronous satellite delivery role. Placed dummy Raduga satellite in geosynchronous orbit. As of 4 September 2001 located at 44.61 deg E drifting at 1.835 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 119.66E drifting at 1.819E degrees per day.


1975 December 22 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 1 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 11L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1978-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 8513 . COSPAR: 1975-123A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,758 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 13.3000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min.

    Statsionar-1. Provision of uninterrupted round-the-clock telephone and telegraph radio-communications system in the USSR, transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 85 deg E in 1975-1978? As of 27 August 2001 located at 70.55 deg E drifting at 0.084 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.79E drifting at 0.009E degrees per day.


1976 September 11 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 2 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 12L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1980-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9416 . COSPAR: 1976-092A. Apogee: 35,866 km (22,286 mi). Perigee: 35,704 km (22,185 mi). Inclination: 13.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Statsionar 1. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 86 deg E in 1976-1980? As of 28 August 2001 located at 67.16 deg E drifting at 0.070 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 72.27E drifting at 0.098W degrees per day.


1976 October 26 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 1 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 11L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9503 . COSPAR: 1976-107A. Apogee: 36,080 km (22,410 mi). Perigee: 35,516 km (22,068 mi). Inclination: 13.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.70 min.

    Statsionar T. Transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to the network of public receiving units located in population centres in Siberia and the Far North. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1976-1978 As of 29 August 2001 located at 68.75 deg E drifting at 0.171 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 73.60E drifting at 0.187W degrees per day.


1977 July 23 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 3 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 13L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1980-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10159 . COSPAR: 1977-071A. Apogee: 35,853 km (22,277 mi). Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,437.20 min.

    Statsionar-2. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 35 deg E in 1977-1980 As of 30 August 2001 located at 44.45 deg E drifting at 0.191 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 49.63E drifting at 0.221E degrees per day.


1977 September 20 - . 17:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 2 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 12L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1978-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10365 . COSPAR: 1977-092A. Apogee: 35,938 km (22,330 mi). Perigee: 35,663 km (22,159 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min.

    Statsionar T. Transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to the network of public receiving units located in population centres in Siberia and the Far North. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1977-1978 As of 5 September 2001 located at 65.77 deg E drifting at 0.168 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.61E drifting at 0.200W degrees per day.


1978 May 27 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ekran s/n 13L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 13L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran. Failed launch of communications satellite..

1978 July 18 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 4 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 14L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10987 . COSPAR: 1978-073A. Apogee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 12.3000 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 35 deg E in 1978-1981 As of 1 September 2001 located at 42.47 deg E drifting at 0.129 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 108.35E drifting at 0.106E degrees per day.


1978 August 17 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ekran s/n 15L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 15L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran.

1978 October 17 - . 16:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Second stage explosion.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Ekran s/n 14L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 14L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran.

1978 December 19 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Block DM malfunction, wrong orbit.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Gorizont 1 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 11L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1980-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 11158 . COSPAR: 1978-118A. Apogee: 49,371 km (30,677 mi). Perigee: 22,193 km (13,790 mi). Inclination: 22.4000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min.

    Did not achieve geostationary orbit due to malfunction of Block D. Operation of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 53 deg E in 1979-1980 As of 29 August 2001 located at 75.87 deg E drifting at 0.132 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 57.49E drifting at 0.119E degrees per day.


1979 February 21 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 3 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 16L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1981-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11273 . COSPAR: 1979-015A. Apogee: 35,919 km (22,318 mi). Perigee: 35,623 km (22,135 mi). Inclination: 14.6000 deg. Period: 1,435.30 min.

    Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1979-1981 As of 3 September 2001 located at 51.81 deg E drifting at 0.088 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 98.64E drifting at 0.060E degrees per day.


1979 April 25 - . 03:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 5 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 15L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1982-05-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11343 . COSPAR: 1979-035A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 11.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1979-1982 As of 29 August 2001 located at 84.16 deg E drifting at 0.043 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 65.45E drifting at 0.034E degrees per day.


1979 July 5 - . 23:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 2 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 12L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1983-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 11440 . COSPAR: 1979-062A. Apogee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 11.5000 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min.

    Stationed at 14 deg W. Statsionar 4. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1979-1981; 90 deg E in 1981-1983 As of 26 August 2001 located at 59.72 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 84.05E drifting at 0.107W degrees per day.


1979 October 3 - . 17:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 4 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 17L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11561 . COSPAR: 1979-087A. Apogee: 35,827 km (22,261 mi). Perigee: 35,725 km (22,198 mi). Inclination: 14.5000 deg. Period: 1,435.60 min.

    Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1979-1981 As of 4 September 2001 located at 52.52 deg E drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 4 located at 96.71E drifting at 0.048W degrees per day.


1979 December 28 - . 11:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 3 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 13L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1989-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11648 . COSPAR: 1979-105A. Apogee: 35,831 km (22,264 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 11.0000 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min. Stationed at 53 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1980-1984; 40 deg E in 1984-1989 As of 30 August 2001 located at 47.84 deg E drifting at 0.163 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 109.81E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day..

1980 February 20 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 6 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 16L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1986-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11708 . COSPAR: 1980-016A. Apogee: 35,816 km (22,254 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 11.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.70 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1980-1982; 45 deg E in 1982-1986 As of 1 September 2001 located at 41.36 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 101.46E drifting at 0.146E degrees per day.


1980 June 14 - . 00:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 4 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 15L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1988-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11841 . COSPAR: 1980-049A. Apogee: 36,269 km (22,536 mi). Perigee: 36,239 km (22,517 mi). Inclination: 14.3000 deg. Period: 1,460.10 min.

    Stationed at 14 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1980-1984; 11 deg W in 1984-1985; 14 deg W in 1985; 11 deg W in 1985-1988 As of 3 September 2001 located at 106.01 deg W drifting at 5.930 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 145.19W drifting at 5.924W degrees per day.


1980 July 14 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 5 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 19L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1980-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11890 . COSPAR: 1980-060A. Apogee: 35,834 km (22,266 mi). Perigee: 35,737 km (22,205 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1980 Last known longitude (14 March 1994) 95.12 deg E drifting at 0.122 deg W per day.


1980 October 5 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 7 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 17L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1986-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12003 . COSPAR: 1980-081A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 14.0000 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min.

    Radio, telegraph, TV. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1980-1981; 25 deg W in 1982-1986 As of 30 August 2001 located at 103.91 deg W drifting at 0.397 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 3 located at 30.06W drifting at 0.092W degrees per day.


1980 December 26 - . 11:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 6 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 20L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1981-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12120 . COSPAR: 1980-104A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 14.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min.

    Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1981 As of 3 September 2001 located at 96.55 deg E drifting at 0.071 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 55.67E drifting at 0.097E degrees per day.


1981 March 18 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 8 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 18L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1981-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 12351 . COSPAR: 1981-027A. Apogee: 36,115 km (22,440 mi). Perigee: 35,411 km (22,003 mi). Inclination: 10.8000 deg. Period: 1,434.90 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. As of 3 September 2001 located at 8.37 deg E drifting at 0.322 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 69.95E drifting at 0.520E degrees per day.


1981 June 25 - . 23:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 7 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 21L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1982-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12564 . COSPAR: 1981-061A. Apogee: 35,819 km (22,256 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 10.5000 deg. Period: 1,437.00 min.

    Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1981-1982 As of 1 September 2001 located at 78.87 deg E drifting at 0.201 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 66.59E drifting at 0.197W degrees per day.


1981 July 30 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 9 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 19L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1986-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12618 . COSPAR: 1981-069A. Apogee: 35,828 km (22,262 mi). Perigee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Inclination: 13.8000 deg. Period: 1,437.20 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1981-1986 As of 30 August 2001 located at 112.14 deg E drifting at 0.090 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 76.83E drifting at 0.307W degrees per day.


1981 October 9 - . 16:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 10 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 20L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1987-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12897 . COSPAR: 1981-102A. Apogee: 35,820 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 13.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1981-1987 As of 5 September 2001 located at 76.66 deg E drifting at 0.069 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 65.57E drifting at 0.042W degrees per day.


1982 February 5 - . 09:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 8 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 22L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1984-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 13056 . COSPAR: 1982-009A. Apogee: 36,010 km (22,370 mi). Perigee: 35,756 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 10.0000 deg. Period: 1,441.00 min.

    Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1982-1983 As of 28 August 2001 located at 30.39 deg W drifting at 1.165 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.74E drifting at 1.235W degrees per day.


1982 March 15 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 5 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 14L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1989-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 13092 . COSPAR: 1982-020A. Apogee: 36,427 km (22,634 mi). Perigee: 36,139 km (22,455 mi). Inclination: 9.7000 deg. Period: 1,461.50 min.

    Stationed at 53 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1982-1986; 96 deg E in 1986-1989 As of 28 August 2001 located at 156.27 deg E drifting at 6.267 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 91.82E drifting at 6.281W degrees per day.


1982 July 22 - . 22:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Ekran s/n 23L - . Payload: Ekran s/n 23L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran.

1982 September 16 - . 18:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 9 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 24L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1983-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 13554 . COSPAR: 1982-093A. Apogee: 35,877 km (22,292 mi). Perigee: 35,704 km (22,185 mi). Inclination: 13.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min.

    Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1982-1983 As of 3 September 2001 located at 99.83 deg E drifting at 0.132 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.75E drifting at 0.063E degrees per day.


1982 October 20 - . 16:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 6 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 16L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1989-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 13624 . COSPAR: 1982-103A. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 12.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.60 min.

    Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1982-1984; 140 deg E in 1984-1988; 170 deg W in 1988-1989 As of 31 August 2001 located at 45.17 deg W drifting at 0.179 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 146.19W drifting at 0.287W degrees per day.


1982 November 26 - . 14:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 11 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 21L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1989-01-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 13669 . COSPAR: 1982-113A. Apogee: 36,702 km (22,805 mi). Perigee: 36,341 km (22,581 mi). Inclination: 12.8000 deg. Period: 1,473.80 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1982-1989 As of 3 September 2001 located at 70.20 deg W drifting at 9.239 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 51.72E drifting at 9.241W degrees per day.


1982 December 24 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Raduga s/n 22L - . Payload: Raduga s/n 22L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga. Decay Date: 1982-12-24 .

1983 March 12 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 10 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 18L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1984-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 13878 . COSPAR: 1983-016A. Apogee: 37,453 km (23,272 mi). Perigee: 37,194 km (23,111 mi). Inclination: 14.3000 deg. Period: 1,515.30 min.

    Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1983-1984 As of 5 September 2001 located at 6.05 deg E drifting at 18.878 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 154.32W drifting at 18.879W degrees per day.


1983 April 8 - . 04:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 12 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 23L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1985-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 13974 . COSPAR: 1983-028A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 8.4000 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min.

    Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1983-1984 As of 4 September 2001 located at 65.56 deg E drifting at 0.028 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.54E drifting at 0.059W degrees per day.


1983 June 30 - . 23:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 7 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 17L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1989-06-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 14160 . COSPAR: 1983-066A. Apogee: 36,374 km (22,601 mi). Perigee: 36,296 km (22,553 mi). Inclination: 12.3000 deg. Period: 1,464.20 min.

    Stationed at 14 deg W. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1983-1986; 16 deg W in 1986-1987; 11 deg W in 1987-1989 As of 3 September 2001 located at 105.97 deg E drifting at 6.939 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 169.25W drifting at 6.932W degrees per day.


1983 August 25 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 13 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 24L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1987-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 14307 . COSPAR: 1983-088A. Apogee: 36,447 km (22,647 mi). Perigee: 36,323 km (22,570 mi). Inclination: 8.0000 deg. Period: 1,466.80 min.

    Operation of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1983-1987 As of 28 August 2001 located at 174.92 deg W drifting at 7.555 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 42.12E drifting at 7.563W degrees per day.


1983 September 29 - . 17:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 11 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 25L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1984-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 14377 . COSPAR: 1983-100A. Apogee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 8.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min.

    Launch date suspect Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1983-1984 As of 28 August 2001 located at 73.31 deg E drifting at 0.215 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 73.35E drifting at 0.222W degrees per day.


1983 November 30 - . 13:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 8 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 18L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1988-11-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 14532 . COSPAR: 1983-118A. Apogee: 36,462 km (22,656 mi). Perigee: 36,254 km (22,527 mi). Inclination: 7.4000 deg. Period: 1,465.40 min.

    Stationed at 90 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1983-1987; 140 deg E in 1987-1988 As of 2 September 2001 located at 3.86 deg W drifting at 7.211 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 143.68W drifting at 7.218W degrees per day.


1984 February 15 - . 08:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 14 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 25L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1987-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 14725 . COSPAR: 1984-016A. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 11.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min.

    Stationed at 84 deg. E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1984-1987 As of 29 August 2001 located at 83.95 deg E drifting at 0.059 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 64.01E drifting at 0.027E degrees per day.


1984 March 16 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 12 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 26L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1986-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 14821 . COSPAR: 1984-028A. Apogee: 37,048 km (23,020 mi). Perigee: 36,973 km (22,973 mi). Inclination: 9.1000 deg. Period: 1,499.10 min.

    Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1984-1986 As of 4 September 2001 located at 148.57 deg W drifting at 15.168 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.29W drifting at 15.169W degrees per day.


1984 April 22 - . 04:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 9 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 19L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1987-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 14940 . COSPAR: 1984-041A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,740 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 11.5000 deg. Period: 1,435.40 min.

    Stationed at 53 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1984-1987 As of 3 September 2001 located at 55.62 deg E drifting at 0.094 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 96.90E drifting at 0.028E degrees per day.


1984 June 22 - . 00:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 15 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 27L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1988-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15057 . COSPAR: 1984-063A. Apogee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Perigee: 35,750 km (22,210 mi). Inclination: 7.2000 deg. Period: 1,435.10 min.

    Stationed at 128 deg. E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg E in 1984-1988 As of 4 September 2001 located at 29.81 deg E drifting at 0.199 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 18.52E drifting at 0.067E degrees per day.


1984 August 1 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 10 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 20L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1990-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 15144 . COSPAR: 1984-078A. Apogee: 35,810 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 6.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min.

    Stationed at 80 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1984-1989; 170 deg W in 1989-1990 As of 5 September 2001 located at 157.76 deg W drifting at 0.193 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 46.55W drifting at 0.187W degrees per day.


1984 August 24 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 13 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 27L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1987-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15219 . COSPAR: 1984-090A. Apogee: 37,087 km (23,044 mi). Perigee: 36,957 km (22,963 mi). Inclination: 8.2000 deg. Period: 1,499.70 min.

    Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1984-1987 As of 2 September 2001 located at 163.33 deg W drifting at 15.302 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 35.81W drifting at 15.302W degrees per day.


1985 January 18 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 11 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 21L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1991-09-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 15484 . COSPAR: 1985-007A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 11.0000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min.

    Stationed at 140 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 140 deg E in 1985-1987; 53 deg E in 1987-1989; 11 deg W in 1989-1991 As of 5 September 2001 located at 22.94 deg W drifting at 0.085 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 14.60W drifting at 0.040W degrees per day.


1985 March 22 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 14 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 28L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1987-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15626 . COSPAR: 1985-024A. Apogee: 37,457 km (23,274 mi). Perigee: 37,333 km (23,197 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,519.00 min.

    Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1985-1987 As of 5 September 2001 located at 178.66 deg E drifting at 19.729 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 122.42E drifting at 19.716W degrees per day.


1985 August 8 - . 21:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 16 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 26L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1988-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15946 . COSPAR: 1985-070A. Apogee: 35,818 km (22,256 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 10.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min.

    Stationed at 45 deg. E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1985-1987; 170 deg W in 1987-1988 As of 1 September 2001 located at 34.20 deg W drifting at 0.087 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 161.95W drifting at 0.182W degrees per day.


1985 November 15 - . 14:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 17 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 28L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1992-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16250 . COSPAR: 1985-107A. Apogee: 35,873 km (22,290 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 5.8000 deg. Period: 1,438.00 min.

    Stationed at 49 deg. E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1985-1988; 69 deg E in 1988-1990; 85 deg E in 1990-1991; 49 deg E in 1991-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 174.18 deg W drifting at 0.357 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 98.19E drifting at 0.512W degrees per day.


1986 January 17 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 18 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 29L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1991-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 16497 . COSPAR: 1986-007A. Apogee: 36,493 km (22,675 mi). Perigee: 35,909 km (22,312 mi). Inclination: 5.8000 deg. Period: 1,457.30 min.

    Stationed at 335 deg. E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 25 deg W in 1986-1989; 170 deg W in 1989-1991 As of 28 August 2001 located at 163.25 deg W drifting at 5.255 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 22.49E drifting at 5.257W degrees per day.


1986 May 24 - . 01:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 15 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 30L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1988-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16729 . COSPAR: 1986-038A. Apogee: 36,905 km (22,931 mi). Perigee: 36,824 km (22,881 mi). Inclination: 11.6000 deg. Period: 1,491.50 min.

    Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1986-1988 As of 5 September 2001 located at 80.69 deg W drifting at 13.420 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 63.41W drifting at 13.419W degrees per day.


1986 June 10 - . 00:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 12 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 24L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1991-01-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 16769 . COSPAR: 1986-044A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 10.1000 deg. Period: 1,435.70 min.

    Stationed at 345 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1986-1989; 40 deg E in 1989-1990 As of 28 August 2001 located at 84.75 deg E drifting at 0.265 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.79E drifting at 0.142E degrees per day.


1986 October 25 - . 15:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 19 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 30L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1993-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 17046 . COSPAR: 1986-082A. Apogee: 36,353 km (22,588 mi). Perigee: 36,252 km (22,525 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,462.60 min.

    Stationed at 36 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1986-1991; 34 deg E in 1991-1993. Raduga 19 performed an end-of-life maneuver in September, 1993. As of 28 August 2001 located at 160.57 deg E drifting at 6.520 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 57.63W drifting at 6.529W degrees per day.


1986 November 18 - . 14:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 13 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 22L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1991-04-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 17083 . COSPAR: 1986-090A. Apogee: 36,863 km (22,905 mi). Perigee: 36,759 km (22,840 mi). Inclination: 10.3000 deg. Period: 1,488.80 min.

    Stationed at 90 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1986-1991 As of 5 September 2001 located at 132.70 deg W drifting at 12.791 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 94.81E drifting at 12.778W degrees per day.


1987 January 30 - . 09:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Block DM-2 ignition failure, remained in LEO.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 1817 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 11L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran-M . Decay Date: 1987-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 17365 . COSPAR: 1987-010A. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Launch vehicle failure; left in unusable orbit. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1987 March 19 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Raduga 20 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 31L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1991-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 17611 . COSPAR: 1987-028A. Apogee: 37,159 km (23,089 mi). Perigee: 36,922 km (22,942 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,500.60 min.

    Stationed at 85 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1987-1991 As of 30 August 2001 located at 6.40 deg W drifting at 15.515 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 6.61W drifting at 15.520W degrees per day.


1987 May 11 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 14 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 23L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1992-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 17969 . COSPAR: 1987-040A. Apogee: 36,658 km (22,778 mi). Perigee: 36,416 km (22,627 mi). Inclination: 6.6000 deg. Period: 1,474.60 min.

    Stationed at 140 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 140 deg E in 1987-1989; 103 deg E in 1989-1992 As of 28 August 2001 located at 132.07 deg W drifting at 9.420 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 61.02W drifting at 9.418W degrees per day.


1987 September 3 - . 19:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 16 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 29L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran. Completed Operations Date: 1989-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 18328 . COSPAR: 1987-073A. Apogee: 36,895 km (22,925 mi). Perigee: 36,871 km (22,910 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,492.50 min.

    Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1987-1989 As of 31 August 2001 located at 146.34 deg W drifting at 13.641 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 69.25E drifting at 13.645W degrees per day.


1987 December 10 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 21 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 32L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1997-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 18631 . COSPAR: 1987-100A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Inclination: 3.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min.

    Stationed at 128 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg E in 1987-1991; 170 deg W in 1991-1997 As of 3 September 2001 located at 140.92 deg W drifting at 0.213 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 154.31W drifting at 0.091W degrees per day.


1987 December 27 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Ekran 17 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 13L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran-M . Completed Operations Date: 1993-01-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 18715 . COSPAR: 1987-109A. Apogee: 37,239 km (23,139 mi). Perigee: 36,890 km (22,920 mi). Inclination: 3.6000 deg. Period: 1,501.90 min.

    Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmitting USSR Central Television programmes to a network of communal receivers. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1988-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 125.85 deg W drifting at 15.807 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 124.58E drifting at 15.805W degrees per day.


1988 January 18 - . 09:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Third stage malfunction.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Gorizont s/n 25L - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 25L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont.

1988 March 31 - . 04:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 15 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 26L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1992-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19017 . COSPAR: 1988-028A. Apogee: 36,630 km (22,760 mi). Perigee: 36,343 km (22,582 mi). Inclination: 3.7000 deg. Period: 1,472.00 min.

    Stationed at 346 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1988-1991; 11 deg W in 1991-1992 As of 31 August 2001 located at 29.28 deg W drifting at 8.804 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 152.02W drifting at 8.807W degrees per day.


1988 May 6 - . 02:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Ekran 18 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 31L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1990-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 19090 . COSPAR: 1988-036A. Apogee: 37,337 km (23,200 mi). Perigee: 37,236 km (23,137 mi). Inclination: 4.5000 deg. Period: 1,513.40 min.

    Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1988-1990 As of 2 September 2001 located at 7.21 deg E drifting at 18.450 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 80.93W drifting at 18.443W degrees per day.


1988 August 18 - . 19:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 16 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 28L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1992-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 19397 . COSPAR: 1988-071A. Apogee: 35,919 km (22,318 mi). Perigee: 35,816 km (22,254 mi). Inclination: 3.2000 deg. Period: 1,440.30 min.

    Stationed at 80 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1988-1992 As of 28 August 2001 located at 176.78 deg W drifting at 1.036 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 169.61W drifting at 1.046W degrees per day.


1988 October 20 - . 15:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 22 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 34L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1998-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19596 . COSPAR: 1988-095A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 2.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min.

    Stationed at 35 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 34 deg E in 1988-1992; 12 deg E in 1992-1998 As of 3 September 2001 located at 8.88 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 67.55E drifting at 0.412W degrees per day.


1988 December 10 - . 11:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Ekran 19 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 12L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran-M . Completed Operations Date: 1997-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19683 . COSPAR: 1988-108A. Apogee: 36,980 km (22,970 mi). Perigee: 36,684 km (22,794 mi). Inclination: 8.8000 deg. Period: 1,489.90 min.

    Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1988-1996 As of 28 August 2001 located at 156.78 deg W drifting at 13.031 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 173.37E drifting at 13.036W degrees per day.


1989 January 26 - . 09:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 17 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 29L. Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1997-02-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 19765 . COSPAR: 1989-004A. Apogee: 36,224 km (22,508 mi). Perigee: 36,034 km (22,390 mi). Inclination: 8.4000 deg. Period: 1,453.60 min.

    Stationed at 53 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. The Rimsat network was initiated when Gorizont 17 was leased to the corporation and transferred from 53 degrees E (where it was then a backup to Gorizont 27) to 134 degrees E during late-June and July, 1993. At the close of 1994, Gorizont 17 was still on station but nearing the end of its operational life after six years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1989-1993; 134 deg E in 1993-1995; 34 deg E in 1995-1997 As of 30 August 2001 located at 22.84 deg W drifting at 4.340 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 147.41W drifting at 4.350W degrees per day.


1989 April 14 - . 04:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 23 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 33L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1996-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19928 . COSPAR: 1989-030A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 2.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Stationed at 336 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 25 deg W in 1989-1995; 44 deg E in 1995-1996 As of 4 September 2001 located at 53.34 deg E drifting at 0.294 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.48E drifting at 0.016E degrees per day.


1989 June 21 - . 23:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 1-1 - . Payload: Raduga-1 s/n 11. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. Completed Operations Date: 1996-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 20083 . COSPAR: 1989-048A. Apogee: 36,313 km (22,563 mi). Perigee: 36,147 km (22,460 mi). Inclination: 8.1000 deg. Period: 1,458.80 min.

    Stationed at 49 deg E; first launch of alternate Raduga design. Maintenance of telephone and telegraph radio communications. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1989-1992; 70 deg E in 1992-1996 As of 2 September 2001 located at 18.58 deg E drifting at 5.633 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 167.42W drifting at 5.632W degrees per day.


1989 July 5 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 18 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 27L. Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1996-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20107 . COSPAR: 1989-052A. Apogee: 36,165 km (22,471 mi). Perigee: 35,902 km (22,308 mi). Inclination: 8.0000 deg. Period: 1,448.70 min.

    Stationed at 140 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 140 deg E in 1989-1996 As of 5 September 2001 located at 100.49 deg E drifting at 3.169 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 90.76W drifting at 3.156W degrees per day.


1989 September 28 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 19 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 31L. Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1998-05-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 20263 . COSPAR: 1989-081A. Apogee: 35,827 km (22,261 mi). Perigee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 7.9000 deg. Period: 1,437.30 min.

    Stationed at 97.5 deg E. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 97 deg E in 1989-1996; 34 deg E in 1996-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 105.39 deg E drifting at 0.168 deg E per day. As of 2007 Feb 28 located at 84.84E drifting at 0.295W degrees per day.


1989 December 15 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 24 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 36L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1994-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20367 . COSPAR: 1989-098A. Apogee: 35,813 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 7.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min.

    Stationed at 45 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1990-1994. Replaced by Raduga 31. As of 3 September 2001 located at 103.47 deg E drifting at 0.067 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 47.08E drifting at 0.104W degrees per day.


1990 February 15 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 25 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 35L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1997-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20499 . COSPAR: 1990-016A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 1.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Stationed at 70 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg E in 1990-1995; 170 deg W in 1995-1997 As of 5 September 2001 located at 171.03 deg W drifting at 0.038 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 31.27W drifting at 0.005W degrees per day.


1990 June 20 - . 23:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM.
  • Gorizont 20 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 30L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1999-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20659 . COSPAR: 1990-054A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 1.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Stationed at 90 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes, continuation of work in the context of the 'Intercosmos' programme for the development of new frequency ranges and the creation of long-range systems of space c ommunications jointly with the Byelorussian SSR, GDR, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1990; 14 deg W in 1990-1995; 26 deg E in 1995-1998; 96 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 77.53 deg E drifting at 0.186 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 83.10E drifting at 0.160E degrees per day.


1990 August 9 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Third stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Ekran-M s/n 14L - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 14L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran-M.

1990 November 3 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 21 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 32L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 20923 . COSPAR: 1990-094A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 1.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Stationed at 90 deg E. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1990-1993. Gorizont 28 replaced Gorizont 21 at 90 degrees E in 1993. This allowed Gorizont 21 to be repositioned from mid-November to late-December for the inauguration of a new station at 145 degrees E. 145 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 4.18 deg E drifting at 0.139 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 5.59E drifting at 0.135E degrees per day.


1990 November 23 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 22 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 33L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 20953 . COSPAR: 1990-102A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Stationed at 40 deg E. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 40 deg E in 1990-1996; 140 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 31 August 2001 located at 45.22 deg E drifting at 0.368 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 85.49E drifting at 0.416E degrees per day.


1990 December 20 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 26 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 37L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1993-10-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 21016 . COSPAR: 1990-112A. Apogee: 35,823 km (22,259 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 7.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min.

    Stationed at 85 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1991-1993. Raduga 26 then began a series of small maneuvers coincident with the launch of Raduga 30, and was placed in a graveyard orbit. As of 1 September 2001 located at 93.34 deg E drifting at 0.101 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 52.76E drifting at 0.024W degrees per day.


1990 December 27 - . 11:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 1-2 - . Payload: Raduga-1 s/n 12. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. Completed Operations Date: 1996-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21038 . COSPAR: 1990-116A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min.

    Stationed at 49 deg E; second launch of alternate Raduga design. Further expansion of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system in the territory of the USSR. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1991-1996 As of 27 August 2001 located at 93.45 deg E drifting at 0.139 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 51.16E drifting at 0.090W degrees per day.


1991 February 28 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 27 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 38L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1998-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21132 . COSPAR: 1991-014A. Apogee: 35,809 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 7.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min.

    Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg E in 1991-1998 As of 29 August 2001 located at 109.47 deg E drifting at 0.276 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 119.06E drifting at 0.198W degrees per day.


1991 July 1 - . 21:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 23 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 34L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1992-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 21533 . COSPAR: 1991-046A. Apogee: 36,188 km (22,486 mi). Perigee: 36,158 km (22,467 mi). Inclination: 6.8000 deg. Period: 1,455.90 min.

    Stationed at 103 deg E. Maintenance of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television broadcasts. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1991-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 159.68 deg E drifting at 4.917 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 0.82W drifting at 4.909W degrees per day.


1991 October 23 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 24 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 35L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1998-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21759 . COSPAR: 1991-074A. Apogee: 36,394 km (22,614 mi). Perigee: 36,220 km (22,500 mi). Inclination: 6.5000 deg. Period: 1,462.80 min.

    Stationed at 80 deg E. Maintenance of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television broadcasts. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1991-1998 As of 28 August 2001 located at 158.79 deg E drifting at 6.583 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 172.52W drifting at 6.586W degrees per day.


1991 December 19 - . 11:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 28 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 39L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 21821 . COSPAR: 1991-087A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 6.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min.

    Telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1992-1999; 45 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 61.74 deg E drifting at 0.302 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 115.81E drifting at 0.085E degrees per day.


1992 April 2 - . 01:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 25 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 36L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 21922 . COSPAR: 1992-017A. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Stationed at 103 deg E. Transmission of Russian radio and television programmes in Siberia and the solution of communications problems in Russia's eastern regions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 140.44 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 44.59W drifting at 1.512W degrees per day.


1992 July 14 - . 22:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 26 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 37L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 22041 . COSPAR: 1992-043A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Stationed at 349 deg E. Development of the communications and television broadcasting system. Launched in the interests of the Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 11 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 13.53 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg E per day. As of 2007 Feb 21 located at 16.60E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.


1992 October 30 - . 14:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Ekran 20 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 15L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran-M . USAF Sat Cat: 22210 . COSPAR: 1992-074A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min.

    Transmission of television programmes to a network of multiple user receiving stations. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 79.69 deg E drifting at 0.201 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 78.67E drifting at 0.192E degrees per day.


1992 November 27 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 27 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 38L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 22245 . COSPAR: 1992-082A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Stationed at 53 deg E. Development of the communications and television broadcasting system. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1992-1996; 96 deg E in 1996-1998; 50 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 26.46 deg E drifting at 0.193 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 26.21E drifting at 0.345W degrees per day.


1993 March 25 - . 02:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 29 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 42L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 22557 . COSPAR: 1993-013A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min.

    Telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Raduga 29 joined Raduga 22. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 12 deg E in 1993-1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 11.13 deg E drifting at 0.020 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 61.26E drifting at 0.381E degrees per day.


1993 May 27 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: Second stage did not reach planned velocity. Cause determined to be propellant contamination.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Gorizont s/n 39L - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 39L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont.

1993 September 30 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 30 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 41L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 22836 . COSPAR: 1993-062A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,762 km (22,221 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    Stationed at 83 deg E, replacing Raduga-26. Operation of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 86.23 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. Raduga 30 followed on 30 September 1993 and was transferred to 85 degrees E. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.18E drifting at 0.046E degrees per day.


1993 October 28 - . 15:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 28 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 40L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 22880 . COSPAR: 1993-069A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Gorizont 28 replaced Gorizont 21 at 90 degrees E. This allowed Gorizont 21 to be repositioned from mid-November to late-December for the inauguration of a new station at 145 degrees E. As of 6 September 2001 located at 96.68 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 116.96E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.


1993 November 18 - . 13:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 29 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 41L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 22907 . COSPAR: 1993-072A. Apogee: 35,835 km (22,266 mi). Perigee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 5.0000 deg. Period: 1,437.70 min.

    Gorizont 29 (18 November 1993) and 30 (20 May 1994) were launched for Rimsat, Ltd., to provide communications services in the Pacific region under an agreement signed in 1992 between Rimsat and the Applied Mechanics NPO. Gorizont 29 was located at 130 degrees E in accordance with a lease arrangement with Rimsat Corporation (using slots allocated to Tonga by the International Telecommunications Union). Intended for use under commercial conditions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 130 deg E in 1993-1997; 161 deg E in 1997-1998; 130 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 130.39 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 168.05E drifting at 0.374W degrees per day.


1994 February 5 - . 08:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 1-3 - . Payload: Raduga-1. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 22981 . COSPAR: 1994-008A. Apogee: 36,513 km (22,688 mi). Perigee: 36,513 km (22,688 mi). Inclination: 1.4000 deg. Period: 1,473.00 min.

    Joined Raduga 1-2 at 48 deg E; third launch of alternate Raduga design. Extension of the telephone and telegraph radio communications system on the territory of the Russian Federation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1994-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 49.75 deg E drifting at 0.057 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 100.54E drifting at 0.021W degrees per day.


1994 February 18 - . 07:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 31 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 40L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1995-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 23010 . COSPAR: 1994-012A. Apogee: 36,483 km (22,669 mi). Perigee: 36,483 km (22,669 mi). Inclination: 1.5000 deg. Period: 1,472.00 min.

    Stationed at 44 deg E; replaced Raduga 24. Operation of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1994-1995 As of 29 August 2001 located at 65.21 deg E drifting at 0.236 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 81.01E drifting at 0.234E degrees per day.


1994 May 20 - . 02:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 30 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 42L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 23108 . COSPAR: 1994-030A. Apogee: 35,833 km (22,265 mi). Perigee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 4.8000 deg. Period: 1,437.60 min.

    Stationed at 142.5 deg E as 'Rimsat-2' - leased to Rimsat Corporation, using an orbital slot allocated to Tonga. Communications satellite intended for use under commercial conditions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 142 deg E in 1994-1997; 122 deg E in 1997-1999; 142 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 142.86 deg E drifting at 0.016 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 173.22W drifting at 0.132W degrees per day.


1994 December 28 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 32 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 43L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 23448 . COSPAR: 1994-087A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 1.4100 deg. Period: 1,436.22 min.

    Raduga 32 joined Raduga 25 and Raduga 1-1 at 70 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg E in 1995-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 80.00 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 73.08E drifting at 0.033E degrees per day.


1996 January 25 - . 09:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 31 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 43L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 23775 . COSPAR: 1996-005A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 39.8E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 40 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 40.11 deg E drifting at 0.042 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.36E drifting at 1.416W degrees per day..

1996 February 19 - . 08:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. FAILURE: No second Block DM-2 ignition (blocked LOX valve). Block DM-2 propellant automatically jettisoned.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Raduga s/n 44L - . Payload: Raduga s/n 44L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga. Decay Date: 2004-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 23794 . COSPAR: 1996-010A. Apogee: 36,582 km (22,730 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 47.2000 deg. Period: 646.10 min. Secret military name for Raduga program is Gran'..

1996 May 25 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Gorizont 32 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 44L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 23880 . COSPAR: 1996-034A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 3.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 53.2E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 53.25 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 14.58W drifting at 0.023W degrees per day..

1999 February 28 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga-1 - . Payload: Raduga-1 s/n 14. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 25642 . COSPAR: 1999-010A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 10.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min.

    Geosynchronous communications satellite, stationed at 35 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 34.80 deg E drifting at 0.013 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 107.14E drifting at 0.165W degrees per day.


1999 July 5 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz K/M. FAILURE: Second stage explosion.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Raduga - . Payload: Raduga s/n 45L. Mass: 1,954 kg (4,307 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

    Carried a Russian Defence Ministry communications satellite. First attempted flight of the Khrunichev Briz-M upper stage in place of the usual Block DM. After the second stage explosion the remainder of the vehicle survived for 45 seconds before breaking up. Debris landed near Karaganda. As a result of this accident the Kazakh government suspended launches from Baikonur pending Russian agreement to pay back part of rent owed.


2000 June 6 - . 02:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz K/M.
  • Gorizont - . Payload: Gorizont 45. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Gorizont. Completed Operations Date: 2000-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 26372 . COSPAR: 2000-029A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

    Communications satellite. First successful Proton/Briz-M launch. The Proton placed the Briz-M/Gorizont payload stack into a suborbital trajectory. The stage then performed four maneuvers to put the satellite into geosynchronous orbit:

    • Burn 1 placed the stack into a 200 km, 51.6 deg parking orbit probably inclined at around 51.6
    • Burn 2 raised apogee to 6000 km and changed inclination slightly
    • Burn 3, at second perigee, four hours after launch put the stack in a 369 x 34,988 km x 48.8 deg transfer orbit. The Briz-M then jettisoned its empty toroidal supplementary fuel tank.
    • Burn 4, ten hours after launch, placed Gorizont No. 45L in near-geostationary orbit.

    Gorizont No. 45L was expected to be the final launch of that model of television broadcasting satellite. It carried 6 C-band transponders, one L-band, and one Ku-band transponder. The newer Ekspress satellites are replacing the system. Stationed at 145 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 145 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 145.25 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 144.69E drifting at 0.019W degrees per day.

2000 August 28 - . 20:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga-1 - . Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 26477 . COSPAR: 2000-049A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min.

    Raduga-1 military communications satellite initially named Cosmos 2372 by the RVSN press service. Stationed at 50 deg E. As of 5 September 2001 located at 49.25 deg E drifting at 0.048 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.70E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.


2001 April 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • Ekran-M No. 18 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 18L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: GPKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Ekran-M. USAF Sat Cat: 26736 . COSPAR: 2001-014A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 1.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

    Direct Broadcasting satellite. Maiden flight of new version of Proton. Launch delayed from August 2000, March 16 and April 6. Ekran-M No. 18 was a UHF television broadcasting satellite which was to be stationed at 99 deg E to provided television service to the Russian Far East. The satellite had a launch mass of around 2100 kg and was to replace the recently failed Ekran-M 15 that had been operating since October 1992 at the 105 deg-E longitude orbital slot.

    The improved 3-stage Proton launch vehicle, with a new digital flight control system and enhanced first stage engines, delivered its payload section to a suborbital trajectory at 0356 GMT. The Briz-M upper stage then fired to enter a 200 km parking orbit. It appears that only two more burns were used to reach geostationary orbit: one at around 0440 GMT to enter a 200 x 35800 km GTO, after which the Briz-M toroidal drop tank was jettisoned, and one at around 1000 GMT, to circularize the orbit at geostationary altitude. Briz-M reportedly separated from its payload at 1031 GMT. Ekran was expected to reach its 99 deg E final location on around April 24. As of 5 September 2001 located at 99.27 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 99.30E drifting at 0.005W degrees per day.


2001 October 6 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga-1 - . Payload: Globus 2 / Raduga 1-6. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev bureau. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 26936 . COSPAR: 2001-045A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min.

    The Blok-DM2 upper stage put the Russian geosynchronous military communications satellite into a geosynchronous transfer orbit at 1755 GMT. A second burn at 2318 GMT to circularized the orbit at geostationary altitude. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 106.48E drifting at 9.104W degrees per day.


2004 March 27 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga-1 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 28194 . COSPAR: 2004-010A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 1.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Military communications satellite. Parked in geostationary orbit at 85.0 deg E, after being placed in unusual subsynchronous drift orbit. Original name Cosmos 2406. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.19E drifting at 0.029W degrees per day..

2007 December 9 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • Cosmos 2434 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 32373 . COSPAR: 2007-058A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Raduga-1 / Globus communications satellite..

2009 February 28 - . 04:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2.
  • Raduga 1-8 - . Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 34264 . COSPAR: 2009-010A. Apogee: 35,943 km (22,333 mi). Perigee: 35,635 km (22,142 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

2010 January 28 - . 00:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • Raduga-1M - . Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. Decay Date: 2014-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 36358 . COSPAR: 2010-002A. Apogee: 35,591 km (22,115 mi). Perigee: 35,567 km (22,100 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,425.50 min. Second new-generation Globus-M military communications satellite..

2013 November 11 - . 23:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-M/Briz-M.
  • Raduga-1M - . Payload: Raduga 1M-3. Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-3. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 39375 . COSPAR: 2013-062A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0300 deg. Period: 1,436.07 min. Globus-1M military communications satellite..


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