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AUOS

AUOS

AUOS
AUOS model exhibited at Ukraine Pavilion, Hannover Expo 2000.
Credit: © Mark Wade

Ukrainian spacecraft bus. Standardized bus for low earth orbit scientific studies and testing of new systems and components of satellite under space flight conditions.

AKA: Koronas; Oreol-3. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-06-19. Last Launch: 2009-01-30. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).

Primarily used on international Interkosmos and Aureole flights.

By the early 1970s' study of the interrelationship between the sun and the earth's magnetosphere, atmosphere, and surface were seen as the leading contemporary scientific issues. The existing Yuzhnoye DS-U bus, used for Soviet earth-orbit scientific missions, was of too small a size and limited a lifespan to be used for the planned new missions. Analysis by the Yuzhnoye Design Office in 1971 showed that the anticipated spacecraft missions could be divided into three groups. All the missions could be undertaken by a single multi-purpose spacecraft with common data acquisition, storage, and transmission avionics. This Automated Universal Orbital Station (AUOS) concept was based on the success of Yuzhnoye's DS-U. The AUOS bus could accommodate 400 to 600 kg of scientific payload and provide it with a daily average power of 50 W. Attitude control accuracy, number of commands, and data link characteristics were improved over the DS-U.

Authorization to proceed with development was issued by the Soviet Council of Ministers in 1972. V F Utkin at KB Yuzhnoye led the design team and the spacecraft were built at the Southern Machinery Factory. All specifications, development, and quality assurance for the project were handled by the military. The initial series of AUOS spacecraft were launched from 1976-1981 from Plesetsk by the Kosmos 11K65M booster. Thereafter the more capable Tsyklon 3 was used from the same cosmodrome, allowing higher scientific payload masses and higher orbits. Two main AUOS variants were developed:

  • AUOS-Z, the Earth-oriented variant. AUOS-Z was suited for missions that would study space; the physical impact of solar activity on the earth's surface, atmosphere, and magnetosphere; geophysical phenomena; and earth resources missions. It required only minimum changes in the structure and configuration of the on-board equipment when switching from application to another one. Development of specialized configurations for the AUOS-Z bus started in 1973. Eleven spacecraft based on the AUOS-Z platform were developed, manufactured and launched in 1973-1991. Nine of these spacecraft were launched under international cooperation programs.

  • AUOS-SM, the sun-oriented variant. AUOS-SM was aimed at comprehensive study of the Sun under the Koronas-I, Koronas-F and Photon Projects. These included study of the physical processes that take place at energy liberation or transfer in different regions of the active Sun. A practical goal was the development of a permanent solar activity forecasting service. Development of specialized configurations for the AUOS-SM bus started in 1987. Two were launched in 1994 and 2001.

Family: Astronomy, Technology, Technology satellite. Country: Ukraine. Spacecraft: AUOS. Launch Vehicles: R-14, Kosmos 3, Tsiklon, Kosmos 11K65M, Tsiklon-3. Projects: Intercosmos. Launch Sites: Plesetsk, Plesetsk LC132/2, Plesetsk LC132/1, Plesetsk LC32/2, Plesetsk LC32/1, Plesetsk LC32. Agency: Yuzhnoye. More at: 12127, 12128, 12129, 12130, 12131, 12132, 12133, 12134, 12135, 12136, 12137, 12138, 12139. Bibliography: 102, 116, 2, 296, 445, 4477, 474, 6.


Photo Gallery

AUOS-S-M-KIAUOS-S-M-KI
Credit: Yuzhnoye


AUOSAUOS
AUOS-Z
Credit: Ukrainian Space Agency


AUOS-Z-AP-IKAUOS-Z-AP-IK
Credit: Yuzhnoye


SichSich
Credit: Ukrainian Space Agency


AUOS-Z-AV-IKAUOS-Z-AV-IK
Credit: Yuzhnoye


Coronas-FCoronas-F
Credit: NPO PM


SichSich
Credit: Ukrainian Space Agency


AUOS-Z-I-EAUOS-Z-I-E
Credit: Yuzhnoye


Sich-1Sich-1
Credit: Ukrainian Space Agency


AUOS-Z-I-IKAUOS-Z-I-IK
Credit: Yuzhnoye


AUOS-Z-M-A-IKAUOS-Z-M-A-IK
Credit: Yuzhnoye


AUOS-Z-M-IKAUOS-Z-M-IK
Credit: Yuzhnoye


AUOSZ-R-E-IKAUOSZ-R-E-IK
Credit: Yuzhnoye


AUOS-Z-R-OAUOS-Z-R-O
Credit: Yuzhnoye


AUOS-Z-R-P-IKAUOS-Z-R-P-IK
Credit: Yuzhnoye


AUOS-Z-T-IKAUOS-Z-T-IK
Credit: Yuzhnoye


Oreol-3Oreol-3
Spacecraft using AUOS bus are similar
Credit: NASA


Cosmos 1809Cosmos 1809
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Intercosmos 15Intercosmos 15
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Intercosmos 17Intercosmos 17
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Intercosmos 18Intercosmos 18
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Intercosmos 19Intercosmos 19
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Intercosmos 20Intercosmos 20
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Intercosmos 24Intercosmos 24
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Intercosmos 25Intercosmos 25
Credit: Manufacturer Image


OvalOval
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Koronas-FKoronas-F
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Intercosmos 26Intercosmos 26
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Oreol-3Oreol-3
Credit: Ukrainian Space Agency


Oreol-3Oreol-3
Credit: Ukrainian Space Agency


Koronas-FotonKoronas-Foton
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Oreol 3Oreol 3
Credit: Manufacturer Image


Taifun-3 ?Taifun-3 ?
Credit: Manufacturer Image



1972 June 26 - .
  • AUOS satellite development approved. - . Nation: Russia. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Ministry of General Machine Building (MOM) Decree 'On the Creation of Automatic Universal Orbital Stations (AUOS)-on approval of work on the AUOS satellite bus' was issued..

1976 June 19 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Intercosmos 15 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-T-IK. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1976-07-26 . Decay Date: 1979-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 8903 . COSPAR: 1976-056A. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). Perigee: 481 km (298 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 94.60 min. Testing of new systems and components of satellite under space flight conditions. .

1977 March 29 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 900 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-R-O Oval. Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Decay Date: 1979-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 9898 . COSPAR: 1977-023A. Apogee: 522 km (324 mi). Perigee: 457 km (283 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1977 September 24 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Intercosmos 17 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-R-E-IK. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1979-01-16 . Decay Date: 1979-11-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10376 . COSPAR: 1977-096A. Apogee: 514 km (319 mi). Perigee: 466 km (289 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Investigation of energetic charged and neutral particles and micrometeorite fluxes in circumterrestrial space. .

1978 October 24 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Intercosmos 18 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-M-IK. Mass: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-18 . Decay Date: 1981-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 11082 . COSPAR: 1978-099A. Apogee: 757 km (470 mi). Perigee: 403 km (250 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 96.30 min.

    Conduct of complex investigations on the interaction between the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth. Launched under the Intercosmos programme by the USSR in cooperation with the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the H ungarian People's Republic, the Polish People's Republic and the Socialist Republic of Romania. On 14 Nov 1978, Magion, a small Czechoslovak scientific satellite, separated from object 1296.


1979 February 27 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Intercosmos 19 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-I-IK. Mass: 1,015 kg (2,237 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1982-04-27 . Decay Date: 2002-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11285 . COSPAR: 1979-020A. Apogee: 711 km (441 mi). Perigee: 452 km (280 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 96.30 min.

    Comprehensive investigations of the structure of the earth's ionosphere, the characteristics of wave processes and the propagation of radio waves in the ionospheric plasma. Launched under the Intercosmos programme by the USSR in cooperation with the Peopl e's Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic and the Polish People's Republic. Additional Details: here....


1979 November 1 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Intercosmos 20 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-R-P-IK. Mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1980-12-11 . Decay Date: 1981-03-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11609 . COSPAR: 1979-096A. Apogee: 519 km (322 mi). Perigee: 462 km (287 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

    Testing of methods for comprehensive study of the oceans and the surface of the earth, and testing of automatic gathering of scientific information from experimental sea and land stations. Launched under the INTERCOSMOS programme by the Soviet Union toget her with the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic and the Socialist Republic of Romania.


1981 February 6 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: R-14. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Intercosmos 21 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-R-P-IK. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1982-06-02 . Decay Date: 1982-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 12162 . COSPAR: 1981-011A. Apogee: 506 km (314 mi). Perigee: 469 km (291 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

    Oceanographic, terrestrial studies. Development of methods for comprehensive study of the oceans and the surface of the earth, and testing of the experimental system of automatic gathering of scientific information from sea and land stations. Launched under the INTERCOSMOS programme by the USSR together with the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic and the Socialist Republic of Romania.


1981 September 21 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Oreol 3 - . Payload: AUOS-Z M-A-IK s/n 401. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: France. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 12848 . COSPAR: 1981-094A. Apogee: 1,672 km (1,038 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 105.80 min.

    Carried Soviet/French magnetosphere and ionosphere experiments. Investigation of physical processes in the earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere, and study of the nature of polar aurorae. Carried scientific equipment developed by Soviet and French specialists under the joint Soviet-French project 'Arkad-3'.


1986 December 18 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1809 - . Payload: AUOS-Z Ionozond-E s/n 501. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 17241 . COSPAR: 1986-101A. Apogee: 961 km (597 mi). Perigee: 941 km (584 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 104.10 min. Development of research apparatus and methods of remote sensing and monitoring of the Earth's ionosphere, and also study of the propagation of radio waves in the ionosphere. .

1989 September 28 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Intercosmos 24 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-AV-IK s/n 201. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1995-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 20261 . COSPAR: 1989-080A. Apogee: 2,414 km (1,499 mi). Perigee: 499 km (310 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.

    US participation; particles and fields experiments; deployed Magion 2. Comprehensive study of the processes of propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the earth's magnetosphere and their interaction with charged particles of the radiation belts, in cooperation with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democrati c Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania (the international scientific project entitled 'Aktivny'). Carrying the Czechoslovak Magion-2 satellite.


1991 December 18 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Intercosmos 25 - . Payload: AUOS-Z APEKS-IK s/n 301. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 21819 . COSPAR: 1991-086A. Apogee: 2,969 km (1,844 mi). Perigee: 436 km (270 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.50 min.

    Solar activity monitoring; hosted experiments from Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary. Comprehensive study of the effects of artificial impact of modulated electron flows and plasma beams on the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth (forming part of the Apex international scientific project, conducted jointly with Bulgaria, Czechoslovak ia, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania.) Launched with the Czechoslovak satellite Magion-3, separated from the space object Intercosmos-25 on 28 Dec 1991, in accordance with the scientific programme of the Apex project.


1994 March 2 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Intercosmos 26 - . Payload: AUOS-SM-KI-IK. Mass: 2,160 kg (4,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Decay Date: 2001-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 23019 . COSPAR: 1994-014A. Apogee: 541 km (336 mi). Perigee: 501 km (311 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 94.70 min.

    Solar and space physics. Conduct of comprehensive investigations of the sun under the Koronas-I international project developed by Russian and Ukranian experimts in cooperation with specialists from Poland, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Bulgaria, France, and the United Kingdom.


2001 July 31 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Koronas-F - . Payload: AUOS-SM-KF. Mass: 2,260 kg (4,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. Decay Date: 2005-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 26873 . COSPAR: 2001-032A. Apogee: 529 km (328 mi). Perigee: 486 km (301 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg.

    Launch delayed from July 25. Koronas-F was a Russian solar observatory that pointed toward Sun within 10 arc-minutes to conduct a variety of observations. In broad categories, it carried X-ray monitors to locate sources within 1 arc-sec, radio receivers to measure flux and polarization, and particle counters. Additional Details: here....


2009 January 30 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: R-36. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Koronas-Foton - . Payload: AUOS-SM-KF. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar satellite. Spacecraft Bus: AUOS. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 33504 . COSPAR: 2009-003A. Apogee: 561 km (348 mi). Perigee: 539 km (334 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 95.70 min.

    Carried ten instruments to study in the sun throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, primarily Russian: Natalya-2M spectrometer; RT-2 gamma-telescope (India); Pingvin-M polarimeter; Konus-RF x-ray and gamma spectrometer; BRM x-ray detector; FOKA UV-detector; TESIS telescope/spectrometer with SphinX soft X-ray spectrophotometer (Poland); Electron-M-Peska charged particles analyser; STEP-F Electron and proton detector(Ukraine); SM-8M magnetometer. Follow-up to 2001 Koronas-F launch.



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